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Sampling Research for Profitability - PowerPoint by xso77287

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									        CHAPTER 2

Problem Definition and The
   Marketing Research
         Process
   The Marketing Research Process

                                                          5. Data collection


                                        4. Selecting the
                                        Sampling procedure
                              How?
                                                                 6. Data analysis
                          3. Choosing the
              What?       research method
                                                    7. Report writing &
            2. Creating the                         presentation

  Why?      research design

1. Identifying &                     8. Follow-up
Formulating the
Research Problem
Overview of the Research
Process (alt.)
1. Establish need for information
2. detail research objectives and information needs –
   “Why is this project being conducted?” and "What specific information
   is required to attain the objectives?"
3. design research and data sources – information to collect, sources of
   data, and plan guiding data collection and analysis
4. design data-collection procedure – e.g., questionnaire
5. design sample – define population, sample-selection method, and the
   sample size
6. collect data
7. process and code data
8. analyze data
9. present results – oral presentation and/or written report
   Step 1: Define the problem
 Objectives Vs. problems


 Management decision problem vs. marketing research
  problem?

 Problem or Symptom?
 THE CASE OF CHERRY BLOSSOM

 Cherry Blossom sales are dropping.
 Kiwi is the main competitor.
 Salespeople tell me that Kiwi is gaining share.
 LET’S KILL KIWI!!!

     what is likely to happen with such decisions?
      $20 million ad campaign
      Price promotions
      Six months later - NO JOB!!
 How to define the decision problem?
 DECION MAKING ISSUES:
  Cherry Blossom shoe polish is losing sales!
 BEWARE OF FRAMING
  Cherry’s market share is dropping….because Kiwi is
   taking away market share
 WHAT ELSE COULD BE HAPPENING?
ANALYSIS. ANALYSIS. ANALYSIS!

   Is the market shrinking?
   Are there other new competitors?
   Are there different needs?
Problem Definition: Cherry Blossom Shoe Polish is losing
         sales due to three important trends:

    -consumers are wearing other kinds of non-leather shoe
         -attitudes towards shoe polishing is declining
        -consumers have less time to polish their shoes
Identifying & Formulating the
     Research Problem
                          Packaging




Identifying & Formulating the
     Research Problem
 Creating the Research Design
 Research Design
   Exploratory Study (Montblanc)
     Seeking insight into the general nature of the problem.
   Descriptive Study
     Description of the environment.
   Causal Study
     Whether one variable causes the other.
 Hypotheses
   A conjecture; a possible answer to the research question
Conducting Exploratory Research
     What is Exploratory Research?

     Seeking   insight into the general nature of the
      problem
     Qualitative Research; Observation, Mystery
      shopping, Focus groups, In-depth interviewing,
      Garbology.




    NO hypothesis or vague hypothesis
Descriptive Research (Example)
 Describe the characteristics of relevant groups
   Internet users
   Who buys our products?
   Where do they buy it?
Causal Studies
 Variable
 Dependent variable
 Independent variable
 Three issues for causal studies
   Temporal sequence. Attitude  Behavior.
   Concomitant variation
   Spurious association
What is this type of research?
  Who are our users?
  Will an increase in service staff help profitability?
  What is the demographic profile of our target market?
What is this type of research?
  What are the reasons for falling sales?
  Will a change in price improve loyalty?
Choosing a Method of Research
  Survey
    Mail
    Telephone
    Intercept
  Observation
    Monitors respondents actions without direct interaction
  Experiments
Sampling Procedure
 Probability vs. Non-probability sampling
   Population Vs. Sample


 www.cnn.com


 The other steps……….
Regardless of which presidential
 candidate you now support, who do
 you think won the debate?
NEWSWEEK Poll
   George W. Bush       19%
   John Kerry       61%
   No winner/about even 16%
   Don't know       4%

 The NEWSWEEK poll was conducted by Princeton
    Survey Research Associates, which interviewed 1,013
    registered voters by telephone on Sept. 30-Oct. 2. The
    margin of error is plus or minus 4 percentage points.
  2-5 Errors in Marketing Research
Two main types of errors in marketing research:
  sampling errors
     unavoidable inaccuracy stemming from using samples to
      estimate quantities in the population
     equals difference between the sample value and the true
      underlying population value
  non-sampling errors – errors that occur in the research
    process over and above the sampling error
     inadvertent mistakes
     deliberate deceptions
  2-5c Types of Non-Sampling Errors
 faulty problem definition – solving the wrong problem
 incorrect population definition – wrong sample
 sampling frame not representative of the population
   e.g., phone book under-represents stock buyers
 non-response errors – refusals and not at home
 poor questionnaire design
   e.g., biased or misleading question
 measurement error – scale doesn’t match construct of interest
 improper causal inferences – assigning cause inappropriately

								
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