Response to Intervention

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					Response to Intervention

Part II: What is RtI?

     Amanda VanDerHeyden

         Sharon Kurns
            What is RtI?

RtI is the practice of providing high-quality
instruction/intervention matched to student
needs and using learning rate over time and
level of performance to make important
educational decisions.




                             National Association of State
                             Directors of Special Education
                             Policy Guide
         Foundational Beliefs

   All children can learn
   Educators are responsible to meet
    students’ needs
   Parents have vast knowledge about their
    children and should be partners
           Foundational Beliefs
   Proactive instruction should be provided
    within the general education curriculum
    whenever appropriate, so children are
    assisted before concerns arise.
   Teachers and parents deserve the
    resources necessary to meet the
    educational needs of children
          Foundational Beliefs

   The best educational strategy is the one
    that works
   The effectiveness of any educational
    strategy must be evaluated frequently
   Assistance is designed to improve learning
          Foundational Beliefs

   Accurate information about student
    progress should be communicated
    regularly
   Solutions and strategies can best be
    identified and implemented when
    educators, parents, and others work
    collaboratively
         Foundational Beliefs


   Our educational system must provide
    opportunities for all students to achieve
    their visions for future employment, adult
    living, and lifelong learning.
                      Myths

   RtI is intended to put students into special
    education
   RtI is intended to keep students out of
    special education
   RtI will “open the floodgates” to special
    education
                   Myths
   RtI is what we have always done
   RtI is a simple and easy process that
    requires no new skills
   RtI delays services to students who need
    help
         RtI: What it
         is….
Represents a way of:
 Using data to examine the system in relation to
  most important results
 Structuring thinking so that we don’t miss

  anything
 Identifying strategies with a high probability of

  improving student performance and knowing if
  they work
 Keeping our attention focused on the most

  important things
Common sense into practice (cf. Fullan)
        RtI: What it is not.

 A panacea
 A curriculum, an intervention, one

  theoretical orientation
 One size fits all

 Hoops to jump through

 Easier than what came before
           Paradigm Shift

   Shifting Our View of the Problem
      From the problem is within the

       child
      To the problem is due to a

       breakdown in the teaching and
       learning interaction
               Paradigm Shift
   Thinking Differently about General and
    Special Education
        Shifting away from categorical

         thinking to solving the problems of
         individual students.
        Shifting from a placement orientation

         to a teaching orientation
                Paradigm Shift

   Thinking Differently about General and
    Special Education
        Shift from wait to fail to prevention

        Special education as a place to special

         education as a service
              Paradigm Shift
   Thinking differently about assessment and
    evaluation
      Shifting emphasis from measurement to

       evaluation
      Shifting the focus from unalterable to

       alterable variables
              Paradigm Shift
   Thinking differently about assessment and
    evaluation
      Shifting to targeted evaluations

      Shifting from high to low-inference

       measures
      Shifting from summative to formative

       evaluation (to guide decision making
               Paradigm Shift
   Thinking differently about decision making
     Shifting to decisions based on a dual

      definition of need and entitlement
     Shifting from deciding about pathology

      to deciding about what needs to be done
      for the student
                Paradigm Shift
   Shifting Sequence
        From decide entitlement first and then

         deciding instructional priorities
        To first deciding what instruction the

         student needs and then deciding if that
         requires special education
RtI…Convergence of Ideas?


     Problem Solving?
     School-Wide or Three
      Tiered Models?
     Standard Treatment?

