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					Track:               Last name:       First name:   Poster session: Poster number: Poster Title:            Authors:             Abstract (limit 200 words):
Cell and Molecular   CHANG            Rui           Morning                                                 RUI CHANG, HANG WATERS, identified sour taste cells
                                                                                                                                 Five tastes have been
                                                                               1 A proton current drives action potentials in geneticallyEMILY LIMAN identified, each of which is transduced by a separate set of taste cells. Of these sour, which is associated with acid stimuli, is the least understood. Genetic ablation experiments have established that sour is detected by a subset of taste cells that express the TRP channel PKD2L1 and its partner PKD1L3, however the mechanisms by which this subset of cells detects acids remain unclear. Previous efforts to understand sour taste transduction have been hindered because sour responsive cells represent only a small fraction of cells in a taste bud, and numerous ion channels with no role in sour sensing are sensitive to acidic pH. To identify acid-sensitive conductances unique to sour cells, we created genetically modified mice in which sour cells were marked by expression of YFP under the control of the PKD2L1 promoter. To measure responses to sour stimuli we developed a method in which suction electrode recording is combined with UV photolysis of NPE-caged proton. Using these m
Cell and Molecular   Chou             Maggie        Morning                                                 Karoline Rostamiani, Maggie Chou,transmission in the central nervous system is primarily mediated by AMPA receptors. Changes in AMPA receptor function and number at postsynaptic sites has been demonstrated to represent cellular mechanism for both short-term and long-term plasticity. AMPA receptor trafficking is a highly regulated process. Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are auxiliary proteins known to associate with AMPA receptors and to regulate not only their membrane targeting but also the kinetic properties of the receptors. Among the four known TARPs (γ2, γ3, γ4, and γ8) γ2 or stargazin has been the most studied TARPs since its discovery in the stargazer mouse mutant in the cerebellum. Calpains are neutral Ca2+-dependent proteases and their activation leads to truncation of various proteins, including AMPA receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR2/3. In the present study, we investigated whether stargazin could be a calpain substrate in various brain regions and under what conditio
                                                                                                                                 Fast excitatory Michel Baudry
                                                                               2 Calpain-mediated truncation of rat brain stargazin
Cell and Molecular   Hazen            Virginia      Morning                                                  RECEPTOR-ACTIVATED Morphogenetic
                                                                                                                                  Samantha IN BMP-MEDIATED COMMISSURAL AXON GUIDANCE
                                                                               3 THE DIVERSE ROLES OF Virginia M. Hazen & BoneSMADSJ. Butler Proteins (BMPs) have disparate functions in the spinal cord. BMPs first induce the cell fate of commissural (C) sensory interneurons and then act as a guidance cue for C axons. We are assessing how C neurons accomplish these diverse responses. BMPs regulate cell fate by binding to a BMP receptor complex (Bmprs) and thereby activating Smad transcriptional regulators. Our studies have shown that the Bmprs also mediate the guidance activities of BMPs. However, it remains unresolved which intracellular effector is activated by Bmprs to control axon dynamics. To further understand the role of the BMP signaling pathway in building circuitry, we have examined whether the Smad complex also regulates C axon pathfinding.R-Smad1 and 5 are present in the spinal cord during both C cell fate and axiogenesis. However, these Smads have divergent patterns suggesting they differentially affect C cell fate and axonal outgrowth. Preliminary studies of Smad1 and Smad5 loss-of-fu
Cell and Molecular   Heun-Johnson     Hanke         Morning                                                 Hanke Heun-Johnson, Pat Levitt
                                                                                                                                 Signaling induced
                                                                               4 The connection between Met signaling and neuronal activity by the Met receptor tyrosine kinase is important for survival, migration, growth, and proliferation of cells throughout the body. The Met receptor and its ligand, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), are also expressed in the brain. The temporal and spatial expression patterns suggest that Met signaling plays a role in neurite growth and synaptogenesis. In addition, several common genetic variants in the Met gene have been associated with increased risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A large body of research outlines the importance of neuronal activity for neurite growth, branching and maturation. Activity-dependent increases in intracellular Ca2+ activate downstream signaling pathways, comprised of several molecules also involved in HGF/Met signaling. What exactly is the interaction between neuronal activity and the Met receptor, regarding signaling and protein expression? Unraveling the fine-tuning of neuronal development induced by different signaling cascades will help us u
Cell and Molecular   HSU              YU-TIEN       Morning                                                 Yu-Tien Hsu, Maggie Chou, Arshad Khan, Guanghong Liao, Xiaoning Bi, Tetsushidopaminoreceptive medium spiny neurons
                                                                                                                                 Phosphodiesterase 10A ERK IN MALE AND expressed within Oka, Shigeki
                                                                               5 THE PDE10A INHIBITOR, PAPAVERINE, DIFFERENTIALLY ACTIVATES (PDE10A) is highly FEMALE RAT STRIATAL SLICES Tamura, and Michel Baudry. (MSN) of the striatum (Fujishige et al., 1999), which have previously been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, such as Huntington's disease and schizophrenia, respectively. PDE10A is hypothesized to affect early signaling cascades in the corticostriatothalamic circuit. Several signaling cascades, such as CREB and ERK1/2 are activated by papaverine, a selective PDE10A inhibitor (Siuciak et al., 2006). Hence, papaverine has been viewed as a potential therapy for neurological diseases affecting striatal function. Incubation of striatal slices from male rats with papaverine alone or in combination with a D1 receptor agonist (SKF38393) or a D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride) increased cAMP and cGMP levels and increased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK), phospho-CREB and phospho-mTOR. Papaverine-induced pERK was localized in D1 and D2 receptor-positive neurons in s
Cell and Molecular   Ibrahim Marosh   Leena Ali     Morning                                                 Leena neurons in the cortex of Huizhong W Alzheimers disease mice was analyzed for inhibitory neuron deficits and it was seen that there was a remarkable increase in the no. of inhibitory neurons in the cortex as compared to an age matched control. A very similar pattern of inhibitory neuron increase is also seen in downs syndrome. It is possible that a common pathological mechanism exists for both of these diseases leading to similar phenotypes at different stages in life.
                                                                                                                                  Li I Zhang, APP/PSEN -/- Alzheimers mouse
                                                                               6 Increased number of inhibitory Ali I. Marosh,1 year old APP/PSEN -/- Tao
Cell and Molecular   Jhaveri          Niyati        Morning                                                 Niyati Jhaveri, Heeyeon Cho, Shering
                                                                                                                                 Noscapine, a plant-derived alkaloid, has been widely used Stan oral antitussive agent. More recently, this agent
                                                                               7 Noscapine Inhibits Tumor growth In TMZ-Resistant Gliomas Torres, Axel H. Schonthal, Nicos Petasis, as anG. Louie, Florence M. Hofman, Thomas C. Chen has been shown to have potent antitumor and antiangiogenic activity in a variety of cancers. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), however the development of TMZ-resistance in these tumors has become a major problem, since recurrence is almost universal. We therefore investigated the effects of noscapine on human TMZ-resistant GBM tumors. We found that noscapine significantly decreased the viability of TMZ-resistant glioma cells. Furthermore the combination of noscapine and TMZ decreased invasion of TMZ-resistant glioma cells in vitro. Noscapine also affected the tumor microenvironment by decreasing the migration of human tumor-associated endothelial cells. Using the rodent xenograft in vivo model, we showed that the combination of noscapine and TMZ significantly delayed tumor progression of TMZ-resistant gliomas without any
Cell and Molecular   Ji               Yerina        Morning                    8 Cellular Mechanisms Controlling the Mosaic of Surviving Cones inNorbertothe rod‘s death Model of a reorganization of the cone mosaic into an orderly array of rings. This study was conducted to understand the cellular mechanisms controlling the resulting mosaic of surviving cones. 

