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Tilapia Aquaculture – An Overview Nutrition and Feed Tchnology

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Tilapia Aquaculture – An Overview Nutrition and Feed Tchnology Powered By Docstoc
					Aquaponics short-course at the
   University of Arizona




  Kevin Fitzsimmons, Jason
   Licamele, Eric Highfield
       University of Arizona
           6 April 2011
       Trends in food markets
 Demand   for more locally grown, organic
  foods
 Increasing demand for vegetables and fish
  for health reasons
 Need to increase economic and
  environmental efficiency (energy, water,
  land area, recycling of nutrients)
       Global food crisis

 Rapidly increasing population
 Diversion of foods to bio-fuels
 Increased costs for water, fertilizer, fuel
 Multiple demands for farmland (urban sprawl,
  industrial and mining, solar and wind generation,
  wildlife conservation, watershed protection,
  global warming, etc.)
 Demand for locally produced food
     Need new model for food
           production
 Green  Revolution – huge increase in food
  production, but heavy reliance on irrigation,
  fuel and fertilizer.
 Blue Revolution – almost 50% of seafood is
  farm raised, but many environmental
  impacts (effluents causing eutrophication,
  algae blooms, cage and raft conflicts with
  other users in oceans, bays and lakes)
Development of hydroponics and
        aquaculture
 Fastgrowing sectors of global food
  production
 Hydroponics is more efficient use of water
  and nutrients, controls the environment and
  reduces use of pesticides and herbicides.
 Aquaculture is more efficient production of
  domesticated aquatic animals and plants.
           Past Projects
 The Land – Disney World, Florida
 Biosphere 2 – Tucson, Arizona
 High school education
 Commercialization
  Disney World – EPCOT – The Land




 University of Arizona provided technical design,
  layout, and training of staff.
 Selected hydroponics and aquaculture as two critical
  food production systems for the future.
  Disney World – EPCOT – The Land
 30,000 guests a day learn about hydroponics,
  aquaculture, tilapia, and advanced farming
  techniques
 Products are served in the Good Turn Restaurant
Development trials for Biosphere 2
   Biosphere 2 – A one hectare greenhouse. Completely
    sealed, with eight people living inside for two years.
Early trials for Biosphere 2
                   University of Arizona
                    provided overall
                    technical support and
                    designed the food
                    system.
                   Intensive food
                    production
                   Healthy foods with
                    minimal need for
                    external inputs
                   Replicated trials with
                    tilapia and lettuce
      Various growing techniques




 Growing in         Growing   in floating
 gravel/biofilter     boards
  Density and micronutrient trials




 Low   density of fish    High   density of fish
        Nutrient film technique




 Growing   in troughs/gutters with flowing water
                  Nutrient film technique




 Flood   and drain version in troughs/gutters
              Fish and grain crops
 Tilapia and barley          Nutrient dynamics in recirc




Determined that integrated fish and irrigated crops were
most efficient food production system for Biosphere 2
Educational systems in high schools
Fish instead of traditional   Hydroponic vegetables and
farm animals                  ornamental flowers
           Water chemistry
 pH
 Conductivity
 Dissolvedsolids
 Suspended solids
 Oxygen
                       Carbon Cycle
           digestion and                        Photosynthesis
           respiration + 3O2

 C6H12O6                       6 H2O + 6 CO2                C6H12O6 + 3O2


sugars and                     water and                sugars and
other organics                 carbon dioxide           other organics
                                                        and oxygen


 anaerobes and        CH4 + COx
 methanogens
                     Carbonate Cycle


CO2 + H2O            H2CO3      H+ + HCO3-      H+ + CO32-


carbon dioxide       carbonic   bicarbonate   carbonate
dissolved in water   acid       ion           ion
Carbonate cycle
             Nitrogen Cycle
 Ammonia
 Nitrite
 Nitrate
 De-nitrification
Nitrogen cycle in aquatic systems
              Nitrogen cycle
 Nitrogen   is often a limiting element in
  freshwater aquatic system
 Adding nitrogen will cause rapid increase in
  primary productivity
 Nitrogen in anaerobic sediments
  - denitrification (reduction to NH3 or N2 gas)
                        UAAQ CEAC
                     Nitrogen Mass Flow
   Nitrogen Mass Flow                                                            Feed (28% Protein; 5.7%N)
                                                                          2% System GH
                                            Oxygen Dynamics of the Aquaponics Fish Biomass) #3118
    – Introduced via feed                                              Total: 100% N                           1) Conversion of feed to fish biomass

