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Euregio _ Trans-border cooperation - Petrella

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					     Trentino, Süd Tirol, Tirol:
towards a trans-border cooperation?

           History, economy, cultures and
         locale communities in three Alpine
                      contexts
Andrea Petrella – Facoltà di Sociologia, Università degli Studi di Trento
                     andrea.petrella@soc.unitn.it
                      Contents
•   Morphology and land use
•   Demographic trends
•   Historical aspects
•   The Autonomous status
•   Political and ethnic conflicts
•   The multilingual context, the civicness
•   Economic structure
•   SWOT Analysis
•   Trans-border cooperation
•   The European strategy
•   Euregio Trentino-Süd Tirol-Tirol
•   European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC)
Population & Surface

        surface    inhabitant    density    main city
                       s

                   706.873          56      Innsbruck
        12.648
         km²        8,5% total
                                 in X km²    118.902
                     Austria                    in

        7.400      504.111          68      Bolzano
         km²       0,8% totale
                                 in X km²   103.810
                      Italia                   in

                   524.826          84       Trento
       6.207 km²   0,8% totale              116.184
                      Italia     in X km²      in


       26.255         1.735.810 inhabitants
         km²
Morphology
                            Land Use
                 Trentino     Süd Tirol   Tirol   Italy

Woods/Forests     63,0%        50,0%      43,0%   39,0%

Lakes, rivers,
glaciers          1,2%          2,2%      2,9%    1,4%

Agriculture       20,0%        27,0%      25,6%   42,0%

Buildings         2,8%          1,6%      1,8%    4,6%

Others            13,0%        19,2%      26,7%   13,0%
Demographic trends




                Demographic
                increase and
                decrease of Italian
                municipalities 1991 –
                2001
                ISTAT
Demographic trends




            Demographic increase and
            decrease in Tirol, Süd Tirol
            and Trentino
            Tirol Atlas
                 Demographic trends


                                   ISTAT-
                                   IMONT
                                   2007




Percentage of families with 5 or
                                            Birth-rate
more members
Demographic trends
         Aging index


         ISTAT-IMONT 2007
Demographic trends




          Demographic forecast for 2021 in
          Tirol, Süd Tirol and Trentino


          Tirol Atlas
The Bishop Principality 1027-1803




Prince-Bishop of          Prince-Bishop of
     Trento                    Brixen
The Bishop Principality 1027-1803


1259 Albert the Third obtained the fief of the two Bishop
Principalities and became Count of Tirol. In 1363 the
Tirol dinasty remained without crown princes and
Countess Margherita donated her territories to Rodolfo
IV of Hapsburg.
The Bishop Principality 1027-1803

Maria Theresa of Austria reigned
over Tirol from 1740 to 1770 and
introduced significant development in
the economic strucuture and in the
juridical, religious and educational
systems.
                             Napoleon




In 1801 Napoleon conquered Tirol and part
of Northern Italy. Trentino and Süd Tirol
were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, Tirol
to the Kingdom of Bavaria.
                               Napoleon
Napoleon introduced
• secularization
• administrative structure
• bureaucracy
• division of the territories in departments
• systems of taxation
• military service

Many riots against Napoleon state occurred between
1801 and 1810. Tirolian territories claimed their
autonomy and will to be self-governed.
Andreas Hofer led some riots and he is still considered
a local hero. He was caught and killed by French army.
        Restoration and Irredentism
After Napoleon the three territories
were annexed in the Hapsburg
Empire and formed the County of
Tirol,   with     self-government
competences.

1860: Kingdom of Italy. Trentino
people, called “irredentisti” wanted
to join Italy and formed an illegal
movement       against     Hapsburg
domination.
                       First World War

Austria lost its territories and Trentino and Süd Tirol were annexed to Italy.

Tirol was annexed to Austrian Republic.

The three territories claimed their rights to be self-governed.

Süd Tirol was “italianized” by the Fascist Regime
The Autonomous Status
         In 1946 Italian Prime
         Minister De Gasperi and
         Austrian Foreign Affairs
         Minister Gruber signed
         the    first  statute of
         Autonomy for Trentino
         and Süd Tirol
   “Los von Trient” and terrorism
1957: political        Between 1956 and 1966
 slogan “Los             over 300 bombings
                      occurred, in order to protest
  von Trient”                against Italy.
  (“away from
    Trento”).
    Süd Tirol
   wanted to
separate from
 Italy and join
    Austria.
The Second Statute of Autonomy
• New competences to provincial governments (Trentino
and Süd Tirol)


