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Immigration and Urbanization - Download Now PowerPoint

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					Immigration &
Urbanization
       Section 1:
  Renewed Immigration
  “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus
• “Give me your tired,
  your poor, your huddled
  masses yearning to
  breathe free…”
• Statue of Liberty, New
  York Harbor-Gift from
  France (1884)
• Ultimate symbol of
  freedom for new
  immigrants
      Through the “Golden Door”

• Millions of immigrants
  entered into the U.S.
  in the late 19th and
  early 20th centuries,
  lured by the promise
  of a better life
 Europeans
• Old Immigration
  – 1840s – 1890s
  – Most from Western &
    Northern Europe
     • Ireland
     • England
     • Germany
     • Scandinavia
 Europeans
• New Immigration
  – Mainly 1890 – 1910
  – Most from Southern &
    Eastern Europe
     • Italy
     • Austria-Hungary
     • Poland
     • Russia
Why did so many
Europeans leave
their homelands?
• Immigrants sought to escape difficult
  conditions
   – Famine
      • Ireland-Irish Potato Famine (1845-52)
   – Land shortages
   – Religious/political persecution
   – “Birds of Passage”
      • People who intended to stay
        temporarily to earn money before
        returning to their homelands
• Russian Jews
  – Left to escape
    religious persecution
    following Russian
    Revolution of 1917
     • Pogroms
         –Organized
          attacks often
          encouraged by
          local authorities
• Population
   – Between 1800-1900,
     Europe’s population
     doubled to 400 million
      • Increase caused a
        scarcity of farm land
         –Farmers
           competed with
           laborers for few
           industrial jobs
Chinese & Japanese
• Many Asians came to the West
  Coast between 1851–1883
  – Came to seek mining fortunes
    in gold (1849-50 Gold Rush)
  – Helped build American
    railroads
     • Transcontinental railroad
     • After the railroads, many
       turned to farming, mining,
       & domestic service (laundry)
          West Indies & Mexico
• Immigrants from the islands of Jamaica,
  Cuba, & Puerto Rico came to the U.S. due
  to a scarcity of jobs
• 1902, Congress passes the National
  Reclamation Act
   – Encouraged the irrigation of arid land to
     create new farmland
• Reclamation Act drew Mexican farm workers
  northward into the Southwestern U.S.
A Difficult Journey
• Immigrants came to the U.S.
  by steamship
   – European immigrants’ trip
     across the Atlantic for
     about 1 week
   – Asian immigrants’ trip
     across the Pacific took
     about 3 weeks
• Many traveled in ships’ cargo
  holds
   – Conditions on board
      • Often crowded
      • Gloomy, moist
      • Rarely allowed on
        deck for fresh air
      • Unable to exercise
      • Lice/rodent infested
      • Shared toilets
      • Diseases spread quickly
 Ellis Island
• Immigration station in New
  York Harbor
   – Detained about 2 days for
     inspection
      • Physical examination
         –Serious/contagious
           diseases sent home
      • Legal requirements
         –Documents & criminal
           background
      • Prove their worth
         –Ability to work
         –At least $25
Angel Island
• Immigration station in San
  Francisco
   – Asians experienced
     harsher treatment
      • Detained for weeks
      • Held in filthy buildings
         –Dorms were usually
           packed with three
           tiered bunks
      • Waited for
        immigration inspectors
        to admit/reject them
        Cooperation for Survival
• Once in the U.S., many
  immigrants faced many
  challenges
   – Place to live
   – Work
   – Language
   – Culture
      • Religion, Customs
       Cooperation for Survival
• Ethnic communities started to develop
   – Chinatown, Little Italy, Jewish Quarter
• Immigrants pooled their money
      • Built churches or synagogues
      • Formed social clubs & mutual aid
        societies
      • Published newspapers in native
        languages
        Cooperation for Survival
• As immigrants tried to adapt, they came to
  think of themselves as “hyphenated”
  Americans
   – Polish-Americans
   – Italian-Americans
   – Chinese-Americans
• Caused native-born Americans to see
  immigrants a threat to the American way of
  life
Immigration Restrictions
• As waves of immigrants increased, feelings
  of nativism grew
   – Nativism
      • Preference for native-born people & a
        desire to limit immigration
      • Focused on ethnic background and also
        religious affiliation
         –Targeted Catholics, Jews
         –Felt they would undermine the
           Protestant foundation of the U.S.
        Immigration Restrictions
• Nativists organized, forming two
  major anti-immigrant groups
  – American Protective Association
    (1887)
     • Founder: Henry Bowers
     • Northeast & Midwest
     • Aim: Hault Catholic immigration
  – Workingman’s Party of California
    (1870s)
     • Founder: Denis Kearney
     • The West
     • Aim: Stop Chinese immigration
Immigration Restrictions
• Congress acted to pass anti-immigration
  legislation
   – Banned convicts, paupers, & mentally disabled
   – Placed a $.50 head tax on each newcomer
• Also passed the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
