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Office of the crowd have a sense of increasing their activity levels. You can participate in exercise between work, can work intermittently, from time to time stretching gymnastics, activities, neck shoulder and waist, up and move about, and promote blood circulation of lower limbs. Often keystrokes you can do shake a finger movement, so relax tense fingers.
Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) A. Effects of Exercise Regular exercise has been shown to improve blood glucose control, reduce cardiovascular risk, contribute to weight loss, and improve well being. Furthermore, regular exercise may prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in high-risk individuals. Moderate-intensity (e.g. brisk walking) to vigorous-intensity exercises of ≥150 min per week have been proven to confer significant benefits in the prevention of T2DM onset (A risk reduction of 46 % in the Da Qing Study in mainland China, and by 58 % in the Diabetes Prevention Program in the United States.) 1-3 Recent follow-up studies suggest that this risk reduction can be sustained over a prolonged period4. Structured exercise interventions of at least 8 weeks’ duration have been shown to lower A1C by an average of 0.66% in people with T2DM, even with no significant change in body mass index5. While higher levels of exercise intensity are associated with greater improvements in A1C and fitness, milder forms of physical activities, like yoga and tai chi, may also benefit control of blood glucose 6-9. Progressive resistance exercise improves insulin sensitivity in older men with T2DM to the same or even greater extent as aerobic exercise10. Clinical trials have provided strong evidence for the A1C-lowering value of resistance exercise in older adults with T2DM and for an additive benefit of combined aerobic and resistance exercise in adults with T2DM11-13. Resistance exercise also enhances skeletal muscle mass and endurance, and hence may reduce the risk of fall in these elderly14. 1 HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) B. Recommendations for Exercise Prescription The Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health published by the World Health Organization in 2010 specify that adults over 18 years of age should perform at least 150 min per week of moderate-intensity or 75 min per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity or an equivalent combination of the two. The recommendations further suggest adults to perform muscle-strengthening activities involving all major muscle groups two or more days per week. Adults over 65 years of age are advised to follow the adult recommendations if possible or (if this is not possible) be as physically active as they are able. Studies included in the meta-analysis of effects of exercise interventions on glycaemic control had a mean number of sessions per week of 3.4, with a mean of 49 min per session5. The Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention, which involved 150 min per week of moderate-intensity exercise, had a beneficial effect on glycaemic control in those with pre-diabetes1. Therefore, it seems reasonable to recommend people with T2DM to follow the same physical activity recommendations for the general population. HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings 2 Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) The following table summarizes the exercise prescription that is recommended for patients with T2DM. Physical Activity Recommendations* Profile Frequency ● Perform moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise spread out at least 3 days during the week, with no more than two consecutive days between bouts of activity 14. ● Undertake resistance exercise at least twice weekly on nonconsecutive days, but more ideally three times a week, along with regular aerobic exercise14. Intensity ● Aerobic exercise should be at least at moderate intensity (e.g. brisk walking), corresponding approximately to 40%–60% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max)14. Relatively, moderate-intensity activity could be expressed as a level of effort of 5 or 6 on a scale of 0 to 10 (where 0 is the level of effort of sitting, and 10 is maximal effort) or 50–70% of maximum heart rate15-17. ● Additional benefits may be gained from vigorous aerobic exercise (i.e. >60% of VO2 max)14. Relatively, vigorous-intensity activity could be expressed as a level of effort of 7 or 8 on a scale of 0 to 10 or 70–90% of maximum heart rate15-16. ● R esistance exercise should be moderate (>50% of 1-repetition maximum, i.e.1-RM– maximum amount of weight one can lift in a single repetition for a given exercise) or vigorous (75–80% of 1-RM) at intensity14. Time ● 20 to 60 min per day of aerobic exercise should be performed continuously or intermittently in bouts of at least 10 min accumulated to total 150 min per week14,18. ● 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions on 8–10 exercises involving the major muscle groups may be an optimal goal for resistance exercise14. Type ● A variety of modes of aerobic exercise is recommended but any form (including brisk walking) that uses large muscle groups and causes sustained increases in heart rate (HR) is likely to be beneficial14. Exercises like walking, swimming or cycling that do not impose undue stress on the feet are some appropriate choices. ● Each session of resistance exercise should involve the major muscle groups (legs, hips, chest, back, abdomen, shoulders, and arms). According to the literature, resistance exercise programme involving a combination of bench press, leg extension, upright row, lateral pull-down, standing leg curl (ankle weights), dumbbell seated shoulder press, dumbbell seated biceps curl, dumbbell triceps kickback, and abdominal curls has been shown to improve glycaemic control in older adults with T2DM 11. * Given that many patients may present with comorbidities, it may be necessary to tailor the exercise prescription accordingly. 