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Trentino, Süd Tirol, Tirol: towards a trans-border cooperation? History, economy, cultures and locale communities in three Alpine contexts Andrea Petrella – Facoltà di Sociologia, Università degli Studi di Trento firstname.lastname@example.org Contents • Morphology and land use • Demographic trends • Historical aspects • The Autonomous status • Political and ethnic conflicts • The multilingual context, the civicness • Economic structure • SWOT Analysis • Trans-border cooperation • The European strategy • Euregio Trentino-Süd Tirol-Tirol • European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) Population & Surface surface inhabitant density main city s 706.873 56 Innsbruck 12.648 km² 8,5% total in X km² 118.902 Austria in 7.400 504.111 68 Bolzano km² 0,8% totale in X km² 103.810 Italia in 524.826 84 Trento 6.207 km² 0,8% totale 116.184 Italia in X km² in 26.255 1.735.810 inhabitants km² Morphology Land Use Trentino Süd Tirol Tirol Italy Woods/Forests 63,0% 50,0% 43,0% 39,0% Lakes, rivers, glaciers 1,2% 2,2% 2,9% 1,4% Agriculture 20,0% 27,0% 25,6% 42,0% Buildings 2,8% 1,6% 1,8% 4,6% Others 13,0% 19,2% 26,7% 13,0% Demographic trends Demographic increase and decrease of Italian municipalities 1991 – 2001 ISTAT Demographic trends Demographic increase and decrease in Tirol, Süd Tirol and Trentino Tirol Atlas Demographic trends ISTAT- IMONT 2007 Percentage of families with 5 or Birth-rate more members Demographic trends Aging index ISTAT-IMONT 2007 Demographic trends Demographic forecast for 2021 in Tirol, Süd Tirol and Trentino Tirol Atlas The Bishop Principality 1027-1803 Prince-Bishop of Prince-Bishop of Trento Brixen The Bishop Principality 1027-1803 1259 Albert the Third obtained the fief of the two Bishop Principalities and became Count of Tirol. In 1363 the Tirol dinasty remained without crown princes and Countess Margherita donated her territories to Rodolfo IV of Hapsburg. The Bishop Principality 1027-1803 Maria Theresa of Austria reigned over Tirol from 1740 to 1770 and introduced significant development in the economic strucuture and in the juridical, religious and educational systems. Napoleon In 1801 Napoleon conquered Tirol and part of Northern Italy. Trentino and Süd Tirol were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, Tirol to the Kingdom of Bavaria. Napoleon Napoleon introduced • secularization • administrative structure • bureaucracy • division of the territories in departments • systems of taxation • military service Many riots against Napoleon state occurred between 1801 and 1810. Tirolian territories claimed their autonomy and will to be self-governed. Andreas Hofer led some riots and he is still considered a local hero. He was caught and killed by French army. Restoration and Irredentism After Napoleon the three territories were annexed in the Hapsburg Empire and formed the County of Tirol, with self-government competences. 1860: Kingdom of Italy. Trentino people, called “irredentisti” wanted to join Italy and formed an illegal movement against Hapsburg domination. First World War Austria lost its territories and Trentino and Süd Tirol were annexed to Italy. Tirol was annexed to Austrian Republic. The three territories claimed their rights to be self-governed. Süd Tirol was “italianized” by the Fascist Regime The Autonomous Status In 1946 Italian Prime Minister De Gasperi and Austrian Foreign Affairs Minister Gruber signed the first statute of Autonomy for Trentino and Süd Tirol “Los von Trient” and terrorism 1957: political Between 1956 and 1966 slogan “Los over 300 bombings occurred, in order to protest von Trient” against Italy. (“away from Trento”). Süd Tirol wanted to separate from Italy and join Austria. The Second Statute of Autonomy • New competences to provincial governments (Trentino and Süd Tirol) • Taxation system (9/10 of taxes remain in the local context) A difficult pacification A difficult pacification A difficult pacification Values and traditions • Autonomy and self-government • Preservation of multingual systems and minorities • Cooperative Enterprises • Civic use of territories • Environmental sensitiveness • Associations • Catholic tradition • Innovation Multilinguism and minorities Trentino: • Mocheni around 2.300 • Cimbri around 900 • Ladins around 7.600 Multilinguism and minorities Süd Tirol: • Italians 26,5% • Germans 69% • Ladins 4,5% Social Capital Participation TOTAL. Political parties Trade Unions Voluntary sector Cultural associations ITALIA 22,5 ITALIA 4,3 ITALIA 8,3 ITALIA 9,4 ITALIA 9,1 Trentino A.A. 41,5 Basilicata 6,9 Emilia-R. 12,8 Trentino A.A. 24,0 Trentino AA 23,0 Veneto 29,8 Trentino A.A. 6,2 Toscana 10,3 Veneto 14,5 Friuli V.G. 14,5 Emilia-R. 28,4 Calabria 5,6 Veneto 10,2 Friuli V.G. 12,3 Veneto 13,6 Friuli V.G. 27,9 Molise 5,3 Trentino A.A. 9,8 Lombardia 12,3 Emilia-R. 10,6 Lombardia 25,4 Emilia-R. 5,2 Friuli V.G. 9,3 Emilia-R. 11,4 Lombardia 10,3 Toscana 25,4 Abruzzo 5,1 Basilicata 9,1 Toscana 11,0 Piemonte 9,8 Sardegna 23,9 Puglia 5,1 Sardegna 8,6 Piemonte 10,5 Sardegna 9,8 Piemonte 23,2 Sardegna 4,9 Umbria 8,4 Sardegna 10,1 Toscana 9,1 Umbria 21,5 Campania 4,6 Lombardia 8,4 Umbria 8,5 Umbria 8,9 Marche 21,3 Sicilia 4,6 Puglia 8,1 Marche 8,2 Marche 8,9 Basilicata 20,7 Toscana 4,3 Marche 8,0 Liguria 8,2 Molise 8,3 Puglia 19,9 Veneto 4,2 Piemonte 7,9 Puglia 6,8 Basilicata 7,6 Molise 19,5 Umbria 4,2 Liguria 7,5 Basilicata 6,3 Liguria 7,5 Liguria 19,3 Marche 3,9 Abruzzo 7,3 Molise 6,2 Puglia 7,2 Abruzzo 18,6 Lombardia 3,8 Molise 7,1 Calabria 6,0 Calabria 7,0 Calabria 17,4 Lazio 3,7 Lazio 6,9 Abruzzo 5,9 Abruzzo 6,9 Lazio 17,3 Friuli V.G. 3,3 Sicilia 6,5 Lazio 5,8 Lazio 6,6 Campania 16,8 Liguria 3,0 Campania 6,2 Campania 5,8 Sicilia 6,4 Sicilia 16,3 Piemonte 2,9 Calabria 6,1 Sicilia 5,2 Campania 6,1 Economic data Trentino Süd Tirol Tirol GDP in mln € 14.947 15.864 21.382 GDP pro capite 29.612 32.698 30.592 € (Italy 23.500) (Italy 23.500) (Austria 28.350) Exports in mln € 2.812 2.874 9.222 Employment 66,6% 70,5% 74% rate (Italia 57,5%) (Italia 57,5%) (Austria 71,4%) Agr. 4,9% (I 3,8%) Agr. 6,6% Agr. 5,1% Ind. 28,3% (I 29,1%) Ind. 24% Ind. 27,8 Serv. 66,8% (I 67,1%) Serv. 69,4% Serv. 67,1 Unemployment 3,5% 2,9% 2,9% rate (Italy 7,7%) (Italy 7,7%) (Austria 4,8%) Primary Sector “Masi” (family farms) in Süd Tirol Primary Sector Landscape management: Primary Sector Vineyards in Trentino Vineyards in Süd Tirol Primary Sector Trentino products: Primary Sector Süd Tirol products: Primary Sector Tirol products: Secondary Sector 100% 90% 80% Mining Estrazione minerali 70% Energy production Produzione/distribuzione energia 60% Buildings Edilizia 50% Attività manifatturiera Manufacturing 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Trentino Trentino Alto Tirol SüdAdige Tirol Tirolo Secondary Sector Secondary Sector Secondary Sector Secondary Sector Tertiary Sector Job in the Tertiary Sector in 1991 and 2001 Tirol 1991 Tirol 2001 Süd Tirol 1991 Süd Tirol 2001 Trade Tourism Financial and Real Estate Public Other activities Administration services Tourism Trentino Süd Tirol Tirol Accommodation 2.662 10.285 23.859 facilities Private houses 17% 32% 59% Hotels 58% 42% 24% Others 25% 26% 17% Arrivals (in 2.969 5.240 8.590 thousands) In Summer 57% 61% 42% Average stay 4,9 days 5,2 days 4,8 days Tourism Tourism Tourism Territorial marketing “SPENDING YOUR VACATION IN AN AGRITURISMO IN TRENTINO ALTO ADIGE MEANS VISITING AN INFINITE LANDSCAPED, HISTORICAL AND ARTISTIC LEGACY WITH VAST TOURIST RESOURCES. AGRITURISMO.IT HAS CHOSEN 113 AGRITOURISMS