  If you want it to be about all kids!
      Problem Solving/Individual
   Systematic process for addressing concerns
    of students through a systematic process
    of:
      Defining Problems

      Analyzing Problems

      Designing Interventions

      Monitoring Interventions

      Evaluating Effects

When Most People Hear Problem Solving….They Think of the
                   Individual Student
      School-Wide or Tiered Models
   Systematic collection and analysis of data
    are used to deploy multiple tiers of
    interventions. A process of continuous
    improvement is utilized to implement
    effective core, supplemental, and intensive
    instruction.
           Standard Treatment
   Students who are not progressing at
    acceptable rates are provided with a
    “standard treatment.” These protocols
    typically are more structured and intensive
    than general education instruction.
    Some Basics Concepts in an RtI
              Approach
   Functional Assessment
   Convergent Data
   Decisions Based on Data
   Analysis of Alterable Variables
   Instruction Matched to Student Need
   Ongoing assessment of effectiveness
             Basics of RtI:
         Functional Assessment
   Specific, direct,
    linked to
    instruction          RIOT
      Review

      Interview

      Observe

      Test
          Basics of RtI:
         Convergent Data
  Test                    Review




              Decision



                         Interview
Observation
              Basics of RtI:
        Decisions Based on Data
   Screening
   Defining Problems
   Analyzing Problems
   Progress Monitoring
    Interventions
   Treatment Integrity
   Program Evaluation
   Entitlement
   Outcomes
   Exit
        Basics of RtI:
Assessment of Alterable Variables

  We
             Curricular Variables
Control      Instructional Variables
These!
             Environmental Variables
             Student/Learner Variables
         Basics of RtI:
Instruction Matched to Student
             Needs




    Linking
    the Two
     is the
      Key!
School-Wide Applications of RTI
             Academic Systems Behavioral Systems
           TIER 3       Intensive, Individual Interventions   TIER 3 Intensive, Individual Interventions
                            Individual Students               •I            Individual Students
           •A               Assessment-based                  •A            Assessment-based
           •H               High Intensity                    •I            Intense, durable procedures
           •O               Of longer duration




TIER 2    Targeted Group Interventions                                   TIER 2 Targeted Group Interventions
•S           Some students (at-risk)                                     •S              Some students (at-risk)
•H           High efficiency                                             •H              High efficiency
                                                                                         Rapid response
             Rapid response




     TIER 1 Core Instructional/
                Universal Interventions                                     TIER 1      Universal Interventions
                    •AAll students                                          •A             All settings, all students
     •P             Preventive, proactive
                                                                                           Preventive, proactive
         School-Wide Model
   Data on all students analyzed
   Data on comprehensive program
    analyzed
   Where are our gaps?
      Is the core program meeting needs of

       majority of students?
      Are needs of strategic and intensive

       learners being met?
          School-Wide Model
   Why are there gaps?
   Develop plans
     Improvements to core instructional

      program
     Group interventions for strategic

      learners
     Individual interventions for intensive

      learners
     Using School-Wide Data
   School-wide data are used to identify
    those students needing more
    assessment or intervention

   When individual referrals are made,
    school-wide data are used to
    determine ongoing level of intervention
    (small group or individual)
Instructional Decision Making: A
   School-Wide RTI Approach




                    I
         Three Key Features
1.   Effective instructional program
2.   Frequent assessment of student
     performance
3.   Use of data to make instructional
     decisions
      1. Effective Instructional
              Program
   All students require INSTRUCTION that
    is:
      guaranteed,

      viable,

      rigorous,

      relevant.

   Some may require additional support and
    instruction based on their needs.
1. Effective Instructional Program

    Core Instruction
      The combination of

       instructional practices,
       materials, and
       strategies that            Core Instruction
       comprises the
       instruction provided to
       all students.
1. Effective Instructional Program
   Supplemental
      Occurs for students exceeding

       or not meeting core-learning
       expectations.

