Information Warfare

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Information Warfare Powered By Docstoc
					Lt Col Maxie Thom, USAF
National Defense Fellow
Visiting Air Force Researcher
University Park Campus, DM 434C
(305) 348-1920
Information Warfare

Capabilities and Policy Issues

• Define IW
• Capabilities
• Policy Issues

• It is Not
   – Hacking into a school computer
   – Denial of service attack against e-commerce
• It is
   – DoD Technical View of IW : “information
     itself is now a realm, a weapon, and a target”
         Working Definition

Information warfare is comprised of
  operations directed against information in
  any form, transmitted over any media,
  including operations against information
  content, its supporting systems and
  software, the physical hardware device that
  stores the data or instructions, and also
  human practices and perceptions
     Information Operations (IO)

• Military Information Warfare
• IO is conducted during time of crisis or
  conflict to affect adversary information
  and information systems while defending
  one's own information and systems

". . . attaining one hundred victories in one
   hundred battles is not the pinnacle of
   excellence. Subjugating the enemy's army
   without fighting is the true pinnacle of

                     Sun Tzu, The Art of War

"There are but two powers in the world,
the sword and the mind. In the long run
the sword is always beaten by the mind."

                    Napoleon Bonaparte
            Core Capabilities

•   Psychological Operations (PSYOPS)
•   Military Deception (MILDEC)
•   Operations Security (OPSEC)
•   Computer Network Operations (CNO)
•   Electronic Warfare (EW)

• Definition : Planned operations to convey
  selected information and indicators to foreign
  audiences to influence their emotions, motives,
  objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior
  of foreign governments, organizations, groups,
  and individuals.
• Purpose: Induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and
  behavior favorable to the originator's objectives.
          PSYOP (Weapons)

• Email, Faxes, Cell phones
  – Encouraged Iraqi leaders to abandon support
• Broadcast
  – Encouraged fielded troops to not fight
• Leaflets
  – Variety of themes

• Definition: Actions executed to deliberately
  mislead adversary military decision makers with
  regard to friendly military capabilities, intentions,
  and operations, thereby causing the adversary to
  take specific actions (or inactions) that will
  contribute to the success of the friendly military
• Purpose: Guide an enemy into making mistakes
  by presenting false information, images, or
        MILDEC (Weapons)

• Operations
  – MINCEMEAT “The Man That Never Was”
• Camouflage
  – Mockups “Aircraft on a stick”
• Electronic
  – Tactical Air Launched Decoy (TALD)

“The formation and procedure used by the
  military should not be divulged
                    Sun Tzu, The Art of War
          OPSEC (Definition)

A process of identifying and analyzing information
  that is critical to friendly operations:
  (a) identify which information can be observed by
  adversary intelligence systems
  (b) determine indicators that hostile intelligence
  systems might piece together to derive critical
  information in time to be useful to adversaries,
  (c) select and execute measures that eliminate or
  reduce the vulnerability of friendly actions to
  adversary exploitation.

• The ability to attack and disrupt enemy
  computer networks, protect military
  information systems, and exploit enemy
  computer networks through intelligence
  – CNA
  – CND
  – CNE
              CNO (CNA)

• Operations conducted to disrupt, deny,
  degrade, or destroy information resident in
  computers and computer networks, or the
  computers and networks themselves.
  – Viruses
  – Trojan Horses
                   CNO (CND)

• Protect and defend information, computers, and
  networks from nasty D’s
• It utilizes security measures to keep the enemy from
  learning about U.S. military capabilities and intentions.
• Includes actions taken to protect, monitor, analyze, detect
  and respond to unauthorized activity within DOD
  information systems and networks.
• CND focuses on detecting or stopping intrusions, whereas
  OPSEC focuses on identifying and reducing vulnerabilities

   – Firewalls               - Encryption

• Any military action involving the use of
  electromagnetic (EM) or directed energy to
  manipulate the EM spectrum or to attack an
  –   Jamming
  –   TALD
  –   Stealth (RAM)
  –   High Power Microwave (HPM)
          CNA vs. EW

CNA relies on interpreted signals in a
  data stream to execute an attack

   EW relies more on the power of
       electromagnetic energy

• Policy
• Law
               Policy Issues

• NSPD 16 (classified)…Jul 2002
  – PSYOP that affect friendly nations
  – National Security Vulnerability of dependency
  – Legal issues resulting from use of cyberweapons
        Law of Armed Conflict

The LOAC arises from a desire among civilized nations
  to prevent unnecessary suffering and destruction while
  not impeding the effective waging of war. A part of
  public international law (precedence), LOAC
  regulates the conduct of armed hostilities. It also aims
  to protect civilians, prisoners of war, the wounded,
  sick, and shipwrecked. LOAC applies to international
  armed conflicts and in the conduct of military
  operations and related activities in armed conflict,
  however such conflicts are characterized.

  - Hot Pursuit      - Self Defense

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