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					     Types Of Cables

Presented BY :
     Furqan Yousuf
What is Cable ?

• A conductor for transmitting electrical or
  optical signals or electric power.
    Types of
There are 4 major types of cable:
 1.Coaxial Cable (Coax)
 2.Twisted Pair Cable
  (a) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  (b) Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
 3.Fiber Optic
Coaxial Cable
• It is used in television transmission. It has an inner
  conductor which is enclosed in an insulator and there is
  outer conductor which is also enclosed by insulator,
  finally the whole structure is covered by plastic cover.

   Connectors used in Coaxial Cable :-
   1. BNC Connector (Bayonet Network Connector)
   2. T-Type Connector
         Types of Coaxial Cable
• The following designations are used to distinguish the
  different types of coaxial cable:
•   RG-58 A/U – Thinnet, stranded wire core, 50 ohms
•   RG-58 /U – Thinnet, solid wire core, 50 ohms
•   RG-59 – Thicknet, cable television, broadband
•   RG-62 – ArcNet, 75 ohms
• A cable's designation is typically printed on the its outer
  sheathing. As a general rule, you cannot mix coax cable
  types on the network.
      Versions of Coaxial Cable
• Coaxial cable comes in two versions:
 1. Thinnet
    + Thinnet looks like regular TV cable.*
    +It is about 1/4 inch in diameter.
    +It is very flexible and easy to work with.
 2. Thicknet
    +Thicknet is about 1/2 inch in diameter.
    +It is not very flexible.
    +Thicknet is older and not very common anymore
       except as a backbone within and between buildings.
    +Coax transmits at 10 Mbps..
Characteristics of Coaxial Cable
• Transmission rate of about 10 Mbps
• Maximum cable length of 185 meters for Thinnet, 500
  meters for Thicknet
• Good resistance to electrical interference
• Less expensive than fiber-optics but more expensive
  than twisted pair.
• Flexible and easy to work with (Thinnet)
• Wire type is 20 AWG for Thinnet (R-58) and 12 AWG for
• Ethernet designation is 10base2 (Thinnet) or 10base5
  (Thicknet, also referred to as 'standard Ethernet').
      Advantages of Coaxial Cable
a)    Good solution for small networks.
b)    Because it is generally wired in a bus topology, it requires less
      cable than other solutions and doesn't require a hub.
c)    It is generally easy to install the connections.
d)    Coax also offers relatively high immunity to interference from noise
      sources, so it is often used in manufacturing environments.

 Disadvantages of Coaxial Cable
 a)   Hard to change configuration.
 b)   More expensive than UTP.
 c)   Unsecure.
 d)   The new high-speed networks are not supporting coax, so this
      cabling may be a dead end.
  Twisted Pair
• A) UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)
• b) STP (Shielded Twisted pair)
         Twisted Pair)
• There are 2 conductors in UTP. They are
  overlapped by the insulators. These conductors
  make twist with eachother.
      We use UTP for voice transmission and data
                  Types Of UTP
  The following categories of unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
  cable were established by the EIA/TIA* to support the
  networks indicated:
• Category 1 - Traditional telephone cable; supports voice
  only, not data ; used in voice transmission.
• Category 2 - Data transmissions up to 4 Mbps (but not
  token ring) ; used in both voice as well as data transmission.
• Category 3 - 10 Mbps Ethernet ; used in data
• Category 4 -16 Mbps token-ring ; used in data transmission
• Category 5 - 100 Mbps; supports ATM ; used in data

  The minimum acceptable cable for 10baseT Ethernet is
  Category 3.
    Connectors Used with UTP
There are 2 connectors :
1) Male - (These are present with the wire)
2) Female - (These are present at the device in which
    male connector is penetrated)

     UTP uses a connection called the RJ-45 connector. It
    looks similar to a common telephone connector (RJ-
    11) except it is slightly larger. The RJ-45 has 8 pins
    while the RJ-11 has only 4.
             Advantage of UTP
1)   Most flexible.
2)   Cheapest Cable (but requires expensive support
3)   Easy to install.
4)   Easy to add users.

          Disadvantages of UTP
1)   Shortest usable cable length.
2)   Susceptible to electrical interference.
3)   Un secure.
      b) STP
(shielded Twisted
• Shielded twisted pair (STP) is similar to UTP
  except it contains a copper braid jacket to ‘shield’
  the wires from electrical interference. It can support
  transmissions over greater distances than UTP.
 Advantages of Fiber optic Cable
 1)   Fastest Transmission rate.
 2)   Not susceptible to electrical interference.
 3)   Very much secure.
 4)   Good for use between buildings.

Disadvantages of Fiber optic Cable
 1)   Most Expensive.
 2)   Difficult to work with.
   Maximum Cable length for each
          type of Cable
• The type of cable plays a role in how fast a signal will
  degrade as it is transmitted. The following are the
  recommended maximum cable lengths:
• Thinnet- maximum length of segment (terminator to
  terminator) is 185 meters (607 feet)
• Thicknet -maximum length of segment (single run) is
  500 meters (1,640 feet)
• Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) - maximum length of
  cable between hub and computer is 100 meters (328
• Fiber-Optic - maximum length of cable is 2 kilometers.
  (6,562 feet)