NO ONE BOMBS
THE BIG COLD
Grade 10 Canadian History
To what extent was Canada
affected by the Cold War?
An Examination of the impact of
the Cold war on Canada through
an analysis of the documents:
1945 – 1963.
Directions: The Cold War and Canada - a Critical Challenge
What is a critical challenge?
This unit is designed to foster your critical thinking A critical challenge is designed to foster
skills by providing you with a series of documents with critical thinking skills which involve both
which you will examine the extent to which Canada decision making and problem solving. In
was impacted by the Cold War between 1946, when order to answer a challenging question, or
the Soviet spy ring was revealed to Canadians, and solve a historical problem, historians
1963, with the election of the Liberal government and collect and compile information – both
the subsequent arming of our Bomarck missiles. primary and secondary – which is then
used to construct alternative positions or
To what extent was
Canada affected by the
While the Cold War is generally seen as a struggle between two competing ideologies:
liberal capitalist democracy that focused on individual freedoms, on the one hand, and
the communist based totalitarianism of the Soviets, on the other, the tension was
blatant in Canada. And as Canadians became pre-occupied with the international
tension and the ever present nuclear threat associated with the war, a second and
equally potent front of the Cold War developed right here on Canadian soil.
Some Canadians paid heed to the covert cloak and dagger operations that were directed
against Canadian citizens. Teenagers, however, on the whole, were more interested in the
suburban middle-class interests of sock hops, the malt shop, television, Hockey Night in
Canada and listening to the carefree new phenomenon of ―Rock and Roll‖.
The documents in this unit will enable you to examine the temperament of the time
period and to help you understand the broad impact of the Cold War on the entire fabric
of Canadian life. Was there truly a sinister array of people that posed a domestic threat to
the stability, peace, order and good government of Canada? Who posed this threat? Were
the domestic concerns of a growing liberal democracy a greater threat to Canadian peace,
stability and security than that posed by the Soviets?
.Read each document carefully. For each document you should be able to identify:
who wrote the document;
the purpose of the document;
the tone or perspective of the author;
any insights the document provides for the reader on the Cold War.
Guideline Questions: The following questions will help facilitate your examination of this
period of extreme tension in world history. After reading the documents answer the following
i) To what extent was the Cold War brought into focus by the Gouzenko
ii) To what extent did ideological differences frame and fuel the Cold War?
iii) To what extent was the role of the Canadian military a function of national
diplomacy rather than national security?
iv) To what extent was the Cold War expressed in popular culture?
v) To what extent was our position in the Cold War an accident of history and
vi) To what extent did the Cold War impact Canadian-American relations?
vii) To what extent were human rights impacted by the Cold War?
viii) To what extent was the status of women, children and the family impacted by
the Cold War?
ix) To what extent did the Cold War affect Canadian policy on immigration,
culture and citizenship?
x) To what extent did the Cold War divert the focus of Canada‘s military alliance
away from Britain and toward the United States?
xi) To what extent was Chatelaine magazine correct in saying in 1951 that the
most important fact about the new half of the century is the atomic aomb?
xii) To what extent is Pamela Jordan correct in stating that the Gouzenko
revelations ended a campaign for global civilian control of atomic weapons
and "helped create the atmosphere that led to the U.S. military buildup and its
determination to maintain nuclear superiority over the Soviet Union"? If this
contention is correct, how seriously did the American nuclear buildup affect
Culminating Task: Your teacher will help you choose one of the following activities to complete your
study of this unit:
You are exploring, ―the old Turner Home‖, an abandoned house in your neighbourhood, which has been a
source of intrigue and speculation for many years. While rummaging through the attic you discover a
trunk. On it is a nuclear fallout decal. You are intrigued and open it. The trunk is a treasure trove of the
early Cold War period and include the documents you are about to read in this unit. You left the house
fascinated by what you read in that old trunk and imagining what life must have been like for Canadians
during this period of the Cold War. After examining the documents choose a variety of them to create a
composite picture of the Turner family.
1a) Use the accompanying organizer to help you with this task. Compose seven journal reflections or
diary entries of a maximum of two paragraphs each that illustrate who the Turners were based on the
following guideline questions: Who were the Turners? What was their life like during this time period?
How were they affected by the Cold War? How were their social and political views impacted by the
Cold War? Were they supportive of Canadian policy during this time period? What was their
occupation? Were they concerned about their survival? Be sure that your diary/journal entries reflect the
tone of the ―Turner Family‖.
1b). Using the guideline instructions create a graphic novel of no more than 25 frames that tell some
aspect of the Turner family‘s experience during the Cold War.
1c). You have been asked to write a feature article for your local or student newspaper section called,
―Window on our Past‖. The article will be 500 words and will be entitled, ―Seeing the Cold War through
the Turner family‘s eyes‖.
2. Write an essay of five paragraphs that examines the overarching question, ―To what extent was
Canada affected by the Cold War?‖
3. Choose the ten most important documents that chronicle the events that had the greatest impact on
Canada during the Cold War. Rank the documents in their order of importance from highest to lowest.
Write a brief précis for the one document that you chose as being the most important and a brief précis for
the document that is considered the least important. For each choice communicate your rationale for
choosing it and justify your choice in no more than 2 paragraphs.
(Note to teacher – I suggest that you use the organizer to evaluate the students under the categories
Knowledge and Understanding and Thinking. I suggest that you evaluate the final product using the
categories Application and Communication The organizer along with a pre-test is located at the end of
Document # 1 - George Orwell Declares It Is A Cold War
So we have before us the prospect of two or three monstrous super-states, each possessed of a weapon by
which millions of people can be wiped out in a few seconds, ....and perhaps an actual end to…civilization.
...if a stalemate develops between these two unconquerable powers … a permanent state of "cold war"
Source: Tribune, George Orwell, You and the Atomic Bomb October 19, 1945.
Document # 2 - Igor Gouzenko Triggers the Cold War
At 8:00 p.m. on the evening of September 5,
1945 Lieutenant Igor Gouzenko left the Soviet Document # 3
embassy in Ottawa with 109 carefully selected The Bear is
documents stuffed inside his jacket. The Watching
documents proved that at least three vast
Soviet spy rings existed in Canada and the
United States. Lieutenant Gouzenko was a
cipher clerk for the Directorate of Soviet
Canada in the
Intelligence (GRU). It was his job to encode
and decode messages for Colonel Nickolai
Zabotin, who supervised the spy rings in
Canada. Yet it appeared that Canada was not
interested as Gouzenko had to shop his
bombshell from the police to the Ottawa
Citizen and eventually back home before a threat to his life brought in the RCMP and then the
Department of External Affairs. Prime Minister King wished to sweep the issue under the carpet.. He was
convinced otherwise by Louis St. Laurent. He realized this could not go away as the sheer scale of the
secret Soviet war effort was staggering. The documents Gouzenko brought with him showed that the
GRU had recruited hundreds to penetrate all of the most sensitive posts and institutions in Canada,
America, and Britain. Even more alarming, Western intelligence would soon learn that the spy network
Gouzenko exposed was only part of a much larger network.
In an interview in Coronet Magazine in 1953 Igor Gouzenko was asked how was it
that American and English authorities were unable to uncover Soviet agents when
there were so many of them? Our strength is in those very numbers. The authorities
nip one and think they have cleared up the situation--but nine stay free to continue our
work. Moreover, some of our most valued agents are in such high places that they
could scarcely be suspected of treason.
The Gouzenko story was made public several months later when the American
broadcaster Drew Pearson announced it on his February 6, radio program. The
NAC/PA-129625 Canadian government now had to let the cat out of the bag! The news hit the Western
world like an earthquake. And tremors continued for years after as arrests, trials,
investigations, and controversies multiplied. In October 1945, a Royal Commission was established to
investigate the Gouzenko documents and allegations, co-chaired by Canadian Supreme Court Justices
Robert Taschereau and R. L. Kellock. On February 15, 1946, the government arrested 13 suspects. On
March 14th, another 26 Canadians were arrested on espionage charges. Among them was Fred Rose, a
Member of Parliament, and Sam Carr, organizing secretary of the Communist Party of Canada.
In June 1946, the Royal Commission released its massive 725-page report on the Gouzenko revelations.
