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					  70-291: MCSE Guide to
Managing a Microsoft Windows
Server 2003 Network, Enhanced

      Chapter 3:
  TCP/IP Architecture
                                  Objectives
• Describe the overall architecture of TCP/IP
• Identify application layer protocols in the TCP/IP
  protocol suite
• Compare and contrast TCP/IP and UDP transport
  layer protocols
• Understand the role of various Internet layer
  protocols including IP, ICMP, and ARP
• Describe different network layer interface protocols
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                         2
  TCP/IP Architecture Overview
• TCP/IP varies slightly from the standard OSI model

• Represented by a four-layer model

• Layers include:
    • Application

    • Transport

    • Internet

    • Network Interface
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                       3
 TCP/IP Architecture Overview
         (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                 4
  TCP/IP Architecture Overview
          (continued)
• Application layer provides access to network
  resources
• Transport layer is responsible for preparing data to be
  sent over the network
• Internet layer is responsible for logical addressing
  and routing
• Network Interface layer consists of the network card
  driver and the network card circuitry itself

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                         5
       Application Layer Protocols
• Application layer accepts data from software and
  sends it to the network

• There are many application layer protocols that are
  only available on TCP/IP networks

• Each of these protocols is associated with a client
  application and service



 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                        6
                                  HTTP
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol

• Most common protocol used on the Internet today

• Used by Web browsers and Web servers

• HTTP defines the commands that Web browsers can
  send and how Web servers are capable of responding

• CGI, ISAPI, and NSAPI can be used to pass data
  from a Web server to an application
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                       7
                                  FTP

• File Transfer Protocol

• Simple file-sharing protocol

• Slowly becoming obsolete as HTTP can be used for
  downloading/uploading files

• Protocol first introduced in the 1980s for UNIX
  systems

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                     8
         Activity 3-1: Using FTP to
              Download a File

• Objective: Use FTP to download a utility

• Use the command line FTP utility to access
  Microsoft’s FTP site: ftp.microsoft.com

• User Name: anonymous

• Password: Your e-mail address

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                               9
                                  Telnet
• Terminal emulation program

• Primarily used to connect remotely to UNIX and
  Linux machines

• Does not support a graphical user interface

• Many telnet clients can be connected to a server
  concurrently

• Useful for administering UNIX and Linux systems
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                     10
                                  SMTP
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

• Used to send and receive e-mail messages between e-
  mail servers

• Protocol also used by e-mail client software such as
  Microsoft Outlook




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                         11
       Activity 3-2: Using Telnet to
               Verify SMTP
• Objective: Use telnet to verify the functionality of an
  SMTP server

• Connect to maila.microsoft.com on port 25 using
  telnet

• Issue the help command to see the commands
  supported by the server


 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                        12
                                  POP3
• Post Office Protocol version 3
• Most commonly used protocol for reading e-mail
  messages
• Has commands to download and delete messages
  from e-mail servers
• Does not support the sending of messages
• POP3 supports only a single inbox
• Does not support multiple folders for storage on the
  server

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                         13
                                  IMAP4
• Internet Message Access Protocol version 4

• Another protocol used to read e-mail messages

• Has abilities beyond those of POP3

• Can download message headers only

• Allows multiple folders on the server side


 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                  14
         Transport Layer Protocols
• These protocols are responsible for preparing data to
  be sent over the network
• The most common task is to break information up
  into packets
• Each transport layer protocol has its own set of ports
• An IP address and port number collectively form a
  socket
• The port number ensures that a packet is delivered to
  the correct service

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                       15
        Transport Layer Protocols
              (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                    16
Activity 3-3: Using Port Numbers
• Objective: Connect to resources using TCP and UDP
  port numbers

• In this activity, you will be trying to connect to both
  HTTP and FTP using different port numbers




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                            17
                                  TCP
• Transmission Control Protocol is the most commonly
  used transport layer protocol
• Connection oriented – a connection must be
  established before data is transferred between
  computers
• Connection is established using a three-way
  handshake
• TCP tracks each packet to ensure it was successfully
  delivered
• Packets are delivered using a sliding window

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                     18
 Activity 3-4: Installing Network
             Monitor
• Objective: Install network monitor to enable packet
  capturing

• In this activity, you will be using network monitor to
  see exactly how some of the data packets in your
  network are addressed




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                        19
  Activity 3-5: Viewing a TCP
 Connection in Network Monitor
• Objective: Capture and view TCP connection packets
  in Network Monitor

• In this exercise, you will be using Network Monitor
  to view packets used when a TCP connection is
  created with HTTP




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                        20
                                  UDP
• User Datagram Protocol

• Not as common as TCP/IP

• UDP is connectionless and unreliable

• Streaming audio and video use this protocol

• Resolution of a DNS name is done via UDP


 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                21
      Activity 3-6: Capturing UDP
      Packets in Network Monitor