• Taxation system (9/10 of taxes remain in the local context)
A difficult pacification
A difficult pacification
A difficult pacification
        Values and traditions
• Autonomy and self-government
• Preservation of multingual systems and
  minorities
• Cooperative Enterprises
• Civic use of territories
• Environmental sensitiveness
• Associations
• Catholic tradition
• Innovation
Multilinguism and minorities
                        Trentino:

                   • Mocheni around
                     2.300
                   • Cimbri around 900
                   • Ladins around
                     7.600
Multilinguism and minorities
                         Süd Tirol:

                        • Italians
                          26,5%
                        • Germans
                          69%
                        • Ladins
                          4,5%
                                  Social Capital
Participation TOTAL.    Political parties         Trade Unions           Voluntary sector        Cultural associations
ITALIA           22,5   ITALIA              4,3   ITALIA           8,3   ITALIA            9,4   ITALIA            9,1
Trentino A.A.    41,5   Basilicata          6,9   Emilia-R.       12,8   Trentino A.A. 24,0      Trentino AA 23,0
Veneto           29,8   Trentino A.A.       6,2   Toscana         10,3   Veneto           14,5   Friuli V.G.     14,5
Emilia-R.        28,4   Calabria            5,6   Veneto          10,2   Friuli V.G.      12,3   Veneto          13,6
Friuli V.G.      27,9   Molise              5,3   Trentino A.A.    9,8   Lombardia        12,3   Emilia-R.       10,6
Lombardia        25,4   Emilia-R.           5,2   Friuli V.G.      9,3   Emilia-R.        11,4   Lombardia       10,3
Toscana          25,4   Abruzzo             5,1   Basilicata       9,1   Toscana          11,0   Piemonte          9,8
Sardegna         23,9   Puglia              5,1   Sardegna         8,6   Piemonte         10,5   Sardegna          9,8
Piemonte         23,2   Sardegna            4,9   Umbria           8,4   Sardegna         10,1   Toscana           9,1
Umbria           21,5   Campania            4,6   Lombardia        8,4   Umbria            8,5   Umbria            8,9
Marche           21,3   Sicilia             4,6   Puglia           8,1   Marche            8,2   Marche            8,9
Basilicata       20,7   Toscana             4,3   Marche           8,0   Liguria           8,2   Molise            8,3
Puglia           19,9   Veneto              4,2   Piemonte         7,9   Puglia            6,8   Basilicata        7,6
Molise           19,5   Umbria              4,2   Liguria          7,5   Basilicata        6,3   Liguria           7,5
Liguria          19,3   Marche              3,9   Abruzzo          7,3   Molise            6,2   Puglia            7,2
Abruzzo          18,6   Lombardia           3,8   Molise           7,1   Calabria          6,0   Calabria          7,0
Calabria         17,4   Lazio               3,7   Lazio            6,9   Abruzzo           5,9   Abruzzo           6,9
Lazio            17,3   Friuli V.G.         3,3   Sicilia          6,5   Lazio             5,8   Lazio             6,6
Campania         16,8   Liguria             3,0   Campania         6,2   Campania          5,8   Sicilia           6,4
Sicilia          16,3   Piemonte            2,9   Calabria         6,1   Sicilia           5,2   Campania          6,1
                      Economic data
                        Trentino            Süd Tirol            Tirol

 GDP in mln €            14.947               15.864            21.382

GDP pro capite            29.612               32.698           30.592
     €                (Italy 23.500)       (Italy 23.500)   (Austria 28.350)

Exports in mln €          2.812                2.874             9.222

 Employment               66,6%                70,5%             74%
    rate              (Italia 57,5%)       (Italia 57,5%)   (Austria 71,4%)
                     Agr. 4,9% (I 3,8%)      Agr. 6,6%         Agr. 5,1%
                    Ind. 28,3% (I 29,1%)     Ind. 24%          Ind. 27,8
                   Serv. 66,8% (I 67,1%)    Serv. 69,4%        Serv. 67,1
Unemployment               3,5%                2,9%             2,9%
    rate               (Italy 7,7%)        (Italy 7,7%)     (Austria 4,8%)
       Primary Sector




“Masi” (family farms) in Süd Tirol
         Primary Sector

Landscape management:
             Primary Sector
                         Vineyards in Trentino




Vineyards in Süd Tirol
           Primary Sector
Trentino products:
            Primary Sector
Süd Tirol products:
            Primary Sector
Tirol products:
                   Secondary Sector
100%


90%


80%                                           Mining
                                             Estrazione minerali
70%
                                             Energy production
                                             Produzione/distribuzione
                                             energia
60%
                                              Buildings
                                             Edilizia
50%
                                             Attività manifatturiera
                                             Manufacturing
40%


30%


20%


10%


 0%
       Trentino
        Trentino      Alto Tirol
                     SüdAdige      Tirol
                                    Tirolo
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
                           Tertiary Sector
                     Job in the Tertiary Sector in 1991 and 2001




        Tirol 1991         Tirol 2001   Süd Tirol 1991     Süd Tirol 2001

Trade                Tourism              Financial and Real Estate         Public           Other
                                          activities                        Administration   services
                     Tourism
                 Trentino   Süd Tirol    Tirol

Accommodation     2.662      10.285     23.859
facilities
Private houses     17%        32%        59%

Hotels             58%        42%        24%

Others             25%        26%        17%
Arrivals (in      2.969       5.240      8.590
thousands)
In Summer          57%        61%        42%

Average stay     4,9 days    5,2 days   4,8 days
Tourism
Tourism
Tourism
     Territorial marketing




“SPENDING YOUR VACATION IN AN AGRITURISMO IN TRENTINO
ALTO ADIGE MEANS VISITING AN INFINITE LANDSCAPED,
HISTORICAL AND ARTISTIC LEGACY WITH VAST TOURIST
RESOURCES.
AGRITURISMO.IT HAS CHOSEN 113 AGRITOURISMS IN TRENTINO
ALTO ADIGE, WHICH GUARANTEE A VACATION CLOSE TO
NATURE WITH THE UTMOST SATISFACTION AND COMFORT.
TRENTINO ALTO ADIGE: A VACATION IN CONTACT WITH NATURE
THAT DOES NOT GIVE UP ANY COMFORTS, IN
ACCOMMODATIONS MADE EVEN MORE WELCOMING DUE TO
THE POSSIBILITY OF RELAXING IN THE POOL OR WELLNESS
CENTRE, THE NUMEROUS SPORTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
AND THE GASTRONOMIC SPECIALITIES TO TASTE AT FESTIVALS
AND IN RESTAURANTS. ALL ELEMENTS ARE IN PLACE FOR AN
UNFORGETTABLE VACATION.”
da: www.gallorosso.it
Toursim
   Territorial marketing
Research and Innovation
                  SWOT Analysis - 1
                Strongness              Weakness                 Opportunities                  Threats


                                                                                             •Water exploitation
Environment,      •High quality      •Glaciers retreatment       •Nature preservation       •Infrastructures with
                                                                                             high environmental
                   landscape               •Sky resort          •Scientific/High quality            impact
habitat,        •Natural reserves    •Difficult accessibility           tourism            •Hydrogeological risks
landscape         •Biodiversity          •Monocultures           •Sustainable mobility        •Forest increase
                                                                                                   •Sprawl


                •Strong cohesion         •Parochialism
Local           •Self-government     •Political use of ethnic
                                          and linguistic           •Common history
                                                                                            •Ethnic segregation
                     tradition                                                                   •Folklore
communities,        •Solidarity
                                            minorities          •Immigrants integration
                                                                                              •Divided history
                                           •Low school          •Sustainable life-styles
local ethos      •Environmental
                  sensitiveness
                                       qualification in the                                    •Neo-nazism
                                              valleys



               •Strong investments                                   •Community              •Decision-making
                                     •Intrusion in the social        involvement                 tendency
                 •Policy learning
Institutions       •Attention to
                                               life
                                                                  •Exchange of good         •Non-collaboration
                                             •Control                  practices              among different
                peripherical areas                                                              institutions



                   •Cooperative       •Excessive territorial
                    enterprises          concentration                  •Hi-tech
Economic           •Small scale
                    enterprises           •Commuter                 specialisations         •Transport system
                                                                 •High quality tourism     •Decrease of primary
structure        •Investments in       •Excessive public                                          sector
                innovation and in    economic aid to private     •Bio food processing
                 green economy              sector
    Trans-border cooperation
Objectives:

Overcoming of national borders that
prevent a complete cooperation in terms of
economic, cultural and social activities, and
also as regards infrastructures, technology
and environment.
      Trans-border cooperation
Prerequisites:
   • Geographical proximity near a border
   • Mobile administrative borders
   • Sectorial interdependencies among public
     administrations, services, production activities, local
     communities
   • No self-sufficiency of local economies
   • New institutional framework
   • Research of strategic relationships in order to solve
     common problems
   • Common objectives, new market possibilities
         Trans-border cooperation
Peculiarities of trans-border regions, problems
of harmonization and integration:
   • Border-Workers mobility differences in wages
   • Needs of coherent territorial planning, infrastructural
     discontinuity vs. homogeneous environmental context
   • Institutional problems, communication, education,
     welfare
   • Production integration, exchange between small and
     medium enterprises, joint promotion of local products
   • Macroeconomics problems, different fiscal and
     monetary assets
   • Cultural and social aspects
            The European Strategy

• Regional policies (structural
  funds, cohesion policies)
• Bilateral agreements
• Convention of Madrid
• Euroregions
• EGTC
• Twinning Towns
      Historical Euroregions
The first Euroregion, called EUREGIO, was
born in the 50’s and involved Dutch and
German regions.
           Historical Euroregions


Dutch                             German Lander
provinces of                      Nordrhein-
Gelderland,                       Westfalen and
Overijssel and                    Niedersachsen
Drenthe


     EUREGIO involved 130 municipalities and
     counties, with 13.000 square kilometers
     square and 3.400.000 inhabitants.
       Historical Euroregions

EUREGIO, a succesful story:

• common problems
• common feelings of marginality
• decentralised structure of the state
• reconstruction after Second World War
• political agreement and + concrete actions
• involvement of local communities
       Historical Euroregions

EUREGIO, issues:

• network of health-care services
• relationships among enterprises
• artistic, cultural and sport policies
• commuters policies
• cooperation among voluntary sector
Historical Euroregions



            REGIO BASILIENSIS
            Established in 1963, situated
            around the Northern side of
            the river Rhin. It involved
            Switzerland, Germany and
            France.
             Euroregions in Italy

EUROREGIONE ALPI-
MEDITERRANEO

Italy, France
16.100.000 inhabitants

Issues: development, innovation,
culture, tourism, transport
systems, universities.
Euroregions in Italy

         EUROREGIONE
         ADRIATICA

         Italy, Slovenia, Croatia,
         Bosnia, Montenegro, Albania
         24.500.000 inhabitants

         Issues: fishing, transports,
         environment, food processing
         sector, tourism.
          Euroregions in Italy
                      EUREGIO
                      Tirol (Austria)
                      Trentino, Süd Tirol (Italy)


                      1.735.810 inhabitants



Issues: transports (Brennero tunnel), education,
research and innovation, sustainable
development, environmental safeguard,
economy
                                SWOT Analysis - 2
    Strongness                     Weakness                      Opportunities                      Threats
      What is                     What is non
   homogeneous                   homogeneous?
  among the three
     contexts?

                                                             •Exchange of good
                                                             practices
   •High level of production                                 •Establishment of high
             capacity
     •High quality services                                  quality industrial districts
 •Homogeneous environment                                    •Place-brand strategy
      •Common traditions                •Languages
                                                             •Joint management of
      •Attraction of foreign              •History
           investments                •Ethnic identities     protected areas
                                                                                                •Imbalances towards
  •Self-government traditions   •Welfare and health-care     •Exchange of students                  external areas
   •Tourism well developed                systems            and employees                  •Conflicts with national state
•Investments in research and       •Mountain agricolture                                               systems
            innovation           •Territorial planning and   •Trans-border tourism             •Establishment of new
    •Demographic increase        landscape management                                             bureaucratic and
     •Territorial marketing          •Transport system                                        administrative structures
     •Joint lobbying at the       •Immigrant integration                                           •Ethnic division
         European level         •Communication systems
  •Gender equality in the job       •Education systems
              market
•Environmental sensitiveness
   •Economic diversification
   Internal/External Potentialities
 A possible future development for the three territories in the context of
          Euroregion depend on internal and external factors:

internal                                 external
•Multi-functionality of mountain and     •Special commissioning of the
rural contexts                           states
•Social capital                          •Equal distribution of
•Reciprocal aknowledgement               development centres
•Investments in competitive sectors      •Environmental sensitiveness at
•Education                               the national level
      From Euroregions to EGTC
European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation: a tool to
facilitate cross-border, trans-national or inter-regional
cooperation


EGTCs were established in 2006 by the European Parliament
and the Council with the political support of the Committee of
the Regions. They enable regional and local authorities
from different member states to cooperate more effectively, for
example by allowing them to directly apply for and manage
European funds.
       From Euroregions to EGTC
Role of EGTCs
To organise and manage cross-border, trans-national or interregional
cooperation measures with or without EU financial support.

Who can set up an EGTC?
EGTCs must include partners from at least two EU member states,
including:.
•Regional or local authorities
•Central governments
•Bodies governed by public law
•Associations
    From Euroregions to EGTC
What an EGTC can do
•Running cross-border transport or health
services
•Managing cross-border or inter-regional
sustainable development projects (innovation
and technology, environmental protection, etc.)
•Strengthening economic and social cohesion
across borders

				
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