The commission report noted that the network Gouzenko revealed was not of recent vintage; it had been
under construction for decades. The report stated: As early as 1924, there was an organization at work in
Canada directed from Russia and operating with sympathizers in Canada. Two of the most active persons
in this organization were Fred Rose, born Rosenberg, in Lublin, Poland, and Sam Carr, born Kogen or
Cohen in Tomachpol, Russian Ukraine.
Most explosive of all Gouzenko's revelations concerned the primary target of Soviet espionage at that
time: the atom bomb. A monumental collaborative war effort, the Manhattan Project, by scientists from
Britain, Canada, and the U.S. had surmounted daunting theoretical and practical obstacles to create the
terrible new weapon. The Soviets were many years behind in research on their own atomic weapons and
could not hope to catch up except through espionage, through massive transfers not only of information--
research notes, plans, diagrams, formulas, etc.--but of actual instruments and refined uranium.
A key Soviet operative in all this was a British scientist with the cover name "Alek." Gouzenko's
documents revealed this agent's identity. He was Dr. Alan Nunn May, a senior member of the British
research team, working at Canada's atomic energy laboratory in Montreal. However, he also had access to
the top secret U.S. A-bomb facilities at Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and Chicago. Having secretly
joined the Communist Party years before in England, Dr. May was contacted in Canada by Col. Zabotin's
GRU agents and given a very demanding assignment. He was told by his Communist masters that he
must provide them with "everything you can tell us about the atomic bomb project in the United States
and Canada. We want it in a hurry." Dr. "Alek" May did not fail them. May not only provided the Soviets
with invaluable scientific information from the super-secret project, but "he also presented Stalin with a
sample of enriched U-235. This was his most valuable contribution.
An analysis by Soviet scientists opened to them that precious secret--the precise ingredients we were
using in the bomb, extracted from nature at the cost of an untold number of scientific hours and hundreds
of millions of dollars. This one gift was worth all the time, energy, money, and duplicated effort of the
Soviet Intelligence service. The U-235 sample and a long scientific memorandum from May were
considered so important that an NKVD colonel flew them to Moscow.
However, Dr. May was not the only mole within the secret weapons project. The Gouzenko investigation
started the ball rolling that lead to the outing Bruno Pontecorvo and Klaus Fuchs, fellow Communist
physicists within the Manhattan Project who also provided invaluable aid to the Soviet Union.
Source: Jasper, William The man who started the cold War The New American Jan. 13, 2003
Document # 4 - The spy network is finally revealed in the press.
Source: Globe and Mail, 1946/02/20
Document: # 5 - The Cold War is Reflected in Popular Song
Win The War Blues
Sonny Boy Williamson 1944
Uncle Sam is gonna give me a Thunderbolt, he want me to fly away up above the clouds
Win The War Blues was released in December 1944, four months before Germany's surrender, and
seven months before the successful test of the atomic bomb in New Mexico. Williamson's
"Thunderbolt" and prediction of dropping a single bomb that would set a Japanese city on fire came
true on August 6 and 9, 1945.
Jesus Hits Like an Atomic Bomb Worlds In A Tangle
Lowell Blanchard with the Valley Trio 1949 J. Lane. 1952
Everybody's worried 'bout the atomic bomb Now you know the world's all in a
But nobody's worried about the day my Lord will come tangle man
When he hits (great God almighty) like an atom bomb Everybody begin to sing this song
The Reds are just over yonder boys
And we ain't gonna be here long
That's why I'm gonna build myself a
Move down in the ground
When I go into the army babe
Won't be no more Reds around
Documents # 6 - Women are supposed to be women! The Cold War and Social
Female strength and competence which was exhibited during the war years was to be repressed during the
Cold War. Men would fight for the ―American way of life‖ from their own hearths. Women‘s work was
to maintain the ―hearth and home.” The image of the woman as ultra-feminine and dependent invigorated
the need to protect her and what she stood for. Femininity was heralded as an ideal if it was exhibited by
women, and as a real or potential threat to the security of the nation if exhibited by men.
An article in Chatelaine Magazine asked Again from Chatelaine Magazine, May, 1946
why could she not be contented with her flat Surely our magnificent young brides of
and household tasks (Franks, 1946) today who have grown up during a tragic
- Women‘s educational goals were redirected period will get together with their husbands
from career development to graduating [have children] and help the country out
with a diamond ring. of this dilemma [of declining population growth]
…. Three children per married couple should be
An American educator stated that women should be excluded from college because the education which
girls could not use as homemakers was more urgently needed than ever by boys to do the work of the
atomic age Her patriotic duty was to maintain the home: “there is much you can do about our crisis in
the humble role of housewife.
7 Up changed the direction of its advertising campaign early in the Cold War. They
ceased claiming it could produce a good disposition in women in order for them to win a better job, and
switched to boasting that it could help them be happy homemakers.
Source: Runte, Mary. I Love Lucid: The Cold War, Feminism and the Ideation of the American Family
Document #7 – The impact of Cold War politics on Human Rights – Dresden, Ontario, 1948.
Hugh Burnett grew up on a farm just outside of Dresden, near Chatham, Ont., a descendant of escaped
American slaves, like most of the African Canadians in that part of the province. The small routines of
racism were part of Burnett's everyday childhood, like having to eat ice cream in a restaurant's kitchen, lest
his dark presence alarm the white patrons in the dining room. But after returning from service in World War
II, any hint of being second-class on his home turf began to grate. To push for their rights, Burnett and other
African Canadians in Dresden formed the National Unity Association in 1948 and gathered 115 names on a
petition calling for the local council to prevent businesses from discriminating.
It led to a referendum the following year, in which locals were asked: "Do you approve the passing of
legislation compelling restaurant owners to serve, regardless of race, creed or colour?" The result: 108 in
favour, 517 against. But Burnett was undaunted… it helped that activists had a sympathetic ear in Ontario
Premier Leslie Frost, who began enacting legislation on fair employment practices and equal pay for
women, often over the objections of his caucus…
After the province's then-attorney general told Burnett that Ontario had no legal power to end
discrimination in municipalities that had not themselves passed laws banning it Burnett became the
delegation's most prominent voice and adopted a clever tack, given that this was also the height of the Cold
War. He took to wondering aloud about whether racial discrimination might be linked to any rising
popularity of communism.
"There are no Communists among the coloured people of Dresden," Burnett said, "but I don't know how
long we can assure that, if the discrimination practised there is to continue." Less than a week later, Frost
introduced Canada's first Fair Accommodation Practices Act, banning the sort of commercial discrimination
that reigned in Dresden.
Source: Kidd, Kenneth. The Toronto Star, July 06, 2008, Pg. ID.4.
Document # 8 - President Harry S. Truman's address before a joint session of Congress,
March 12, 1947 (The Truman Doctrine)
. ..The very existence of the Greek state is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand
armed men, led by Communists… Meanwhile, the Greek Government is unable to cope with the
situation. The United States must supply that assistance.
One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in
which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion .We shall not realize
our objectives, however, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and
their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes.
This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples, by direct or
indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United
States. The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the
evil soil of poverty and strife. We must keep that hope alive….Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in
this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East. If we falter in our
leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world -- and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our
Source: The Avalon Project at Yale University
Document #9 – The President Speaks on North American Unity
Canada and the United States have reached the point where we can no longer think of each other as
Source: President Harry S. Truman Address to the Joint Sitting of the Senate and the House of Commons,
June 11, 1947.
Document #10 - Canada and NATO
You will probably recall that in 1945, when the nations of the world met at San Francisco there was great
hope that throughout the world we would set a new pattern which would ensure continuing peace and
security and which would provide freedom from fear, freedom from want and freedom to live as
sovereign nations. But you also remember that even while we were meeting in San Francisco, the Soviets
showed their first intention of not wanting or desiring to live with the West. That took place when the
sixteen members of the [free] Polish Government were … placed in prison and despite the entreaties and
pleas made by the leaders of the West, nothing more was heard of them.
Within months of that incident we had in our own country the Igor Gouzenko defection and when
that story broke, Canadians immediately became aware of the fact that our so-called Allies had been
plotting against and spying on the nations with whom they were supposedly working to bring about a
final victory in Europe. During the two following years every action that took place in the United Nations
to bring disarmament, to set up an international police force by which aggression could be checked
anywhere that it might break out, in fact every attempt to reduce friction between the West and the East
was nullified by the veto of the Soviet Union in the Security Council.
