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					Immigrants and
Urbanization

Chapter 7 – Honors US History
Mr. Basich
    Section 1: Objectives
   By the end of this lesson, I will
    be able to:
   1. Identify immigrant’s countries of
    origin.
   2. Describe the journey immigrants
    endured and their experiences at
    United States immigration stations.
   3. Examine the causes and effects of
    the nativists’ anti-immigrant
    sentiments.
          Section 1: The New
             Immigrants:
   Main Idea:                 Why it Matters:
    Immigration from            Now: This wave of
    Europe, Asia, the           immigration helped
    Caribbean, and
    Mexico reached a new
                                make the United
    high in the late 19th       States the diverse
    and early 20th              society it is today.
    centuries.
   Key Terms:                 Key Terms (2):
   Ellis Island               Nativism
   Angel Island               Chinese Exclusion
   Melting Pot                 Act
                               Gentleman’s
                                Agreement
      I like this spirit week better than the
                  last spirit week:
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     1.       Yes
     2.       No
     3.       No comment   25




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            Story Time!
   The year is 1880. New York City’s
    swelling population has created a
    housing crises. Immigrant families
    crowd into apartments that lack
    light, ventilation, and sanitary
    facilities. Children have no where to
    play except the streets and are often
    kept out of school to work and help
    support their families. You are a
    reformer who wishes to help
    immigrants improve their lives….
Discussion: Turn and Talk
                1. What would you
                 do to improve
                 conditions?
                2. What skills do
                 newcomers need to
                 make it?
                3. How might
                 immigrants
                 respond to help
                 from an outsider?
                4. How do you
                 think you’d react?
Where Did the Immigrants Come
            From?

                  Between 1870 &
                   1920, about 20
                   million
                   Europeans
                   immigrated to
                   the U.S.
                  Many from
                   eastern &
                   southern
                   Europe.
Why Did The Immigrants
     Come Here?
              1. Escape religious
               persecution
              2. Improve their
               economic situation
               (jobs) (Birds of
               passage)
              3. Experience greater
               freedom in the U.S.
              4. Escape difficult
               conditions (famine,
               land shortages – from
               rising population)
              NOTE: Most European
               immigrants arrived on
               the East Coast (they
               were from Europe).
      Which of the following is a reason why the
       immigrants did NOT come to America?


     1.   To escape
          persecution
     2.   To improve their
          economic
                                25
          situation
     3.   To educate their
          children in better
          American schools                       0%              0%         0%              0%
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     4.   To escape difficult




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                                                                             To
                                                             To
                                               To
                                To
Chinese and Japanese:
              A smaller number
               of immigrants
               came from Asia.
              They arrived on
               the West Coast
              About 300,000
               Chinese came
               between 1851 &
               1883.
              Many Chinese
               helped build the 1st
               transcontinental
               railroad.
              Some sought gold
               (1848 CA gold
               rush)
Mexico and the Caribbean:
                From 1880 to
                 1920, about
                 260,000
                 immigrants arrived
                 from Jamaica,
                 Cuba, Puerto Rico,
                 & other islands.
                Over the next 20
                 yrs, around
                 700,000 Mexicans
                 arrived between
                 1910 to 1930 to
                 escape political
                 turmoil in their
                 country.
     A Difficult Journey: Turn and
                  Talk:

   What main issues do you think the
    immigrants faced when coming into
    the USA?
   Which of these do you think would
    be most difficult for you if you were
    an immigrant?
   How do you think they were treated?
   What do you think was the overall
    American view on immigration at this
    time? (similar or different from
    today?)
Ellis Island:
          Most European
           immigrants to the U.S.
           arrived in New York.
          Had to pass through
           immigration station
           located on Ellis Island
           in Hew York Harbor
          They were subjected to
           various tests (some
           were detained)
          Only about 2% of
           immigrants were
           denied entry in the
           USA.
          Most immigrants were
           allowed only 100 lbs of
           goods (think about all
           of your belongings)
     Do you think that Americans were excited or
               upset over immigration?


