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CESSNA 182 RG Transition

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					CESSNA 182 RG Transition

C-182RG ATC code is now C82R
Build on what you know about previous airplanes. Standardize your procedures. Increased
complexity requires increased maintenance and decreased reliability. Upgrade your proficiencies
to meet aircraft requirements. Flying the airplane will be harder until you understand how
everything works.

Customize your checklists and procedures starting with the POH. Modify your checklists at least
five times to make them efficient and useable. Learn the performance figures for VFR and IFR.
This means set configuration, set power, and set trim. You are not competent until you are
smooth. Just because the aircraft systems are similar does not mean that they are the same.

A faster aircraft requires that this information be processed more quickly and accurately. A fast
aircraft can get you into trouble much faster. Mental and emotional saturation of the pilot occurs
when the pilot is unable to keep up with the aircraft. Unfamiliarity with an aircraft is one of the
primary causal factors in accidents. Accident levels are over twice as likely when you are below
50 hours in type. If you forget the gear you have probably forgotten something else. Use POH
for engine operation, fuel pump, and performance recommendations.

Adequate Checkout

Unfamiliarity in type is a greatly under-recorded accident type. Low time in type accidents occur
due to misuse in areas of engine operation, systems operation, emergency procedures, and flight
peculiarities. Reliance on the previous owner for your checkout is intellectually equivalent to
going to a witch doctor. Get the most experienced instructor you can for your checkout.

Converting to a new type usually involves converting to different engine operating procedures.
The more similar the engine the easier will be the engine checkout. You must know the operating
requirements, what to do, and what not to do. Even aircraft of the same manufacture will have
different fuel systems, capacities and consumption. Learn the fuel system as it relates to the
engine. Fuel consumption figures seldom, if ever, match POH performance figures. Run your
own performance tests on every flight you make until your estimates approach actual.

Cockpit familiarization is important. Know the how and where of all knobs, catches, latches, and
controls. Be prepared to ask about instruments and how to use them. Seats, belts, doors, and
luggage operation need to be worked out in conjunction with a weight and balance problem.
Practice operating the cowl flaps while keeping your eyes over the cowling. Some pilots will
have more difficulty than others.

Speaking of cowl flaps, consider reversing the leveling off checklist so that cowl flaps are closed
shortly before leveling off and accelerating to cruise. This will serve to reduce shock cooling the
engine. Likewise, consider not opening the cowl flaps as part of the post-landing checklist.
Allow the engine to warm up after its cooling descent to landing. Give the engine about three
minutes of taxi or shutdown time to adjust temperatures. Select cowl flaps during this period to
keep temperatures even. Do anything you can to avoid extremes of heat and cooling. Don't move
the propeller after shut down until the metals have cooled down for at least an hour. Differing
expansion rates make warm engines have very tight tolerances.

The C-182 RG has rubber bladder fuel tanks. These tanks have inherent problems for preflight
and operation. Preflight draining the fuel sumps is a two-man operation. While the tail is held
down, the wings should be rocked to move any water toward the sumps over ripples that often
exist at the bottom of the fuel bladders. Continue to hold the tail down while draining the sumps.
Drain the sumps a second time after the preflight is completed.

It is possible to get very mistaken fuel readings in a C-182. The rubber bladder may collapse
inside the wing. Gauges will read full while you may have only a half-tank of gas. Gauges may
continue to read full when you are half-empty. Watch the fuel gauge movement to be able to
separate normal from abnormal in individual aircraft. The ramp and nose strut position of A C-
182 can make considerable difference in the amount of fuel

that the tanks will hold. Start at level in all directions and see what differences occur and how
they occur on slopes. The tanks are inter-connected and you may need to go back to refill each
tank a second time to get a maximum fuel capacity.

Another C-182RG that I fly has a fuel selector problem. The left tank will run dry while the right
tank still has 30 gallons. Setting the selector off to the right by 20 degrees seems to help while
going fully to the right with the selector makes no difference. This problem was detectable only
by making four-hour flights. Referred to maintenance.

Several items of engine operation are worth noting. Closing cowl flaps on the ground does not
aid engine heating. Over square operations are permissible and the additional full throttle fuel
aids in engine cooling and reduces detonation.

Shock cooling can be reduced by making sure cowl flaps are closed and planning your descent
from far enough away. Begin gradual power reductions in cruise so engine cooling beings before
descent. Reduce manifold pressure in small increment every several minutes. Keep the power in
the green and mixture in the lean during any descent. Smoothness is the key.

Emergency procedures, gear operations, and cruise operations must be covered on the ground
and then be enhanced in the air. Only 10% of the checkout time will be flight time. In flight and
trimmed for climb do a series of Dutch rolls to get a feel for control response. Go to level cruise
downwind and get a radar readout of ground speed. Reverse direction and get another readout.
The average should give a no-wind ground speed. This can also be done with LORAN and GPS.

Practice both slow flight and minimum controllable a couple of times before doing a stall series.
Using the speeds you have recorded, simulate both left and right landing patterns at altitude to a
simulated touchdown and go around. Go to an airport and make several full stop-taxi back
landings. After the flight review the flight and the flying. Plan a second flight to polish any rough
edges and do some work on other than normal landings. Short final approach speed for short
field landing is a 64 knots carrying power.
The first surprise in flying the C-182 is the torque, P-factor, and acceleration on the first takeoff.
Prior warnings don't seem to make a difference. Greater rudder pressures are required for all
slow flight and minimum control maneuvers for proper coordination. All controls will feel
heavy. Use of trim is essential. Approach speeds will be higher.

Complex/High Performance

Your initial training, while in a low powered and low performance aircraft, may or may not have
prepared you for up-grading into more demanding aircraft. The main transition factors that you
must have acquired consist of being able to anticipate radio communications, trim use and a light
touch on the controls. Having these any transition will be smooth and seamless. Otherwise,
considerable unlearning will be needed.