• Objective: Capture and view UDP packets in
  Network Monitor

• This activity involves viewing DNS packets




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                               22
                       TCP versus UDP
• TCP is connection-oriented and reliable

• UDP is connectionless and unreliable




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                            23
            Internet Layer Protocols
• Responsible for all tasks related to logical addressing

• An IP address is a logical address

• Protocols in this layer include: IP, RIP, OSPF, ICMP,
  IGMP, and ARP

• Protocols in this layer are aware of other networks



 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                        24
                                  IP
• Internet Protocol is responsible for the logical
  addressing of each packet created by the Transport
  layer

• As each packet is sent out, IP attaches the source and
  destination address to the packet

• IP verifies that, once the machine receives a packet
  over the network, that packet has the same destination
  address as the IP address of the computer

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                       25
                          RIP and OSPF
• Routing Information Protocol and Open Shortest Path
  First
• Both are routing protocols
• Responsible for defining how paths are chosen
  through the internetwork from one computer to
  another
• Define how routers can share information about the
  networks of which they are aware

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                       26
                                  ICMP
• Internet Control Messaging Protocol
• Used to send IP error and control messages between
  routers and hosts
• Most common use is the ping utility
• Ping is used to help determine if a computer is
  functional and able to communicate over the network
• Internet Assigned Numbers Authority maintains a
  complete list of ICMP packet types

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                       27
                    ICMP (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                       28
          Activity 3-7: Testing Host
                Functionality

• Objective: Test the functionality of a host using the
  ping command

• You will be using the ping command to test Internet
  connectivity

• Ping www.hotmail.com


 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                          29
         Activity 3-8: Viewing TTL

• Objective: View the TTL of a ping packet

• The ping utility shows the TTL of the packet, giving
  an approximation for the speed of the connection




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                         30
                                  IGMP
• Internet Group Management Protocol
• Used for the management of multicast groups
• Hosts use IGMP to inform routers of their
  membership in multicast groups
• Routers use IGMP to announce that their networks
  have members in particular multicast groups
• IGMP allows multicast packets to be distributed only
  to routers that have interested hosts connected

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                     31
                                  ARP
• Address Resolution Protocol
• Used to convert logical IP addresses to physical MAC
  addresses
• Network cards use a MAC address to filter irrelevant
  packets
• Data packets have four addresses: source IP address,
  destination IP address, source MAC address, and
  destination MAC address
• ARP uses a two-packet process to find the MAC
  address of the destination computer
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                    32
                      ARP (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                        33
                      ARP (continued)
• ARP request
   • First packet

   • Broadcast to all computers on a local network, asking for
     the MAC address of the computer with the destination IP
     address

   • Destination computer sees this packet and replies with the
     address

• The communication process then proceeds

Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                                  34
                      ARP (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                        35
                      ARP (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                        36
                      ARP (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                        37
    Activity 3-9: Viewing the ARP
                 Cache
• Objective: View the contents of the ARP cache

• In this exercise, the cache will be viewed and then
  cleared to force the rebuilding of cache information

• Use the arp command to complete this activity




 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                         38
           Network Interface Layer
                 Protocols
• Most of the common Network Interface layer
  protocols are defined by IEEE

• Ethernet is the most common Network Interface layer
  protocol used in corporate networks today

• All varieties of Ethernet use Carrier Sense Multiple
  Access/Collision Detection for access control


 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                         39
          Network Interface Layer
           Protocols (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                    40
          Network Interface Layer
           Protocols (continued)




Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                    41
           Network Interface Layer
            Protocols (continued)
• Token Ring is an older technology created by IBM
• Token Ring was commonly implemented with
  mainframe computers
• Wireless LAN is one of the fastest growing network
  types
• 802.11b defines the most common wireless standard
• Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications
  system
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                       42
                                  Summary
• The TCP/IP model is composed of four layers:
  Application, Transport, Internet, and Network
  Interface
• Many Application layer protocols, each of which is
  associated with a client application and service
• HTTP: most common protocol used on the Internet
• FTP is used for transferring files across the Internet
• Telnet: remote connect to UNIX and Linux systems

 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                           43
                Summary (continued)
• SMTP is used to send and receive e-mail messages
  between e-mail servers
• POP3: most common protocol used for reading e-
  mail messages
• IMAP4: another protocol used for reading e-mail
• The two Transport layer protocols are TCP and UDP
• TCP is connection-oriented and reliable
• UDP is connectionless and unreliable
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                     44
                Summary (continued)
• Internet layer protocols:
    • Responsible for tasks related to logical addressing
    • All very specialized
    • IP, RIP, OSPF, ICMP, IGMP, and ARP

• Ethernet: most common Network Interface layer
  protocol used in corporate networks today
• Wireless LANs are one of the fastest growing
  network types
 Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced
                                                            45

				
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