   – First legislation to ban a specific group
   – Banned entry to most Chinese with certain
     exceptions: teachers, students, merchants,
     tourist, & government officials
 Gentlemen’s Agreement
• Anti-Chinese sentiment was transferred to the
  Japanese
   – San Francisco’s Board of Education began
     segregating Japanese children
   – Japan protested the decision; President
     Teddy Roosevelt negotiated a deal with
     Japan
      • Gentleman’s Agreement (1907)
         –Japan agreed to end immigration to
          the continental U.S. as long as the U.S.
          agreed to allow the wives, parents, &
          children of residents to enter and also
          to repeal school segregation
 Section 2:
Challenges of
Urbanization
            Urban Opportunities
• Urbanization
  – Rapid growth of cities mostly in the regions
    of the Northeast & Midwest
     • Rural to urban movement
     • Increase services & problems
        –Housing
        –Transportation
        –Water
        –Sanitation
        –Crime
        –Fire
      Immigrants Settle in Cities
• Why did people move to
  the cities?
   – Cities offered a cheap &
     convenient place to live
      • Lived close to work
   – Cities offered unskilled
     workers steady jobs in
     mills and factories
       Immigrants Settle in Cities
• Americanization movement
   – Designed to assimilate people in American
     culture
      • Schools provided programs to teach
        immigrants skills needed for citizenship
         –English literacy
         –American history & government
      • Social etiquette were also part of the
        curriculum
         –Cooking, manners
    Migration from Country to City
• Rapid improvements in farming was one
  reason city populations grew
   – Invention of McCormick reaper & steel
     plow made farming more efficient
      • Fewer farm laborers were needed to
        work the land
      • Farmers could put more land under
        cultivation
    Migration from Country to City
• African-Americans moved
  North & West
   – Moved to Chicago &
     Detroit to escape:
      • Racial violence
      • Economic hardship
      • Political oppression
         –segregation
             Urban Problems
• Ghettos-sections of a city occupied by
  minority groups (aka immigrants) who live
  there due to social, economic, and legal
  pressure
• Housing-working class families in cities had
 two housing options:
     • Buy a house on the outskirts of town &
       face transportation problems
     • Rent cramped rooms in a boardinghouse
       in the central city
• Housing     Urban Problems
  – As population increased, new
    types of houses were designed
     • Row houses
        –Single family dwellings that
         shared side walls with other
         similar houses
     • Tenements
        –Single family dwellings that
         multiple families occupied
        –Low rent apts. Which met
         minimum standards
        –Problems with sanitation,
         plumbing, & ventilation
               Urban Problems
• Transportation
   – Mass transit
      • System of transportation
        designed to move large
        numbers of people along
        fixed routes
          –Subways, Streetcars, &
          –Busses
      • Allowed workers to live in
        outlying communities to
        commute to work
• Water
  – Supplying safe drinking Urban    Problems
    water was a problem for
    most cities
  – As populations grew, many
    residents had no water
     • People had to collect
       water in pails from faucets
       located on the street
  – Disease presented a greater
    problem
     • Cholera and typhoid fever
  – Two ways to make drinking
    water safer:
     • Filtration, Chlorination
• Sanitation      Urban Problems
   – As cities grew, the challenge of
     keeping them clean increased
      • Horse manure piled up in streets
      • Sewage flowed through city
        streets
      • Smoke from factories spewed
        into the air
      • Garbage piled up on the streets
   – To combat sanitation cities hired
     sanitation workers to collect
     garbage and clean outhouses
• Crime        Urban Problems
  – Pickpockets and thieves
      • Preyed on immigrants
  – New York City became the
    first major metropolitan area
    to hire a full-time salaried
    police force
      • The units were usually too
        small to have an impact
• Fire                               Urban    Problems
   – Why was fire such a problem?
      • Limited supply of a water
      • Buildings made from wood
      • Used kerosene or candles
      • Volunteer firefighters were not
        always available
   – To combat the fire threat
      • Cincinnati, Ohio established the
        nation’s first paid fire department
      • Change in building codes
         –Sprinkler systems
         –Used brick, stone or concrete
           as a building material
        Settlement House Movement
• Social Gospel Movement
   – Preached salvation through service
     to the poor
   – Established settlement houses
      • Community centers in slum
        neighborhoods that provided
        assistance to immigrants
         –Sent nurses to homes of sick
         –Provided classes in English,
           health, & painting
   – Jane Addams
      • Established Hull House in
        Chicago

				
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