In 1947, with the economic conditions in Europe at their lowest, you will recall that the United
States made what I am sure in history will be recorded as one of the most magnanimous and munificent
gestures, a proposal to rehabilitate the countries of Europe through the Marshall Aid Plan. That Plan was
not limited to West Europe. Indeed it was offered to all countries suffering from the chaos and destruction
of war and was open to those countries behind the Iron Curtain. There again we saw evidence of the
Soviet wishes and desires when Czechoslovakia and Poland, who asked to participate in the Marshall
Plan, were forced to withdraw through Russian pressure. You also remember the Paris Meeting on the
Marshall Aid Plan, when Mr. Molotov left the meeting suddenly without any cause or reason. This action
was clarified, however, a few weeks later when Stalin decried the Marshall Plan as further evidence of
American Dollar Imperialism.
On the 22nd of February 1948, the last light of freedom in Central Europe was extinguished when
a Communist minority in Czechoslovakia, by coup d'etat, gained power. Czechoslovakia ceased to be a
democracy and joined the group of hapless Soviet satellites. It became obvious that unless some form of
alliance could be brought about, one by one the countries of Western Europe by threat, by coercion or
even by aggression, could be brought under the heel of Soviet domination. To this end, the United
Kingdom and France met with Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg and on the 17th of March, 1948 the
Brussels Treaty Organization was formed in the hope that these five countries would be able to provide
forces sufficient to deter aggression and maintain the security of their territorial boundaries.
…scarcely had the ink on the Brussels Treaty dried when the Berlin Blockade began. For the next 323
days Russia tested the West to see whether or not we would maintain our position vis-a-vis Berlin.
Meanwhile throughout the World, Soviet aggression was moving rapidly to make inroads on the
war weakened countries. In Greece, Communist guerillas equipped and supplied by Moscow through
Bulgaria were attempting to seize power. In Turkey, by way of intimidation, Russia attempted to gain
entry into the Mediterranean. In Iran, Russia endeavoured to retain the northern part of the country which
she had occupied as an ally during the war. In Korea one only has to think back to the situation that
developed in that part of the world as a result of Russian support and Russian endeavours during the
period concerning which I am speaking. Again, in Indo-China and Malaya communist imperialism was an
increasing threat to peace and security. It was quite obvious to the Western World that an alliance far
greater than the Brussels Treaty and one far stronger, was required if the countries of Western Europe
were not to succumb, one by one, to Soviet aggression. Such an alliance, obviously, must have as a
member the United States of America. On the 11th of June 1948, one of the most important items of
legislation in American history was passed by the U.S. Senate. It was listed as Resolution 239 and was
sponsored by Senator Connally and by Senator Vandenberg, after whom it was popularly referred to as
the Vandenberg Resolution. By this resolution the United States of America for the first time in its
history, was authorized to plan for participation in area defence outside continental U.S.A. Immediately
following the adoption of the Vandenberg Resolution, representatives of Canada and the United States
met with representatives from the Brussels Treaty Powers in Washington, and there commenced to
organize and to plan the NATO Treaty, as we know it today.
Throughout the Autumn of 1948 and the winter of 1949, work on these plans continued and
finally, on the 4th of April 1949, twelve nations met in Washington and signed the North Atlantic Treaty.
Source: "CANADA AND NATO" An Address to the Empire Club by MAJOR-GENERAL J. D. B.
SMITH, Commandant of the National Defence College of Canada Thursday, March 22nd, 1956
Document # 11 - Canadian reactions to the Soviets getting the bomb.
The Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb, known in the West as Joe-1, on August. 29, 1949, at
Semipalatinsk Test Site, in Kazakhstan. Joe-1 was a direct copy of the plutonium bomb dropped on
Nagasaki and had a yield of about 20 kilotons. Initially, the U.S. government was unwilling to supply the
money and labor to build the Super Bomb. Its focus was set on projects such as post-war reconstruction.
Joe 1 dramatically changed this view. President Harry S. Truman a month later announced to a shocked
audience that the Soviets had caught up with them. Edward Teller, a Manhattan Project leader and
staunch anti- Communist, responded immediately by pushing for the super weapon even though his
colleague Robert Oppenheimer and others called it a weapon of genocide that should never be built.
President Truman listened to the advice of his military and on January 31, 1950, he announced that
America would continue work on the Super, or H-bomb.
Robert Collins, a veteran journalist with Maclean‘s in the 1950‘s stated that the revelations that the
United States and Soviet Union had the A-bomb (as in atomic) and later the H-bomb (as in hydrogen)
found that Canadians were scared witless by the onslaught of daily newspaper reports. They were told
that the weapons were far more powerful than the bombs that fell on Japan. Another war would be unlike
anything in human history. The Cold War was on. No longer could Canadians sit safe and snug beyond
the oceans. With the new intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), the concept of living in a fire proof
house had passed. We were no longer immune from attack. In all likelihood Canada would be the polar
battle ground sitting smack dab in between our ally and our adversary. There would be only a few
minutes' warning at most. A silent, blinding, colossal flash and a city would be gone. A full-out war and
the world as we knew it would be gone.
Source: Collins, Robert You had to Be There, Toronto:1997.
Document #12 - Canadian Reactions to the Soviets Acquiring the Bomb
Canadians responded to the combination of the Gouzenko revelations and the threat of nuclear
annihilation. From the Gallup poll in March 1951:
Q: What would be the first question you'd put to the prime minister, given a chance?
A: Top choice: "Will there be another war?"
Q: Should we drop an A-bomb on the Russians first?
A: Sixty-six per cent of us said yes.
Q: Which people of other nations do you like best?
A: We chose the Americans first, the British a close second, and the Russians a distant last, which wasn't
surprising, It also recorded the view that we were ready to nuke them first!
- 83 per cent of us wanted to ban communists from any public office.
- 57 per cent approved of banning communists from voting in any election.
- Almost 60% would have made it a criminal offence to belong to a communist organization.
- The Financial Report warned Canadians in an article in 1950 entitled How Reds Would Trick You on
Peace that they should steer clear of peaceniks peddling their ban the bomb literature on street corners….
Sources Collins, Robert You had to Be There, Toronto:1997
Document # 13 Canada and the Korean War
The 1950s began with a bang. On Sunday, June 25, 1950, the army of North Korea, a Communist state,
invaded South Korea, its non-Communist neighbour. The war that resulted lasted for three years and
consumed 2,000,000 lives. About 480,000 American troops, and
10,600 Canadian troops travelled to Korea; of the Canadians 406 never returned. The war brought East and
West into armed confrontation, and militarized the Western alliance. If the events of the late 1940s
determined that there would be a Cold War, the Korean War determined what form it would take.
The Americans had demobilized after 1945, and by 1947 were desperately short of troops. The conclusion
seemed obvious. Needing troops elsewhere, in Japan, in Europe, anywhere, the Americans decided to cut
their losses in Korea. They used the United Nations to bless a successor government in South Korea and in
conjunction with the Soviets withdrew from the peninsula in 1949.
The combination of the so-called "fall of China" and the Soviet breakthrough in nuclear weapons stimulated
serious reconsideration of American foreign policy. In the spring of 1950 this reconsideration was
embodied in National Security Council memorandums NSC-68. NSC-68. They called for nothing short of
mobilization of American will and resources in the face of a soon-to be overwhelming Communist threat.
American credibility was at stake. Failure to resist aggression in South Korea would imply a failure to resist
aggression in some other, admittedly more important area, such as Western Europe.
The Canadian government was surprised that the United States should choose to resist in Korea, but was
delighted that Truman had chosen the United Nations to be the instrument to resist aggression. It was also
seen as a heaven-sent opportunity to mobilize the United States and its allies into new international
configurations that could resist the spread of communism.
Canadian public opinion was at first hesitant, but as the summer of 1950 drew on and the United States
forces under the umbrella of the United Nations suffered some initial defeats, pressure grew on the
Canadian government to do something.
Canadian troops sailed for Korea in 1950 and entered large-scale action as part of a British Commonwealth
division in 1951. By then the war had expanded through Chinese intervention in November 1950. After a
period of uncertainty the war stabilized very roughly where it began, along the 38th parallel. Although the
Korean War is usually thought of as a land war, it was really air power that determined the outcome of the
conflict. The United States and its allies, including a small Canadian contingent of pilots, controlled the air.
