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FITS Fastrac Dr. Charles L. Robertson June 7, 2007 FITS • Initial studies – significant improvements – pilot performance, – situational awareness, and – judgment. • Aerotech – FITS was not limited to TAA – 14 courses in legacy airplane • Feedback from instructor community – Scenario-based training makes sense FITS – SBT, LCG, & SRM SBT Study Scenario Based Training • Presents maneuvers in an operational environment • Assumes students are ADULT LEARNERS --Want to be there --Active learners --Correlate new information with previous knowledge --Learn best when new information is introduced in a realistic context • Provides more realistic decision making opportunities • Convert 141-Approved Private Pilot Syllabus from MBT to SBT • Conduct test --1/2 the class receive MBT --1/2 the class receive SBT • Compare results Private Pilot Training • 30 Total Lessons --21 Aircraft -- 4 Sim -- 5 Gnd Briefs • Piper Warriors • UND Instructors • Students What is Scenario Based Training? • Purpose: Reason to go & consequences! • X-Country: One airport to another! • First-time introduction of maneuvers IAW realistic scenario • Take scenario to conclusion SBT LESSON 2 (Simulator) SCENARIO You and a friend want to go to Fargo to see a Red Hawks’ baseball game. Your plan is to land at the Fargo airport two hours before game time in order to allow enough time for lunch. STUDENT PREPARATION: Practice Warrior checklists using the online trainer on HTMLEZ. Review Syllabus for lesson content. Complete appropriate sections of Workbook. Draw Practice areas on VFR sectional. Preflight Discussion – Discuss scenario and how normal operations such as checklist usage and basic flight maneuvers are used on day-to- day flights like this one. Ask student to locate FAR on map and give basic navigation ideas on how to get there. SBT Lesson 2 -- Cont GFK Departure – Conduct a normal takeoff and climb, show effects of coordinated and uncoordinated climb (refer to Aero Demo). Simulate Departure Control requesting a MOMENTARY level-off at 3500 ft during climb and current airspeed (79 KIAS) to avoid inbound DC-9 traffic. Than resume climb. Level off and Cruise – Level off at 5500 ft, do cruise checklist, and trim for cruise airspeed. Discuss how to maintain straight and level flight (refer to Aero Demo). Show effects of elevator input and discuss aircraft stability. Departure warns of opposite direction traffic at your same altitude, and suggests altering course to the right. Show effects of turns (shallow, medium, and steep) and how to keep those turns level (refer to Aero Demo). Flight Lesson 2 (Cont) Approach and Arrival at FAR – Start the descent checklist, obtain Fargo ATIS, and contact Fargo Approach. FAR Approach advises, ―Descend at pilot’s discretion to 2000. Expect vectors to a 5 mile final for Runway 17.‖ Show effect of descent with and without power, level off at 2000 feet, and set-up for a long final to Runway 17 (refer to aero demo). Add flaps on final and discuss effects of each additional setting. As you approach the runway, Tower directs, ―Go around -- traffic on the runway‖. Conduct a normal go-around and show effects of each notch of flap retraction. Go around the pattern at Fargo to a normal full-stop landing. Taxi to the ramp and complete all appropriate checklists. Emphasize ―mission complete—we made a routine flight from A to B‖. Assign scenario for next lesson SBT Implementation—IP Comments (early on) • ―It’s a little confusing figuring out how everything is supposed to work.‖ • ―SBT takes a lot more time!‖ • ―I like it. Student likes it—seems more motivated than previous students. • ―Lessons require about .3 longer than normal.‖ More IP Comments (early on) •―Sometimes not enough time to get everything done. Sometimes have to cut corners—like not taxiing into ramp to signify trip complete.‖ ―Student is often clueless about some of the details presented in scenarios—like Lesson 8 calls for clouds broken to overcast at 4000—I had to explain to him that 4000 means AGL, and that broken to overcast means it’s a ceiling. This all takes more time.‖ IP Comments (near the end) "I really like SBT. Pace starting to pick up—not requiring as much additional time as earlier. Student will be on cross country phase by this Friday.‖ "I'm really starting to see the benefits of SBT. Student seems more excited about flying than some of my earlier maneuver based students. Maybe because he sees the purpose of everything we practice ‖ ―He's progressing rapidly now on each lesson—again because a lot of the stuff was front loaded during the early stages.‖ "I like SBT." RESULTS Preliminary: 15/27 Complete TRAINING HOURS REQUIRED BLK 1 BLK 2 BLK 3 TOTAL A/C TOTAL* SBT 21.2 39.5 18.5 32.3 6.9 9.5 46.6 81.3 MBT 19.8 35.1 23.6 39.0 8.1 10.6 51.5 84.7 *A/C SIM Overall, SBT required 9% less A/C time GND And 4% less Total time FITS – LCG Study • Similar comments – Early on – takes to long – Later – students learning more, instructors and students see the value of the enhanced postflight briefing • Again, improvements; however, they were not significant Individual Components • Enhance learning but the interaction of the three is needed to significantly improve pilot training FITS – Automation Study • Situational Awareness & Aeronautical Decision-making need time • Automation can provide the required time – Flight manager vs. pilot Automation Use • Knowledge • Competence • Trust • Bias – pilot must be able to hand fly the airplane Flight Manager • Without automation – high degree of dependence on stick and rudder competency • Low stick and rudder competency – high degree of dependence on automation and automation competency Dependency Stick & rudder competency Automation dependency Automation competency Stick & rudder dependency FITS vs. Non-FITS • Twenty-nine question questionnaire – Enjoyed training & quality – SRM – LCG – ADM – Teaching methods Questionnaire • Nineteen questions showed significant improvement with FITS vs. Non-FITS – 24 significantly (better); however, 5 questions eliminated to guard against type I errors (Bonferroni Adjustment) FITS • Best evidence to date: – The accident spike typically associated with aircraft enhancement or technological advancements have not happened. – Early ―glass cockpit‖ appeared to be following the normal trend; however, once FITS was adopted the spike has not occurred. FITS Questions?
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