The potential for a serious operational mistake increased with the complexity of the airplane.
Errors of omission or commission bring unpleasant results quickly. Over-weight and out of
balance in a larger aircraft will cause flight problems beyond your physical strength. There are
no 'inexpensive' repairs on large aircraft.

I recall a 450-hour instructor I once checked out in a Mooney 201. The Mooney is sweet, slick,
and complex but not high performance by today's FAR. The initial ride was mostly
familiarization with systems and airwork with several landings. The young instructor became
rather indignant when I indicated that an additional ride would be required before I would sign
him off. I told him to study the manual and review the tapes we had made on the flight. I warned
him that he was in for some surprises on the next ride.

A few days later we departed the area for some work on smaller runways and a couple of down-
slope landings. The 'student' got several surprises when he was just a knot or two fast on final.
His ability to go-around made
significant improvement. At the time the ATA of five miles existed along with a 3000' top. I
have made my Mooney final examination to consist of a cruise arrival at the top outer edge of
this area and accomplish a successful landing. It can be done, but only if everything is performed
in a timely manner and correct sequence. Learning to do this took him several tries. Making a C-
172 arrival in a high performance/complex aircraft is both a wasteful and inefficient use of time
and aircraft capability.

The transition from slow and low to fast and high requires the level of anticipation be raised
significantly. Better to have made some intermediate progressions. A major jump in speed,
power and complexity is likely to be traumatic and less satisfying. Engine operation is going to
be significantly different. Fuel injection engines have specific starting and operating differences
from the more familiar carbureted engines. Systems are more complex and more likely to have
emergency operations that require strict adherence to checklist procedures.

The constant speed propeller must be blended into the operation of the engine and the airplane.
There are conflicting procedures from aircraft to aircraft that must be accommodated in
transitions. In general, from an initial power setting and propeller rpm the constant speed
propeller is able to adjust its pitch to maintain that speed through a wide range of power loss.
The pressure is a measure of engine power and for usual operations it is recommended that this
pressure in inches be related to the rpm of the propeller. By moving the manifold pressure
(throttle) and the propeller rpm control in near sequential unison we get the best performance.
Increase power by bringing up the rpm before the throttle. Decrease power by bringing back the
throttle before the rpm.

Manifold pressure (MAP) does not show power output . MAP is a ratio between the amount of
air that goes through the carburetor butterfly valve and the amount of air that passes through the
intake valves. With the throttle full open the MAP will read close to the barometric pressure
registered by the altimeter. Problems are revealed when there is a leak in the induction system or
if ambient pressure is never reached. The manifold pressure gauge designed to show the pilot
where to set the throttle to obtain a specific percentage of possible power. Aspirated engines lose
about 2% horsepower per thousand-foot increase in density altitude.

Because you can control RPM pretty directly with the propeller control you require a "manifold
pressure" gauge to tell you how hard you are making the engine work. You basically adjust the
RPM with the propeller control and then set the manifold pressure with the throttle. To avoid
detonation, which can ruin your engine quite rapidly, you usually decrease manifold pressure
before decreasing RPM, and increase RPM before increasing manifold pressure.

The retractable gear of the complex aircraft requires a relearning of landing and takeoff
procedures. Just remembering to retract or lower is only a part of the problem. There are
operating speeds and indicators that become a part of the acceptable procedure. Any interruption
in the thought process or sequence including a go-around are apt to lead to gear up situation. I
once had the go-around lead to a gear-up situation while checking out a highly experienced naval
pilot.

Aircraft with rudder trim can have the trim so set that the nose wheel steering is affected. Some
airplanes have the steering asymmetric so as to counter any P-factor. Most aircraft have the main
gear toed out so that landing weights will cause the gear to align for reduced tire wear. Unusual
tire wear is usually indicative of misalignment of the landing gear. Be aware that a sudden
change in tire wear is a similar warning.

Shimmy dampers should be the first areas of landing gear check for many aircraft. The more
secure the damper the better. If the nosewheel shimmies and the damper is secure then have the
fluid level checked. Every preflight should include a landing gear check. Any gear problem
regardless of type only becomes worse the longer it is undetected. When it comes to landing gear
maintenance shops tend to replace the most expensive items first.

Check all oleo struts. The strut is a combination of oil and air in a small part of the strut. The
presence of air is vital. Under landing shock the air compresses and absorbs landing impact
energy. The air in an oleo strut is under very high pressure.

Checkout in 61X
FAR 61.31(e) requires instruction and logbook endorsement. Insurance requires instruction and
time in type. A safe checkout requires that the instructor and student be familiar with the aircraft
and its systems. Begin by exchanging past experience, training, and qualifications. Do a page by
page review of the POH and work through the performance charts and weight and balance
figures. Review the systems both in the POH and in the aircraft as to operations, limitations and
special considerations such as emergency factors. A written quiz is desirable. The quiz checks
both that the instructor has covered the material and that the student has retained the required
knowledge.

Begin the aircraft check in the cockpit. Go over instruments, radios, switches and knobs. Take at
least an hour in the cockpit if the aircraft is well equipped. Preflight should emphasize location
of inlets, outlets, problem areas, switches, and potential hazards some of which may be peculiar
to this make and model. At least two flights are desirable. The first flight is to confirm normal
operations and procedures. The second flight should explore the outer performance parameters
and emergency operations.

Every aircraft make and type has a frequency of certain pilot errors. The generic error is usually
systems management as it is affected by decision making. The type of flying will affect fuel
management skills. Long cross-country trips flown at different altitudes and power settings
require vastly different computations since high or low can make up to 40% difference in range.

7561X

The NRI Board has that "touch and go" landings can be made in 7561X as long as the gear is not
cycled in the process. In addition, any pilot found responsible for "flats" on the tires are to be
assessed $100.00 for tire damage. Always check the tires before and after flying. If damage
exists before you fly get a witness for verification. The ways to avoid such damage are: (1) make
touch down at minimum controllable speed, (2) to avoid application of brakes while flaps are
down, or (3) not to leave the runway with excess speed or excessive braking.