While the ground war kept American and Canadian soldiers apart and maintained old military patterns that
dated back to the First World War or even earlier—the air war brought Canadian and American airmen
much closer together. Henceforth Canada's armed forces were closer to American attitudes and accepted US
views of the world more readily—though not invariably. The war ended in stalemate in July 1953. An
armistice was signed, bringing an end to the war but not resolving the deep hostility between North and
One feature of Canada's Korean War effort deserves to be noted. In previous wars the proportion of French
Canadians in the armed forces was less than their proportion of the population. That was not the case in
Korea. Of the 10,600 Canadians who served in Korea, 3,100 came from Quebec. Despite early fears among
politicians in Ottawa, the Korean War was not an occasion for national disunity
Source: Bothwell, Robert. The Big Chill, Toronto: 1998.
Document # 14 - Padlock! Communism, Duplessis and Quebec.
In Quebec, Premier Maurice Duplessis was a vociferous anti-communist crusader. His ―padlock law‖, so
named because it gave police the power to seal off any property where communist literature or activity
was suspected predated the witch hunt led by US Senator McCarthy and HUAC by 10 years. Duplessis
believed that the world is in a crisis more dangerous and evil than the most grave and destructive of
diseases. Nowhere else but in Quebec is there a law protecting people against the vile cocaine of
According to Bruce Ricketts the Padlock Law aka The Act Respecting Communistic Propaganda, which
became Chapter 11 of the Statutes of Quebec, 1937 had two main aims:
First was to limit the places that communists could congregate
Second to outlaw communist propaganda.
It shall be illegal for any person who possesses or occupies a house within the Province, to use it or allow
any person to make use of it to propagate Communism or Bolshevism by any means whatsoever. (Section
It shall be unlawful to print, to publish, in any manner whatsoever, or to distribute in the Province any
newspaper, periodical, pamphlet, circular, document or writing whatsoever propagating or lending to
propagate communism or bolshevism. (Section 12)
The law disrupted the lives of many people. Danielle Dionne was a Communist. She and her family
became a target for Quebec‘s Red Squads.
When I saw five strapping provincial police enter my home, I experienced an instinctive moment of fear,
but I quickly realized that there was nothing I could do but remain silent. They rummaged through
drawers and bookcases, removing literature and books. We had to change apartments a few times,
because of the raids.
A Maclean‘s magazine columnist described the paranoid atmosphere of the time:
"If a housewife in Ottawa hears a knock on her door, it can be one of only two people. The milkman or
The anti-communist zeal extended beyond the government ranks
Gordon Martin was a British Columbia man who served with the Royal Canadian Air Force for four years
during the war. He received an honourable discharge and went to the University of British Columbia
where he graduated with a degree in law in 1948. In his application to the bar, the law society asked
Martin about his politics. He had been a member of the Communist Party since 1938, but responded that
queries about his political affiliation violated his freedom of thought and association. The benchers
rejected Martin's application for membership in the society, which made it impossible for him to practice
law in B.C., citing his candidacy in the Labour Progressive Party.
Martin found work with a logging company driving a caterpillar, and later worked in a saw mill.
Eventually he set up a television repair shop in Nanaimo. Martin died in 1974. He posthumously got an
Source: Bélanger, Claude. Documents of Quebec History Claude, Marianopolis College, 2004.
Ricketts, Bruce. Mysteries of Canada www.mysteriesofcanada.com 2007
Document # 15 - McCarthyism and the Rosenbergs
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was a little-known junior senator from Wisconsin until February 1950 when
he claimed to possess a list of 205 card-carrying Communists employed in the U.S. Department of State.
From that moment Senator McCarthy became a tireless crusader against Communism in the early 1950s,
a period that has been commonly referred to as the "Red Scare." He claimed that Communism not only
threatened Capitalism but that Russia was a moral enemy of the United States." He organized HUAC, the
House Un-American Activities Committee. McCarthy held hearings where he asked people whether they
have ever participated in communist activities. The ones who answered yes were blacklisted and could
not find jobs. People who came before the committee also had an option to "take the Fifth." The Fifth
Amendment gave people the right against self-incrimination, meaning that they did not have to testify or
give evidence against themselves. However, most of the people who "took the fifth," were under
suspicion. As chairman of the Senate Permanent Investigation Subcommittee, Senator McCarthy reached
far and wide to out suspected communists. The Internal Security Act of 1950 made not only political
actions illegal but also political beliefs. The word "communist" became synonymous with the word
"Russian spy." They arrested many people including Klaus Fuchs in England in February 1950.Fuchs was
a member of the Manhattan Project who sold information about the atomic bomb to Moscow.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation found his courier, Harry Gold, in Philadelphia. Mr. Gold in turn led
the F.B.I. to David Greenglass, a soldier who had worked at the atomic bomb facility in Los Alamos,
N.M. Mr. Greenglass testified at the trial of the Rosenbergs that he had given notes and sketches of the
atomic bomb to his brother-in-law, Julius Rosenberg, who had them typed by his wife, Ethel, and then
turned them over to the Russians. The Rosenbergs were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage and
- after massive international protests and several stays of execution - they were put to death in the electric
chair at Sing Sing Prison on June 19, 1953.
On February 11, 1953 President Eisenhower reviewed the case. He stated that their act could result in the
death of many, many innocent citizens. The have in fact betrayed the cause of freedom for which free men
are fighting and dying at this very hour. He was satisfied the Rosenbergs received the full measure of
This death sentence is not surprising. It had to be. There had to be a Rosenberg Case because there had
to be an intensification of the hysteria in America to make the Korean War acceptable to the American
people. There had to be a hysteria and a fear sent through America in order to get increased war budgets.
And there had to be a dagger thrust in the heart of the left to tell them that you are no longer gonna give
five years for a Smith Act prosecution or one year for Contempt of Court, but we're gonna kill ya!
Julius Rosenberg, as quoted by his attorney, Emanuel Bloch, September 22, 1953
Source: Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
Document # 16 - Canadians and the McCarthy Witch Hunt
Warrant for Deportation of an Alien, 24 July 1953
Reuben Ship aka John Davis ... is subject to deportation under the following provision of laws of the
United States: the Act of October, 1918 as amended, in that he has been, after entry, an alien who was a
member of the Communist Party of the United States.
Reuben Ship (1915-1975), a Canadian scriptwriter working in Hollywood during the fifties, was
blacklisted after being accused of being a Communist by the House Committee on Un-American
Activities in 1951 and deported to Canada. In 1954, ―The Investigator‖, Ship's radio drama satirizing
McCarthyism, was broadcast by the CBC.
Source CBC Archives: The History of the Investigator
Document # 17 - An address on Canada„s position on the Soviets by Louis St. Laurent
It is a melancholy reflection on the times we live in that we should feel obliged to be concerned over the
preservation of civilization. By its very nature the (Soviet) totalitarian state threatens the preservation of
civilization because it can only be maintained by armed force I believe this proposition is
incontrovertible. That armed force may exist primarily to keep the subject population in slavery but its
very existence constitutes a threat to other nations without equal strength. And this menace … justify the
maintenance of armed might (to) dominate all its neighbours for its own preservation. In 1945, many of
us…hoped at least to reach a tolerable modus vivendi with the Soviet Union based upon a common
weariness of war and a common desire for peace. But the military strength of Communist Russia and…
its policies have convinced all but the blindest among us that the only hope of immediate security for the
rest of the world lies in building up armed strength sufficient to be an effective deterrent to the potential
aggression of this latest military tyranny.
If war should come between those …of Communist ideology and those who accept the moral ideals of
our Christian civilization, I am firmly convinced that the powers of evil, like the gates of Hell, would not
prevail. But such a struggle, regardless of the outcome, would itself be a disaster… for civilization
For the last two years, the building up of that deterrent strength through the North Atlantic Alliance and,
more recently, through the United Nations action in Korea, has been the first preoccupation of the
Government of Canada and of the governments of the free nations with which we are associated. The
provision of effective insurance against another world war is likely to continue to be one of our main
problems for a good many years to come.
