Technology and Social Issues: A Semester Review Matt Kiefer COSC 311 What This Is About Touches on, briefly, a few key parts of each chapter Sketches at broader “picture” for each chapter, giving a basis for further study. Not all terms that appear in online chapter review will appear here. Chapter 1: Everyday Things Commerce Production Scheduling Ramp up/down production of goods based on demand, market conditions Purchases Upside – consumers can buy a wider variety of products in stores/online quickly and easily Smart cards in credit cards speed checkout even further; touch and go shopping Online stores cater to more consumers, often on a global scale Downside – consumers are unwittingly exposed to more unseemly aspects of “convenience” Scams abound on the Internet – hackers and criminals can steal data, including credit card numbers and social security numbers Spam – unsolicited email advertising products and services, and can be a carrier for much larger fraud schemes Consumers can be “tracked” by sites, spyware programs Chapter 2: Taxes, Security, Voting Voting Electronic Voting replaces paper ballots after 2000 election Allegedly makes elections more efficient; senior citizens shake collective fist at newfangled devices (but not really) Actual concerns include lack of paper trail, potential for stations to be hacked Alternatives include online voting / e-voting (but susceptible to hacking), print stations for vote validation (requires more personal information than most would be willing to give on station’s insert-able smartcard) Taxes Advances in preparation, filing E-file: file your taxes online, thus avoiding lines at post office Tax Prep Software: TurboTax, etc., decipher nigh-incomprehensible tax code to help average taxpayer avoid audits and paying a CPA to do their taxes Chapter 2 Continued Security, General Use Biometrics – authenticates a user’s identity through unique biological characteristic; can be fingerprint, voice pattern, retina pattern, etc. Upside – increasingly-sophisticated scanning technology reduces risk of “false positives” that lets unauthorized users into sensitive areas; near- impossible to replicated someone’s fingerprint, retina pattern Downside – a papercut through your registered fingerprint can ruin the pattern in the whorls on the finger, denying access. The fact that unauthorized users can gain access – albeit a remote chance – just by trying over and over is disquieting. UAVs – robotic aircraft used for reconnaissance Optical Character Recognition – human, computer-readable characters (with distinctions between ones and zeroes, ones and lower- case l’s) Optical Mark Recognition – computer-readable pattern of shapes that are matched to interpret data (destination of a package, access to specific areas, so on) Chapter 3: Computers in Science, Medicine, Design DESIGN CAD – computer-aided design CAS – computer-aided surgery SCIENCE Distributed Computing – division of calculation workload across several physically- separate computers SETI@Home – computes feedback from radiowaves in space to (potentially) locate intelligent life Folding@Home – calculates protein folding data for cancer research; available for download on PC, PlayStation3 game console Remote Sensing – collection of data without presence of human operator MEDICINE EMR – electronic medical record. Computer-based record of patient data; benefits of being easily transferred (assuming the receiving end has the same kind of “reader” software) HIPA – Health Information Portability Act; federal law that protects privacy of medical data Telepresence Surgery – surgery conducted remotely with a robot arm Chapter 4: Imaging, Sound Cameras Point and Shoot – standard camera, useful for home use; digital variety stores compressed Field – designed to take higher-quality pictures, has a more rugged casing Studio – highest quality camera; usually stationary and mounted on a tripod Movies Video Editing Software – lets user splice together movie segments, add effects Sounds Music Notation Software – write sheet music on a PC MIDI – Musical Instrument Digital Interface; compose synthesizer music on MIDI-equipped keyboard and PC Chapter 5 – BASIC you can drive my car. Telematics – combines GPS, cellular technology for emergency services contact in event of an accident; premier service is OnStar GPS – Global Positioning System; users can download maps and get directions to destination while driving Smart Car – featuring new technology including GPS, telematics, and computer-controlled engine, braking, and steering functions LIDAR – uses lasers to determine distance, speed of object ahead or behind the car. Adaptive Cruise Control – car adjusts cruise control speed to match road conditions; ramping speed up/down as roadways clear out or fill up Chapter 6 – Computers in Education Schools start to offer “plugged in” classes Option 1: students can take classes from home, on their own time, over the Internet Option 2: classes can be managed by computers; instruction moves forward when student/class meets criteria Option 3: classes are online, “taught” by a program designed around course requirements Classes feature online message boards, forums to discuss material; students and instructors can post materials, such as a PowerPoint slideshow of the day’s lesson online immediately following class Chapter 7 – Computer Crime Viruses Malicious software program that delivers a payload (often a prank or malicious action, such as a mass file deletion). Display unique codeset, which can be detected and “cleaned” by anti-virus software with updated virus definitions. Trojan Horse Seemingly-innocuous program, such as a screensaver, that doubles as a vehicle for software that can open an infected computer to hacking. Computer Crime Use of computers to commit criminal or nuisance acts, including: Identity theft – a victim’s social security number is stolen to be used to apply for credit cards, loans and then leave them with the bill. Salami Shaving – writing a program to remove tiny increments from banking transactions to be deposited elsewhere Denial of Service Attacks – repeatedly “ping” a website with info requests, slowing and eventually taking down that site. A Distributed Denial of Service attack affects several sites, as the network computers responsible for handling their traffic is assailed. Piracy – ripped-off copies of media (CDs, DVDs, and programs) that are made freely or cheaply available without permission of original owner; Napster, Kazaa, etc. were accused of supporting music piracy through file-sharing of music files. Chapter 8 – Cyberlaw and Internet Crime Defamation, the act of damaging someone’s reputation through false statements Nearly impossible to prosecute if false statements are made online (unless stated by a prominent figure); Internet can make any jerk anonymous otherwise; similar to cyberlibel CDA – Communications Decency Act. Made it a crime to distribute patently offensive material online; ruled unconstitutional by SCOTUS in 1996 CIPA – Children’s Internet Protection Act; required public computers to have filters to screen out objectionable material DMCA – Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Raised penalties for distributing software or hardware that enabled the breaking of “Digital Rights Management” (DRM) on copy- protected CDs and DVDs. Severely curtails “fair use” in terms of copyright – users are restricted in where, how, and how often they can make backup copies of their purchased products. Hactivism – hacking of websites to promote agenda of groups with a radical ideological bent. Cyberstalking – tracking victim through chat rooms, e-mail, social network sites; often just harassment, but has been known to go to dangerous extremes Chapter 9 - Privacy What are the issues? How “private” is an online browsing session? Some sites place tracking “cookies” onto the harddrive to track where a user goes on the Internet Some sites collect clickstream data, where browser applets track where and for how long a user visits a web site, and what links are clicked on. Some sites take e-mail addresses from web searches and adds them to an e-mail list to send unwanted emails, or spam. How secure is my data? Users can encrypt (encode) data sent over the Internet Intended recipient can decrypt the data for display Firewalls can block incoming and outgoing network traffic Users can secure workstations, work areas with biometric security Retina scanners, fingerprint scanners can effectively lock out anyone not registered to have access. Sites offer “secure” connections Online merchants of repute will have secured connections for transactions HTTP-S, or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure Questions?
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