                                                                                                            Yerina Ji, Eun-Jin Lee, the S334ter-line-3 RP rat, M. Grzywacz triggers Retinitis Pigmentosa
                                                                                                                                 In Colleen Zhu, and the S334ter-line-3-rat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Intravitreal injections into the rats‘ eyes were performed with either saline, AAA (disrupting Müller-cell processes), TIMP-1 (disrupting metalloproteinases), or with mixtures of AAA and TIMP-1. Three days after the injection, the rats were sacrificed and the retinas were tested for the organization of cones and Müller-cells by immunohistochemistry. 
e observed remodeling of Müller-cell processes in RP retinas; the processes were surrounding cones and filling the space inside their rings. In contrast, no ring of cones appeared in RP retinas collected from AAA-injected eyes. In turn, RP retinas from TIMP-1-injected eyes showed rings of clusters of cones, while TIMP-1 injection in normal eyes elicited formation of spatially random clusters of cones. Mixtures of AAA and T
Cell and Molecular   Kintz            Natalie       Morning                                                 Natalie Kintz, Michael
                                                                                                                                 Aging in the brain is a physiological process
                                                                               9 Neuroplasticity in the Injured and Aging Brain Jakowec, Christian Pike, Giselle Petzingercharacterized by region specific cellular, molecular, functional and structural changes. Deleterious consequences of aging including increased vulnerability to neuron loss and impaired synaptic signaling may exacerbate the risk and accelerate the progression of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, the brain shows a remarkable capacity for adaptive reorganization throughout the lifespan. Environmental factors may promote beneficial neuroplastic changes in the brain. I investigated the preventative effects of hormones and the negative impact of high-fat diet in Dr. Pike's lab, and the restorative effects of exercise in Dr.'s Jakowec and Petzinger's lab. In Dr. Pike's lab, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the protective effects of hormones on neuron viability in rats after a knife-cut lesion of the perforant path, and to measure beta-amyloid load and microglial activation in 3xTgAD mice fed a high-fat diet. In Dr.'s Jakowec and Petzinger's
Cell and Molecular   Klosinski        Lauren        Morning                                                 TBD                  NMDA receptors followed by
                                                                              10 NMDA and NADPH Mediated Neurotoxicity at Varying Postnatal Stages calpain activation and NADPH-mediated reactive oxygenated species (ROS) production have both been implicated in cell death (Zhou et al, 2006; Abramov et al, 2007). NMDA receptors have been shown to play a role in neurotoxicity in young but not adult rat hippocampus, as measured by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in acute hippocampal slices (Zhou et al, 2006). This developmental change in neurotoxicity has been attributed to a change in subunit expression of the NMDA receptors. ROS generation occurs as a result of many processes, one of which is the activation of NADPH oxidase after reoxygenation (Abramov et al, 2007). We are therefore interested in evaluating the relative contribution of NADPH-mediated ROS formation at different developmental stages. For this purpose, acute hippocampal slices from both 1-week and 3-month-old rats will be treated with NMDA, apocynin, or a combination of the two. Neurotoxicity will be assayed by LDH relea
Cell and Molecular   Knowlton         Wendy         Morning                                                 Wendy M.             TRPM8 D. cold-gated ion channel of the Transient Receptor Potential superfamily and is expressed in small-diameter neurons of the peripheral nervous system. TRPM8 is the principle molecule responsible for behavioral responses to innocuous cool and noxious cold and the channel plays a role in both cold hypersensitivity after injury and cooling-mediated analgesia. However, this presents an apparent paradox—how can the same molecule generate pain signals as well as pain relief? The likely answer is that TRPM8 is expressed in distinct neural circuits for pain and pain relief and that our percept is determined by select activation of these pathways under particular stimulus conditions. Our goal is to determine the necessity of TRPM8 neural circuits in sensory signaling and in the context of injury. Here, we take a cell-ablation approach. We have generated a mouse line expressing the simian form of the diphtheria toxin receptor, fused to GFP, under the TRPM8 promoter. Administration of a low dose o
                                                                              11 Cellular ablation of TRPM8 neuronsKnowlton, Davidis a McKemy
Cell and Molecular   Li               Yun           Morning                                                 Yun Li               The goal of this project is to identify the cellular and molecular processes that detect
                                                                              12 Roles of TRPV1 and TRPV1/TRPA1 Expressing Neurons in Noxious Heat Perception and Inflammatory Thermal Hypersensitivity the various modes of sensory stimuli, as well as those that promote the sensitization of primary afferent nerves after injury, particularly that associated with inflammation. At the molecular level, members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels are the primary detectors of temperature. These thermaosensors also play vital roles in the formation of both acute and persistent pain in vivo. The heat- and capsaicin- sensitive channel TRPV1 and the mustard oil-sensitive channel TRPA1 are of particular interest in that each has been shown to play a role in inflammatory hypersensitivity. Approximately one-half of TRPV1 neurons express TRPA1, whereas TRPA1 is exclusively expressed with TRPV1. We propose that neurons express both TRPV1 and TRPA1 have distinct functions from neurons express TRPV1 alone. By generating transgenic mice in which neurons that express TRPA1 are labeled with a flu
Cell and Molecular   Ling             Karen         Morning                   13                            Karen K. Y. Ling, Rebecca Gibbs, Zhihua Feng and Chien-Ping Ko
Cell and Molecular   Lippoldt         Erika         Morning                                                 Erika Lippoldt
                                                                              14 A Role for GFRα3 in TRPM8 Regulation            Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) has been identified as a key mediator of cool and cold signal transduction. Although TRPM8 has been implicated in various functions, such as sensing innocuous cool as well as mediating cold hypersensitivity in inflammation conditions, it is as yet unknown by what mechanisms this single receptor would be able to adjust to a particular stimulus or respond to the surrounding conditions. Microarray results from mice in which cells expressing TRPM8 were ablated using the Diphtheria Toxin system showed that the GDNF Family Receptor α3 was also reduced (~1.5 fold) in these animals. GFRα3 is found predominantly in the dorsal root ganglia, and highly co-localizes with TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Furthermore, neurotrophic factors as a class have been shown to be involved in the regulation of hot- and cold-induced signal transduction. Given that TRPM8 is also localized to the dorsal root ganglia (as well as the trigeminal ganglia) and is found in neurons that
Cell and Molecular   Mazwi            Khiza         Afternoon                                               Khiza Mazwi, C. Ted Lee
                                                                                                                                 The azoTAB (azobenzene
                                                                              15 The Interaction of Biological Systems with Light Sensitive Surfactants trimethylammonium bromide) family of surfactants undergo a trans- to cis- conformational change on exposure to ultraviolet light. The hydrophobic trans isomer (favored under visible light) shows a greater tendency to bind with proteins. The ability to reversibly bind the surfactant to the protein by changing light conditions allows for photocontrol of protein conformation. We explore its applications in the study of the amyloid fibrillation pathway. Amyloid fibrilogenisis, a process by which proteins self aggregate into insoluble, fibril-like structures, has been implicated in the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, inlcuding Alzheimer's, Creutzfeldt-Jacob and prion diseases. Morphological similarities in the fibrils formed from various non-homologous proteins suggest that the fibrillation occurs via a shared molecular mechanism. It has been proposed that slight protein unfolding or misfolding leads to aggregation and fibril formation through the following pathway: monom
Cell and Molecular   Mazzasette       Chiara        Afternoon                                               Chiara Mazzasette, Zhihua muscular atrophy (SMA),Ming-Yi Spinal Muscular Atrophy of infant mortality, is an autosomal recessive motoneuron degenerative disorder. In humans, the disease is characterized by spinal motoneuron loss, skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. Several studies using the SMNΔ7 mouse model have shown a selective degeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) in different muscles. Indeed, a disruption of neuromuscular synapses occurs in proximal muscles (Murray et al., 2008), while denervation is not observed in hindlimb muscles (Ling et al., 2010). We focused on the regeneration of motoneurons terminals to restore the connection between motor nerves and muscle fibers in affected muscles of SMA. The PTEN/mTOR pathway is critical for the axonal regeneration, in particular the deletion of PTEN promotes axonal outgrowth of corticospinal neurons (Liu et al., 2010). Here we tested the PTEN inhibitor (bpv) in purposely denervated muscles of wild-type mice. Our preliminary results show
                                                                                                                                 Spinal Feng, Karen K. Y. Ling, the most common genetic