                                       Supplemental
                                        Instruction
1. Effective Instructional Program
   It is the combination of
    research-based instructional
    practices and a positive learning
    environment, designed to
    match identified student needs.
   Provided to smaller groups of Supplemental

    students with similar needs.      Instruction
1. Effective Instructional Program
   Intensive Instruction
      Occurs for students significantly
       exceeding or not meeting core
       learning expectations
      Is systematic and explicit and
       provides more time intensity,
       practice and immediacy of
       feedback or


                                            Intensive
                                           Instruction
1. Effective Instructional Program

  For highly proficient students-
   more advanced curriculum
  Provided to individuals or small
   groups of students with similar
   needs




                                       Intensive
                                      Instruction
2. Frequent Assessment of Student
           Performance

   Accurate, reliable,
    assessment data is essential
    to make good instructional
    decisions
      2. Frequent Assessment of
         Student Performance
   Three types of assessments
    needed to guide instruction
      Screening

      Diagnostic

      Formative Assessment
2. Frequent Assessment of Student
           Performance
   Screening Assessments
      Collecting data for the purpose of

       identifying low and high performing
       students at-risk for not having their needs
       met
      Answers the questions:

         Is our core curriculum working?

         Which students are in need of additional

          assessment?
Screening
2. Frequent Assessment of Student
           Performance
   Diagnostic Assessment
     Gathering information from multiple

      sources to determine why students are
      not benefiting from instruction due to
      advanced or deficit learning needs.
    2. Frequent Assessment of
       Student Performance

   Diagnostic Assessment
     Answers the questions:

        Why is the need occurring?

        What does the student need to

         learn?
     2. Frequent Assessment of
        Student Performance

   Formative Assessment
      Frequent, ongoing collection of

       information including both formal and
       informal data to guide instruction
      2. Frequent Assessment of
         Student Performance
   Formative Assessment
      Formative assessment for supplemental

       and intensive is often more rigorous
       “progress monitoring”
   Answers the questions:
      Are the students making progress

       compared to self, peers, and standard?
      Is an instructional change needed?
                 Is it Working?
          Monitoring Student Progress
                            Student Improvement is Job #1 Goal Area                     Reading
                                                                                                                         Ruso
Name             Jacob                  District                   School                            Year    94     Teacher
Goal By January, given passages from the third grade curriculum Jacob will read 70 words correct in one minute.
                              10 Words Correct per Minute
Service Providers
Parent Participation   Parent will provide extra oral reading time at home. They would like graph sent home biweekly.
                 Baseline    1              2                  3
       100
          90
          80
          70                                                                                                            Goal
          60
          50
          40
          30
          20
          10

                  MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
    3. Use of Data to Make
    Instructional Decisions
                  Assessing Needs




                    Continuous      Planning
     Evaluating     Improvement




                    Implementing



Continuous Improvement Cycle
Shifting to RTI: Four Critical Steps
1.   Everyone in the system (or nearly
     everyone) must understand why we’re
     changing service delivery. Knowing “the
     what” alone is not enough!
2.   Resource deployment structure must be
     changed fundamentally
3.   The scientific method (problem solving
     process) must be imported into applied
     practice
4.   Scientifically validated practices must be
     used to the extent available
    Critical Step #1
   Everyone Must Understand Why We’re Changing
      “Why” we’re moving to RTI is as much a
       logical argument as it is a research-based
       argument
      We must

         Use logical arguments and research-based
          arguments
         Base arguments on people in schools
          experience
         Teachers experience the challenges every
          day
         Use their data as part of the rationale

         Ask the hard questions (e.g., is this really as
          good as it gets? Can we do better?)
    Critical Step #1
   Everyone Must Understand Why We’re
    Changing

       Critical point: RTI is as much about
        THINKING DIFFERENTLY, as it is about
        DOING DIFFERENTLY
     Critical Step #2

   Fundamentally reengineer resource
    deployment system
      Resource deployment system must be
       continuous, not discrete
      Resources must be made available in
       direct proportion to student need
      An instructionally relevant basis for
       resource deployment must be used
    Critical Step #3
   We must import the scientific method
    (problem solving process) into practice
         For individuals

         For small groups

         For the system

      It allows our system to be self correcting

      It forces us to be data based

      It allows current practice to serve as a
       baseline for subsequent practices
      It creates the structure for importation of
       research-based strategies into practice
         Critical Step #4

   Big Idea #4: Use Research-Validated
    Practices to the Extent Available
      RTI is about evolution, not revolution

      We know more than we did years ago

      It is our responsibility to use this

       information as we select instructional
       strategies for our kids
       Models Emphasize

 Universal Screening
 Frequent Progress Monitoring

 Data-Based Decision-Making

 Filter Process to allow for More
  Effective Allocation of Resources
     Universal Screening- Math
   Math Probe:
     Group administered.