     1.   Excited
     2.   Upset           25
     3.   Not sure




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Passing Inspection:
             Officials at Ellis
              Island decided
              whether the
              immigrants
              could enter the
              country.
             If they had a
              serious health
              problem or a
              contagious
              disease they
              were sent home.
                   Inspection:
                               A government
                                inspector checked
                                documents and
                                questioned every
                                immigrant to
                                determine whether
                                they met the legal
                                requirements for
                                entering the USA?
                               What do you think
                                they were?
Children Waiting at Ellis      What do you think
                                they should have
         Island                 been?
What Were the Requirements for
         Admission?

                  1. Proving they
                   had never been
                   convicted of a
                   felony?
                  2. Demonstrating
                   that they were able
                   to work.
                  3. Showing that
                   they had some
                   money: at least
                   $25 (1909
                   standard)
                  Let’s look at an
                   example:
        Here Are The Exact
         Questions Used:
   1.What is your name?
   2. Have you ever been to the America
    before?
   3. Do you have any relatives here? If the
    answer was yes, then asked where they
    lived.
   4. Is there anyone who came to meet you
    at Ellis Island?
   5. Who paid for your passage?
   6. Do you have any money? ( If the
    answer was yes then immigrant was told:
    Let me see it.)
   7. Do you have a job waiting for you in
    America?
   8. Do you have a criminal record?
       Edward Ferro: An Italian
            Immigrant:

   “The language was a problem of
    course, but it was overcome by the
    use of interpreters…It would happen
    sometimes that these interpreters –
    some of them – were really
    softhearted people and hated to see
    people being deported, and they
    would, at times, help the aliens by
    interpreting in such a manner as to
    benefit the alien and not the
    government.” (I Was Dreaming to Come to
    America)
Angel Island:
          Immigration
           station for the
           Asian immigrants
           arriving on the
           West Coast.
          Located in San
           Francisco.
          Inspection process
           more difficult than
           on Ellis Island.
           (filthy conditions,
           harsh questioning)
Cooperation For Survival:
                  Many immigrants
                   settled in
                   communities with
                   other immigrants
                   from same
                   country.
                  They also formed
                   organizations to
                   help each other.
                  Think about:
                   Finding a place to
                   live, a job,
                   understanding the
                   language and
                   culture.
Survival Kit
Immigration Restrictions:
                America started to
                 be called a
                 MELTING POT -
                 Many cultures &
                 races had blended
                But, many
                 immigrants refused
                 to give up their
                 culture.
                So, nativism
                 (favoritism towards
                 native born
                 Americans) began
                 to spread.
New and Old Immigrants
 New immigrants tended to come
  from Southern and Eastern
  Europe
 These immigrants tended to be
  Catholic
 Old immigrants tended to come
  from Western and Northern
  Europe.
 These immigrants tended to be
  Protestant
The Rise of Nativism:
              Some Americans
               didn’t like so many
               immigrants living
               in the U.S.
              NATIVISM-
               Obvious preference
               for native-born
               Americans.
              Nativism gave
               rise to anti-
               immigrant groups.
               Also led to a
               demand for
               immigration
               restrictions.
Anti-Asian Sentiment:
              Chinese immigrants
               worked for low wages.
               (Native born Americans
               were getting boxed out
               of jobs)
              Labor groups
               pressured politicians to
               restrict Asian
               immigration.
              CHINESE
               EXCLUSION ACT
               1882 - Banned all but
               a few Chinese
               immigrants.
              Exceptions –
               students, teachers,
               merchants, tourists,
               and government
               officials.
              Not lifted until 1943.
The Gentleman’s Agreement:
                   In San Francisco, all
                    Chinese, Japanese,
                    & Korean children
                    placed in special
                    Asian schools
                   This led to anti-
                    American riots in
                    Japan.
                In exchange for
                 President Roosevelt
                 persuading San
                 Francisco officials to
                 stop separation policy,
                 Japan agreed to limit
                 immigration to U.S.
    Section 2 Objectives:
   By the end of this lesson, I will
    be able to:
   1. Describe the movement of
    immigrants to cities and the
    opportunities they found there.
   2. Explain how cities dealt with
    housing, transportation, sanitation,
    and safety issues.
   3. Describe some of the
    organizations and people who
    offered help to urban immigrants.
    Section 2: The Challenges
         of Urbanization:
   Main Idea: The rapid         Why it Matters
    growth of cities forced       Now: Consequently,
    people to contend             residents of the US
    with problems of              cities today enjoy
    housing,
                                  vastly improved
    transportation, water,
    and sanitation.
                                  living conditions.