                                                                              16 The PTEN/mTOR pathway in the regeneration of motoneurons terminals and in the Lin, Chien-Ping Ko cause(SMA)
Cell and Molecular   Moaven           Hormoz        Afternoon                                               Hormoz Moaven, Jeannie Chen
                                                                                                                                 Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is a blinding disorder commonly caused by rhodopsin genetic mutations. Some rhodopsin mutations disrupt the intramolecular interactions that constrain the molecule in an active conformation. This leads to a detrimental effect on the phototransduction cascade, which ultimately leads to retinal degeneration. One such mutation is Lys296Glu (K296E), in which case a lysine residue is replaced with a glutamic acid residue. It has been previously shown that mice expressing K296E show progressive degeneration due to formation of a stable K296E/Arrestin1 complex that is toxic to mammalian photoreceptors. This has similarly been shown in Drosophila mutants and has been attributed to endocytosis of the rhodopsin/arrestin complexes via AP-2/clathrin binding. We substituted arrestin1 with a naturally occurring arrestin1 splice variant, p44, in K296E mice. p44's C-terminus is truncated, which removes the AP-2 binding domain, thus providing a means to chec
                                                                              17 Expression of Arrestin1 Splice Variant, p44, Rescues Degeneration in K296E Mouse Model of ADRP
Cell and Molecular   Ng               Sum-yan       Afternoon                                               Sum-yan Ng, Neil Segil
                                                                                                                                 Aging, acoustic trauma and chemical exposures are among the common causes of auditory hair cell death that leads to progressive sensorineural hearing loss. While DNA damage and impaired repair are implicated in these ototoxic stressors, the relationship between DNA damage and repair and hair cell survival remains largely unknown. Several genetic mutations that specifically affect the DNA repair pathway nucleotide excision repair (NER) are characterized by early onset of progressive sensorienural hearing loss and hair cell death. NER is a versatile repair pathway and can be further classified into two sub-pathways: transcription-coupled-NER (TC-NER) and global genome-NER (GG-NER). The repair of actively-transcribed regions of the genome relies heavily on TC-NER; damage to non-transcribed genes is mostly removed by GG-NER. The current theory is that terminally differentiated cells do not need to replicate their entire genome and hence do not expend energy maintaining non-transcrib
                                                                              18 Nucleotide excision repair in mammalian organ of Corti
Cell and Molecular   Palkar           Radhika       Afternoon                                                channel: TRPM8 in inflammatory thermal hypersensitivity
                                                                                                                                  David Mckemy
                                                                              19 Role of cold sensing ion Radhika Palkar, Dr. Chronic inflammatory pain is the most reported medical condition in the United States. The available anti-inflammatory drugs target the immune response to inflammation, and have limited efficacy. To directly target neurons which carry pain to higher centers of the brain, research has focussed on the heat sensing ion channel TRPV1. TRPV1 is activated at temperatures above 43° Celsius and is a known marker of pain sensing Aδ and C-fibres (Caterina et al., 1997). It gets upregulated after inflammation, causing hypersensitivity to heat (Ji et al., 2002). Another TRP family ion channel: TRPM8 has been implicated in post-inflammatory cold-hypersensitivity (Colburn et al., 2007). This channel is known to be active below 26° Celsius and is also found in Aδ and C-fibres (Mckemy et al., 2002). However, the role of TRPM8 in inflammatory pain has not been explored as much as TRPV1. We used the acetone response test to confirm the absence of post-inflammatory cold hypersensitivity in TRPM8 knocko
Cell and Molecular   Rettberg         Jamaica       Afternoon                                               Jamaica R. Rettberg, Ryan T. ovariectomy on hippocampal effects Zhao, Susan E. Appt, Thomas C. Register, the time of menopause; however,
                                                                                                                                  and after Hamilton, beneficial Jimmy To, Liqin if initiated mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant activity in female monkeys
                                                                              20 The effect of dietary soy isoflavones before Estrogens may have Zisu Mao, cognitiveprotein markers of within a ‗critical window‘ around Jay R. Kaplan, Roberta Diaz Brintonin the absence of a progestogen, estrogens increase endometrial cancer risk. This has spurred research into finding estrogenic alternatives that have the beneficial effects of estrogen but which are clinically safer. Soy protein is rich in isoflavones, which are potential estrogenic alternatives. We investigated effects of two diets, one with casein-lactalbumin as the main protein source and the other with soy protein containing isoflavones, on protein markers of hippocampal bioenergetic capacity in adult female cynomolgus macaques. Further, we assessed the effects of dietary soy isoflavones before or after ovariectomy. Animals receiving soy diet premenopausally then casein/lactalbumin post-ovariectomy had higher relative hippocampal content of GAPDH and PDH subunit e1α. Post-ovariectomy consumption of soy was associated with higher SDHα levels and lower levels of IDH, si
Cell and Molecular   Shaw             Jillian       Afternoon                                               Jillian Shaw, Katherine Down Syndrome Critical Region 1 (nebula) ameliorates Amyloid Precursor Protein years of age; this pathology
                                                                                                                                  of Ha, Karen Chang
                                                                              21 Over-Expression of the Drosophila homolog Individuals with Down Syndrome generally develop β-amyloid deposits around 40-50Induced Neurodegeneration is characteristic of early-onset Alzheimer‘s Disease. Trisomy 21, the most common genetic cause of mental retardation and post-natal developmental abnormalities, results in an extra copy of chromosome 21 and overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In post-mortem brain tissue of DS and AD patients, there is an upregulation of the Down Syndrome Critical Region 1 (DSCR1) and APP genes located on chromosome 21. β-amyloid arises from proteolytic cleavage of APP; aberrant processing of this protein and hyperphosphorylation of tau are associated with Alzheimer‘s disease pathology. Nebula (nla) the Drosophila homolog of DSCR1 inhibits calcineurin, a Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase. In Alzheimer‘s disease, there are reports of reduced calcineurin activity, but whether DSCR1 upregulation contributes AD neuropathologies or changes
Cell and Molecular   Wang             Yuanyuan      Afternoon                                               Yuanyuan Y. Wang,In humans, high
                                                                                                                                  Rui B. Chang, and Emily R. Liman
                                                                              22 TRPA1 Is a Component of the Nociceptive Response to CO2 concentrations of CO2 , as found in carbonated beverages, evoke a mixture of sensations that include a stinging orpungent quality. The stinging sensation is thought to originate with the activation of nociceptors, which innervate the respiratory, nasal, and oral epithelia. The molecular basis for this sensation is unknown. Here we show that CO2 specifically activates a subpopulation of trigeminal neurons that express TRPA1, a mustard oil- and cinnamaldehyde sensitive channel, and that these responses are dependent on a functional TRPA1 gene. TRPA1 is sufficient to mediate responses to CO2 as TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK-293 cells, but not TRPV1 channels, were activated by bath-applied CO2. CO2 can diffuse into cells and produce intracellular acidification, which could gate TRPA1 channels. Consistent with this mechanism, TRPA1 channels in excised patches were activated in a dose-dependent manner by intracellular protons. We conclude that TRPA1, by sensing intracellular a
Cell and Molecular   wang             feng          Afternoon                                               Feng Wang, Pat LevittPlexin and its ligand semaphorin have been shown to play important roles in axon guidance. Recently, we found PlexinA4, the receptor for Semaphorin 3A, is crucial for the axon pruning in the corticocallosal projections. In situ hybridization shows that plexinA4 is expressed in the neurons of upper layer neocortex, which also send callosal projections to the contralateral cortex. Using in utero electroporation mediated RNA interference at E15.5 mouse embryos, downregulation of plexinA4 in the upper layer neurons causes a disappearance of callosal axons in P15 but not in P0 pups, indicating a defect in axon pruning. A similar phenomenon is observed in plexin A4 knockout mice. Immunostaining experiment shows a decreased thickness of corpus callosum in the plexin A4 knockout mice. However, how plexinA4 mediates axon pruning is still unknown. In this project, I am investigating the underlying cellular mechanisms in an in vitro cell culture system. Cortical neurons are dissociated from E18 mouse em
                                                                              23 PlexinA4 signaling in axon pruning and synpase development
Cell and Molecular   Xu               Xiaobo        Afternoon                                               Xiaobo Xu, Aaron Clausen, chronic treatment with a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic in the triple transgenic mouse loss in the early stage, severe dementia later on, and widespread neuropathological