Source: St-Laurent, Louis. The Preservation of Civilization. (delivered at the Autumn Convocation of the
University of Toronto October 27, 1950.) Ottawa: Information Division, Dept. of External Affairs, 1950.
Document # 18 - Growing up in a Canadian Communist Family
In a North American Communist family during the Cold War, truth was a slippery commodity.
Communists, my father and my mother included, were masters at disguising the truth. They were not
sociopaths; far from it. They were true believers in a faith that was widely reviled. And their faith held
that the morality of everyday society was a fraud, one put in place to keep people from challenging the
powers that be. To stretch the truth, to lie if necessary, to have a secret life from which you carefully
excluded almost everyone, all of this was fine provided it served the higher truth, the higher purpose to
which your waking hours were dedicated.
The party that he worked for, still known as the Labour Progressive Party, was under savage attack from
…..One kid I knew, named Tim, had a father who ran as a Communist candidate in provincial elections.
Tim was always being beaten up on his way to school by bullies who called him a Commie.
……One morning Mrs. Anderson announced to our class, we are going to do something very special
today. We're going to find out more about each other. That didn't snap me out of the semi-doze I often
affected in the classroom. But the next thing she said might as well have been an electric shock: I am
going to ask each of you to tell the class what your father does for a living. By the time I had recovered
enough to focus, the third pupil in the first row was on his feet saying that his father was a printer. He sat
down, and the girl behind him was getting up. I didn't have long to figure out what to do. I knew perfectly
well what my father did for a living. He was paid by the Communist Party to train other comrades,
promote the Party line in the trade unions, agitate for nuclear disarmament and run as a candidate for
public office. He was on the Central Committee, which was not the inner sanctum of the Party leadership,
but close to it. What was I going to do when Mrs. Anderson got to me ?
What could I tell the class? I knew I couldn't tell the truth, but I didn't know what else to say. My parents
had never instructed me explicitly not to reveal what my father did for a living, they didn't have to. I had
received the message in a thousand different ways, particularly from my mother, that the Party was
engaged in very important work that was highly unpopular with many people. The less said about it, the
better. As the teacher worked her way methodically up and down each row, we heard about plumbers,
truck drivers, carpenters and fathers who ran butcher shops. I hoped against hope that recess would come,
or a fire alarm. Finally, she got to me. What does your father do, Jimmy? Everyone turned to look at me
as I stood silently on my feet. I don't know, I stammered. You don't know? You must know. What does
your father do? She sounded as though she believed I was being deliberately difficult. I was in misery.
For a long time, I stood by my desk. He works in an office at 274 College Street; I said at last. I can tell
you his phone number. I actually blurted out the number.
I rushed home after school to tell my mother what had happened. She stiffened and looked cross. She
said it was a political outrage. What right did the school have to query pupils about the occupations of
their fathers? What if there was a poor child in the class whose father was unemployed? Wouldn't he or
she feel humiliated in front of the others?
Source: James Laxer Red Diaper Baby: A Boyhood in the Age of McCarthyism, Toronto 2004
Document # 19 - External affairs on the travel of Canadians suspected of being
TOP SECRET The Secretary of State for External Affairs had given further consideration to possible
restrictions on travel by Canadian communists. It would also be advantageous to take further
administrative action whereby the R.C.M. Police would notify the security authorities of a friendly
country whenever they learned that a Canadian communist was planning to visit such a country. This
would enable the authorities of that country to refuse entry to the traveler.
Source: CONDUCT OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS: TRAVEL BY CANADIAN COMMUNISTS.
Volume #17 – 17
Document # 20 - Communism and Canadian citizenship
TOP SECRET Extract from Cabinet Conclusions
In a public statement it must be made clear that citizenship would not be granted to Communists or
Communist sympathizers The committee recommended that there be a discretionary power to revoke the
citizenship of naturalized Canadians for residence of two years (rather than six) in the country of which
the naturalized person was formerly a national, and that the provision for revocation on grounds of
disaffection or disloyalty be broadened. It was also recommended that revocation of citizenship be
possible for all categories of citizens, whether by birth or naturalization, in cases where there had been an
oath or affirmation or other formal declaration of allegiance to a foreign state. These recommendations
appeared to be desirable. So far as disaffection and disloyalty were concerned, it would not be desirable to
leave it entirely to the discretion of the Minister to determine whether a person in Canada had been
disloyal or disaffected. It would be desirable to provide, in the case of persons in Canada, that revocation
take place only after conviction by a court of law for sedition, espionage, treason or any other offence
involving disaffection or disloyalty. This would be broader than the present provision
Source: CONDUCT OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS Volume #17 - 16. Ottawa, Jan. 24th, 1951
Document # 21 - The U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Immigration
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights was issued in 1948.The Declaration indicated
that all people are equal regardless of where they live, their colour, culture, sex, or age. Some members of
the international community also agreed to the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees in
1951. This piece of international law made it illegal for signatories to deny refugees entry on the basis of
their nationality, religion, race, or political belief. The 1948 and 1951 measures were an attempt to close
these dark chapters in national histories that withheld sanctuary to subject populations such as Jews and
the Roma. Canada could have made amends for its restrictive none is too many immigration policy of the
King era. Nevertheless, Canada did not sign the document for security reasons. Along with the United
States and Great Britain, Canada was active in identifying and blocking immigration applicants by
communist "subversives." People who were known to be left-wing agitators were barred entry. Canada
also exercised its right to deport those who were suspected of "communist" activities. Between 1951 and
1961, 6,200 immigrants were deported from Canada. Well over half of these deportees were forced from
Canada on the grounds of "stealth or misrepresentation‖.
Source: Ninette Kelly et al, The Making of the Canadian Mosaic, Toronto: 1998
Document # 22 - May Day: Communism and Labour.
The CCF could not, however, establish its own May Day yet. In 1951, the day was still dominated by
the CP and affiliated unions and organizations. It was identified in the press as "the Communist May
Day Rally," and for the first time in years, it was harassed by the police, who seized collection tins
and held two women for questioning. 1,000 people marched and several floats "denounced war atom
bombs" as they made their way to Stanley Park to hear speeches by "Red leader Harvey Murphy" and
others. The following year, May Day was again harassed by the police who broke the parade in two
and sent part of it along a different route to Lumberman's Arch. Perhaps the most famous government
intervention in this period was the refusal of the American government to allow the left-wing African-
American singer Paul Robeson to perform in Canada. Invited to sing at the Canadian convention of
the Mine, Mill, and Smelter workers' Union, Robeson was forced to surrender his passport to the US
government and was forbidden to leave the country. The union and others quickly organized a concert
held at the Peace Arch in Blaine, Washington, where on 18 May 1952, Robeson, standing on a flatbed
truck just inside the US border, sang to a crowd of thousands on both sides of the international
boundary.41 May Day during the Cold War a far cry from the triumphant marches of earlier years.
In 1953, May Day received very little attention in the press; a brief article suggests that a parade and
rally were organized by trade unionists and activists outside the Communist Party. (Vancouver Sun, 2
May 1953)Like the previous three years, this May Day was not held on 1 May; instead, it was held on
the Sunday following it, as labour again adapted to circumstances and possibilities. Political division
and repression had split the labour movement.
Source: Leier, Dr. Mark, May Day: A History of Political Protest http://www.sfu.ca/labour/MayDay.pdf , 2004.
Document # 23 - The 1952 Immigration Act.
By 1950 the supply of immigrants could not fill the booming Canadian economy‘s needs. The
government therefore made provisions to widen admissible classes of European immigrants in June 1950.
This reform maintained the preference for British, Irish, French, and American immigrants all believed to
be suited to the climatic, educational, social, industrial, and labour environment of Canada. In practice it
meant many residents of Canada (excluding Asians) could sponsor relatives. This enabled a variety of
semi-skilled and skilled immigrants, including domestics, agriculturalists, entrepreneurs, and
professionals, and any other workers sponsored by a Canadian employer to come to Canada. The 1952
Immigration Act provided broad, and widely interpretive, powers for the Minister of Immigration and his
officials. The Minister had the personal authority to approve or veto the admission of any immigrant to
Canada. The Minister could also overturn the decisions of the independently established Appeals Board.
It enabled Cabinet to make decisions without having to debate them in the House of Commons or ask for
public input. Section 61 of the Act allowed the Governor in Council to prohibit, or admit, immigrants on
the basis of nationality, including ethnic background and geographical area of origin; ‗peculiar customs‘
including habits, modes of life, or ‗unusual‘ means of holding property; climatic, educational, economic
or industrial suitability; and the probable likelihood of becoming rapidly assimilated in Canadian society.
This act maintained the premise that admission to Canada was a privilege rather than a right, and that
Canadian manpower needs should dictate the acceptance of immigrants. This scenario quickly created a
mountain of paperwork from disgruntled intending applicants in both Canada and overseas.
The Peopling of Canada: 1946-1976 / The Applied History Research Group-Univ. of Calgary
Document # 24 - Canadair‟s stand on Communism
Do you actually know the
face of communism?
Everywhere are evidences of
the continuous underground,
cancerous movements of
Communism ... Only eternal
vigilance can protect us
against Communism and its
infiltration into our way of
Source: Canadair advertisement, 1955. Another stared empty pews and empty churches mark an easy prey
to a fanatic soulless communism! Also cited in Shaw, David. The Booming Fifties, Toronto: 1977
Document # 25 - Was Herbert Norman Murdered?
Herbert Norman was a Canadian scholar of Japanese history and a diplomat whose postings put him in a
key role in regard to Canadian diplomacy during the Pacific War and subsequent occupation of Japan.
Norman completed a PhD at Harvard University in Far Eastern Studies and then wrote several important
works on Japanese history by the young scholar. He joined the Canadian diplomatic service in 1940 as a
language officer and was soon promoted to third secretary at the Canadian legation in Tokyo (1940-41).
After Canada entered the war against Japan, he was interned by the Japanese government as an enemy alien
Upon his release and return to Canada in 1942 under a prisoner exchange he worked as an intelligence
officer on Japanese matters until the end of the war. Norman was seconded to General Douglas
MacArthur‘s Occupation staff from August 1945 to January 1946. In the spring of 1946 he acted as
Canada‘s delegate to the Far Eastern Commission, based in Washington and tasked with oversight of the
Occupation. That same year he returned to Tokyo as head of the Canadian Mission to Occupied Japan,
serving in that position until 1950. Both during and after the war he continued to pursue his academic
interests, presenting and publishing numerous papers. His scholarly achievements were recognized by
numerous offers of professorships at prestigious universities and his election as president of the Asiatic
Society of Japan (1947). And, yet, he ultimately chose to stick to a diplomatic career.
According to Alexander Ross, Norman, by then a prominent figure in both academe and international
diplomacy, was distinctly un-American at a time when America seemed to have inherited the earth. He was
deeply religious in a personal, internal way and this may be why he became one of the unlikely subjects of
the U.S. McCarthyite witch-hunts of the 1950s. Facing allegations of being a communist and possibly a spy,
and with the Korean War under way, he was recalled from Japan in October 1950. After a full enquiry in
Canada, Norman was exonerated of all charges and continued to play a key role in External Affairs until
renewed American accusations led to his virtual diplomatic "exile" in New Zealand for three years. In 1956,
he was posted to Cairo as Canadian ambassador to Egypt where he played an important part in mediating
the Suez crisis and projecting Canada into its first military peace-keeping role. However, in 1957, when
already under strain, the old charges against Norman were again raised in the U.S. Senate, precipitating his
death by suicide in April of that year.
Source: Herbert Norman Archives, University of Victoria
Document # 26 - Memorandum from Under-Secretary of State for External Affairs to
Secretary of State for External Affairs A.H. Heeney. [Ottawa], August 17th, 1951
RE: McCARRAN COMMITTEE CHARGES
Confidential : The Canadian Government was surprised to
learn that the Senate Internal Security Sub-Committee of the
Committee on the Judiciary found it necessary to make public
reference to a high official of the Canadian Government, E.H.
Norman, and on the basis of unimpressive and. unsubstantiated
statements by a former Communist, in a way which could not
fail to prejudice the position of that official before the public of
his own and other countries.
The State Department will know that the Canadian Government
has complete confidence in Mr. Norman, and hopes that they
will inform the Congressional Committees of this fact, and its
consequent regret and annoyance that their counsel went out of
his way to drag Mr. Norman's name into their hearings.
The Canadian Government does not desire any publicity to be
given to its representations, because there has been too much
publicity already on this subject but it is to be hoped that the
committees can instruct their counsel to act differently in the Sou Reidford/Globe and Mail /1957
future in matters which concern officials of this government. If in evidence before investigating
committees in Washington names of Canadian officials appear, the Canadian Government naturally
expects that these names can be sent in confidence to the Canadian Government so that the allegations
made can be investigated here and the results referred back to the State Department.
The Canadian Government hopes that the State Department will agree that this is the course which should
have been followed in this case, and will be able to give some assurance that it will be followed in the
Source: Volume #17 - 770. CHAPTER VII RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES
PART 1 DEFENCE AND SECURITY ISSUES SECTION M, CONGRESSIONAL SECURITY
Document #27 – Canada installs the BOMARC missiles
In the fall of 1958 Prime Minister Diefenbaker's Conservative government announced an agreement with
the US to deploy in Canada 2 squadrons of the American ramjet-powered "Bomarc" antiaircraft missile.
This controversial defence decision was one of many flowing from the 1957 NORAD agreement with the
US. It was argued by some that the surface-to-air guided missile, with a range of 640 km, would be an
effective replacement for the manned AVRO ARROW.
Fifty-six missiles were deployed at North Bay, Ontario, and La Macaza, Québec, under the ultimate
control of the commander in chief, NORAD. Unfortunately, the Canadian government did not make it
clear that the version to be acquired, the Bomarc-B, was to be fitted with nuclear warheads. When this
became known in 1960 it gave rise to a dispute as to whether Canada should adopt nuclear weapons. In
the end the government could not bring itself to accept nuclear warheads for the Bomarc‘s, a reluctance
which contributed to poor Canadian-American relations in this period.
Source: Buteux, Paul. The BOMARC Missile The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2008.
Document #28 – Cancellation of the Avro-Aero, Canada‟s supersonic jet interceptor,
January 20, 1959.
No one advocates building buggies in the age of motorcars
– Prime Minister John Diefenbaker February 24, 1959. Quandl’US s’en v’ten guerre!
It is hoped that Canadian participation in the BOMARC program
will be the start of a Canadian-U.S. move toward the integration of weapon
production for the defence of North America.
Source: Harsh Cold War Realities – Regina Leader Post, February 24,
History may record that it was John Diefenbaker – staunch Canadian
nationalist who had the unhappy task of yielding a portion of his nation‘s Source: La Palme Le Devoir 1957
sovereignty into US hands. This is the ironic judgement that someday may
await the Prime Minister for his historic decision….to kill the Avro-Aero and propel Canada‘s defence
forces into the nuclear age. Never again, it appears, will Canada be able to follow an independent course
in seeking its own national security…within two or three years, our air defence squadrons may disappear
replaced by U.S. fighter squadrons manned by U. S. pilots on Canadian soil. Our army and navy will be
equipped with nuclear weapons but will not be permitted to fire them except with the consent of
Source: The Toronto Daily Star - February 23, 1959. Pg. 1
Source: Leskun, Charles and Tobin, Tim. Canadian-American Relations Primary Documents of the 20th
Century. Oakville, 2004.
Document # 29 - Christians and Nukes
In our generation new dimensions of power have become available to man. This new power
opens to men and nations terrifying possibilities for evil and violence, especially if war should
come. By a strange coincidence of history, science discovered how to split the atom just as the
most destructive war of all time spread across the world in 1939. In this war, obliteration
bombing became established military policy. By war's end, the split atom came forth as an atomic
bomb; and obliteration bombing came to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since that war, the hydrogen
bomb and the intercontinental ballistic missile make future war almost inevitably intercontinental
in scope and an ominous threat to the very existence of man.
We call upon our leaders in government to make permanent the ban on bomb tests. They are a
serious threat to the health of peoples. They undermine mutual trust among nations. Most of all
they are as contrary to the spirit and teachings of Jesus as war itself. War is sin and so are bomb
testings because they belong to the war preparations scheme.
It is no less a sin to prostitute this marvelous power of the atom by stockpiling it in the form of
bombs, spending billions of dollars for missiles and missile bases and cursing the soil confiscated
for this purpose. Most shocking to the Christian conscience are the fantastic military installations
in the very heart of the nation. Sin is sin. It will destroy a people which condones it. We oppose
the use of any of God's natural resources for the purpose of warfare with our fellow men.
We earnestly urge our men in government to assure leadership in promoting the peaceful uses of
atomic energy for the benefit of all peoples of the world.
Source: The Christian and Nuclear Power: A Christian Declaration on Peace, War, and Military
Service General Conference Menonite Church. 1959
Document # 30 - Fall Out Shelters
Thanks to fallout shelters, we are literally burying our heads in the sand. The mindset that war is
inevitable scars our psyches and ruins our concept of normality. The anticipation of nuclear war is
becoming so commonplace, people are beginning to believe it really won‘t be so bad after all.
The only choice today is peace.
Source: Ron Taggart, Toronto Star 1959
Document # 31 - Duck and Cover
In 1951 Archer Films, at the request of the Civil Defense administration created a nine minute
animated film, Duck and Cover. The promotion stated that the best way to survive the hazards of
radioactive fallout, or any other threat an enemy may use against us, is to be prepared -- know the
facts -- learn what to do, now! Survival and victory were the order of the day and civil defense
practiced at home and at school was a cornerstone of a child‘s life in the 50‘s and early 60‘s.
Guided by Bert the turtle we were instructed that when the air raid siren blasted its high pitched
errrrhhhh, we were to find a safe place, crouch and bury our heads into our legs and pull our arms
over us. We usually turtled under our school desk until the Emergency Broadcasting System told
us that this was only a test and that we could resume our scheduled activities.
We would cast our eyes towards our teacher and watch the anxiety slowly move from her face.
Source: Leskun, Charles. Reminiscences of growing up in Riverside, (Windsor, Ontario), 2008.
Document # 32 - The Prime Minister recommends family fallout shelters
Civil defence can serve a deterrent purpose by
demonstrating to a potential aggressor that Canada
is determined to survive even a nuclear war and
carry on as an organized society and united nation
in the face of the utmost perils and hardships.
If a nuclear war comes, the greatest danger to the
greatest number of Canadians is likely from
radioactive fallout. Fortunately this danger can be
averted by the use of comparatively simple
measures. In announcing the policy of the
Government concerning shelters for civil defence purposes, I stated that substantial protection against
radioactive fallout could be achieved by family shelters built at home at a modest cost.
Although Canada will persist in its efforts to avoid war, and to settle international disputes by peaceful
means, there still remains some risk of nuclear war. Should a nuclear war occur, the risk of radioactive
fallout will be very widespread, and will endanger many of us in our homes, even though a long way
from the bomb explosion. The best and simplest way to safeguard against fallout is by household
shelters which will provide protection. Each householder can and should decide whether or not to have
this form of family protection. I recommend it.
Source: Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker, Pamphlet: Why a Fallout Shelter?
Ministry of Supply and Services Ottawa, 1959
Document #33 – The DEW Line and NORAD
On March 31, 1954 Lester Pearson, Canada‘s Secretary of State, addressed the country
on continental defence. He stated, ―…for the past four years work has been going on at high
priority on the construction on a large and costly radar chain which is required not only to detect
enemy bombers but also to control enemy aircraft engaged in the task of interception. This radar
chain is known as the Pine tree Chain… The system will extend 5000 miles and its survey will
involve the examination of a great number of possible sites. To avoid stationing large numbers of
men in this difficult country this system is designed to operate with as few men as possible. In
overcoming the various technical problems involved, the United States air force is working
closely with the RCAF. The defence of North America is part of the defence of the North
Atlantic region to which both Canada and the United States are pledged as signatories of NATO.
NORAD developed from Pearson‘s vision of a North American defence system. The
North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) was designed as a bi-national military
organization and was established in 1958 by Canada and the United States to monitor and defend
North American airspace. NORAD monitored and tracked man-made objects in space and
detected, validated and warned of attack against North America by aircraft, missiles or ‗space
Soldiers that manned the radar installations in Canada‘s Arctic faced many stressful
situations as described by Brian Jeffrey.
―It was the fall of 1961, on a quiet Arctic night. But then most Arctic nights on the DEW
Line were quiet. Tom Billowich and I were half way through the midnight to 8:00 am shift at
CAM Four, Pelly Bay. It was Tom's turn to man the console so I went off to do some preventative
maintenance routines (PMs) on the air/ground transmitters in the transmitter room. It was
somewhere around 4:15-4:30 when all hell broke loose. We received a call from FOX Main to do
an immediate minimum discernible signal (MDS) test on both beams of the FPS-19 radar system.
There was no mistaking the sense of urgency. I called the console and asked Tom what was up.
"There's something wrong with the radar," he told me, "We missed a target." I hotfooted it to the
Radar room and did the tests. No problem. The radar was just fine. What was going on? Back to
the console room where Tom told me that both CAM Three and Five on each side of us had
reported the target but we weren't painting it. I looked at the right-hand screen of the console. We
were sure as hell painting it now. What gives? I asked Tom what was going on. All he would tell
me is that we missed the bogie and he was now in deep doodoo. He denied dozing off. I sent him
off to do another MDS test for himself and he returned to confirm my earlier results. There was
nothing wrong with the system. He really was in trouble…
There was a lot of mental and physical hand wringing on Tom's part as he continued to claim that
he hadn't fallen asleep and that there just had to be something temporarily wrong with the radar.
Before the end of the shift we were informed that Tom should gather all his belongings up and be
ready for pick-up later in the day … They took him off the lateral flight and put him directly on
the southbound flight, out of the arctic, and out of a job.‖
―Missed Bogie‖ cited in, Leskun, Charles and Tobin, Tim. Canadian-American Relations
Primary Documents of the 20th Century. Oakville, 2004.
Document # 34 - NORAD Defense sign.
NORAD Defense Conditions ( Battle Readiness)
DEFCON 1- (Highest) - “ Cocked Pistol”
DEFCON 2 ^ - “ fast Pace”
DEFCON 3 ^ - “ Round House”
DEFCON 4 ^ - “ Double Take”
DEFCON 5 (Lowest) - “ Fade Out”
Source: Radio Room in the Diefenbunker (The Diefenbunker located outside the capital city of Ottawa, in
Carp, is an underground nuclear bunker built in secrecy during the height of the Cold War between 1959 and 1961,
and was meant to house the top officials of the government and military during the risk of nuclear attack.)
Document # 35 - The Voice of Women speak up!
In the early 1960s, as the world seemed to teeter on the brink of nuclear war, Halifax mother
Peggy Hope-Simpson expressed the fear and anxiety that enveloped a generation of Canadians. I
was having nightmares of being in the water with my children and I knew that I couldn’t hold on
to all of them, and I always would wake up in a sweat, just in terror.
The Canadian public was deeply skeptical about the wisdom of Canada becoming a nuclear
power. In May 1960, Toronto Star columnist Lotta Dempsey, urged women to join together in
opposition . Hope-Simpson and other Canadian woman would be voices of restraint as the
country moved closer to arming itself with nuclear weapons and joining the ranks of Cold War
nuclear powers. I have never met a woman anywhere who did not hate fighting and killing, and
the loss of husbands and the terrible tragedy of children dead, maimed or left homeless and
hungry. Here lies our strength.
Her idea caught fire. Mavis Wiley was one of hundreds of Canadian women who wrote Dempsey
letters of support. And so in 1960 The Voice of Women was formed.
From the outset, the organization's philosophy was one of inclusiveness: No woman was the
"enemy." They espoused and practiced peace-building through cooperation. The mobilization of
women, and public and governmental education became the central focus .If you are going to
scream loud and hard about the world situation right now, let me join you. But let us not scream
alone, let us urge the women of the world to join us. Thérèse Casgrain, the long-time feminist
crusader, carried the banner in Quebec. If Canada acquires nuclear weapons, we will become
nothing more than an American satellite...We feel that Canadian public opinion must rise up
Maryon Pearson, wife of the Leader of the Opposition, became an honourary member. Her
husband, Lester B. Pearson, was leading the fight in Parliament against nuclear weapons in
Source: The Voice of Women: Canada A Peoples History
Document # 36a - A day during the
Cuban Missile Crisis
Antoinette MacDonald of Kingston, was
working in New York city and was Document # 36b
overwhelmed by fear of nuclear annihilation Source: John
during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ―I hadn't Frenzel
been concerned about nuclear war to that
point. I read the newspaper and watched
television, but I was young and didn't really
pay much attention to those things. Then one
day at work they said President Kennedy was
going to talk to us that night. It sounded pretty
serious. We didn't have a television, so we
went downstairs to watch with some friends. I
remember Kennedy saying they would shoot
over the bow of the boat [the Soviet vessel
that was transporting armaments to Cuba]. All
of a sudden, sitting on that couch, I realized
that maybe we could be at war the next day.