   Key Terms:                   Key
   Urbanization                  Terms/Names:
   Americanization              Social Gospel
    movement                      Movement
   Tenement                     Settlement House
   Mass Transit                 Jane Addams
Urban Opportunities:
             Urbanization - the
              rapid growth of cities.
             Many immigrants
              settled in cities in the
              early 1900’s.
             Settled mostly in
              Northeast & Midwest
              cities to find jobs in the
              factories & businesses.
             By 1910, immigrants
              made up over half of
              the populations of 18
              major American cities.
Immigrants Settle in Cities:

                 Most immigrants
                  became city
                  dwellers –
                  cheapest and
                  most convenient
                  places to live.
                 Jobs were more
                  plentiful in the
                  city.
Americanization Movement:
                Americanization
                 Movement – Was
                 designed to assimilate
                 people of wide-ranging
                 cultures into the
                 dominant culture.
                This was a government
                 program that helped
                 immigrants learn more
                 about the USA.
                Schools taught
                 them English,
                 American history,
                 and government.
Migration from Country to
           City:
                With the invention of
                 farming technology,
                 fewer farmers were
                 needed.
                Farmers who lost their
                 jobs to machines
                 moved to the city to
                 find other jobs.
                African American
                 farmers from the South
                 (between 1890 &
                 1910, about 200,000)
                 moved to cities in the
                 North.
                They aimed at
                 escaping racial
                 violence, economic
                 hardship, and political
                 oppression.
Urban Problems:
           There became serious
            shortages in housing.
           New types of housing
            were created so people
            could live in a small
            amount of space.

            1)Row house – Single
            family dwelling that
            shared side walls
            w/other houses.