                                                                                                                                 Alzheimer‘s disease is                                                                      w
                                                                              24 Reversal of cognitive impairment and pathology byMichel Baudry a devastating, age-related neurodegenerative disease, characterized
ith memorymodel of Alzheimer's disease                                                                       features, including accumulation of ß-amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tangles and neuronal loss. A number of studies have shown that age-dependent oxidative
                                                                                              consisting in mutations in three genes (human APPSWE, TauP301L, and PS1M146V

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                stress might play a critical role in the development of Alzheimer‘s disease. A mouse model
                                                                                   genes), the so-called 3xTg-AD mouse model, has been widely used to test the effects of potential
 treatments for human AD. The goals of our study was to evaluate whether chronic
                                                                                               the                                                                                       the                                                                                             W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     treatment with the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic EUK-207 could reverse
 development of neuropathology and the cognitive impairment in 3xTg-AD mice, when
 treatment was started after the appearance of the symptoms, i.e., after 9 months of age.
ild type and 3xTg-AD mic
Cell and Molecular   Yamauchi         Ken           Afternoon                                               Regulates Axon Samantha J. Butlerthe Limk1/cofilin Pathway
                                                                                                                                 Growing axons
                                                                              25 BMP Receptor Signaling Ken Yamauchi &Outgrowth throughare directed in a stereotypical manner by attractive and repulsive cues in the embryonic environment for the precise wiring of the nervous system. In addition to directional information, it is critical that axons receive guidance input at the correct time during development, thus regulation of the rate of axon outgrowth is necessary for proper circuit formation.We previously showed that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) repel commissural axons from the roof plate in the developing spinal cord. Recently, we found an additional role of BMPs in vivo may be to regulate axon outgrowth - the receptor necessary for repulsion from BMPs, BmprIb, slows commissural axon extension when constitutively activated. We are investigating the Lim domain kinase1 (Limk1)/cofilin pathway as the possible intracellular effector regulating the actin cytoskeleton in response to BmprIb activation. Limk1 controls neurite extension by phosphorylating/deactivating the actin severing protein cofilin and is activ
Cell and Molecular   Zhong            Jingyang      Afternoon                                               Jingyang Zhong1,, Hyoung-taineurons and oligodendrocytes Yoshikawa, Masato Nakafuku and Wange Lu
                                                                                                                                 GABAergic Kim, versus oligodendrocytes during telencephalon development
                                                                              26 Wnt receptor Ryk controls specification of GABAergic neuronsJungmook Lyu, Kazuaki originate from progenitors within the ventral telencephalon. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling neuron-glial cell-fate segregation, especially how extrinsic factors regulate cell-fate changes, are poorly understood. We discovered that the Wnt receptor Ryk promotes GABAergic neuron production while repressing oligodendrocyte formation in the ventral telencephalon. We demonstrated that Ryk controls the cell-fate switch by negatively regulating expression of the intrinsic oligodendrogenic factors Olig2 while inducing expression of the interneuron fate determinant Dlx2. In addition, we demonstrated that Ryk is required for GABAergic neuron induction and oligodendrogenesis inhibition caused by Wnt3a stimulation. Furthermore, we showed that the cleaved intracellular domain of Ryk is sufficient to regulate the cell-fate switch by regulating the expression of intrinsic cell-fate determinants. These results identify Ryk as a multi-functional receptor able to tr
Cell and Molecular   Zhu              Muye          Afternoon                                               Muye Zhu, Caihong Ensconsin is a microtubule associate protein composed of a microtubule binding domain, a kinesin-1 interacting domain and a multi-phosphorylation domain. In rodents the protein is highly expressed in the dorsal root ganglion at the time when the central sensory afferents are making branches into the spinal cord. Here we overexpressed four truncate ensconsin gene consturcts depleted of one or two of the three functional domains in COS cells or sensory neurons. For one truncate gene, we found that each COS cell gains an ―axon‖-like structure extending from cell body. Meanwhile, the same truncate ensconsin gene seems to increase the number of branches in sensory neurons. These data suggested a possible role of ensconsin in regulating sensory neuron branching via affecting neuronal polarity establishment or maintenance.
                                                                                                                                  Xia, Le Ma
                                                                              27 Involvement of Ensconsin in Sensory Neuron Axon Branching
Cell and Molecular   Zuniga           Elizabeth     Afternoon                                               Elizabeth Zuniga, Marie Rippen, Courtney facial skeletal depends onand Gage D. Crump axis of the face
                                                                                                                                 The patterning of the Alexander, Tom Schilling, the regionalization
                                                                              28 Opposite roles of Jagged-Notch and Bmp signaling in specifying distinct skeleton identities along the dorsoventralof neural crest precursors into distinct domains along the dorsoventral (DV) axis. Previous research has shown that Endothelin 1 (Edn1) is required for patterning the ventral facial skeleton and Jagged-Notch signaling ensures a dorsal identity. Moreover, we show that a major function of Edn1 is to inhibit Notch activity in the ventral domain, as reduction of Jag1b rescues the ventral defects of edn1 mutants. What then accounts for the formation of the ventral skeleton in the absence of both Edn1 and Notch signaling? Here we present evidence that Bmps function to specify ventral skeletal identities. In particular, we find that transgenic misexpression of Bmp4 results in dose-dependent changes in DV gene expression. Whereas low levels of Bmp4 result in dorsal expansion of dlx3b/5a, and ventralization of the facial skeleton, high levels of Bmp4 result in upregulation of hand2, loss of dlx3b/5a, and skeletal loss. Next, we find that Notch a
Cognitive            Bao              Pinglei       Morning                                                 Pinglei Bao          Spontaneous or resting state activity measured with not refers subjects
                                                                              29 so-eccentric organization of spontaneous activity in the human visual cortex exists in normal butfMRIin blindto the variability in BOLD signal when subjects are not performing any task or being deliberately stimulated. This activity exhibits systematic and bilateral correlations across brain regions in a manner that is indicative of multiple large-scale cortical networks (Fox et al., 2005). The cause of such correlations is unknown. We studied fine-scale spontaneous activity in the human visual cortex (V1-V3) with fMRI, capitalizing on the detailed retinotopic maps that we can obtain for visual areas. We found that the strongest correlations in spontaneous activity are between voxels with functional receptive fields at the same visual eccentricity, irrespective to whether the receptive fields are in the same visual quadrant or across a meridian. Such long-distance iso-eccentric organization of correlations in spontaneous activity is robust both within and between visual areas. The organization can be observed either when the subject is resting with
Cognitive            barres           victor        Morning                                                 Nader Noori, Victor the role Michael Arbib
                                                                                                                                 Embracing an evolutionary in language cognitive linguistics suggests that our linguistic capacities have evolved on top of preexisting neural schemas. Our study investigates the mechanisms of semantic reference by focusing on the paradigmatic case of pronouns (anaphora). Based on evidence drawn from imaging studies and from American Sign Language, we hypothesize that part of the processing of anaphors relies on spatial schemas whose neural correlates are found in the superior parietal cortex. We are developing two sets of experiments. First, a study of the interactions between spatial tasks and comprehension tasks involving sentences with anaphoric ambiguities will be conducted. Second, a study of the eye-movements during these comprehension tasks will be performed. We have already shown that eye-movements, during sorting tasks, can be used as a proxy for underlying attentional saccades to spatially-organized, memorized items. Our work will complement current theories of ground
                                                                              30 Grounding cognition in space: investigating Barres & of spatial schemas perspective, processing
Cognitive            Cabrera          Carlos        Morning                                                 Carlos Cabrera, Zhong-Lin Lu,an Barbara Anne Dosherof observer‘s representation of stimuli remains a perennial problem in cognitive research. While Signal Detection Theory (SDT) framework provides estimates of certain parameters of the internal representation (viz., sensitivity and bias), the formal assumptions of the model postulate a static decision criterion (Green and Swets, 1966). This postulate runs directly contrary to a great deal of research demonstrating a nonstationary decision criterion as evinced by response autocorrelation, and response modulation due to task learning, stimulus familiarity, or task difficulty (Benjamin et al., 2009). Although researchers have recently developed extensions to the tradition SDT framework in order to measure decision noise, these models rely on significant assumptions bearing on the relationship between various noise components (Mueller and Wiedemann, 2008; Rosner and Kochanski, 2009). Here, we utilize a rating procedure based on the ―double pass‖ approach (Burgess
                                                                                                                                  Decision & accurate description
                                                                              31 Separating Noise Components in PerceptualAchieving Making
Cognitive            Clewett          David         Morning                                                 David Clewett, Andrej Schoeke, Zara Abrams, Mara of cognitive function has been observed in goal-directed paradigms, little is known about the influence of acute stress on resting state network activity. In the present study, we used pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) to measure differences in healthy male adults‘ resting state changes in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a cold pressor stress induction task versus a control task, with the stress and control conditions conducted on different days. Following stress induction, there was an interval filled with instructions for entering a 3T MRI scanner. During the period of peak cortisol response to acute stress (fifteen to twenty-five minutes after stress induction), participants were asked to rest for six minutes with their eyes closed during a PASL scanning sequence. There was enhanced activity in the precuneus cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, fusiform cortex and left caudate in the post-stress condition compared with the contro
                                                                                                                                 While stress-induced impairment
                                                                              32 Acute stress enhances default mode network activity 15-25 minutes later Mather
Cognitive            Combs            T. Dalton     Morning                                                 T. Dalton Combs, Tae-Ho Lee, and Dr. Mara Mather arousal would induce a vigilant state, in which all visual stimuli become more salient. However, recent research has shown that emotional arousal can inhibit the perception of some simple visual stimuli (Bocanegra and Zeelemberg 2009). They found that after being briefly exposed to fearful faces, subjects were able to more easily detect the tilt of Gabor patches with low spatial frequency (less than 3 cycles per degree (cpd)), when compared against control. This shows arousal dependent facilitation, which would typically be expected. However they also found that after being briefly exposed to fearful faces, subjects were less able to detect tilt in Gabor patches with high special frequency (greater than 3cpd). This poster will outline our efforts to reproduce these findings as well as future experiments designed to determine where in the brain and by what mechanisms this facilitation/depression takes place.
                                                                              33 Effect of Valence on Early Visual Processing We might expect that emotional PhD
Cognitive            Files            Benjamin      Morning                                                 Benjamin T. Files predicted E. Bernstein
                                                                                                                                 Visual speech perception (a.k.a. lipreading or speechreading) is possible, with experts achieving up to 80% words correct in sentences. This shows that phonetic information is available visually, but we do not explicitly know how to map from a physical description of a talking face to a phoneme. However, using a measure of the weighted physical dissimilarity in the three dimensional motion of a pair of visual speech stimuli, the perceptual dissimilarity of that pair can be predicted. To confirm this second-order relationship between physical and perceptual dissimilarity and to test whether it depends on a specific upright facial context, a same/different discrimination experiment was carried out with both upright and inverted visual speech syllables. Discrimination performance measured with d‘ and response time was well-predicted by the motion dissimilarity measure in both upright and inverted faces. This suggests that holistic processing is not required for visual syllable discrimination. Moreover, it
                                                                              34 Visual discrimination of spoken syllables isand Lynne by a physical measure in both upright and inverted talking faces.
Cognitive            Filipe           Helder        Morning                                                 Helder F. midline structures during self Damasio,autobiographical self consciousness. At each moment, we are informed of the state of our own body, including the changes that occur as a consequence of interactions with the world and functional adjustments within the organism‘s interior. This information may reach the conscious mind and therefore allow us to experience our body and its changes in a unique and subjective way. Ultimately, many of these moments of self-knowledge are recorded in memory and can be integrated in a coherent biography, which amplifies the scope of the self process and can be used, as needed, in conscious interactions. 