    – Input: 108 g nitrogen / day           O2con = Oxygen Consumption
                                                                                                                 (10% N dissolved in H2 O)
                                                                                                                 (40% N excreted into H2 O by fish)

                                            O2gen = Oxygen Generation                     Tilapia spp. O2   Diffusion
                                                                                       N Retention: 27%
                                          Air Blower
                                          (Air approx 21% O2gen
   Oxygen                                Forced into water)           Total: 73% N
                                                                       (50% Dissolved N)
                                                                       (23% Particulate N)      Fish
                                                                                                                2) Separation of solids and sludge



    – Consumption                                                                        O2con (Respiration)
                                                 5) Residual nitrate                     Mechanical          10% Sludge
                                                                                        Phytoplankton/Algae
            Fish                                      in H2 O                            Filtration
                                                                                             (O2gen Day)
                                                                                            (O2con Night)
            Plant root zone                                                                                                Mechanical / Biological
                                                                                                                3) Conversion of nitrogen to nitrate
                                                                        Total: 63% N                                               Filter
            Plant respiration                                                                                         (O2con Nitrifying Bacteria)
                                                                       NH3 -NH4                                      (O2con Mineralization of solids)
    – Generation                                                                          Biological
                                                                                            Filter
                                                                         NO2

            Plant photosynthesis                                                        N cons.<1%                       Photosynthesis
                                                                         NO3                                              O2gen Day
                                                                                               Lettuce
            Microalgae / Phytoplankton                                                   (O2con Root zone)      4) Conversion of nitrate to plant biomass
                                                                                                                        Respiration
             photosynthesis                                              Total: 62% N
                                                                                                                          O2con night



                                                                                   Hydroponics Lettuce
                                                                          Data Collection: 5-6 g-N / kg dry weight
                                                                                                      O2 Diffusion
                   Phosphorus and
Phosphorus cycle   orthophosphate.
                   Organic P
                   decomposes and
                   releases PO4,
                   taken up by algae
                   and plants or
                   adsorbs to clay
                   particles and
                   precipitates.
                   Anaerobic
                   conditions can re-
                   release P to water.

                       Wetland Ecosystem Management
        Tilapia and other fish
 Oreochromis   species
 Catfish
 Koi
 Yellow perch and bluegills
 Sturgeon and ornamental fish
    Fish feed as nutrient sources
 Fish  feed is the basic input for nutrients to
  fish and plants
 Protein is source of nitrogen for plants
 Phosphorus and potassium from fishmeal,
  bone meal, or feather meal
 Micronutrients from vitamin and mineral
  premixes in fish feed
                       UAAQ CEAC
                      Aquaponic Inputs
   Inputs:
    – Water                              – Nutrient Content Analysis
    – Star Milling Co.                    Crude Protein   35%    FISH FEED
                                          Crude Fat       5%      %     N    5.97
           1/8” Floating Tilapia Feed
                                          Crude Fiber     3.5%    %     P    1.53

    – Dolomite 65 Ag                      Ash             9%      %     K    1.46
                                                                  %     Ca   1.61
           CaCO3 46.0%
                                                                  %     Mg   0.26
           MgCO3 38.5%
                                                                  %     Na   0.24
           Ca 22.7%                                              %     S    0.46
           Mg 11.8%                                             mg/L   Cu    15
                                                                 mg/L   Zn   143
    – Biomins                                                    mg/L   Mn    93
           Biomin Fe+ (5%)                                      mg/L   Fe   461

           Biomin Mn+ (5%)                                      mg/L   B     18

           Biomin Zn+ (7%)
     Organic micronutrients
• Biomins
    Biomin Fe+ (5%)

    Biomin Mn+ (5%)

    Biomin Zn+ (7%)



    Biomin  Calcium is created using an encapsulation
     (chelating) of the mineral calcium with glycine and
     natural organic acids.
    Biomin Z.I.M is a true amino acid chelated multi-
     mineral. The chelating agent is mainly glycine, the
     smallest amino acid commonly used by and found in
     plants.
             System design
 For fish – tanks vs raceways
 For plants – variety
 Gravel and sand beds
 Floating rafts
 Gutters and trays
Tilapia and lettuce
                           Lettuce Plant

   Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
    – Butterhead variety
    – Quick turnover
          5 weeks
    – Cultivars
        Rex
        Tom Thumb
Varieties of Romaine and Bibb
     Data collection and analysis
Light measurements (PAR)   Computer monitoring
                   Nutrient Balance