            2)Tenement –
            Multifamily urban
            houses often
            overcrowded &
            unsanitary.
NYC – Improvements:
             In 1879, NYC
              passed a law that
              set minimum
              standards for
              plumbing and
              ventilation in
              apartments.
             Windows for each
              room, air shafts.
             Problem: People
              dumped garbage
              into the air shafts
              – this attracted
              rats – so they
              nailed their
              windows shut.
Mass Transit:
          Now that there were
           more people in the
           city, transportation
           became a huge issue.
          Cities developed Mass
           Transit –
           transportation systems
           designed to move large
           numbers of people
           along fixed routes.
          The city had trouble
           keeping up with these
           because they were
           used so often and
           needed new ones to
           keep up with demand.
Sanitation Problems:
             Cities had hard time
              supplying safe drinking
              water.
             People threw garbage
              out their windows.
             Horse manure piled up
              on the streets
             Sewage flowed in
              streets.
             By 1900, many cities
              built sewers & created
              sanitation
              departments.
             Filtration systems and
              chlorine were also
              helpful additions.
Crime:
      When population
       goes up, so does
       crime.
      Pickpockets and
       thieves flourished
       (some stealing to
       survive)
      NYC police was
       relatively small and
       didn’t make much
       impact on crime.
Fire:
      The city had limited
       supply of water.
      Most city apartments
       were made of wood,
       not concrete.
      People also used
       candles and kerosene
       lamps for lighting.
      Paid fire departments
       were first created in
       1853 (Cincinnati)
      The automatic fire
       sprinkler was also
       created in 1874.
    The Great Chicago Fire:
            1871
 Fire burned for 24hrs.
 An estimated 300 people died
 100,000 were left homeless
 More than 3 square miles of the
  city center was destroyed.
 Property loss was estimated at
  $200 million.
 17,500 buildings were
  destroyed.
Reformers Help the Poor:
               Social Gospel
                movement - Early
                reform program.
                Leaders preached
                that people
                reached salvation
                by helping the
                poor.
               They established
                Settlement
                Houses.
               Located in slums.
                Help & friendship
                for poor &
                immigrants.
Jane Addams: Settlement
        Houses
               Usually ran by
                middle-class
                college educated
                women.
               Provided classes,
                health care,
                clothing, etc.
               Jane Addams was
                well-known social
                reformer.
               The settlement
                houses helped to
                cultivate social
                responsibility
                toward the urban
                poor.
    Section 3: Objectives
   By the end of this lesson, I will
    be able to:
   1. Explain the role of political
    machines and political bosses.
   2. Describe how some politicians’
    greed and fraud cost taxpayers
    millions of dollars.
   3. Describe the measures taken by
    presidents Hayes, Garfield, and
    Arthur to reform the spoils system.
   4. Explain the positions taken by
    presidents Cleveland, Harrison, and
    McKinley on the tariff issue.
    Section 3: Politics in the
          Gilded Age:
   Main Idea: Local             Why it Matters
    and national                  Now: Political
    political corruption          reforms paved the
                                  way for a more
    in the 19th Century           honest and efficient
    led to calls for              government in the
    reform.                       20th Century and
                                  beyond.
   Key Terms:                   Key Names:
   Political Machine            Boss Tweed
   Graft                        Rutherford B. Hayes
   Patronage                    James A. Garfield
   Civil Service                Chester A. Arthur
   Pendleton Civil Service      Grover Cleveland
    Act                          Benjamin Harrison
           My favorite day of the week
                        is:
1.        Monday
2.        Tuesday
3.        Wednesday                          :20
4.        Thursday
5.        Friday
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21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
Political Machines:
             During late 1800’s,
              many cities were run
              by a Political
              machine.
             This was an organized
              group, headed by a
              city boss, that
              controlled activities of
              a political party in a
              city.
             Offered services to
              voters & businesses in
              exchange for political
              or financial support.
             Sort of like the Mafia.
The Role of the Political
        Boss:
                What else did
                 the bosses do:
                1. Controlled
                 access to jobs
                2. Built parks,
                 sewer systems,
                 and waterworks.
                3. Gave money
                 to hospitals,
                 schools, and
                 orphanages.
           Why do you think that people supported
                  the political machines?


1.        Support
2.        Protection
                           20
3.        Services
4.        All of the above
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21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
What Did the Bosses Get
 Out of this “Charity?”
               Voters’ loyalty
               Win additional
                public support
               Extend their
                influence
               So…they did favors
                for people so that
                they were seen as
                favorable and
                people would vote
                for them in the
                future.
Immigrants and Bosses:
              The immigrants liked
               the idea of political
               machines and bosses.
               Why?
              1. Many of the bosses
               were immigrants
               themselves (1st or 2nd
               generation) – they
               spoke their language
               and battled the same
               hardships.
              They helped the
               immigrants with
               naturalization – full
               citizenship.
              Helped them get jobs
               and houses
              And in return –
               VOTES!!!
     Why did the bosses often relate
          well to the people?