Flaps

Flap system damage occurs after repeated extension AT maximum approved speed. Extension at
the high speed limit causes increased system wear, damage, and maintenance. 61X received
major flap damage when flaps were extended on the ground in extremely windy conditions.

Fuel tanks

The bladder type fuel tanks of 61X can, under certain conditions, give unreliable fuel quantity
indications. Check with the maintenance officer to determine the last time that fuel capacity has
been checked. (Last annual?) Bladders can be checked by mirror to find wrinkles or clip
detachment. Never assume that full gauges means full capacity. Bladder equipped aircraft have a
way of running out of fuel before reaching what would be a normal flight distance destination.
Different years of C-182RG aircraft have fuel capacities that vary from 50 to 81 gallons.
Are your tanks really full when they are topped-off? The nose strut inflation, slope of the tarmac
surface can make many gallons difference in what is there and in what is indicated. Leave extra
margins when you first start in type until you become familiar with any fuel gauge eccentricities.
The better you know the systems of a given aircraft type, the better you can pick up on individual
aircraft differences.

Oil

False oil level readings are also common to 61X. Oil consistently on bottom of aircraft. Pilot
then puts in oil which blows out breather and all over underside of aircraft. This is because of the
small o-ring on the dipstick. The o-ring forms an oil/air seal when it is removed and then full
inserted. The o-ring forces the oil down in the dipstick tube. Immediate withdrawal will give a
low reading. Situation can be reduced by inserting dip-stick slowly and allowing it to remain for
over a minute before removal. This allows air to escape and oil to seek its at rest level.
It is important to wait a minute or longer before taking the dipstick reading. This will allow the
oil level to rise and give a true reading.

Gear warning

The gear up warning horn is set to come on at power reduction to about 15 inches as for landing
if the gear is not lowered. However, it is possible to apply full power and cause an unintentional
activation of the gear horn. The throttle linkage causes this problem. A very slight reduction of
throttle will shut off the gear horn. If the horn comes on at cruise power settings, the application
of full throttle and then a reduction to desired power seems to correct the problem.

Retractable landing gear

The kind of gear is determined by aircraft structure. Cessna's complex gear is becoming more
reliable and less complex. Mooney's manual gear has become electric. Retractables are electric,
hydraulic or a combination. Hydraulic systems are lighter but pressures are high and subject to
leaks. Cherokee gear is held down by over-center locks and retracted and held up by hydraulic
pressure with no mechanical uplocks.

Emergency extension just requires release of pressure. Cessna gear has down and up locks.
Complex electrical systems with switches to prevent ground retraction are required. Unless you
find a specific prohibition in the POH, it is a good idea to occasionally practice emergency gear
extension. Use the manual and follow the procedure precisely.

Hydraulic systems must be checked for leaks. Over-center cams must be tight. Switches must be
clean and connections tight. Lubrication showing is of no value. Check for cracks.

Do not press gear-operating speeds since a slightly lower gear lowering speed decreases by a
factor of four the operating pressures against the mechanism. If the gear lights don't come on,
first check the lights for proper operation. Wait before recycling the gear since you may have a
fluid leakage problem.
The 182 RG system uses an electric motor to run a hydraulic pump. The pressure from this pump
is routed to hydraulic rams, which are connected to the landing gear legs. Each gear operates
independently so it possible to have the nose gear extended but not the mains. A gear up landing
with the propeller stopped on horizontal does little damage. 61X has made such a landing. The
FAA because of very minor damage did not call it an 'accident'. However, the insurance
company was unhappy.

The dual electric/hydraulic system is dependent on a complex system of valves, switches and
locks. Air in the pump can cause it to fail. Lack of fluid or an excess of air will make the
emergency extension inoperative. The 182 RG uses two lights to indicate gear position. Orange
for gear up and green for gear down. Lights can be exchanged to check if one is burned out.
When the power is reduced below 12 inches the gear horn is activated. Sometimes the gear horn
can be very intermittent giving a "static-like" noise, which does not sound much like a horn. The
gear systems are full of malfunction opportunities, but 42% are due to pilot error. Trying to
extend the gear at the last minute is a mistake since you may not have enough time for a full
lock. Go around and start over.

I have had a Cessna gear experience where it would not lock down. The wheels kept cycling
about a foot forward and back and the green light would not come on. We (my student and I)
could not determine the cause, nor could our radio contact with an FBO. We chose to make a
NORDO landing because every time the master was on the gear would begin cycling. We
lowered the gear with the hand pump with the master off. While the student pumped to keep the
gear full down, I made a very full stall landing since the gear would remain locked once the
aircraft weight was on it.

Cessna Pilots Association lists an experience where a Cessna gear would not move forward to
lock into position either due to low pump pressure from both electric and hand pump. Locking
was achieved by doing power on stall just as gear handle was moved down. While plane was
nose-down and before recovery all three gear moved forward and locked, and gear-down light
came on.

I suggest that the pilot who makes a practice of mixing his flying with retractables and stiff-legs
always call the "gear down" for every aircraft type. Personally I call the "gear" three times, at
pattern altitude when it is lowered, base check for "Green and wheel", and final.

You should know how to check the operation of the C-182 gear system. If you have not read,
studied, and made notes as to how the system works, do so before your checkout. Your best shot
at making a malfunctioning system work is the first time. If the gear malfunctions climb until
clear and work on the problem. Read the manual and slowly, carefully follow the recommended
procedures. If that should fail you could slow the aircraft and apply negative G-loads by flying a
roller coaster. Positive Gs can be applied in steep turns. Keep the airspeed low in performing the
maneuvers to avoid over stressing the structure.

