• Include Bacteria, Fungus, or Virus’.
• Could also include the use of insects as
• Biological weapons affect any living organisms or can affect the
• Affects People (combatants and non combatants alike), animals, crops,
• They have the possibility of being very infectious. They may spread
through the air, through contact, or through ingestion.
• Biological weapons can certainly be seen as cruel since they have the
potential to induce so much suffering and can kill millions indiscriminately.
• It is possible that in countries without proper precautionary
regulations, personnel, and infrastructure, and even in those
with them, for an accidental release of these weapons to
• The largest biological weapons accident known– anthrax outbreak in
Sverdlovsk in the Soviet Union in 1979, sheep became ill with anthrax as
far as 200 kilometers from the release point of the organism from a
military facility in the southeastern portion of the city and is still off limits
to visitors today.
• Killed at least 66 people
• The effects of chemical weapons are particularly horrifying.
• phosgene, a choking agent irritates the eyes and respiratory tract.
• hydrogen cyanide, blood agent which prevents transfer of oxygen to the
• Nerve agents, which block an enzyme that is necessary for functions of the
central nervous system.
• Various blistering agents cause painful burning to the tissues.
• Some cause sores on the skin, vomiting, respiratory dysfunction, mental
impairment, damage to the immune and nervous systems, infertility, and
• Many of the world’s powers have produced vast quantities of chemical
• Since these nations haven’t used these weapons, disposing of them is a
particularly difficult problem.
• In some cases, the weapons were sunk to the bottom of all the worlds
oceans in the holds of expendable ships.
• About 500 people around the world—mostly fishermen—have been
injured by the weapons since 1946.
• There are 32 disposal sites off United States shores.
• Will take $3.2 billion in spending to build additional plants in Kentucky and
Colorado to dispose of the U.S.’s remaining chemical weapons stockpile.
• World War II: Millions of people were killed in nazi concentration camps
gas chambers with carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.
• Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons in the 1980s against Kurdish
• Iran-Iraq War: Mustard gas was used extensively
• Nerve gas agents killed about 20,000 Iranian soldiers .Of the 90,000
survivors, some 5,000 seek medical treatment regularly and about 1,000
are still hospitalized with severe, chronic conditions.
Proliferation of weapons
• Despite international deterrence and the
Chemical weapons Convention (CWC), some
nations continue to research/ employ
chemical and biological weapons
• The Chemical weapons convention requires all
chemical weapons to be destroyed by 2012
Nations suspected of nonconformance
• The following nations are suspected of
continued research or stockpiling of chemical
weapons: Albania, Burma, China, Egypt,
France, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, Libya, North
Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Serbia and
Montenegro, Sudan, Syria, Taiwan, the U.S,
• Most notable offenders to follow
• Listed as “probable” suspect of stockpiled
• Thought to possess facilities to make Sarin,
VX, mustard gas, and phosgene
• Causes : employment of mustard gas in the
yemeni civil war, believed to have supplied
syria with chemical agents in the 70’s, and Iraq
in the 80’s
• Employed limited use of chemical weapons in the
• Produced mustard gas, sarin, and phosgene in the
• U.N sanctions shut down what was suspected as the
leading chemical weapons production lab in the
world at that time in the late 90’s (Rabta industrial
• Agreed to CWC in 2004
• Did not sign Chemical Weapons Convention
• Has been producing chemical weapons since mid
• Over 13 possible sites identified as potential research
or production centers
• Produces an estimated 4500 tons of weapons each
• Has many delivery systems at its disposal for utilizing