   Nutrient Balance
    – Feed
           32% Protein
           2-4% System Biomass
           FCR 2:1
    – Filtration
           Clarifier
           Nitrification
    – Hydroponics                         Water Chemistry
           Nutrient uptake       N, TAN, NH4, NO2, NO3, K, P,
           Water                 Ca, Fe, pH, alkalinity, T, EC
                     Aquaponic Inputs

                                         – Nutrient Content Analysis
   Inputs:
    – Water
    – Fish Food                            Crude Protein   32%   FISH FEED
                                           Crude Fat       5%     %     N    5.97
           Star Milling Co.
                                           Crude Fiber     3.5    %     P    1.53
           1/8” Floating Tilapia Feed                     %      %     K    1.46
    – Dolomite 65 Ag                       Ash             9%     %     Ca   1.61
           CaCO3 46.0%                                           %     Mg   0.26
           MgCO3 38.5%                                           %     Na   0.24
           Ca 22.7%                                              %     S    0.46
           Mg 11.8%                                             mg/L   Cu    15
    – Biomins                                                    mg/L   Zn   143

           Biomin Fe+ (5%)                                      mg/L   Mn    93
           Biomin Mn+ (5%)                                      mg/L   Fe   461
           Biomin Zn+ (7%)                                      mg/L   B     18
                      pH & Oxygen
   pH Range Tilapia 6.5-9
    – Fish = 6.5 – 8.5
    – Plant = 5.0 – 7.5
   Diurnal pH Flux
    – Reduce shifts to stabilize pH
           Shifts can inhibit organism's physiology thus reducing growth
           Acidic pH can effect solubility of Fertilizers
    – Alkalinity
           Optimal: 75-150 mg/L
           Stabilizes pH ; provides nutrients for growth
   Dissolved Oxygen
    – > 4 mg/l (ppm)
                            UAAQ CEAC
                            Methodology
   Data Collection
     – Fish : Lettuce
            Fish FCR
            Fish Biomass (1 kg)
            Plant Wet/Dry Weight
            Plant Height/Diameter

     – Lettuce quality
            Apogee CCM-200
            Chlorophyll Concentration
             Index (CCI)
               – Relative chlorophyll value
               – Compare a cultivar of
                 lettuce growing in different
                 systems
                         UAAQ CEAC
                        Biomass Density

   CEAC GH#3118
    – Tilapia Density
           0.04 – 0.06 kg/L
           2% Biomass / day
           1.6 – 1.8 kg feed / day
           Harvest weight 1kg
    – Lettuce
           32 plants / m2
           6” off center
           Harvest head wet weight
            150-200 grams
                        UAAQ CEAC
                       Water Chemistry

   Nutrient Deficiency        Water Chemistry (mg/L)
                                                         CEAC
                                                        Lettuce
                                                                  GH#3118
                                                                   Target

    Succession                 NITROGEN

                               Ammonia NH3-N              0          0
    – [ Fe+, Mn+, Mo+] <
                               Nitrate NO3-N             180        50
    – [Ca+, Mg+]<              Boron (B)                 0.35       <1
    – [Zn+]                    Calcium (Ca)              200        60
                               Copper (Cu)               0.05      <0.05
   Hydroponic Water           Iron (Fe)                  2.4        2

    Parameters                 Magnesium (Mg)

                               Manganese (Mn)
                                                          40

                                                         0.55
                                                                    20

                                                                    0.5
    –   pH 6.5-6.7             Molybdenum (Mo)           0.05       0.05
    –   EC 1.5 – 2.0           PO4-P                      50        50

    –   DO 4-7mg/L             Potassium (K)             198        150

    –   T = 23-25oC            Sulfate (SO4)-S            52      20< >100

                               Zinc (Zn)                 0.34       0.3
    Data and video live on Internet
http://ag.arizona.edu/tomlive/gh3118_idx.html
                                  UAAQ CEAC
                                Environmental Data
   Set Points:                                               60
                                                                                 UAAQ 2009 Daily PAR
                                                                                                    Exp.3
                                                                                         Exp.2
    – Hydroponic Treatment                                    50
                                                                                 Exp.1




                                               Moles M-2d-1
                                                              40
              Day Tair = 20 - 22oC                           30

