Matt Kiefer - Technology and Social Issues by xiangpeng


									Technology and Social Issues:
     A Semester Review

          Matt Kiefer
          COSC 311
           What This Is About

   Touches on, briefly, a few key parts of
    each chapter

   Sketches at broader “picture” for each
    chapter, giving a basis for further study.
    Not all terms that appear in online chapter
    review will appear here.
        Chapter 1: Everyday Things
   Commerce
       Production Scheduling
            Ramp up/down production of goods based on demand, market conditions
       Purchases
            Upside – consumers can buy a wider variety of products in stores/online quickly and
                 Smart cards in credit cards speed checkout even further; touch and go
                 Online stores cater to more consumers, often on a global scale

            Downside – consumers are unwittingly exposed to more unseemly aspects of
                  Scams abound on the Internet – hackers and criminals can steal data, including credit card
                   numbers and social security numbers
                  Spam – unsolicited email advertising products and services, and can be a carrier for much
                   larger fraud schemes
                  Consumers can be “tracked” by sites, spyware programs
Chapter 2: Taxes, Security, Voting
   Voting
       Electronic Voting replaces paper ballots after 2000 election
            Allegedly makes elections more efficient; senior citizens shake collective
             fist at newfangled devices (but not really)
                  Actual concerns include lack of paper trail, potential for stations to be hacked
                  Alternatives include online voting / e-voting (but susceptible to hacking),
                   print stations for vote validation (requires more personal information than
                   most would be willing to give on station’s insert-able smartcard)