For all takeoffs the gear should not be retracted until there is no possibility of aborting to the
departure runway. For IFR situations it is better to get the gear down earlier than later. Get the
aircraft configured and trimmed before the FAF. On a short field takeoff over an obstacle you
will be better off to leave the gear down until clearing the obstacle

Gear up Landings

--Pilot is distracted by unusual situation. a distraction is a clue to get right back to the checklist.
--Fatigue causes a focusing of attention that may miss lowering the gear.
--Stress is accumulative and non-specific. Problems completely unrelated to flying may cause
attention to focus on the unimportant and neglect the very necessary act of lowering the gear.
--Proper used of a checklist that has the important items such as gear lowering highlighted,
requires both the recitation of the checklist and completion of the required action. Recite, touch,
look.
--Some operations have an unacceptable level of risk relating to the use of retractable gear. Do
touch-and-go landing as a fixed gear airplane.
--Have a specific point, such as pattern altitude, for which the gear lowering procedure always
begins.
--Confirm the gear down visually and by indicator and by voice.
--Question 'gear down' on base and final as an additional check.
--If you are not stabilized and behind the plane...go around.
--It is not enough to say each checklist item, you must do each item.
--The gear may not be down just when the complacent pilot fails the visually check it.
--Even in a fixed gear you can use the shadow to check the nose wheel.

The standby Vacuum System in 61X

A back-up vacuum system comes with built-in throttle restrictions and is useless if AI failure
occurs. Better to have an electric AI with inclinometer instead of TC.

Vacuum pumps usually last 400 hours and are replaced only on failure. An IFR aircraft without
some sort of backup faces potential trouble. There is no way to practice using 61X's backup
vacuum system. The system can only be made to function during an actual failure (or having an
A & P disconnect the vacuum pump). The plus side of this system, however, is that in the event
of failure you do get a warning light located on the far left of the panel. This certainly beats
having the system fail without warning while you follow an attitude indicator and heading
indicator of ever decreasing reliability.

The system in 61X uses the difference in pressure between the static (atmospheric) pressure and
the intake manifold pressure. Unfortunately, the more power the engine develops the less
pressure differential and the less pressure available for spooling up the vacuum gyros. If a
vacuum failure should occur the warning light on the extreme left of the panel will come on. Pull
the backup vacuum knob to open the valve to the intake manifold. Reduce power to as near 12
inches of manifold pressure as you can. The lower manifold reading you get the faster the gyros
will spoolup. The system does not work without engine power. The idea is to get the gyros to full
speed and the instruments operating correctly. You can then resume normal flight for a few
minutes. The further below full power you remain, the longer the gyros will retain their speed.
The spooling process will need to be repeated every few minutes for as long as the vacuum
powered gyro instruments are required. If not VFR, head for VFR.

December 1999
PRECISE FLIGHT AD: The FAA has issued a final Airworthiness Directive (AD 99-24-10) that
applies to Precise Flight Model SVC III standby vacuum systems. The AD requires repetitive
inspections and a flight manual revision, and was prompted by system malfunctions, particularly
failures of the shuttle valve. The standby system uses intake manifold vacuum to power cockpit
instruments in case of a primary vacuum-pump failure, and the FAA estimates there are 10,000
units installed.

Constant Speed Propeller

A constant speed propeller can change the pitch angle to allow full engine rpm at both cruise and
slow speeds. The available pitch angles are both more shallow and steep than that available on a
fixed pitch propeller. Using a fine pitch, (related to going up a flight of stairs with many small
steps) you could get full rated rpm and power for takeoff and climbs. At cruise you can get a
large propeller bite without having to run at high rpm.

You are able to select an rpm by adjusting the oil pressure to a semi-hydraulic pump in the
propeller governor. This pump works against springs to give a higher pitch. Reducing the
pressure allows the springs to flatten the pitch. In a failure mode the propeller returns to a flat
pitch. This will cause the engine to overspeed. If during runup the cycled propeller is very slow
to lose rpm it means dirty oil. An unplanned rise in rpm is symptomatic of decreasing oil
pressure. Engine failure and a runaway propeller is not far behind. The emergency procedure in
this event is to reduce power and raise the nose.

Over-square operations are a problem with turboed aircraft. BMEP is often related to manifold
pressure. A high Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP)will cause will cause preignition when
beyond design limits. Manifold gauge can be checked for accuracy by comparing with altimeter
Kollsman window reading.

Increasing power of constant speed operations:
Adjust mixture
Adjust propeller
Adjust throttle
Leaning for takeoff

Often the EGT instrument does not seem to work properly. You can lean a constant speed
propeller for takeoff power using the following technique. Constant speed props have a fine-
pitch and course-pitch stops that limit the range of available blade angles. To use rpm as an
indication of power, you have to use an engine speed below the fine-pitch stop. Set about 2000
rpm and lean to get a 100-150 rpm increase. This is peak power. Doing this at the lower rpm will
keep the pitch from changing.

Over Square Operations
Engine wear and fuel savings can be achieved by reducing rpm and increasing manifold pressure
to maintain horsepower. Modern engines have approved power ranges for which this practice is
o.k. These ranges are not
in the POH but can be found in the engine manufacturer's handbook.

C-182 accidents

The C-182 has 9.23 accidents per 100,000 hours of operation, somewhat higher than other makes
of the same class. In IFR conditions the rate is much lower than other makes at .09 per 100,000
hours. Night accidents come in at 10.66 per 100,000 hours with non-IFR rated pilots making
75% of these. Carburetor icing is a significant cause of C-182 accidents as well as density
altitude operations. Pilot complacency and over-confidence in the aircraft capabilities is the
factor. The Cessna 182 is not spin-certified since it cannot meet spin recovery requirements.

Landing accidents are at a much higher rate than similar aircraft of other makes. The accidents
usually do more damage to the aircraft than to the occupants. The C-182 is heavy on the controls
and this heaviness continues (unexpectedly) into the flare and touchdown. Nearly half of C-182
landing accidents are due to hard landings
that result in collapsed nose gears and bent firewalls. The best solution to this difficulty is to
always land with power on. 25% of the landing accidents are due to running off the end of a
runway. Almost as many are caused by crosswind incidents. The go-around remains the best
pilot option when things get beyond your abilities.