3 HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) Initial instruction and periodic supervision by a qualified exercise trainer is recommended for most persons with T2DM, particularly if they undertake resistance exercise, to ensure optimal benefits to blood glucose control, blood pressure, lipids, and cardiovascular risk and to minimize injury risk 19. C. Rate of Progression Gradual progression of intensity of aerobic exercise is advisable to minimize the risk of injury, particularly if health complications are present, and to enhance compliance 14 . Points to be taken into consideration in exercise prescription include age, ability, disease state, and individual preference of type of exercise – in general, the elderly and obese patients with T2DM take longer time for adaptation and may require slower progression, though it is advisable for the aged to be as physically active as possible. Similarly, to avoid injury, progression of frequency and intensity of resistance exercise should occur slowly. Increases in weight or resistance are undertaken first and only once when the target number of repetitions per set can consistently be exceeded, followed by a greater number of sets and lastly by increased frequency 14 . Early in training, each session of resistance exercise should minimally include 5–10 exercises and involve completion of 10–15 repetitions to near fatigue per set, progressing over time to heavier weights (or resistance) that can be lifted only 8–10 times. A minimum of one set of repetitions to near fatigue for each exercise, but as many as 3 to 4 sets, is recommended for optimal strength gains14 . HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings 4 Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) D. Evaluation of the diabetic patient before recommending an exercise programme Medical practitioners should use clinical judgment in this area. Certainly, high-risk patients should be encouraged to start with short periods of low-intensity exercise and to increase the intensity and duration slowly. Medical practitioners should assess patients for conditions that might contraindicate certain types of exercise or predispose to injury, such as uncontrolled hypertension, severe autonomic neuropathy, severe peripheral neuropathy or history of foot lesions, and unstable proliferative retinopathy as well as take into consideration patients’ age and previous physical activity levels 17. Exercise stress testing is not routinely recommended to detect ischaemia in asymptomatic individuals at low coronary heart disease (CHD) risk (<10 % in 10 yrs.). It is advised primarily for sedentary adults with diabetes who are at higher risk for CHD and who would like to undertake activities more intense than brisk walking, e.g. age >40, concomitant risk factors such as hypertension, microalbuminuria, etc., or presence of advanced cardiovascular or microvascular complications (e.g. retinopathy, nephropathy) 14. 5 HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) E. Exercise in the presence of non-optimal glycaemic control 1. Hyperglycaemia. When people with type 1 diabetes are deprived of insulin and are ketotic, exercise can worsen hyperglycaemia and ketosis; therefore, vigorous activity should be avoided in the presence of ketosis20. On the other hand, T2DM subjects usually are not profoundly insulin-deficient. They do not have to postpone exercise simply because of high blood glucose (e.g. > 16.7 mmol/L), as long as they feel well, and are adequately hydrated without ketosis 14. 2. Hypoglycaemia. In individuals with T2DM performing moderate exercise, blood glucose utilization by muscles usually rises more than hepatic glucose production, and blood glucose levels tend to decline. Plasma insulin levels normally fall, however, making the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycaemia in anyone not taking insulin or insulin secretagogues very minimal, even with prolonged physical activities14. In individuals taking insulin and/or insulin secretagogues (e.g. sulfonylureas like glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride, as well as nateglinide and repaglinide), physical activity can cause hypoglycaemia if medication dose or carbohydrate consumption is not altered. For individuals on these therapies, added carbohydrate should be ingested if pre-exercise glucose levels are 5.6 mmol/L 21-22. Hypoglycaemia is rare in diabetic individuals who are not treated with insulin or insulin secretagogues, and no preventive measures for hypoglycaemia are usually advised in these cases. HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings 6 Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) F. Exercise in the presence of specific long-term complications of diabetes 1. Retinopathy In the presence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy or severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, vigorous aerobic or resistance exercise may be contraindicated because of the risk of triggering vitreous haemorrhage or retinal detachment 23. 2. Peripheral neuropathy Decreased pain sensation in the extremities results in increased risk of skin breakdown and infection and of Charcot joint destruction and this is why some prior recommendations have advised non-weight-bearing exercise for patients with severe peripheral neuropathy. Studies have shown that moderate-intensity walking may not lead to increased risk of foot ulcers or re-ulceration in those with peripheral neuropathy 24. Individuals with peripheral neuropathy and without acute ulceration may participate in moderate weight-bearing exercise 14. Comprehensive foot care including daily inspection of feet and use of proper footwear is recommended for prevention and early detection of sores or ulcers14. Anyone with a foot injury or open sore should confine themselves to non-weight-bearing activities. 3. Autonomic neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy can increase the risk of exercise-induced injury or adverse events through decreased cardiac responsiveness to exercise, postural hypotension, impaired thermoregulation, impaired night vision due to impaired papillary reaction, and unpredictable carbohydrate delivery from gastroparesis predisposing to hypoglycaemia25. Autonomic neuropathy is also strongly associated with cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes 26-27. People with diabetic autonomic neuropathy should be screened and receive physician approval and possibly an exercise stress test before embarking on physical activity levels more intense than usual. Exercise intensity is best prescribed using the HR reserve method with direct measurement of maximal HR 14. 7 HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) 4. Albuminuria and nephropathy Physical activity can acutely increase urinary protein excretion. However, there is no evidence that vigorous exercise increases the rate of progression of diabetic kidney disease and likely no need for any specific exercise restrictions for people with diabetic kidney disease28. Exercise increases physical function and QOL in individuals with kidney disease and may even be undertaken during dialysis sessions. HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings 8 Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) Reference: 1. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6):393–403. 2. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(18):1343-50. 3. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):537-44. 4. Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, Gregg EW, Yang W, Gong Q, et al. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet. 2008;371(9626):1783-9. 5. Boulé NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 2001;286(10):1218-27. 6. Boule NG, Kenny GP, Haddad E, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Meta-analysis of the effect of structured exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2003;46(8):1071-81. 7. Innes KE, Vincent HK. The influence of yoga-based programs on risk profiles in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007;4(4):469-86. 8. Wang JH. Effects of tai chi exercise on patients with type 2 diabetes. Med Sport Sci. 2008;52:230–8 9. Yeh SH, Chuang H, Lin LW, Hsiao CY, Wang PW, Yang KD. Tai chi chuan exercise decreases A1c levels along with increase of regulatory T-cells and decrease of cytotoxic T-cell population in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):716–8 10. Cauza E, Hanusch-Enserer U, Strasser B, Ludvik B, Metz-Schimmerl S, Pacini G, et al. The relative benefits of endurance and strength training on the metabolic factors and muscle function of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(8):1527-33. 9 HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) 11. Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, Jolley D, De Courten M, Shaw J, et al. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(10):1729-36. 12. Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-Orians L, Gordon PL, Walsmith J, Foldvari M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(12):2335-41 13. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boule NG, Wells GA, Prud'homme D, Fortier M, et al. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(6):357-69. 14. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, et al. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12):e147-67. 15. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: US; US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. 16. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1996. 17. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2011. Diabetes Care. 2011;34 Suppl 1:S11-61. 18. Exercise Prescription for Other Clinical Populations. In: Walter R Thompson, Neil F Gordon, Linda S Pescatello, editors. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 8th ed. American College of Sports Medicine; 2010. p. 234. 19. Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, De Feo P, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, et al. Effect of an intensive exercise intervention strategy on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial: the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES). Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(20):1794-803. HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings 10 Module 4 Recommending exercise to patients with diabetes (Adopted from Department of Health Exercise Prescription 2011 Edition) 20. Berger M, Berchtold P, Cuppers HJ, Drost H, Kley HK, Muller WA, et al. Metabolic and hormonal effects of muscular exercise in juvenile type diabetics. Diabetologia. 1977;13(4):355-65. 21. Zinman B, Ruderman N, Campaigne BN, Devlin JT, Schneider SH. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27 Suppl 1:S58-62 22. Berger M. Adjustment of insulin and oral agent therapy. In: Handbook of Exercise in Diabetes. 2nd ed. Ruderman N, Devlin JT, Schneider SH, Kriska A, editors. Alexandria, Va: American Diabetes Association; 2002. p.365–76. 23. Aiello LP, Wong J, Cavallerano J, Bursell SE, Aiello LM: Retinopathy. In: Handbook of Exercise in Diabetes. 2nd ed. Ruderman N, Devlin JT, Kriska A, editors. Alexandria, Va, American Diabetes Association, 2002. p. 401–13. 24. Lemaster JW, Reiber GE, Smith DG, Heagerty PJ, Wallace C. Daily weight-bearing activity does not increase the risk of diabetic foot ulcers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(7):1093-9. 25. Vinik AI, Erbas T: Neuropathy. In: Handbook of Exercise in Diabetes. 2nd ed. Ruderman N, Devlin JT, Kriska A, editors. Alexandria, Va, American Diabetes Association, 2002. p. 463–96. 26. Wackers FJ, Young LH, Inzucchi SE, Chyun DA, Davey JA, Barrett EJ, et al. Detection of silent myocardial ischaemia in asymptomatic diabetic subjects: the DIAD study. Diabetes Care 2004;27(8): 1954–61. 27. Valensi P, Sachs RN, Harfouche B, Lormeau B, Paries J, Cosson E, et al. Predictive value of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients with or without silent myocardial ischaemia. Diabetes Care 2001;24(2):339–43. 28. Mogensen CE: Nephropathy. In: Handbook of Exercise in Diabetes. 2nd ed. Ruderman N, Devlin JT, Kriska A, editors. Alexandria, Va, American Diabetes Association, 2002. p. 433–49. 11 HK Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings
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