     Materials: Worksheet consisting of a

      series of problems sampling the target
      skill(s) (e.g., sums to 5, double digit
      multiplication with regrouping).
     Timing: 2 minutes

     Information obtained: digits correct in

      two minutes.
Math Probe Example
                 • Total Digits: 38
                 •Errors: 5
                 •Digits Correct: 33
     Universal Screening- Writing
   Writing Probe:
     Group administered.

     Materials: story starter (e.g., If I had a

      million dollars…) printed at the top of a
      blank page.
     Timing: 1 minute to think, 3 minutes to

      write.
     Scoring: words written or correct word

      sequences in three minutes.
Writing Example
        Universal Screening- Reading
   Reading Probe:
     Individually administered

     Materials: A content-controlled reading
      passage.
     Procedure: The student reads aloud as the
      teacher listens and records errors.
     Timing: 1 minute

     Information obtained: words read correctly in
      one minute.
CBM Reading: Scored Sample




                  TRW=63
                  Errors=6
                  CRW=58
Class-wide Screening
Feedback to Teachers
                                                                                                    Mary
                                                                                                    Chiquita

Class-wide Intervention         120
                                          Baseline         Intervention                             Randy
                                                                                                    Sandy
                                                                                                    Brandy
Digits Correct in Two Minutes




                                100                                                                 Colvin
                                                                                               m    Jolisha
                                                                                               a    Daleesha
                                80                                                             s
                                                                                                    Kiera
                                                                                               t
                                                                                               e    Bradley
                                60
                                                                                               r    Jared
                                                                                               y    Alfred
                                40                                                                  Sienna
                                                                                                    Jarian
                                                                              instructional range
                                20                                                                  Trey
                                                                                                    Robert
                                 0                                                                  Andrea
                                      1              2              3     4              5          Ashley
                                                                                                    Jaren
                                                         Sessions
                                                                                                    Mary
                                                                                                    Chiquita

Class-wide Intervention         120
                                          Baseline         Intervention                             Randy
                                                                                                    Sandy
                                                                                                    Brandy
Digits Correct in Two Minutes




                                100                                                                 Colvin
                                                                                               m    Jolisha
                                                                                               a    Daleesha
                                80                                                             s
                                                                                                    Kiera
                                                                                               t
                                                                                               e    Bradley
                                60
                                                                                               r    Jared
                                                                                               y    Alfred
                                40                                                                  Sienna
                                                                                                    Jarian
                                                                              instructional range
                                20                                                                  Trey
                                                                                                    Robert
                                 0                                                                  Andrea
                                      1              2              3     4              5          Ashley
                                                                                                    Jaren
                                                         Sessions
   No Class Problem Detected
No Class-wide–wide Problem Detected
    Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment
                                       3-7 minutes per
   “Can’t Do/Won’t Do”                child

   Individually-administered
   Materials
      Academic material that student
       performed poorly during class
       assessment.
      Treasure chest: plastic box filled
       with tangible items.
Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment
Decision Rule Following Can’t Do/Won’t
Do Assessment
 Decision Rule Follow Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment
Decision Rule Following Can’t Do/Won’t
Do Assessment
 Decision Rule Follow Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment
Individual Intervention
                         Response to Intervention



            Before
            Intervention        During Intervention
#Correct




                                                        Avg. for his Class


                                                      Each Dot is one Day
                                                      of Intervention

           Intervention in Reading   Intervention Sessions
                    Response to Intervention



           Before
           Intervention   During Intervention
#Correct




                                                Avg. for his Class
What is the ultimate goal?