Comparing Short field landings
C-150 Take Off 735' /50' 1385 Landing Distance 445 /50' 1075
C-172 Take Off 945 /50' 1685 Landing Distance 550 /50' 1295
C-182 Take Off 795 /50' 1625 Landing Distance 545 /50' 1285
An airplane should not be expected to get out of a space where it has landed.

C-182RG
Those who fly the 182-RG should know that a takeoff clean-up can be accomplished by raising
gear and flaps at the same
time without any change in pitch attitude. The reverse of this is also true; you can lower gear and
the first 10 degrees of flaps
without changing pitch attitude while leaving power alone for the resulting approach descent.

Emergency procedures:
For the unfamiliar pilot there are several options that will make some encounters and situations
more resolvable. If you get 'behind' the airplane or encounter weather/turbulence conditions,
reduce power and lower the landing gear and put in 10 degrees of flaps or no flaps if turbulence
is severe. The greatest problem a pilot faces is that any loss of control may result in a high speed
descent where control input may damage the airplane and make it uncontrollable. Get slowed up
sooner rather than later.

In some situations such as engine failure on takeoff or elsewhere it may be desirable to extend
the glide. If the engine loses power you can retract the landing gear, remove any flaps, pull the
propeller knob out to the full coarse setting. Lastly, you could raise the nose to give the propeller
an opportunity to stop and possibly set it horizontal with the starter.

Flight Transitions Chart

Flight Condition Cowl Flaps Wing Carb Manifold Prop Speed Trim
Gear Position Flaps Heat Pressure rpm Knots + = Nose up
Climb open 0 off 24" 2300 90 Neutral
Gear up
Level Cruise Closed 0 off 24" 2300 140 N -1.3 down
Gear up
Cruise Descent Closed 0 on 19" 2300 140 N - 1.3 ??
Gear up
Approach Level Closed 10 on 19" 2300 100 N ??
Gear down
Approach Descent Closed 10 on 15" Full 100 N
Gear down
Non-Precision Descent
Gear down Closed 10 on 12" Full 100 N
Holding
Gear up Required 0 on 15" 2300 90 N + 1

Question: What is the suggested gear position during a C-182 RG go-around?
Leave the gear down.
Question: What is required to actually demonstrate the operation of the vacuum backup system?
Vacuum pump must be disconnected.
Question: What level of pilot proficiency should be expectedly the end of an aircraft checkout?
Performance to private pilot level.

CLEARANCE
DEP. ROUTE:
TRANSITION:
VIA:
VIA:
VIA:
DIRECT:
ALTITUDE:
DEP. FREQ:
TIME OFF:
ATIS INFO: ATIS INFO:
FREQ: FREQ:
CEIL: CEIL:
VIS: VIS:
TEMP: TEMP:
DEW: DEW:
WIND: WIND:
PRESS: PRESS:
ILS/LDA: LDA/ILS:
RUNWAY: RUNWAY:
MISC: MISC:

TUNE & VERIFY
COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME

COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME

NDB HEAD RW MDA TIME
FUEL APPROACH NORMAL Vne
GALLONS TOTAL Vs CLEAN STALL CRUISE Vle MAX GEAR EX
GALLONS USABLE Vs FF/G
USABLE FUEL @ TABS GLIDE @GROSS
OIL MIN. 6 MAX 8 GLIDE @ HALF
EMPTY GROSS Va @ #3100
RAMP @ #2600
Vx @ #2100
Vy Vfe MAX 10 FLAPS
Vr Vfe MAX 40 FLAPS

Another Checklist


Start Runup IFR APPROACH T T T T T T
CONTROLS FREE CONTROLS FREE TURN TIME TWIST
FUEL BOTH INSTRUMENTS
MIXTURE RICH AMMETER & FUSES CONFIRM..PLATE UP
COWL OPEN OIL TEMP SET..VOR/ILS/NDB/DME/MARKER
CARB HEAT IN OIL PRESSURE CONFIRM PRESSURE
PRIME 2-4 PUMPS (1 HOT) SUCTION CONFIRM HEADING
MASTER ON FUEL PRESSURE IAF/ALT/TIME/DIST TO MDA
THROTTLE 1/2" ART HORIZON SET TOWER FREQ
FUEL PUMP ON-OFF D.G. WITH COMPASS MISSED..HEADING ALT
CLEAR PROP BOTH TANKS
START-LEAN FOR TAXI ALTIMETER ERROR
FUEL PRESSURE RUNUP 1700 RPM
OIL PRESSURE MAGS CHECKED LANDING
SUCTION CARB HEAT GEAR DOWN/GREEN LITE
RADIOS CYCLE PROP 300 RPM CARB HEAT IN
SET COMS #1 & 2 CHECK IDLE PROP FULL
SET NAVS #1 & 2 TRIM MIXTURE RICH
SET FUEL CALC TRANSPONDER TO ALT COWL CLOSED
SET ADF & LORAN INTERIOR FLAPS SET
SET MARKER BEACON WINDOWS CLOSED SEAT BELTS
TRANSPONDER 1200/STANDBY DOORS LATCHED
COM SELECTOR AUTO/PHONE SEAT BELTS
ATIS PROP FULL
TAXI CLEARANCE STROBE/BEACON/LITES
IFR AUX VAC ON TIME OFF SHUT DOWN
IFR PITOT HEAT RADIO 121.5
MASTER RADIO OFF
TAXI TAKEOFF LIGHTS OFF
NEEDLE/BALL MP CHECK LEAN TO OFF
MAG COMPASS TAP BRAKES MASTER OFF
SET FLAPS 10-DEGREES RETRACT GEAR & FLAPS MAGS OFF/KEYS OUT
PITOT HEAT AS REQUIRED MP TOP OF GREEN @ 85K YOKE PIN
FUEL SELECT -RIGHT
CRUISE PITOT COVER ON
MP @ 23"
PROP @ 2300
LEAN
CLOSE COWL FLAPS

CLEARANCE TUNE AND VERIFY RADIOS
DEP ROUT COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME
TRANSITION
VIA
VIA
VIA COMM 2 NAV 2 OBS MDA TIME
DIRECT
ALTITUDE CLIMB & MAIN
DEP FREQ
SQUAWK NDB HEAD RW MDA TIME

TIME OFF
-------------------------
___________________________________________________________________
ATIS-INFO ATIS INFO
FREQ FREQ
CEIL CEIL
VIS VIS
TEMP TEMP
DEW DEW
WIND WIND
PRESS PRESS
ILS/LDA ILS/LDA
RUNWAY RUNWAY
MISC MISC
GUMP, GRUMP, GRUMPS
Gas, (Radio), Undercarriage, Mixture, Propeller,(Seatbelt)

Checkout Form

TRAINING PLAN FOR TRANSITION TO HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRPLANES
Name____________________Date_________
Grade of Certificate ____________ Ratings and Limitations _________________
Class of medical_______Date__________
Total flight time:____________ Aircraft to be used___________N#______________
Training at____________

GROUND INSTRUCTION
Airplane handbook and flight manual
General
Limitations

SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
Cockpit
Controls
Engine/propeller operation
Fuel
Gear
Flaps
Electrical
Hydraulic
Noise control
Ice/oxygen

FLIGHT PLANNING FOR AIRCRAFT
Performance data
Weight and Balance
Instrument operations
Servicing

CHECKLIST AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
Pattern operation
Local procedures
Procedures to be covered in flight according to Practical Test Standards.

FLIGHT INSTRUCTION
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION

CHECKLIST AND PRESTART
STARTING
Normal
External power
NORMAL OPERATIONS
Taxiing
Pre takeoff check
Normal takeoff
Climb, checklist
Cruise, checklist
AIR WORK
Turns
Slow flights
Stalls
Systems emergency
IFR Unusual attitudes
Emergency descent
ARRIVALS
Descents, checklist
Landings
PATTERNS
All takeoffs and landings
Go-arounds
Aborted T/O
No flap landing
INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES
POST LANDING AND SHUTDOWN
TOTAL HOURS ____________
COMPLETION OF TRANSITION TRAINING
PILOT ENDORSEMENT
Remarks:______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________ (Instructor)_________Date________ I have
received transition training to high performance airplanes and completed the ground and flight
training noted above. ___________________(signed) Date__________Duration of the
flight._______

INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENT
Remarks:______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________Date________Eugene L. Whitt #1876572 CFII Expires 1-96 I have
received transition training to high performance airplanes and completed the ground and flight
training noted above. ___________________(signed) Date__________
Copy to NRI Safety Officer

Endorsement for a pilot to act as PIC in high performance airplane. FAR 61.31e
I certify that I have given flight instruction in a high performance airplane to Mr./Ms
__________,holder of pilot certificate #__________, and
find him/her competent to act as PIC in high performance airplanes.
SS [date} J.J. Jones #__________CFI Exp________
FLIGHT CHECKOUT PLAN AND CHECKLIST

Name________________________________________Date_____________
Grade of Certificate __________________#_____________________
Ratings and limitations______________________________________
Class of Medical __________________________Date______________
Total flight time________________Time in type________________
Aircraft: Make and model__________N#___________________
Location(s) of checkout ____________________________________
Ground
Instruction_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
__________________
Review of maneuvers and procedures:Handbook
Weight and balance
Radios
Preflight
Start and engine operation
Taxiing
4 basics
Stalls

Takeoff and landing
Cross country performance
Flight
Instruction_____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
COMPLETION OF.CHECKOUT
Remarks_____________________________________________________________Signed
__________________CFI #_____________Expiration________ I have received an aircraft
checkout which consisted of the ground and flight instruction noted above.
Signed_______________Date________

A suggested checklist. There are other lists in the plane. It is best that you make and use one that
follows your mode of operation. All items in the Operating Manual checklist must be covered.
Any checklist should go through several revisions. The final revision should be made so that it is
functionally in line with the way you operate the aircraft in all flight phases. This is a "touch and
verify" type list.

Another CESSNA 182 RG Checklist
Preflight Prestart Start
Gear down-green Preflight-complete Carb heat-cold
Avionics-off Seats-belts-harness Prop-high
Fuel quantity Doors Prime
Selector-both Selector-Both Mixture-rich
Baggage door Avionics-set-Auto pilot Pump on/off
Tires Electrical-off Throttle 1/4"
Oil 6-8 quarts Brakes-test-set Master
Tanks-sumps-rock plane Circuit breakers Clear/start
Gear doors Gear lever down 800 rpm
Lean
Flaps-up
Avionics
Pressure
Before Takeoff Normal takeoff
Seats/belts/doors/windows Flaps 0-20 Climb
Brake-set Carb heat-cold Square
Controls Full throttle Power
Trim-set Rotate 50 kias Prop
Selector-both Climb 70/20 degrees Flaps-up
Mixture-rich 80/0 degrees Lean
rpm Vx 54
Mags-L-R Vy 80
Carb heat Cruise 95
Prop-cycle
Idle
Flight instruments Post landing
X-ponder Flaps/flaps
Lights Carb heat
Throttle friction Lean
Brakes
Time

Cruise Descent Landing Go around Emergency
Power Seats/belts Power At takeoff
Prop Selector-both Carb heat Flaps up
Mixture Mixture Cowl flaps Flaps 20 Full flaps
Cowl flaps/Flaps Gear-green 70KIAS Maneuvering
VSI 10 @140 100Kts Prop to 89 at 1950 lbs
95 Cowl flaps Glide at gross

Another Checklist
Start Runup Landing
Controls free Controls Gear down
Selector-both Instruments Carb heat
Mixture Oil Prop full
Cowl flaps-open temp Mixture rich
Carb Heat-in pressure Cowl closed
Prime Suction Flaps set
Master Fuel pressure Seat belts
Throttle 1/2" AI
Pump on-off HI Shut down
Clear/start Selector-both Radio 121.5
Lean for taxi Altimeter Master radio off
Fuel pressure error Lights off
Fuel quantity/set Runup Mixture Lean to off
Suction 1700 rpm Master off
Radios Set Magnetos Mags off/keys on cowl
ATIS Carb heat Yoke pin in
Clearance Cycle prop Pitot cover
Idle

Taxi Trim Cruise
Needle/ball Transponder to alt 23 inches
Compass Interior windows/doors Prop 2300 rpm
flaps Prop full Lean to 1450 TIT
Strobe/beacon/lights Close cowl flaps
Note time off

A suggested checklist
There are other lists in the plane. It is best that you make and use one that follows your mode of
operation. All items in the Operating Manual checklist must be covered.

-EXTERIOR- PRE-PREFLIGHT
1. SUMP 15. E INSIDE 25. L TANK GEAR
2. L FLAP 16. OIL 6-8 26. WARNER CONTROLS
3. LUGGAGE 17. SUMP 27. PITOT LOG TIMES
4. ANTENNAE 18. PROP 28. VENT PAPERS
5. EMPENNAGE 19. SPINNER 29. TIP RADIO MASTER
6. SURFACES 20. GEAR 30. L AILERON SWITCHES
7. CHAIN 21. DOORS 31. GEAR TRIM
8. TAB 22. 3 TIRES MASTER-on
9. R FLAP 24. STATIC AIR FLAPS (2)
10. R AILERON MASTER -off
11. R TIP
12. R CHAIN
13. R SUMP
14. R TANK

-PRESTART- -START- -TAXI- -RUN UP-
SEATS 1. "CLEAR" 1. BRAKES 1. WIND
BELTS 2. 6 BLADES 2. CONTROLS 2. Seats-Belts-Doors
DOORS 3. PRESSURE 3. D.G. 3. CONTROLS
KEY 4. MIXTURE LEAN 4. MIXTURE
BREAKERS 5. RADIO MASTER 5. 1700 RPM
FUEL 6. RADIOS (9) ALTERNATOR
MIXTURE 7. ATIS VACUUM
CARB HEAT 8. INSTRUMENTS AMPS
PRIME 9. FLAPS 6. MAG CHECK

THROTTLE 10. RADIO 7. C. H.
8. 800 RPM
-TAKEOFF- -CLIMB- -LEVEL- 9. TRIM
LIGHTS 1000' 1. TRIM 10. INSTRUMENTS
X-PONDER TOP OF GREEN 2. COWL F 11.
TIME 2. MANIFOLD UP 3. POWER 12. RADIO
FLAPS (2) 3. TRIM 4. LEAN
OFF AT 60K
88K RATE SPEEDS IN KNOTS
GEAR ROTATE 60 Va 3100# 112 BEST GLIDE 80, 72, 64
FLAPS Vx 64 Va 2550# 101 APPROACH 70
TRIM Vy 88 Va 2000# 89 SHORT FIELD 63
ENROUTE 100 GEAR 140 (120) MOMENT
--EMERGENCY-- FUEL 75 GAL 7561X EMPTY WEIGHT 1857.5 64.4
CHECKLIST USE 13.5 GPH FULL LL FUEL 450.0 21.5
80kts - TRIM OIL 6-8 FRONT 400.0 15.0
FIELD AND WIND GROSS 3,100# REAR 390.0 29.5
ELECT. PUMP CABIN LOAD 792.5# 3097.5 130.4
RESTART Va 125 to 145
121.5/7700
COMMUNICATE
PRE-CRASH

-DESCENT- -DESCENT #2- -PRELANDING- -LANDING- -POSTLANDING- SHUTDOWN
MIXTURE 1. MIXTURE 1. MIXTURE 1. MIXTURE 1. FLAPS/FLAPS 1. 121.5 OFF
MANIFOLD 2. MANIFOLD 2. MANIFOLD DOWNWIND 2. MIN BRAKES 2.
ELECTRICAL
5 FOR 5 3. HOLD ALT 3. GAUGES 2. 12 INCHES 3. RADIO 3. MAG CHECK
AIRSPEED 4. GEAR 4. GEAR 3. GEAR 4. CONTROLS 4. MIXTURE
YELLOW 5. AIRSPEED 4. PROP/100KTS 5. MIXTURE 5. MAGS OFF
TRIM - 3 DN 6. LOG TIME
90 KTS
10 FLAPS/TRIM
BASE
12 INCHES
GEAR CHECK
PROP FULL
20 FLAPS/TRIM
80 KTS
FINAL
30 FLAPS/TRIM
70 KTS
GEAR CHECK
FULL STALL

Mnemonic checklist
Start
S - switches off
L - Lean control full rich
I - ignition on
M - master on
S - safety (clear)

After start
R -RPM to idle



O - Oil presssure check
A - ammeter check
R - Radios on
S - suction check

Runup
C - controls
I - instruments
G - gas selector & quantity
A - Attitude set (trim, flaps)
R s- runup
S - suction check

Takeoff
L - lights as required
C - camera (transponder)
A - Action (call tower_

Post-landing
TLC - tender, loving care
T - Transponder off
L - Lights off
C - Cancel IFR, close VFR

Shutdown
S - Switches off
L - lean control out
I - Ignition off
M - master off
S - secure plane
Still another checklist made up of two cards with items on both sides. Three of the sides
have two columns each.
Card 1-Side I
Column 1 Column 2
PRE-FLIGHT
Refueling mark R tire
L chain R flap
Pitot cover R sump
Doors R tank
Ladder Oil 6 qt minimum
Key on floor Engine sump
Control lock Prop/leaks
Log book Spinner
Magneto/key check Belt
R master Cowling
Fuel to both Nose gear
Guages Nose tire
Flaps 10°/Cowl flaps Roll tires
Fuel pump / Static air
Master OFF L tank
Get strainer Stall warner
L sump Overflow /
L flap L tip
Antennae L aileron
Elevator L tire
Rudder
Tail chain
R flap
R aileron
R tip
R wing

Card 1-Side II
Emergency list
Checklist
Fuel pump
Best glide
Gross 3100 @ 80
2550 @ 70
2000 @ 65
Trim nose high
Field & wind
Restart
Selector
Guages
Mixture
Magnetos
Fly to field
121.5/7700 Words x3
Flaps when certain
Pre-crash
Harness tight
Doors cracked
Selector OFF
Masster OFF
Full stall

Card 2-Side 1
Column 1 Column 2
PRIME
Passenger checks RUN-UP
Emergency Into IDLE CUT-OFF
MAGS OFF & KEY OUT
YOKE PIN IN
LOG OUT
LOCK DOOR
COVER ON
PITOT COVER

CLEARANCE
DEP. ROUTE:
TRANSITION:
VIA:
VIA:
VIA:
DIRECT:
ALTITUDE:
DEP. FREQ:
TIME OFF:

ATIS INFO: ATIS INFO:
FREQ: FREQ:
CEIL: CEIL:
VIS: VIS:
TEMP: TEMP:
DEW: DEW:
WIND: WIND:
PRESS: PRESS:
ILS/LDA: LDA/ILS:
RUNWAY: RUNWAY:
MISC: MISC:
TUNE & VERIFY
COMM 1NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME

COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME

NDB HEAD RW MDA TIME

FUEL APPROACH NORMAL Vne
GALLONS TOTAL Vs CLEAN STALL CRUISE Vle MAX GEAR EX
GALLONS USABLE Vs FF/G
USABLE FUEL @ TABS GLIDE @GROSS
OIL MIN. 6 MAX 8 GLIDE @ HALF
EMPTY GROSS Va @ #3100
RAMP @ #2600
Vx @ #2100
Vy Vfe MAX 10 FLAPS
Vr Vfe MAX 40 FLAPS

C-182

Take Off

Throttle - Full Manifold Pressure

Propeller - High RPM

Mixture - Full Rich

Cowl Flaps - Open

Airspeed - Vr - Rotate

Gear - UP

Climb

Throttle - Top Of the Green ARC (25-28" HG); as you climb, you will increase manifold
pressure to maintain max climb power

Prop - Top of the Green ARC (2500-2600 RPM)

Mixture - POH Some aircraft have a climb mixture setting.

Cowl Flaps - OPEN

Enroute
There are at least 6 settings that will give you 70% power. Others give you

better fuel economy or a quieter ride. Go for 23 square..ie 23"hg, 2300 rpm..that seems to be one
that works.

Mixture - Leaned with EGT and fuel flow meter.

Cowl Flaps - Generally closed but you have to monitor Cylinder Head Temp to keep your jugs
happy and warm.

Descent

Note: Large engines should be step cooled during descent. This also requires descent planning.
Cowl Flaps should be closed. Mixture should be enrichened as required.

GUMPS Check

Gas - Set to Fullest Tank with boost pumps on or as required.

UNDERCARRIAGE - Gear DOWN ,wait till you're established on downwind or when you
intercept the glide slope on an ILS before lowering the gear. VERIFY

MIXTURE - RICH.

PROPS - Increase to Full RPM after established on final.

SEATBELTS - Everybody give em a tug.

Aircraft Basic Knowledge Sheet

Dimensions: Height_____ Length_____Wingspan_____ Propeller_____Tires_____

Full fuel_____Grade_____POH endurance______TRUE endurance_____

Oil type_____Maximum_____Minimum______

Cockpit l switches, knobs, lights and sounds:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

Gross weight _____Empty weight_____Full Fuel weight_____Cockpit load available_____CG
Range_______
Speeds: Va_____Vx____Vy____Vfe____ Vne____Vno____Vg____

Gross aircraft performance parameters in standard conditions:

Normal-Speed____

S.L. takeoff_____Over obstacle_____ Landing______ Over obstacle______Configuration
______________

Procedures_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

Short field-Speed____ Takeoff___Over obstacle ___Landing_____Over
obstacle______Configuration_________

Soft field-Speed____ Takeoff___ Over obstacle___Landing_____Over
bstacle______Configuration__________

Calibrated vs. Indicated Airspeeds
Full Flap Configuration of C-182RG

CAS 50 55 63 72 81
IAS 40 50 60 70 80

Density Altitude Performance at Gross
Conditions: Level Cruise a 65% power, 7500' Standard Temperature.
True air speed______Fuel used____per hour
Takeoff at Gross Weight, 5000' 100 F, over obstacle Ground run______Rate of Climb_____
Total distance to 50'

 Complex Aircraft Advice
--Know your airplane systems
--Don't over-reach your training or experience
--Use your checklist
--Get proficiency checkouts

Propeller
--Contols engine RPM
--Large pitch angles give low RPM and efficiency
--High RPM used for takeoff and landing

Engine
--Throttle controls manifold pressure
--Increase power by mixture, prop, throttle, and mixture
--Decrease power by throttle, prop, mixture
--Carburetor induction is icing sensitive
--Fuel injection better but gets filter icing
--Turbocharging is exhaust-driven for power at altitude

Landing Gear
--Electric, hydraulic, or mechanical
--All systems have emergency extension
--Emergency system nor for retracting gear
--Indicator lights are 'push' to test type
--Squat switches do not always work
--Do not retract until airborne and out of useful runway
--Know your gear speeds
--Taxi with flaps down instead of gear up
--Beware flying gear water into freezing conditions

				
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