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					Jacob Adkins
                                                                          Native
                                                                          American
                                                                          Church and
                                                                          General
                                                                          Information
                                     History of                Medical    about
                      Type of        Hallucinogen              Uses/      Mescaline/
                      Source         s            Drug Effects Research   Psilocybin

                                                     Negative
                                                     effects of
                                                     psilocybin
                                                     include
                                                     dizziness,
                                                     increased
                                                     blood
                                                     pressure,
                                                     slowed
                                                     reaction
                                                     time,
                                                     anxiety, and
                                                     exhaustion.
                                                     Negative
                                                     effects of
                                                     peyote are
The Encyclopedia of                                  chills,
Addictive Drugs.      specialized                    muscle
(2002). Westport,     reference                      tension,
CT: Greenwood         work from                      nausea, and
Press.                encyclopedia                   vomiting.


Gall, T. J., & Lucas                 Between
D.M. (1996).                         1991 and
Statistics on alcohol,               1994,
drug, and tobacco                    btetween 9
use: a selection of                  to 12
statisical charts,                   percent of
graphs, and tables                   high school
about alcohol, drug,                 seniors
and tobacco use                      reported
from a variety of                    using
published sources                    halluciongen
with explanatory       specialized   s
comments. Detroit, reference         recreationall
MI: Gale Research. work              y.
                                                Although
                                                LSD and
                                   There are    other
                                   possible     hallucinogen
                                   psychothera s proved
                                   peutic       effective
                                   benfits to   against
Grinspoon, L., &                   hallucinogen probliems
Doblin, R. (2001).                 s that can   ranging from
Psychedelics as                    assist in    alcoholism
catalysts of insight               dealing with to anxiety,
oriented                           feelings of  long-term
psychotherapy.                     anxiety,     results tend
Social Research, 68    scholarly   depression, to be
(3): 677-695.          article     and guilt.   inconsistent.

                                                50% of lab
                                                rats given a
                                                dose of 100
                                                mg/kg of
                                                mescaline
                                                died within
Páleníček, T.,                                  12 hours
Balíková, M.,                                   after being
Bubeníková-                                     injected with
Valešová, V., &                                 the drug.
Horáček, J. (2008).                             Mescaline
Mescaline effects on                            took longer
rat behavior and tis                            to display
time profile in                                 behavior
serum and brain                                 changes in
tissue after a single                           lab rats
subcantaneous                                   compared to
dose.                                           other
Psychopharmocolog scholarly                     hallucinogen
y, 196 (1): 51-62.    article                   s.
                                      Specimens
                                      obtained
                                      from an
Terry, M., Steelman,                  archaelogical
K. L., Guilderson, T.,                dig in the
Dering, P., & Rowe,                   Lower Pecos
M. W. (2006). Lower                   region of the
Pecos and Coahuila                    Chihuahuan
peyote: new                           Desert
radiocarbon dates.                    reveal that
Journal of                            peyote has
Archaeological                        been used
Science, 33 (7):       scholarly      as early as
1017-1021.             article        5000 B.C.
                                                      Mescaline is
                                                      similar in
                                                      structure to
                                                      amphetamin     The Native
                                                      es, but        American
                                                      causes         Church uses
Albaugh, B. J., &                                     effects to     peyote in
Anderson, P. O.                                       the central    once-a-
(1974). Peyote in                                     nervous        month
the Treatment of                                      system that    rituals to
Alcoholism Among                                      resemble       treat
American Indians.                                     those          alcoholism
Am J Psychiatry,      article from                    produced by    amongst its
131: 11.              trade journal                   LSD.           members.
                                    Aztecs took
                                    psilocybin        Psilocybin
                                    mushrooms         induces
                                    for healing       mental
                                    purposes          states
                                    and to            comparable
                                    communicat        to the
The God pill.                       e with the        highest
(2006). Economist,    article from spiritual          religious
380 (8486): 78.       trade journal world.            experiences.
                                                                               In 1990, the
                                                                               Supreme
                                                                               Court ruled
                                                                               that the
                                                                               religious use
                                                                               of peyote by
                                                                               the Native
                                                                               American
                                                                               Church was
                                                                               not
                                                                               protected by
                                                                               the First
                                                                               amentment.
                                                                               In 1994,
                                                                               Congress
                                                                               reaffirmed
                                                                               the Native
                                   Peyote use                                  American
                                   in religious                                Church's
A field full of                    ceremonies                                  right to use
buttons. (1999).                   is as old as                                peyote in
Economist, 381       article from 10,000                                       religious
(8113): 27.          trade journal years.                                      ceremonies.

                                                               Psiocybin
                                                               has the
                                                               ability to
                                                  Psilocybin   alleviate the
                                                  may trigger the anxiety
                                                  schizophreni of terminally
                                                  a and other ill cancer
                                                  mental       patients and
                                                  illnesses in reduce the
Biello, D. (2006).                                patients     core
Not Imaginig It.                                  predisposed symptoms of
Scientific American, article from                 to the       people with
5: 33-35.            trade journal                disease.     OCD.
                                     Psilocybin
                                     effects can
                                     be felt
                                     twenty
                                     minutes
                                     after
                                     consumption
                                     and cause
                                     the user to
DanceSafe. (2009).                   feel mixed
Literature on         work from      emotions
Psychedelics.         interest       and             Psilocybin
Retrieved April 2,    group in       experience      and psilocin
2009, from            Encyclopedia   heightened      are listed as
www.dancesafe.org/    of             emotional       Schedule
nyc/psych.html.       Associations   states.         one drugs.
                                     The toxic
                                     effects of
                                     psiloccybin
                                     and psilocin
                                     are usually
                                     rapid,
Food and Drug                        subside in
Administration.       work from      two hours,
(1992). Mushroom      interest       and are
Toxins. Retrieved     group in       usually only
April 2, 2009, from   Encyclopedia   severe in
www.cfsan.fda.gov/    of             small
~mow/chap40.html.     Associations   children.

                                                     The "button"
                                     One-third to    of the
                                     one-half of a   peyote
                                     gram of         cactus is cut
                                     mescaline is    from the
                                     enough to       roots and
                                     give the user   then chewed
U.S. Department of                   a               on or
Justice. (2005).                     hallucinogen    brewed into
Drugs of Abuse.                      ic high that    a tea to
Washington, DC:                      can last up     produce a
Government Printing government       to twelve       psychedelic
Office.             document         hours.          high
                                     Hispanic and
                                     white people
                                     in the
                                     middle and
                                     upper
                                     classes and
                                     between the
                                     ages of 18
                                     and 25 are
                                     most like to
                                     engage in
                                     psychedelic
                                     drug use.
National Institute of                Only 0.01%
Justice. (1997). Rise                of trips to
in Hallucinogen Use.                 the ER are
Washington, DC:       government     related to
Government Printing document         psychedelic
Office.               from Googe     drug use.




Garcia- Navarro, L.
(2007). Mexico's
Peyote Endangered
by 'Drug Tourists.'
On Morning Edition    audio report
[radio]. New York:    from
National Public       National
Radio.                Public Radio
                      audio report
                      from
                      National
                      Public Radio
                                       Mescaline                      Only two
                                       users                          percent of
                                       experience a                   mescaline
                                       rise in blood                  ingested by
                                       pressure and                   a user will
                                       pulse rate                     pass through
                                       followed by                    the brain-
Stafford, P. (1992).                   salivation,                    blood barrier
Psychedelics           volume from     perspiration,                  and most of
Encyclopedia.          general         and a rise in                  the chemical
Berkeley, CA: Ronin    collection of   body                           will go to the
Publishing, Inc.       Bracken         temperature.                   liver.


                                       Ecstasy
                                       gained
                                       popularity
                                       amongst
                                       therapists as
                                       a treatment
                                       for post-
                                       traumatic
                                       stress
Obenhaus, M.                           disorder.
[producer] (2004).                     Ecstasy
Ecstasy Rising                         depletes two
[videorecording]. On                   percent of
Primetime. New                         the brain's
York: ABC News       academic          serotonin
Productions.         video             levels.


Reissig, C. J.                                         The stimulus
(2006). The 5-HT                                       effects of
(1A) receptor and                                      effects of
hallucinogens.                                         mescaline
[doctoral                                              were
dissertation]                                          discovered
Buffalo, NY: State                                     to block
University of New      doctoral                        serotongic
York at Buffalo.       dissertation                    antagonists.
Terry, M. K. (2005).
A tale of two cacti:                                 Peyote is
Studies in                                           small and
Astrophytum                                          spineless
asterias and                                         with a
Lophophora                                           single, low,
williamsii. [doctoral                                dome-
dissertation] Texas:                                 shaped stern
Texas A & M           doctoral                       and a bluish-
University.           dissertation                   green color.

                                     Psilocybin is
                                     a serotonin
                                     inhibitor,
Cahn, B. R. (2007).                  reduces
Neurophysiologic                     response-
correlates to sensory                related
and cognitive                        processing,
processing in altered                and
states of                            disengages
consciousness.                       attention
[doctoral                            networks in
dissertation] San                    the brain
Diego, CA:                           that deal
University of         doctoral       with sensory
California.           dissertation   processing.
                                                    Psilocybin
Van Orden, R. C.                                    and psilocin
(2008).                                             mushrooms
Determination of                    Psychedelic     come from
psilocybin and                      mushrooms,      any one of a
psilocin in                         when frozen,    hundred
hallucinogenic                      don't change    species of
mushrooms by HPLC                   chemically.     mushrooms
and diode arry and                  Mushrooms       from the
MS detection.                       stored at       genera
[master's thesis]                   room            Conocybe,
New York: State                     temperature     Copelandia,
University of New                   have a total    Gymnopilus,
York College of                     loss of         Innocybe,
Environmental                       psilocin and    Panaeolus,
Science and           master's      some loss of    Pluteus, and
Forestry.             thesis        psilocybin.     Psilocybe.
Kitchen, D.J. B.
(1990). Substance                   The size of
abuse among                         the city the
teenagers: a                        high school
comparative study                   is located in
of high schools in                  and the
Indiana. [master's                  racial make-
thesis] Muncie, IN:   master's      up of the
Ball State            thesis from   school affect
University.           Ball State    drug abuse.




McClure, M. (1979).
"Peyote Poem."
Hymns to St.
Geryon & Dark
Brown. San
Francisco, CA: Grey
Fox Press.          poem
                                                                        Behavior
                                                                        responses
                                                                        that are
                                                                        induced by
                                                                        drugs like
                                                                        mescaline
González-Maeso, J.,                                                     and
& Sealfon, S. C.                                                        psilocybin
(2009). Agonist                                                         depend on
Trafficking and                                                         the
Hallucinogens.                                                          activation of
Current Medicinal                                                       the 5-
Chemistry, 16 (8):       scholarly                                      HT(2A)
1017-1027.               article                                        receptors.
Hirschhorn, I. D., &
Winter, J. C. (1971).
Mescaline and                                                           LSD and
lysergic acid                                                           mescaline
diethylamide (LSD)                                                      act as
as discriminative        scholarly                                      discriminativ
stimuli.                 article from                                   e stimuli
Psychopharmacolog        Google                                         when mixed
y, 22 (1): 64-71.        scholar                                        with saline.

                                        Harvard
                                        University is
                                        conducting
                                        research into
                                        the
                                        therapeutic
                                        uses of
Cloud, J. (2007).                       psychedelics
Was Timothy Leary                       for the first
Right? Time South        article from   time in over
Pacific, 16: 50-51.      magazine       forty years.
Gilliam, T. [director]
(1998). Fear and                                        Pure
Loathing in Las                                         mescaline
Vegas [motion                                           can take up
picture]. United                                        to an hour-
States: Universal        motion                         and-a-half to
Pictures.                picture                        take effect.
Miscellaneou
s
The Texas
Department
of Public
Safety
licenses
seven
peyoteros to
harvast
peyote for
the Native
American
Church in
the Texan
counties of
Webb,
Zapata, Jim
Hogg, and
Starr.
Poisonous
mushrooms
don't lose
toxicity
when cooked
or any other
way of
processing
food.
Mescaline
gained
popularity
outside of
indigenous
communities
through "The
Teachings of
Don Juan" in
the early
seventies.
Peyote is
under threat
from "drug
tourist" who
illegally
cultivate
peyote for
recreational
purposes.
L. williamsii,
aka peyote,
and A.
asterias, an
endangered
psychedelic
cactus, are
hunted
commerciall
y for
religious
ceremonies,
the cacti's
psychoactive
chemicals,
nad as a
prize for
cactus
hunters.
Students in
smaller high
schools are
less likely to
engage in
drug use.

"I know all
there is to
know. I see
all there is
to feel….I
am free from
time…THIS
IS THE
POWERFUL
KNOWLEDGE
, we smile
with it."

				
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