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  Mr. Young
Make sure all backpacks
are out of the aisles
before you get a
Always carry the
microscope with one
hand on the Arm and one
hand on the Base.
Carry it close to your
  Microscopes are expensive
 Remove the cover, plug
the microscope in, and
place the excess cord on
the table!
If you let the excess cord
dangle over the edge,
your knee could get
caught on it, and the next
sound you hear will be a
very expensive crash.
I will bill you later!
        Close or cover 1 eye
 Place the slide on the microscope
stage, with the specimen directly
over the center of the glass circle
on the stage (directly over the
 you have a 9 out of 10 chance of
finding the specimen as soon as
you look through the eyepiece!

NOTE: If you wear glasses, take
them off; if you see only your
eyelashes, move closer. Be sure
to close, or cover your other eye!!
            Low Power
 Always start and
end with Low
 put the slide on
the stage
 use the Coarse
focus knob
      Focus using low power
 If, and ONLY if, you are
on LOW POWER, lower
the objective lens to the
lowest point,
then focus using first the
coarse knob, then the fine
focus knob.
The specimen will be in
focus when the LOW
POWER objective is
close to the lowest
       Adjust the Diaphragm
 Adjust the Diaphragm
as you look through the
Eyepiece, and you will
see that MORE detail is
visible when you allow in
LESS light!
Too much light will give
the specimen a washed-
out appearance. TRY IT
Parts of a microscope
You can calculate the total magnification of an
object by multiplying the magnification of the
eyepiece lens by the magnification of the
objective lens.

   10 X        x     4X           =       40X
  magnification       magnification              total
  of eyepiece lens      of objective lens       magnification
              Focus Knobs
 Once you have found the
specimen on Low Power
(100x), unless
specifically asked to
draw it on low power,
 center the specimen in
your field of view, then,
without changing the
focus knobs, switch it to
High Power.
If you don’t center the
specimen you will lose it
when you switch to High
Do not use Coarse Objective
 Once you have it on
High Power remember
that you only use the
fine focus knob!
The High Power
Objective is very close
to the slide.
Use of the coarse focus
knob will scratch the
lens, and crack the
More expensive sounds
            Use Pencil only!
Don’t even think of
starting your drawing
unless you have a
Drawings in PEN are
This is for two reasons:
      (a) You can erase
      (b) You can shade
     in areas more easily
     in pencil.
         Rules for Drawings
 Each Drawing must be
1/4 page in size, and
must include clear,
proper labels!
In the upper left hand
corner of each circle
include the specimen
name as written on the
slide label.
In the upper right hand
corner, include the
magnification (100x or
 Labels should start on the outside of the
circle. The circle indicates the field of
view as seen through the eyepiece. All
arrows should end with the point
touching the object to be labeled!
 How To Make A Wet Mount:
 Gather a thin
slice/piece of
whatever your
specimen is.
If your specimen is
too thick, then the
coverslip will wobble
on top of the sample
like a see-saw:
          One drop of water
2. Place ONE drop of
water directly over the
If you put too much
water over the specimen,
then the coverslip will
float on top of the water,
making it harder to draw
the specimens as they
float past the field of
 Place the coverslip at a 45 degree angle
(approximately), with one edge touching
the water drop, and let go
     How To Stain a Slide:
Place one drop of Methylene Blue stain on one
edge of the coverslip, and the flat edge of a
piece of paper towel on the other edge of the
coverslip. The paper towel will draw the water
out from under the coverslip, and the cohesion
of the water (will draw the stain under the
 As soon as the stain
has covered the area
containing the
specimen you are
The stain does not
need to be under the
entire coverslip.
           Extra Stain
Be sure to wipe
off the excess
stain with a
paper towel, so
you don’t end up
staining the
objective lenses.
         Slide on stage
 You are now
ready to place
the slide on the
stage. Be sure to
follow all the
       Wash and dry slides
 When you have
completed your
drawings, be sure to
wash and dry both
the slide and the
coverslip and return
them to the correct
           Put slides away
 All slides must be put
away in the proper
Students will not
leave until all
materials have been
put way properly.
You are a team!
             A New World
The hair on the leg of
a fly
Preparation and
photo: Deutsches
(magnified by a factor
of 1000
              Salt crystals
Salt crystals on the
antennas of an insect
(magnified by a factor
of 5000)
Pollen at the back of a
Preparation: Zoological
institut, LMU Munich
Photo: Deutsches
(magnified by a factor of
2509)Salt crystals on the
antennas of an insect
(magnified by a factor of
Electron Microscope
           The original electron
           microscope as
           developed in 1938 in
           McLennan Laboratories
           of the University of
           Toronto is now on
           permanent exhibition at
           the Ontario Science
           Centre, Toronto,
                    Label 1-13
body tube
coarse focus knob
 fine focus knob
high power objective lens
light source
low power objective lens
ocular (eyepiece)
stage clips
          Check your answers
1) base
2) light source
3) diaphragm
4) stage
5) stage clips
6) low power objective lens
7) high power objective lens
8) nosepiece
9) arm
10) fine focus knob
11) body tube
12) coarse focus knob
13) ocular (eyepiece)
arm                          1. the lens you look through,
Base                         magnifies the specimen
                             2. supports the microscope
 coarse focus knob           3. holds objective lenses
 diaphragm                   4. magnify the specimen (2)
 fine focus knob             5. supports upper parts of the
 high power objective lens   microscope, used to carry the
 light source
                             6. used to focus when using the high
low power objective lens     power objective
 nosepiece                   7. where the slide is placed
 ocular (eyepiece)           8. regulates the amount of light
 stage                       reaching the objective lens
                             9. used to focus when using the low
stage clips                  power objective
                             10. provides light
                             11. hold slide in place on the stage

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