Injuries to Ankle Foot and Lower Leg

Document Sample
Injuries to Ankle Foot and Lower Leg Powered By Docstoc
					   Lateral Ankle Sprain
     MOI: Inversion, Plantarflexion
     S/S: Pain and swelling around lateral malleolus,
      Pop (repeatable c movement), Pain with MOI
      motions, Inability to bear weight
     Structures Injured: Lateral Ankle Ligaments
      (anterior talofibular & calcaneofibular most
     Tx: Rule out fracture, RICE, ROM exercises,
      gradual return to activity, taping
     Special Tests: Anterior Drawer, Talar Tilt Test
   Medial Ankle Sprain
     MOI: Eversion
     S/S: Pain and swelling around medial malleolus,
      pop, pain with eversion or external rotation,
      inability to bear weight
     Structures Injured: Deltoid Ligament
     Tx: Rule out fracture, RICE, ROM exercises,
      gradual return to activity (longer than LAS),
     Special Tests: Talar Tilt (Eversion), Kleiger Test
   Plantar Fascia – Band of tissue on bottom of
    foot that helps support arch
     MOI: Overuse, Poor foot mechanics
     S/S: Pain in plantar aspect of heel, morning pain
      when first stepping on foot (or after sitting for
      long periods), chronic onset
     Structures Injured: Plantar Fascia
     Tx: Stretching of achilles tendon and foot
      (increase ankle dorsiflexion), ice massage,
      ultrasound, arch taping, orthotics
   Big Toe Ligament Sprain
     MOI: Hyperextension of 1st MTP joint
     S/S: Pain around “ball” of foot, Pain with big toe
      extension, Inability to drive off or change
      directions, Pop
     Structures Injured: Ligaments on Plantar aspect of
      1st MTP joint
     Tx: Rest, Ice, Turf Toe taping, Metal Insole for shoe
      to restrict motion
   Shin Splints – Irritation of the medial tibia
     MOI: Overuse, Increase in training schedule,
      Training on Hard Surfaces
     S/S: Pain on medial aspect of shin (tibia), Pain
      increases with activity, Pain decreases with rest,
      chronic onset
     Structures Injured: Posterior Tibialis Muscle,
      Periosteum of Tibia
     Tx: Rest, Ice massage, Stretching to increase ankle
      dorsiflexion, Compression, New shoes, Orthotics
   Microtrauma causes bone tissue to weaken
     MOI: Overuse
     S/S: Pain that increases with activity and doesn’t
      go away quickly, Chronic mechanism, Localized
      swelling, Pain with percussion
     Possible Locations: Medial Tibia, Metatarsals
     Tx: X Ray or Bone Scan to diagnose, Rest (Non
      weight bearing), Splinting, Ice, Repeated X Rays
      to assure healing
   Swelling in Compartment compresses nerves
    or blood vessels
     MOI: Blow or kick to lower leg musculature
     S/S: Pain, Inability to use muscles or compartment
      affected (drop foot), Feeling of pressure, Burning
      or Numb sensation in foot
     Tx: Immediate referal to physician, Possible
      surgery to remove swelling in compartment
   Inflammation of Achilles Tendon
     MOI: Overuse, Lack of flexibility
     S/S: Pain with activity, pain with calf stretching,
      Chronic onset, Can be “creaking” sensation with
      movement (tenosynovitis)
     Tx: Rest, Ice, Achilles Tendonitis Taping, Stretching
      to increase ankle dorsiflexion
   Overloaded Achilles Tendon Tears
     MOI: Forced ankle dorsiflexion while weight
     S/S: Pop, Feeling of being kicked in tendon,
      Inability to plantarflex foot, Gross deformity
      (observe and palpate), swelling, Lots of pain
     Special Tests: Thompson Test
     Treatment: Surgical Intervention to repair tear in
      tendon, Long rehab to restore ankle function

Shared By: