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Food Safety and Pesticide Residues

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					                                  SEE
                         Som Electronic Exchange
      Weekly Electronic Forum on Useful Microbes and Herbal Extracts
                    Food Safety and Pesticide Residues
                                                            October 2007
                                                                       1
                                 Abstract
        Public and regulatory concerns about food safety continue to grow,
with sharp spikes in media coverage when adverse incidents of contamination
surface periodically. Plant protection agents, which do not require pre-harvest
intervals, meet conflicting aims of all stake holders in the logistics chain of
dietary ingredients that people, eat with minimal or no processing. Bio-
rational pesticides offer a viable alternative to tortuous organic certification,
and deserve support from farm producers and urban consumers alike.
                        The Many Colors of Food Safety
        Is it better to eat fresh produce with residues of chemical pesticides, or
alternatives laden with body wastes of chewing Lepidoptera, and microbes
injected systemically by sucking pests? The conundrums of simplistic and
populist approaches to food safety will not meet the diligent standards set
globally by professionals.
        The World Health Organization (Food Safety, 2007) is seized of the
multiple issues related with food safety. It works with its sister body of the
United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, to set food safety
standards in terms of chemical pesticides, heavy metals, and microbial
contaminants.
        Technically, heavy metals, polluted irrigation and wash water, as well
as microbial contaminants may damage human health more than occasional
exposure to minute traces of modern degradable pesticides. However, the
latter is something of a black sheep for the media (Roshni, 2003) and the
matter gets more than its fair share of attention. It is significant that the
organic certification process does not make any references to poisonous
residues or to contaminants in food other chemicals used for agronomy
reasons.
                                   SEE
                         Som Electronic Exchange
      Weekly Electronic Forum on Useful Microbes and Herbal Extracts
                    Food Safety and Pesticide Residues
                                                            October 2007
                                                                       2
                       Pleasures and Pains of Salads
       Residue degradation in food is generally accelerated by cooking, and
washing is able to remove most residues on external surfaces (Holland,
Hamilton, Ohlin, and Skidmore, 1994). Therefore, systemic residues in food
items that are consumed raw have to be primary concerns, with respect to
chemical pesticide contamination.
       Salads are high in ingredients which are not heated, and processed
only minimally before consumption. Freshness, which is always a value
criterion in meals, is most highly prized in salads. Therefore, fruits and leaves
are eaten relatively soon after harvest, compared to say plantation crops.
Salads are also global in character (Salads Menu, 2007); it would be hard to
find an ethnic cuisine anywhere which does not start with a fresh and raw
salad, or have one with a main course. Tomatoes and cabbage leaves are two
major fresh salad ingredients which require plant protection cover almost until
the day of harvest. Clearly, these two items of farm and garden produce must
receive close attention in terms of managing pesticide residues for food safety.
       . Restrictive Practices of Organic Produce Monopolies
       The organic certification process is rigorous and can take up to 3 years
for a producer to complete (Organic Certification, 2006). The natural plant
protection products on which organic producers rely may not be adequate in
efficacy and spectrum terms to take care of all the pests which can attack
tomatoes and cabbage patches near harvests. Small producers are handicapped
by the paucity of specialists in organic farming, so no country has been able to
convert all its vegetable production to pesticide-free agronomy. Small fields
of organic production in the midst of widespread chemical agriculture only
increase pest populations on unprotected plants. Overall, the outlook for
converting all production of crops eaten fresh and without cooking appears to
                                     SEE
                           Som Electronic Exchange
     Weekly Electronic Forum on Useful Microbes and Herbal Extracts
                       Food Safety and Pesticide Residues
                                                                  October 2007
                                                                              3
be poor at this time. However, bio-rational pesticides offer a compromise that
meets food safety and farm productivity needs at the same time.
                       Managing Residues Productively
        The commercial spread of bacterial pesticides has offered new avenues
to manage chemical residues and to meet food safety objectives (Bacillus
thuringiensis Tolerance Exemption, 1995). Genetic engineering has raised
fresh controversies about food safety, but doubts and fears in this regard do
not detract from any way from the advantages of controlling destructive pests
through a variety of microbes. Formulation development has come a long way
since microbial pesticides were first discovered, and farmers can now look
forward to using well-presented and stable brands right up to the point of
harvest, for effective crop management
        Herbal pesticides have proved to be valuable and versatile additions to
plant protection armories. The range of pests which products of plant origin
can control is much broader, and helps farmers deal with systemic causes of
production losses, while keeping produce free of chemical residues at harvest
times. The regulatory exemption from residue tolerances for herbal pesticides
is a life-giving shot in the arm for productive food safety (Exemption from the
Requirement of a Tolerance, 2001). The blanket exemption should serve as a
fillip for accelerated development of new active ingredients of plant origin.
All zones with rich bio-diversity offer virtually unlimited business potentials
in this regard.
                          Everyone Wins with CSA!
        Bio-rational pesticides for farm outputs which are eaten fresh and raw
deserve massive development, extension and communication investments.
Universal use of such products on crops such as tomatoes and cabbages near
harvests will provide quick and meaningful improvements in global food
                                    SEE
                          Som Electronic Exchange
      Weekly Electronic Forum on Useful Microbes and Herbal Extracts
                     Food Safety and Pesticide Residues
                                                               October 2007
                                                                           4
safety standards. Most chemical pesticide innovations have depended almost
entirely on private capital, and this sector of industry overshadows the nascent
bio-rational product segment by a wide margin. However, there are no
conflicts of interest between chemical and bio-rational pesticide producers
when it comes to protecting crops eaten fresh and raw near harvests.
       Consumers, sellers, influencers, and regulators should get in to the act
as well. A suitable forum for such a broad-based initiative to improve food
safety standards throughout the world could be the emerging phenomenon of
Community Supported Agriculture (Community Supported Agriculture,
2007). All stake holders gain if Community Supported Agriculture is used as a
primary route for supply chains of salad ingredients.
       Thank you for posting your opinion here.
                                 SEE
                        Som Electronic Exchange
     Weekly Electronic Forum on Useful Microbes and Herbal Extracts
                   Food Safety and Pesticide Residues
                                                           October 2007
                                                                      5

                                 References

Holland, P, Hamilton, D, Ohlin, B, and Skidmore, M, 1994, Effects of Storage
       and Processing on Pesticide Residues in Plant Products, Pure &
       Applied Chemistry, Volume 88, No 2 pp 335-368

Roshni, R, 2003, How safe are the vegetables we eat? The Hindu, Monday,
       July 07 2003

Bacillus thuringiensis Tolerance Exemption, 1995, web site of the IPM Center
       of Cornell University, retrieved October 2007 from:
       http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/pips/sexually_compatible
       _plants.pdf

Community Supported Agriculture, 2007, web site of the National
     Agricultural Library of the United States Department of Agriculture,
     retrieved October 2007 from:
     http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/csa/csa.shtml

Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance, 2001, web site of the
      Environmental Protection Agency retrieved October 2007 from:
      http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/pips/sexually_compatible
      _plants.pdf

Food Safety, 2007, web site of the World Health Organization, retrieved
      October 2007 from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/en/

Organic Certification, 2006, web site of the US Department of Agriculture,
      retrieved October 2007 from:
      http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB?navid=OR
      GANIC_CERTIFICATIO&navtype=RT&parentnav=AGRICULTUR
      E

Salads Menu, 2007, web site of iSuB International, retrieved October 2007
       from: http://www.isubusa.com/insalatesalads_menu

				
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