   Taxes
       Advances in preparation, filing
            E-file: file your taxes online, thus avoiding lines at post office
            Tax Prep Software: TurboTax, etc., decipher nigh-incomprehensible
             tax code to help average taxpayer avoid audits and paying a CPA to do
             their taxes
                Chapter 2 Continued
   Security, General Use
       Biometrics – authenticates a user’s identity through unique biological
        characteristic; can be fingerprint, voice pattern, retina pattern, etc.
            Upside – increasingly-sophisticated scanning technology reduces risk of
             “false positives” that lets unauthorized users into sensitive areas; near-
             impossible to replicated someone’s fingerprint, retina pattern
            Downside – a papercut through your registered fingerprint can ruin the
             pattern in the whorls on the finger, denying access. The fact that
             unauthorized users can gain access – albeit a remote chance – just by trying
             over and over is disquieting.
       UAVs – robotic aircraft used for reconnaissance
       Optical Character Recognition – human, computer-readable
        characters (with distinctions between ones and zeroes, ones and lower-
        case l’s)
       Optical Mark Recognition – computer-readable pattern of shapes
        that are matched to interpret data (destination of a package, access to
        specific areas, so on)
    Chapter 3: Computers in Science,
            Medicine, Design
        CAD – computer-aided design
        CAS – computer-aided surgery
        Distributed Computing – division of calculation workload across several physically-
         separate computers
            SETI@Home – computes feedback from radiowaves in space to (potentially) locate
              intelligent life
            Folding@Home – calculates protein folding data for cancer research; available for
              download on PC, PlayStation3 game console
        Remote Sensing – collection of data without presence of human operator
        EMR – electronic medical record. Computer-based record of patient data;
         benefits of being easily transferred (assuming the receiving end has the same
         kind of “reader” software)
        HIPA – Health Information Portability Act; federal law that protects privacy of
         medical data
        Telepresence Surgery – surgery conducted remotely with a robot arm
        Chapter 4: Imaging, Sound
   Cameras
       Point and Shoot – standard camera, useful for home use;
        digital variety stores compressed
       Field – designed to take higher-quality pictures, has a more
        rugged casing
       Studio – highest quality camera; usually stationary and
        mounted on a tripod
   Movies
       Video Editing Software – lets user splice together movie
        segments, add effects
   Sounds
       Music Notation Software – write sheet music on a PC
       MIDI – Musical Instrument Digital Interface; compose
        synthesizer music on MIDI-equipped keyboard and PC
     Chapter 5 – BASIC you can drive
                 my car.
   Telematics – combines GPS, cellular technology for
    emergency services contact in event of an accident; premier
    service is OnStar
   GPS – Global Positioning System; users can download maps
    and get directions to destination while driving
   Smart Car – featuring new technology including GPS,
    telematics, and computer-controlled engine, braking, and
    steering functions
   LIDAR – uses lasers to determine distance, speed of object
    ahead or behind the car.
   Adaptive Cruise Control – car adjusts cruise control
    speed to match road conditions; ramping speed up/down as
    roadways clear out or fill up
    Chapter 6 – Computers in Education
   Schools start to offer “plugged in” classes
        Option 1: students can take classes from home, on their own time,
         over the Internet
        Option 2: classes can be managed by computers; instruction moves
         forward when student/class meets criteria
        Option 3: classes are online, “taught” by a program designed around
         course requirements
        Classes feature online message boards, forums to discuss material;
         students and instructors can post materials, such as a PowerPoint
         slideshow of the day’s lesson online immediately following class
         Chapter 7 – Computer Crime
   Viruses
      Malicious software program that delivers a payload (often a prank or malicious
        action, such as a mass file deletion). Display unique codeset, which can be detected
        and “cleaned” by anti-virus software with updated virus definitions.
   Trojan Horse
      Seemingly-innocuous program, such as a screensaver, that doubles as a vehicle for
        software that can open an infected computer to hacking.
   Computer Crime
        Use of computers to commit criminal or nuisance acts, including:
              Identity theft – a victim’s social security number is stolen to be used to apply for credit cards, loans and
               then leave them with the bill.
              Salami Shaving – writing a program to remove tiny increments from banking transactions to be deposited
              Denial of Service Attacks – repeatedly “ping” a website with info requests, slowing and eventually taking
               down that site. A Distributed Denial of Service attack affects several sites, as the network computers
               responsible for handling their traffic is assailed.
              Piracy – ripped-off copies of media (CDs, DVDs, and programs) that are made freely or cheaply available
               without permission of original owner; Napster, Kazaa, etc. were accused of supporting music piracy through
               file-sharing of music files.
    Chapter 8 – Cyberlaw and Internet
   Defamation, the act of damaging someone’s reputation through false statements
       Nearly impossible to prosecute if false statements are made online (unless stated by a
         prominent figure); Internet can make any jerk anonymous otherwise; similar to
   CDA – Communications Decency Act. Made it a crime to distribute patently offensive
    material online; ruled unconstitutional by SCOTUS in 1996
   CIPA – Children’s Internet Protection Act; required public computers to have filters to
    screen out objectionable material
   DMCA – Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Raised penalties for distributing software or
    hardware that enabled the breaking of “Digital Rights Management” (DRM) on copy-
    protected CDs and DVDs. Severely curtails “fair use” in terms of copyright – users are
    restricted in where, how, and how often they can make backup copies of their purchased
   Hactivism – hacking of websites to promote agenda of groups with a radical ideological
   Cyberstalking – tracking victim through chat rooms, e-mail, social network sites; often
    just harassment, but has been known to go to dangerous extremes
                   Chapter 9 - Privacy
   What are the issues?
       How “private” is an online browsing session?
            Some sites place tracking “cookies” onto the harddrive to track where a
             user goes on the Internet
            Some sites collect clickstream data, where browser applets track where
             and for how long a user visits a web site, and what links are clicked on.
                  Some sites take e-mail addresses from web searches and adds them to an e-mail
                   list to send unwanted emails, or spam.
       How secure is my data?
            Users can encrypt (encode) data sent over the Internet
                  Intended recipient can decrypt the data for display
                  Firewalls can block incoming and outgoing network traffic
            Users can secure workstations, work areas with biometric security
                  Retina scanners, fingerprint scanners can effectively lock out anyone not
                   registered to have access.
            Sites offer “secure” connections
                  Online merchants of repute will have secured connections for transactions
                      HTTP-S, or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure

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