And it would be nuclear war, and I was in one of the target areas. It had a paralysing effect on me. It just
took over. And I thought , Where have I been? It's been leading up to this and it really could happen. I
went to work, but I was prepared to die.‖ The peril passed‖
Source: Owran, Doug. Born at the Right Time. Toronto: 1996
Document # 37 - Going to the Brink and Back. The Cuban Missile Crisis and Canada
The Cuban Missile Crisis began on 22 October1962. Intelligence gathered from U.S. spy planes showed
that the USSR was installing ballistic missiles in Cuba capable of hitting US and Canadian targets.
President John Kennedy announced an American naval blockade of the island, threatening further action
if preparation of the sites continued. Despite our membership in NORAD, the Canada-U.S. Permanent
Joint Board on Defense and NATO, President Kennedy informed Canada of US intentions only one-and-
a-half hours in advance of his television broadcast. The issue for the Canadian government was whether
to comply with an American request to move Canadian forces to an alert status known as DEFCON3.
Diefenbaker did not comply. Nonetheless, Canada's military moved immediately to advanced readiness
without the Prime Minister's authorization. With the approval of Minister of National Defence Douglas
Harkness, Canadian units quietly did so, but formal authorization was delayed while Cabinet debated
October 23-24. Canada's chief of naval staff ordered the Atlantic fleet to sea. Harkness argued that the
nature of the crisis, combined with existing arrangements for defence co-operation, made the alert
necessary. In Canadian and American naval headquarters, staffs were already poised to react. They had
been keeping tabs on a threatening increase in Soviet submarine activity off the eastern seaboard for
weeks. While Canadian citizens focused their attention on missile launchers in the Caribbean, or the
possibility that Bomarc missile sites would receive controversial nuclear warheads, their sailors and
maritime aircrews quietly concentrated on the submarine menace.
In Halifax, Rear-Admiral Kenneth Dyer, Flag Officer Atlantic Coast, knew that he had to act. Using
planned anti-submarine warfare exercises as a cover, he quietly began to increase fleet readiness and
prepare for war. Maritime Air Command did the same. The job would have been easier if Vice-Admiral
Harry Rayner, the Chief of Naval Staff in Ottawa, could implement the RCN Defence Plan. But given
political indecision in Ottawa, Rayner could not. Instead, Dyer and his maritime air deputy, Air
Commodore Clements, used the plan as a guide. They initiated an increase in surveillance activity off the
east coast, where their forces were already tracking two Soviet submarine contacts. In the Halifax
Dockyard, ships quietly loaded war shots, preparing to go to sea and into battle. In hangars, aircraft
readied for an intense operational tempo.
Fearing a Canadian alert would provoke the USSR and believing the American Cuban policy to be
generally unbalanced, angered by the lack of advance consultation and concerned about implications for
Canadian policy on nuclear weapons, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and Secretary of State for
External Affairs Howard Green were reluctant to acquiesce to Kennedy. About half of Canada's ministers
remained undecided, but as Soviet ships approached the quarantine zone later in the week the Harkness
position gained support and on October 24 the Diefenbaker government authorized the armed forces to go
to low alert status. But overt preparations that might raise public alarm were prohibited. In Ottawa, the
Naval Board recalled the aircraft carrier HMCS Bonaventure and its escorts from Britain. In Halifax and
Esquimalt, the fleet quietly dispersed to war stations.
Meanwhile, the United States Navy was preparing to activate a submarine barrier to the south of the
Grand Banks, in accordance with continental defence plans. It was a huge undertaking, and with
American naval forces stretched to the limit with the Cuban blockade, major Canadian participation was
essential to its success. Soon, every available Canadian warship and maritime aircraft was at sea or flying
over it, maintaining the submarine barrier… in the western Atlantic. Our responsibilities extended as far
south as the approaches to New York harbour. Canada's hesitant official response reflected in part the
desire of the prime minister and others to preserve the independence of Canadian foreign policy and to
maintain a balanced posture in crisis conditions. The delay, however, was widely criticized and
contributed to a growing perception of indecisiveness in the Diefenbaker government. It also exacerbated
already difficult relations with the Kennedy administration and fuelled further controversy over nuclear
weapons. The crisis itself ended October 27-28 when Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev agreed to
dismantle and remove the USSR missiles in Cuba. Nuclear War was averted.
Sources: Robinson, David (Canadian Maritime Command) Reminiscences: The Canadian Angle to The
Cuban Missile Crisis , 2004.
Stairs, Dennis. The Cuban Missile Crisis The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2008
Document # 38 – Postscript – Readying the BOMARCS
Liberal leader Lester Pearson‘s decision to commit his party to accepting nuclear weapons for
Canada‘s armed forces has brought powerful pressure on Prime Minister Diefenbaker to clarify
the government‘s position. Mr. Pearson, said a future Liberal government would accept the
weapons for Canadian forces.
Source: The Toronto Daily Star. January 14, 1963. P.1.
Appendix # 1 – Cold War Organizer
The following terms are key to the Cold War. Use your textbook and the documents to
help you find the necessary information on them.
Term Date Description of Issue Outcome
Turner Family Cold War Organizer
Item From Trunk Synopsis of Document Impact on Turner Family‟s Life
Appendix #3 – Pre-test/Post-test
fallout shelter containment arms race deterrence theory conservative
brinkmanship Cold War communism ICBM iron curtain
space race superpower DEFCON McCarthyism fascism
capitalism CCF pinko/Red mutually assured destruction
A) Long distance missiles are designed to shoot down ballistic missiles (rockets carrying nuclear weapons)
before they reach their targets.
B) Massive military build-up, especially of nuclear weapons, by both the Soviet Union and the United
States in an effort to gain military superiority.
C) Purposely escalating a dangerous situation to the limit, while giving the impression that you are willing
to go to war, in the hope of pressuring your opponents to back down.
D) The struggle for power between the Soviet Union and the United States that lasted from the end of
World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union. The war was considered "cold" because the aggression
was ideological, economic, and diplomatic rather than a direct military conflict.
E) In theory an economic theory in which collective ownership of property leads to a classless society. It
was the form of government in the Soviet Union in which the state owned all means of production and was
led by a centralized, authoritarian party. This was viewed as the antithesis of democracy in the United
F) Fundamental U.S. and allied foreign policy during the Cold War in which the U.S. tried to stop
Communism by preventing it from spreading to other countries.
G) An expression of vehement anti-communism initiated by US senator which lead to a series witch hunts
and trials 1946 to 1958
H) One who aims to preserve the established political, economic, and social order, opposed to change.
conservatives are usually strongly anti-communist
I) A system with a powerful dictator that is highly nationalistic, ethno-centric and warlike
J) An acronym which informs the Canadian government and military to the severity of the Soviet threat
K) A theory that proposed a massive build-up of military and weaponry in order to threaten a destructive
counter-attack to any potential attack. The threat was intended to prevent, or deter, anyone from attacking.
L) Underground structures, stocked with food and other supplies, that were intended to keep people safe
from radioactive fallout following a nuclear attack.
M) A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the growing divide between western democracies and
N) Was the guarantee that if one superpower launched a massive nuclear attack, the other would
reciprocate by also launching a massive nuclear attack, and both countries would be destroyed. This
ultimately became the prime deterrent against a nuclear war between the two superpowers.
O) A competition between the Soviet Union and the United States to prove their superiority in technology
through increasingly impressive accomplishments that began in 1957 when the Soviet Union successfully
launched the first satellite, Sputnik.
P) A country that dominates in political and military power. During the Cold War, there were two: the
Soviet Union and the United States.
Q) Usually a slang derogatory term for communist ideas, policies or sympathizers