                                                                                                                                 The concept of conditions of and to understand
                                                                              35 Contrasting the activity of cortical Araujo, Jonas Kaplan, Hanna is indispensibleAntonio Damasio                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Damasio (1998) has defined two types of conscious self: the core self, that refers to momentary, ―here and now‖ representations of our body in interaction with an object, and the autobiographical self which involves invariant aspects of an individual‘s biography and is based on stable, dispositional records of core self experiences. The neural basis for these two forms of
Cognitive            Zhao             Yukai         Morning                                                 Jongsoo Baek, Yukai Zhao,
                                                                                                                                 We hypothesize that & Barbara A. under
                                                                              59 Visual attention in spatial cuing and visual search Zhong-Lin Lu the conditionsDosher which an effect of spatially cued attention is substantial should correspond to the circumstances in which attention effects over and above uncertainty should occur in visual search. Our analysis suggests that many of the classical visual search experiments have been carried out using stimulus conditions where attention effects on perception are least likely to be found. We studied visual search in a range of external noise, signal contrast, and target-distractor similarity conditions. In each trial, 8 Gabor patches were shown in each of two brief intervals, with one target at a different orientation from the 45 deg distractors in one of the presentations. Subjects were pre-cued to a subset of the stimuli (1, 2, 4 or 8) and asked to report (1) which interval contained the target, and (2) where the target was. In both zero noise and low signal contrast, and all high external noise conditions, the set size effects were greater than that predicted from decision uncertaint
Cognitive            Garrison         Kathleen      Afternoon                                               Garrison KA, Aziz-Zadeh LS, Winstein stroke.system after damage from stroke is shifts in laterality of brain response when moving the paretic limb, from contralateral to more ipsilateral activity. In this fMRI study, we treat action observation as a motor task and calculate a laterality index of activity in the frontal mirror neuron system (MNS; pars opercularis of inferior frontal gyrus, ventral premotor cortex), in reference to the observed hand. Participants with chronic stroke and moderate-to-severe right (dominant) upper limb hemiparesis (n=8), and age- and gender-matched non-disabled participants (n=8), observed actions made using the counterpart to the paretic limb (right hand actions) and the non-paretic limb (left hand actions). Results indicate that when observing right or left hand actions, non-disabled participants (mean age 64) show activity in the frontal MNS that is bilateral or lateralized toward the right hemisphere. When observing right or left hand actions, participants with stroke show a more variable la
                                                                                                                                 A hallmark of the motor
                                                                              36 Laterality of activity in the frontal mirror neuron system after CJ
Cognitive            Miles            Meghen        Afternoon                                               Meghen Miles, Antonio Damasio, Hanna Damasio
                                                                                                                                 Neuroanatomical studies of musicians, undertaken on both adults and children, have produced inconclusive results, likely due to differing subject populations (gender, age range, and instruments played) and/or limitations of the analysis techniques used. Reliable differences in professional musicians at the adult level, some of which can be corroborated by results in children taking music lessons, have been found, not surprisingly, in motor and auditory related areas (specifically, the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and Heschl‘s gyrus (HG)), as well as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (1-13). This study investigates the previously unaddressed gap between childhood music lessons and professional musicianship. To address the possibility that the rigors of a conservatory-style education may lead to specific structural changes in gray and/or white matter, we have compared the brains of students majoring in music performance or architecture, at both the freshman and senior
                                                                              37 Majoring in Music or Architecture: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Investigation
Cognitive            Millin           Rachel        Afternoon                                               Rachel Millin and Bosco S. Tjan scene visual areas
                                                                                                                                 Objects in a
                                                                              38 Efficient integration across spatial frequencies reflected in earlyare composed of different spatial frequencies, and thecombination of these spatial frequency components provides informationabout form. To perceive form, the visual system must efficiently integrateacross spatial frequencies. While a number of studies have shown thatintegration across spatial frequencies is suboptimal for grating detection,Nandy and Tjan (2007) found it to be optimal for letter identification in boththe fovea and periphery. How and at what stage of visual processingoptimal integration across spatial frequencies occurs is unknown. We used fMRI multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigate spatial frequencyintegration in the visual cortex. From the early visual areas (V1-V3), wemeasured BOLD response evoked by bandpass filtered letters X and Opresented in the periphery, while subjects were engaged in a demandingtask at fixation. The center frequencies for the octave-wide bandpassfiltered letters were separated by two octaves, yielding a high and a lowspati
Cognitive            Newhouse         Christopher   Afternoon                                               visual crowding: effects of the perspective size illusion
                                                                                                                                 Context and Qin, Bosco Tjan
                                                                              39 Context, attention, and Christopher Newhouse, Jungang attention play large roles in visual processing. The extent of the human primary visual cortex representation of a visual stimulus is affected by its perceived size, rather than just the precise angular size of the stimulus. We examined how the perspective size illusion modulates visual crowding in a letter identification task. Contrast threshold elevation for letter identification due to crowding was raised when the size illusion contributed to a larger perceived size, as compared to a smaller perceived size. Additionally, we measured the subjective strength of the size illusion for subjects, and found that it positively correlated with subject normalized threshold elevation. These data suggest that a larger perceived size could contribute to a wider deployment of spatial attention, which in turn strengthens the visual crowding effect.
Cognitive            Reser            Jared         Afternoon                                               Jared Reser          The present analogy for the neurophysiology octopus
                                                                              40 An analogy between the neurophysiology of thought and the polypedal locomotion of an of thought involves a many-armed octopus grabbing and releasing footholds as it pulls itself from place to place. This is meant to illustrate that the thought process involves a cyclical pattern of cortical activation, coactivation and deactivation. Coactivations (footholds held simultaneously by the octopus) fluctuate as cortical areas that continue to receive sufficient activation energy are maintained, areas that receive reduced energy are released from activation and new areas that are tuned so as to receive sufficient energy from the current constellation of coactivates are converged upon, recruited and incorporated into the remaining amalgam of active areas from the previous cycle. Newly recruited areas contribute their inputs to those of the remaining previous inputs altering the mental representations that are produced. Such a newly activated area, or primed node, corresponds to a cortical module (composed itself of neural assemblies) that, when coactiva
Cognitive            Shen             John          Afternoon                                               John Shen, Laurent Recent work in cognitive psychology suggests that behavioral sex differences are correlated with differences in the patterns of eye movements and visual attention. In social contexts such as conversation, these sex differences are easily seen from everyday experience, but have not been subjected to scientific scrutiny in controlled environments. Using eye-tracking and computational techniques, we present direct evidence that men and women orient attention differently during conversational listening. We tracked the eyes of 15 men and 19 women who watched and listened to 84 clips of 12 different speakers in various outdoor settings. At the fixation following each saccade, we denoted the type of object that was fixated and the multi-scale center-surround variation in features such as color, intensity, orientation, and motion. During the listening task, we found that men gaze more often at the mouth and women at the eyes of the speaker. Men also consistently selected regions which expressed
                                                                                                                                 Itti
                                                                              41 Gender differences in visual attention during listening
Cognitive            Sheng            Tong          Afternoon                                               Tong Sheng, Katherine Fu, Lisaregions have been known to be involved in the production and perception of speech. However, whether these regions play similar or distinct roles in the production and perception of prosodic speech is not well understood. Using multivoxel pattern analysis of functional MRI data, we tested the hypothesis that, while perisylvian regions are recruited during both production and perception of prosodic speech, the ability of these regions to discriminate between different prosodic conditions differs depending on the task. We found that while perisylvian regions were able to classify among different prosodic conditions better than chance level during the production task, classifier performance was poor during the perception task. These results show a dissociation of perisylvian involvement between prosody production and perception. Specifically, these results suggest that during production, perisylvian regions reflect traces of the motor command, and that during perception, these regions do not simp
                                                                                                                                 Perisylvian Aziz-Zadeh
                                                                              42 Dissociable roles of perisylvian regions in prosody production and perception
Cognitive            Sobhani          Mona          Afternoon                                                Neuron System by Social Group membership is
                                                                                                                                 Social and Membership
                                                                              43 Modulation of the MirrorMona Sobhani, Glenn Fox,groupLisa Aziz-Zadeh an intrinsic and powerful component of human social behavior. Social group membership can be manipulated quickly, at a level outside direct cognitive control (e.g. Tajfel, 1971; Aronson and Linder, 1965). Here we examined how social group membership may modulate the mirror neuron system. Eighteen Jewish subjects were familiarized with stories of eight individuals, half of which belonged to Neo-Nazi groups and half of which did not. While undergoing fMRI, the subjects then viewed clips of actors depicting individuals in the stories performing simple motor actions (e.g. grasping a water bottle and raising it to their lips) or a still image of the actor and water bottle as a control. We predicted that the mirror system would be more active for individuals more similar to the self; thus viewing individuals from the out-group perform actions would generate less activity in the mirror neuron system. However, we found results directly opposite to our predictions; the left inferior f
Cognitive            Yang             Xiao-Fei      Afternoon                                               Xiao-Fei Yang, Savio W.H. Wong,
                                                                              44 Resting Cardiac Vagal Activity Predicts Heart Rate Change during Compassion for Physical Pain
 pression of YFP under the control of the PKD2L1 promoter. To measure responses to sour stimuli we developed a method in which suction electrode recording is combined with UV photolysis of NPE-caged proton. Using these methods, we r
 ads to truncation of various proteins, including AMPA receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR2/3. In the present study, we investigated whether stargazin could be a calpain substrate in various brain regions and under what conditions stargazin levels cou
e spinal cord during both C cell fate and axiogenesis. However, these Smads have divergent patterns suggesting they differentially affect C cell fate and axonal outgrowth. Preliminary studies of Smad1 and Smad5 loss-of-function mutations sugges
 t exactly is the interaction between neuronal activity and the Met receptor, regarding signaling and protein expression? Unraveling the fine-tuning of neuronal development induced by different signaling cascades will help us understand
antagonist (sulpiride) increased cAMP and cGMP levels and increased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK), phospho-CREB and phospho-mTOR. Papaverine-induced pERK was localized in D1 and D2 receptor-positive neurons in striatal slices. Interestin