1.        They liked to be
          in control
2.        They were once
          immigrants                                    :20
          themselves
                                                                             0%             0%             0%              0%
3.        They didn’t


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1    2     3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11    12        13        14      15         16    17        18     19      20
21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
Election Fraud and Graft:
                Many Bosses got rich
                 through GRAFT-the
                 illegal use of political
                 influence for personal
                 gain.
                How does this work?
                Example: By helping a
                 person find work on a
                 construction project for
                 the city, a political
                 machine could ask the
                 worker to bill the city
                 for more than the
                 actual cost of materials
                 and labor.
                The worker then
                 “kicked back” a portion
                 of the earnings to the
                 machine.
More Fraud:
         Political machines
          also granted favors
          to businesses in
          return to cash and
          also accepted
          bribes to allow
          illegal gambling to
          flourish.
         To win elections,
          some filled the list
          of eligible voters
          w/names of dogs,
          children, & the
          dead.
                Why do you think that people allowed the
                     bosses to do illegal activities?


1.        Because they
          were getting     20
          things in return
2.        They personally
          liked the bosses                                                  0%               0%             0%            0%

3.        They didn’t like




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4.        All of the above
1    2     3     4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12         13      14        15      16       17        18     19       20
21   22    23    24   25   26   27   28   29   30
The Tweed Ring:
           Boss Tweed
            (William M. Tweed)
            became the head
            of Tammany Hall,
            NYC’s powerful
            Democratic
            political machine.
           Between 1869-
            1871 Boss Tweed
            led a group of
            people (Tweed
            Ring) in defrauding
            the city for millions
            of dollars.
What Did Tweed Do?
            The NYC Courthouse
             was being built.
            The project cost tax
             payers $13 million,
             while the actual cost
             was only $3 million!
            The difference went to
             the Tweed Ring.
            It is estimated that the
             Tweed Ring stole
             between $30-$200
             million dollars from
             NYC.
            This is just one
             example of the fraud
             that the Tweed Ring
             got away with until……
                Ultimately, who did the Tweed
                  Ring’s actions hurt worse?

1.        Boss Tweed
2.        The city
                        20
3.        The
          government
4.        The taxpayers                                                  0%         0%            0%               0%




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1    2     3   4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12       13      14   15        16    17        18     19         20
21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
They Got Busted!
           In 1871 the ring
            was broken.
           Tweed was indicted
            on 120 counts of
            fraud and extortion
            and was sentenced
            to 12 years in jail.
           His sentence got
            reduced to 1 year
            but he got in
            trouble again and
            was arrested.
           While serving this
            sentence, he
            escaped to went to
            Spain.
 An Interesting Side Note:
                 During his crime
                  spree, Tweed tried
                  to pay off the NY
                  Times and Thomas
                  Nast (a political
                  cartoonist) so they
                  wouldn’t run
                  editorials on his
                  corruptive
                  practices.
                 Tweed offered the
                  NY Times $5
                  million dollars and
                  Thomas Nast
                  $500,000.
                 Both Declined.
Thomas Nast
1.   What is the significance of the word LAW on the torn piece of paper?

2.   What affect do you think Nast wanted to have on his audience?
Patronage:
        National politics were
         also corrupt – It’s all
         about who you know.
        Patronage: spoils
         system
        giving of government
         jobs to people of the
         same party who had
         helped a candidate get
         elected.
        Reformers wanted a
         better way of electing
         people – they should
         be the most qualified.
Civil Service:
          Civil Service-
           Government
           jobs.
          Reformers called
           for a merit
           system.
          Civil service jobs
           would go to the
           most qualified,
           regardless of
           political views.
                Why was the “civil service” system a
               better system than the spoils system?


1.        It wasn’t
2.        It allowed political
          bosses to control
                                                   20
          the job market
3.        It allowed the
          most qualified to                                            0%               0%                 0%                 0%
          get hired




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1    2     3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12        13     14       15         16       17         18      19          20
21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
President Hayes:
           President
            Rutherford B.
            Hayes attempted
            to reform civil
            service.
           1. Investigated
            court houses (lots
            of patronage going
            on here)
           2. Fired corrupt
            officials
           3. Hired
            independents for
            his cabinet (neutral
            party members)
Did it Work?
         Some members
          of Republican
          party objected.
         There needed to
          be a balance
          between
          reformers and
          Republicans.
         Hayes decided
          not to run for
          reelection in
          1880
     In order to reform civil service, President
       Hayes did all of the following EXCEPT:


1.     Investigated court
       houses
2.     Fired corrupt
       officials           20
3.     Took money from
       the political                                              0%            0%                0%              0%

       machines


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       his cabinet7 8 9 10 11 12
         3  4 5  6                                        13     14      15         16       17         18       19         20
21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
Republicans Divided:
             Stalwarts
              opposed changed
              in patronage
              system.
             Reformers
              supported
              changing the
              system.
             Republican Party
              settles on James
              A. Garfield, an
              independent
              candidate.
             Chester A. Arthur
              was nominated to
              the VP spot.
President Garfield
  Assassinated!
            As Garfield walked
             through the D.C.
             train station, he
             was shot two times
             by a man that
             Garfield turned
             down for a job.
            He was a die hard
             Stalwart (opposed
             to Garfield’s
             reformer ties)
            Chester Arthur
             became president.
             (he turned
             reformer)
          Why was Garfield assassinated?

1.        He wasn’t liked by
          the political
          machines           20
2.        He had ties to the
          reform movement
3.        He didn’t deserve                                                 0%             0%              0%               0%
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1    2     3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12        13        14       15        16    17          18     19      20
21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
Arthur in Action:
            Arthur’s first
             message to the
             Congress was to
             pass the
             Pendleton Civil
             Service Act
             (1883) - Created
             a civil service
             commission to give
             government jobs
             based on merit,
             not politics.
            This helped to
             reform civil
             service.
How Did This Act Effect
      Politics?
               By 1901, more than
                40% of all federal jobs
                had been classified as
                civil service positions.
               PRO - The act made
                these positions much
                more honest and
                efficient.
               CON - On the other
                hand, because officials
                could no longer
                pressure employees for
                campaign
                contributions,
                politicians turned to
                other sources for
                donations.
Business Buys Influence:
               Politicians no
                longer had jobs to
                offer.
               Had trouble
                seeking $ from
                supporters.
               Many turned to
                wealthy business
                leaders for
                support.
               Big business and
                the Government
                became good
                friends.
      What was the main reason why politicians
      had to turn to big business for campaign
                       money?
1.        40% of jobs were
          now Civil Service
          jobs
                            20
2.        No one would
          vote for them
3.        They were                                                        0%               0%                    0%          0%
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1    2     3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12        13       14       15           16          17      18     19       20
21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
Tariffs:
       Tariff is a tax placed
        on goods coming into
        or going out of a
        country.
       Most Americans
        believed tariffs were
        necessary to protect
        U.S. industries from
        foreign competition.
       Tariffs did cause prices
        to rise.
       For 12 years, Tariffs
        were a key issue in
        presidential elections.
Crazy Times!!!
          Grover Cleveland
           (1884) - Democratic
           president who tried,
           but failed to reduce
           tariffs.
          Benjamin Harrison
           (1888)- Republican
           who was supported by
           big business.
          Signed the MCKINLEY
           TARIFF ACT into law.
          Tariffs were raised to
           their highest level
           ever.
          Why did some feel that high tariffs
           were necessary during this time
                      period?
1.        To fill the governments
          pockets with money
2.        To protect the American                   20
          made product
3.        To keep business away
          from foreign markets
4.        To allow for greater
          growth in the public
                                                                        0%             0%            0%             0%
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                                                                                     To
1    2     3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12     13       14      15     16       17         18      19       20
21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30
Crazy Times – Part 2
             Grover Cleveland -
              Cleveland defeats
              Harrison in 1892 to
              become President
              again!
             He was unsuccessful in
              reducing tariffs.
             William McKinley was
              elected President in
              1897 and raised tariffs
              again.
             The spirit of reform
              kept going into the 20th
              Century.
             Many new
              developments are to
              come….in the next
              chapter.

				
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