   Correct performance in the classroom
   Learning



Stimulus                      Generalized
                              Performance
Control
                                    Successful Reading Intervention
                                        In-Class          Christopher's Reading Intervention
                                        Baseline     Intervention
words read correctly per minute




                                  100
                                   90
                                   80
                                   70
                                   60
                                   50                                                                        words read correctly/min
                                   40
                                   30
                                   20                                                 blends correct/min
                                   10
                                    0
                                                                                         Thursday
                                          Baseline




                                                       Monday




                                                                                                                Monday
                                                                Tuesday

                                                                          Wednesday




                                                                                                    Friday
                              Unsuccessful Math Intervention

                                                      Trenice's Math Intervention
                                  BL   Intervention
                             40
Digits Correct Two Minutes




                             35                                            intervention: sums to 7
                             30
                             25
                             20
                             15
                             10        intervention: sums to 5
                                                                 generalization: sums to 12
                              5
                              0
                                  1     2       4      6              9     11      13
                                                                   Sessions
                                     Participants
                                                                       CBM       CBM        ITBS       ITBS
                                                      Instructional
                Gender               Race                             Reading    Math      Reading     Math
                                                       Placement
                                                                       Mean      Mean       Mean       Mean

          Male     Female             Minority
                            Caucasian Non-Caucasion Regular Special



                                                                       39.5       21.5
 st
1 Grade    36        62        84           14        92         6                          N/A        N/A
                                                                      wcpm      dc/2 min



                                                                                             175       177.7
                                                                       78.5       22.3
nd
2 Grade    41        43        70           14        78         6                         standard   standard
                                                                      wcpm      dc/2 min
                                                                                            score      score
Classwide CBA        Teacher Referral        -
                                        CIBS R screening    State Mandated
Screening                                for reading and    Reading Test
                                        math




Skill/performance

deficit assessment



   Brief
   Instructional
   Manipulation




       Criterion Measures: CBA with Intervention, ITBS, and WJ-R
                 Similar Across Criterion Measures
                                                    CBA + RTI Criterion   ITBS   WJ-R


                        Sensitivity                          .76           1     .58
                        Specificity                          .89          .99    .77
                        Positive Predictive Power
      STEEP
                                                             .59          .67    .44

                        Negative Predictive Power
                                                             .95           1     .86

                        Sensitivity
                                                             .46          .33    .42
                        Specificity                          .69          .94    .85
Teacher Referral        Positive Predictive Power
                                                             .19          .17    .45

                        Negative Predictive Power
                                                             .89          .97    .83
VanDerHeyden, et al., 2003
          Filter Process of Identification
                                                        Identified
CBM (Classwide Assessment)                               55 (15%)

CBM + Reward (Performance/skill Deficit Assessment)      40 (11%)


CBM + Reward + Instruction                               22 (6%)
(STEEP +)

Teacher Referral                                         32 (19%)
CIBS-R                                                   64 (18%)
DRA                                                      17 (9%)
RTI Criterion Assessment                                 17 (5%)
WJ-R                                                        12
ITBS deficit                                              3 (4%)
                           VanDerHeyden, et al., 2003
        District-wide Implementation Data
   Vail Unified School District
       www.vail.k12.az.us
   Three years, system-wide implementation of
    STEEP grades 1-8
            System Outcomes
   Referrals reduced greater than half
   % who qualify from 50% stable baseline over
    three years to nearly 100%
   SLD down from 6% of children in district in
    2001-2002 (with baseline upward trend) to
    3.5% in 2003-2004 school year
   Corresponding gains on high-stakes tests
    (VanDerHeyden & Burns, 2005)
   Intervention successful for about 95 to 98%
    of children screened
                             VanDerHeyden et al., in submission
        For More Information
   amanda@education.ucsb.edu
   joewitt@joewitt.org
   Thank you to the US Department of
    Education for providing all film clips
    shown in this presentation

				
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