              Night Tair = 16 - 18oC                         20
                                                              10
              TH2O       = 23 - 25oC
                                                                0
              pH         = 6.5 - 6.8                               1/1   1/15    1/29    2/12     2/26       3/12     3/26   4/9
                                                                                            Time
              DO         = 4 - 7 mg/L
      UAAQ 2009 Water Parameters Exp. 1
      Mean Water Temperature       24.29oC
                                                                                                2
                                                              UAAQ 2009 Environmental Data Exp. 1
      pH                             6.75
                                                                   Daily PAR
                                                              Mean Daily PAR                              19.33 moles/m2
                                                                                                          16.60
      Dissolved Oxygen            5.89 mg/L
      Electrical Conductivity     0.97 dS/cm                        PAR Exp.2
                                                              Total PAR Exp.2                         924.00 moles/m2
                                                                                                      829.82
      UAAQ 2009 Water Parameters Exp. 2                            Night T
                                                              Mean Night Taa                                 17.14oC
                                                                                                             17.09
      Mean Water Temperature       24.22oC
                                                              Mean Day Ta
                                                                        a
                                                                                                             21.56oC
                                                                                                             21.19
      pH                             6.73
                                                                    Mean T
                                                              Daily Mean Taa                                 19.35oC
                                                                                                             19.14o
      Dissolved Oxygen            6.74 mg/L
      Electrical Conductivity     0.93 dS/cm                        Mean RH%
                                                              Daily Mean RH%                                 60.85%
                                                                                                             59.47%
                        UAAQ CEAC
                     Nitrogen Mass Flow
                                                                       UAAQ Water Chemstry
   Fish Feed                                                                 NPK
     – % N = 5.97
                                                 250.00
              1800 grams/day                    200.00                                    Exp.3
              107 grams nitrogen/day                                            Exp.2                 NH3-N
                                                 150.00                Exp.1




                                          mg/L
                                                                                                       NO3-N
   Sludge                                       100.00                                                K

     – N = 3.38% per g dry weight                 50.00                                                PO4-P

                                                   0.00
              5 Liters day produced                      1/1   1/15    1/29     2/12    2/26   3/12
              Collect dry weight / day                                        Time

   Fish
     – 27% nitrogen retention
   Lettuce
     – Samples to be analyzed
   Water
     – 40-60 mg/L Nitrate
                            UAAQ CEAC
                           Water Chemistry
   Macronutrients                                                                 UAAQ Water Chemistry
                                                                                      Macronutrients
    –   Accumulation reaching steady state
                                                       250.00                                                      Exp.3
    –   Calcium and magnesium supplementation          200.00                                         Exp.2                 SO4-S
             Experiments 2-8                          150.00
                                                                                     Exp.1                                  Ca




                                                mg/L
                                                                                                                            Mg
                                                       100.00

                                                        50.00

                                                         0.00
                                                                    1/1     1/15      1/29          2/12    2/26     3/12

   Micronutrients                                                                            Time


    –   Biomin Iron supplementation
             Experiment s 4-8                                                     UAAQ Water Chemistry
                                                                                      Micronutrients
    –   Biomin Zinc supplementation
             Experiments 5-8                          0.50                                                        Exp.3
    –   Biomin Manganese supplementation               0.40                                         Exp.2                    B
                                                       0.30                         Exp.1
                                                mg/L

                                                                                                                             Cu
             Experiments 6-8
                                                       0.20                                                                  Fe
                                                       0.10                                                                  Mn
                                                                                                                             Mo
                                                       0.00
                                                              1/1         1/15      1/29       2/12        2/26     3/12     Zn

                                                                                             Time
              UAAQ Exp. 2
         Aquaponics vs. Hydroponics
                                              UAAQ 2009 Water Chemistry

   Hydroponic Solution               250
                                                 H1 Primary Nutrients


                                                                                       NH3-N

    – Nitrogen uptake                 200                                              NO3-N
                                                                                       K
                                                                                       PO4-P
                                      150
    –   Experiment 2 Data




                               mg/L
                                      100
          40-60 mg/L NO3-N
                                       50

          10-20 mg/L P
                                        0
                                            Feb-09                   Mar-09
          100+ mg/L K                                 Time




                                            UAAQ 2009 Hydroponics Water
                                               H2 Primary Nutrients

                                      250
                                                                                           NH3-N
                                      200                                                  NO3-N
                                                                                           K
                                                                                           PO4-P
                                      150
                              mg/L




                                      100


                                      50


                                       0
                                              Feb-09                          Mar-09
                                                              Time
Arizona Aquaculture Website
   ag.arizona.edu/azaqua
            What’s needed next?
 Investment in production
  and more research
 Best technologies of ag
  and aquaculture
 Limited governmental
  regulation
 Trained production staff
  and semi-skilled farming
  staff

				
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