IN TRENTINO ALTO ADIGE, WHICH GUARANTEE A VACATION CLOSE TO NATURE WITH THE UTMOST SATISFACTION AND COMFORT. TRENTINO ALTO ADIGE: A VACATION IN CONTACT WITH NATURE THAT DOES NOT GIVE UP ANY COMFORTS, IN ACCOMMODATIONS MADE EVEN MORE WELCOMING DUE TO THE POSSIBILITY OF RELAXING IN THE POOL OR WELLNESS CENTRE, THE NUMEROUS SPORTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND THE GASTRONOMIC SPECIALITIES TO TASTE AT FESTIVALS AND IN RESTAURANTS. ALL ELEMENTS ARE IN PLACE FOR AN UNFORGETTABLE VACATION.” da: www.gallorosso.it Toursim Territorial marketing Research and Innovation SWOT Analysis - 1 Strongness Weakness Opportunities Threats •Water exploitation Environment, •High quality •Glaciers retreatment •Nature preservation •Infrastructures with high environmental landscape •Sky resort •Scientific/High quality impact habitat, •Natural reserves •Difficult accessibility tourism •Hydrogeological risks landscape •Biodiversity •Monocultures •Sustainable mobility •Forest increase •Sprawl •Strong cohesion •Parochialism Local •Self-government •Political use of ethnic and linguistic •Common history •Ethnic segregation tradition •Folklore communities, •Solidarity minorities •Immigrants integration •Divided history •Low school •Sustainable life-styles local ethos •Environmental sensitiveness qualification in the •Neo-nazism valleys •Strong investments •Community •Decision-making •Intrusion in the social involvement tendency •Policy learning Institutions •Attention to life •Exchange of good •Non-collaboration •Control practices among different peripherical areas institutions •Cooperative •Excessive territorial enterprises concentration •Hi-tech Economic •Small scale enterprises •Commuter specialisations •Transport system •High quality tourism •Decrease of primary structure •Investments in •Excessive public sector innovation and in economic aid to private •Bio food processing green economy sector Trans-border cooperation Objectives: Overcoming of national borders that prevent a complete cooperation in terms of economic, cultural and social activities, and also as regards infrastructures, technology and environment. Trans-border cooperation Prerequisites: • Geographical proximity near a border • Mobile administrative borders • Sectorial interdependencies among public administrations, services, production activities, local communities • No self-sufficiency of local economies • New institutional framework • Research of strategic relationships in order to solve common problems • Common objectives, new market possibilities Trans-border cooperation Peculiarities of trans-border regions, problems of harmonization and integration: • Border-Workers mobility differences in wages • Needs of coherent territorial planning, infrastructural discontinuity vs. homogeneous environmental context • Institutional problems, communication, education, welfare • Production integration, exchange between small and medium enterprises, joint promotion of local products • Macroeconomics problems, different fiscal and monetary assets • Cultural and social aspects The European Strategy • Regional policies (structural funds, cohesion policies) • Bilateral agreements • Convention of Madrid • Euroregions • EGTC • Twinning Towns Historical Euroregions The first Euroregion, called EUREGIO, was born in the 50’s and involved Dutch and German regions. Historical Euroregions Dutch German Lander provinces of Nordrhein- Gelderland, Westfalen and Overijssel and Niedersachsen Drenthe EUREGIO involved 130 municipalities and counties, with 13.000 square kilometers square and 3.400.000 inhabitants. Historical Euroregions EUREGIO, a succesful story: • common problems • common feelings of marginality • decentralised structure of the state • reconstruction after Second World War • political agreement and + concrete actions • involvement of local communities Historical Euroregions EUREGIO, issues: • network of health-care services • relationships among enterprises • artistic, cultural and sport policies • commuters policies • cooperation among voluntary sector Historical Euroregions REGIO BASILIENSIS Established in 1963, situated around the Northern side of the river Rhin. It involved Switzerland, Germany and France. Euroregions in Italy EUROREGIONE ALPI- MEDITERRANEO Italy, France 16.100.000 inhabitants Issues: development, innovation, culture, tourism, transport systems, universities. Euroregions in Italy EUROREGIONE ADRIATICA Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Albania 24.500.000 inhabitants Issues: fishing, transports, environment, food processing sector, tourism. Euroregions in Italy EUREGIO Tirol (Austria) Trentino, Süd Tirol (Italy) 1.735.810 inhabitants Issues: transports (Brennero tunnel), education, research and innovation, sustainable development, environmental safeguard, economy SWOT Analysis - 2 Strongness Weakness Opportunities Threats What is What is non homogeneous homogeneous? among the three contexts? •Exchange of good practices •High level of production •Establishment of high capacity •High quality services quality industrial districts •Homogeneous environment •Place-brand strategy •Common traditions •Languages •Joint management of •Attraction of foreign •History investments •Ethnic identities protected areas •Imbalances towards •Self-government traditions •Welfare and health-care •Exchange of students external areas •Tourism well developed systems and employees •Conflicts with national state •Investments in research and •Mountain agricolture systems innovation •Territorial planning and •Trans-border tourism •Establishment of new •Demographic increase landscape management bureaucratic and •Territorial marketing •Transport system administrative structures •Joint lobbying at the •Immigrant integration •Ethnic division European level •Communication systems •Gender equality in the job •Education systems market •Environmental sensitiveness •Economic diversification Internal/External Potentialities A possible future development for the three territories in the context of Euroregion depend on internal and external factors: internal external •Multi-functionality of mountain and •Special commissioning of the rural contexts states •Social capital •Equal distribution of •Reciprocal aknowledgement development centres •Investments in competitive sectors •Environmental sensitiveness at •Education the national level From Euroregions to EGTC European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation: a tool to facilitate cross-border, trans-national or inter-regional cooperation EGTCs were established in 2006 by the European Parliament and the Council with the political support of the Committee of the Regions. They enable regional and local authorities from different member states to cooperate more effectively, for example by allowing them to directly apply for and manage European funds. From Euroregions to EGTC Role of EGTCs To organise and manage cross-border, trans-national or interregional cooperation measures with or without EU financial support. Who can set up an EGTC? EGTCs must include partners from at least two EU member states, including:. •Regional or local authorities •Central governments •Bodies governed by public law •Associations From Euroregions to EGTC What an EGTC can do •Running cross-border transport or health services •Managing cross-border or inter-regional sustainable development projects (innovation and technology, environmental protection, etc.) •Strengthening economic and social cohesion across borders
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