 on of human tumor-associated endothelial cells. Using the rodent xenograft in vivo model, we showed that the combination of noscapine and TMZ significantly delayed tumor progression of TMZ-resistant gliomas without any observable toxic effects. The m
m AAA-injected eyes. In turn, RP retinas from TIMP-1-injected eyes showed rings of clusters of cones, while TIMP-1 injection in normal eyes elicited formation of spatially random clusters of cones. Mixtures of AAA and T
ve effects of hormones on neuron viability in rats after a knife-cut lesion of the perforant path, and to measure beta-amyloid load and microglial activation in 3xTgAD mice fed a high-fat diet. In Dr.'s Jakowec and Petzinger's la
different developmental stages. For this purpose, acute hippocampal slices from both 1-week and 3-month-old rats will be treated with NMDA, apocynin, or a combination of the two. Neurotoxicity will be assayed by LDH release in the incubation medium. If tim
 ontext of injury. Here, we take a cell-ablation approach. We have generated a mouse line expressing the simian form of the diphtheria toxin receptor, fused to GFP, under the TRPM8 promoter. Administration of a low dose of diphtheria
 ssed with TRPV1. We propose that neurons express both TRPV1 and TRPA1 have distinct functions from neurons express TRPV1 alone. By generating transgenic mice in which neurons that express TRPA1 are labeled with a fluorescent axonal

class have been shown to be involved in the regulation of hot- and cold-induced signal transduction. Given that TRPM8 is also localized to the dorsal root ganglia (as well as the trigeminal ganglia) and is found in neurons that also express T
 s proteins suggest that the fibrillation occurs via a shared molecular mechanism. It has been proposed that slight protein unfolding or misfolding leads to aggregation and fibril formation through the following pathway: monom
n particular the deletion of PTEN promotes axonal outgrowth of corticospinal neurons (Liu et al., 2010). Here we tested the PTEN inhibitor (bpv) in purposely denervated muscles of wild-type mice. Our preliminary results show an increase of NMJs innervation
via AP-2/clathrin binding. We substituted arrestin1 with a naturally occurring arrestin1 splice variant, p44, in K296E mice. p44's C-terminus is truncated, which removes the AP-2 binding domain, thus providing a means to check whether enodocytosis
 mage to non-transcribed genes is mostly removed by GG-NER. The current theory is that terminally differentiated cells do not need to replicate their entire genome and hence do not expend energy maintaining non-transcribed genes. Instead, these
t al., 2002). However, the role of TRPM8 in inflammatory pain has not been explored as much as TRPV1. We used the acetone response test to confirm the absence of post-inflammatory cold hypersensitivity in TRPM8 knockout mice. Next, we would l
ally then casein/lactalbumin post-ovariectomy had higher relative hippocampal content of GAPDH and PDH subunit e1α. Post-ovariectomy consumption of soy was associated with higher SDHα levels and lower levels of IDH, significantly d
urin, a Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase. In Alzheimer‘s disease, there are reports of reduced calcineurin activity, but whether DSCR1 upregulation contributes AD neuropathologies or changes in calcineurin activity are not
 , which could gate TRPA1 channels. Consistent with this mechanism, TRPA1 channels in excised patches were activated in a dose-dependent manner by intracellular protons. We conclude that TRPA1, by sensing intracellular acidification, consti
mice. However, how plexinA4 mediates axon pruning is still unknown. In this project, I am investigating the underlying cellular mechanisms in an in vitro cell culture system. Cortical neurons are dissociated from E18 mouse embryos and cult
               the                                                                                          the                                                                                              W
 could reverse
 development of neuropathology and the cognitive impairment in 3xTg-AD mice, when
 treatment was started after the appearance of the symptoms, i.e., after 9 months of age.
ild type and 3xTg-AD mice were subcutaneously implanted
 n pathway as the possible intracellular effector regulating the actin cytoskeleton in response to BmprIb activation. Limk1 controls neurite extension by phosphorylating/deactivating the actin severing protein cofilin and is activated do
 showed that the cleaved intracellular domain of Ryk is sufficient to regulate the cell-fate switch by regulating the expression of intrinsic cell-fate determinants. These results identify Ryk as a multi-functional receptor able to transduce

n. Whereas low levels of Bmp4 result in dorsal expansion of dlx3b/5a, and ventralization of the facial skeleton, high levels of Bmp4 result in upregulation of hand2, loss of dlx3b/5a, and skeletal loss. Next, we find that Notch and Ed
a meridian. Such long-distance iso-eccentric organization of correlations in spontaneous activity is robust both within and between visual areas. The organization can be observed either when the subject is resting with
ed. We have already shown that eye-movements, during sorting tasks, can be used as a proxy for underlying attentional saccades to spatially-organized, memorized items. Our work will complement current theories of grounded cognition which focus on the
 t assumptions bearing on the relationship between various noise components (Mueller and Wiedemann, 2008; Rosner and Kochanski, 2009). Here, we utilize a rating procedure based on the ―double pass‖ approach (Burgess & Colborne, 1
 L scanning sequence. There was enhanced activity in the precuneus cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, fusiform cortex and left caudate in the post-stress condition compared with the contro
  to reproduce these findings as well as future experiments designed to determine where in the brain and by what mechanisms this facilitation/depression takes place.
sured with d‘ and response time was well-predicted by the motion dissimilarity measure in both upright and inverted faces. This suggests that holistic processing is not required for visual syllable discrimination. Moreover, it
 teraction with an object, and the autobiographical self which involves invariant aspects of an individual‘s biography and is based on stable, dispositional records of core self experiences. The neural basis for these two forms of self are not full
 nterval contained the target, and (2) where the target was. In both zero noise and low signal contrast, and all high external noise conditions, the set size effects were greater than that predicted from decision uncertaint
 , non-disabled participants (mean age 64) show activity in the frontal MNS that is bilateral or lateralized toward the right hemisphere. When observing right or left hand actions, participants with stroke show a more variable lat
 f a conservatory-style education may lead to specific structural changes in gray and/or white matter, we have compared the brains of students majoring in music performance or architecture, at both the freshman and senior level.
nd Opresented in the periphery, while subjects were engaged in a demandingtask at fixation. The center frequencies for the octave-wide bandpassfiltered letters were separated by two octaves, yielding a high and a lowspatia

 f the remaining previous inputs altering the mental representations that are produced. Such a newly activated area, or primed node, corresponds to a cortical module (composed itself of neural assemblies) that, when coactivated
res such as color, intensity, orientation, and motion. During the listening task, we found that men gaze more often at the mouth and women at the eyes of the speaker. Men also consistently selected regions which expressed more center-surro
 volvement between prosody production and perception. Specifically, these results suggest that during production, perisylvian regions reflect traces of the motor command, and that during perception, these regions do not simply re
 s more similar to the self; thus viewing individuals from the out-group perform actions would generate less activity in the mirror neuron system. However, we found results directly opposite to our predictions; the left inferior frontal
a manifestation of complex interactions among neurological and physiological systems, these mixed results point to a need to understand the underlying neurological and physiological processes. Here we used a time-varying hea
ar to previous models, homeoplasticity maximizes individual cell spiking entropy subject to sparsity constraints (Triesch 2007), while Hebbian-like plasticity allows the somatosensory map to represent the sensory input space. After le
hted linear sum of 1st-order terms; iii) unweighted sum of 1st-order and all 2nd-order cross feature interaction terms (e.g., CC, CI, CO, CF, CM, etc.); and iv) a weighted linear combination of 1st and 2nd order terms. For the weighted combin
s from neurons in the SCs and SCi of two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while the monkeys freely viewed natural stimuli (both still images and dynamic movies) presented on a large, high definition display (~80x40 deg field of view).
 command we used theequations proposed by Brown et al (1998). This poster willpresent general background on the methods of simulatingphysical systems, specifics on the software implementation andhow to interface the simulated arm with a reinf

emblance to the primary sensory maps in the neocortex which are topographic at a coarser scale and at a finer scale neighboring neurons often exhibiting very different sensory properties (Rothschild et al. 2010), and being member

 t on-line parameter estimation using Kalman filter (KF) during training in order to find the optimal schedule for an individual subject. KF is a recursive mathematical process which tries to estimate states of a system und

er-spike-interval 50-200 ms disappeared. In the third-order kernel, the monotonically facilitative effect was significantly weakened. These results show that LTP facilitates first-order linear responses but depresses the second- and third-orde
 annels in the dendritic membrane to boost robustness, and arrival of inhibitory input immediately following D pathway activation to narrow the time window of superlinear interaction. Both augmentations to the model reflect commonly observed features in CNS
vides input to the memory system. In preliminary results, we have found that under a range of assumptions, input redundancy and correlations constitute one of the the primary systemic pressures to maintain separate dendritic subunits. In addit
 1994). The absence of visual feedback was modeled with large measurement noise. By adjusting the ratio of SDN to CN in motor execution, the model reproduced all pertinent experiment reaching data without on-line visual feedback (Gordon et al. 1994, van B

extensive pre-training on the task. We suggested several models, policy gradient model (PG), reward-weighted average (RWA) model, modified Rescorla-Wagner (mRW) model and Bayesian searching (BS) model to explain the movement planning of subjects. We
xploration. Animals trained to use their whiskers on a whisker dependent learning task, repeatedly for two weeks, exhibit reduced representations of the spared whiskers similar to those observed in the novel environment. The mecha
 ra–digit discrimination points in SI. We are now preparing to investigate the longer working memory representation in SII using punctate-pressure stimuli administered via Von Frey filaments.
minute infusion. Aversive orofacial behaviors were tallied and compared by percentile bootstrap tests. Each rat was extinguished until it had recovered, and then 5 days later sucrose was given again to test spontaneous recovery, measure

 upled oscillators. Asymmetric whisking might also facilitatesparse encoding in sensorimotor cortex, since asynchronous whisking could reduce theprobability of firing an action potential. Lastly, asymmetric and asynchronous whisking
e optimize sensorimotor integration by normalizing the phase of whisker contacts through whisking amplitude modulation across protractions and propose a universal mechanism for object localization by whisker touch.
cence microscope with an optimized light pathand developed a quantitative methodology that can classify stimulus parameters withbetter than 95% accuracy with <20 trial/condition. This method will help the functionalimaging co
as found to be highly expressed in the VMH, with even higher expression than that seen in the mature brain. To determine the impact of this early BDNF expression pattern on the developing feeding circuits, conditional knockout animals in which th
pses. Electrophysiological evidence for this has been found in cat, but anatomical evidence is lacking. I plan to use a closely related species, ferrets, to test if we can find anatomical correlate to test the prediction. So

 shell and LMANcore, predicting that if LMANshell circuitry is essential for comparing vocal feedback to TUT, then some LMANshell neurons may be tuned to TUT. Preliminary results demonstrate a major discovery: many LMANshell neurons are tune
 ct projections. Furthermore, this method should identify the antibody concentrations associated with the optimal sensitivity values for immunofluorescence labeling of the afferents, permitting more rigorous measurement of the immunofluores
 e magnitudes that could be decomposed into three principal components. For the analytical solution to the task, > 99 % of the variability occurs along one principal com- ponent (i.e., manipulation mode): middle and index finger compensating
  ow a push-pull arrangement; this implies that a preferred stimulus leads to feed forward excitation (push) from the retina whereas a non preferred stimulus causes inhibition (pull) that could be generated by local interneurons h

				
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