ENGL 1213 English Composition II

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					                         ENGL 1213: English Composition II
                 Essay #3: Articulating a Claim or Rogerian Argument

Assignment:
For the third essay, develop an own original argument about some theme, relying on the
literature as evidence to support the argument. Rather than focusing on one reading as
you did in the previous assignment, now you will examine differing viewpoints on a
single theme. Note: Two options are provided for this assignment. Select the option
which best serves your topic and purpose.


Option I: Articulating a Claim:
In this essay you will be explaining your views in multiple ways: contrasting your belief
with others’ ideas, offering authoritative opinions, including documented examples, and
always using clear logic. The literary works are introduced as needed, not necessarily in
the first paragraph. For example, you might wish to discuss the impracticality of the
belief that one should "seize the day" in love. After an introduction that engages the
readers’ interest, in your first body paragraph, you would show why some people think
this is a good philosophy. Here you could borrow from Andrew Marvell’s "To His Coy
Mistress," Aphra Behn’s “The Willing Mistress,” or Christopher Marlowe’s "The
Passionate Shepherd to His Love." Then in the remaining body paragraphs, you can
draw from any number of other works, including poetry, short stories, or essays that
support your theory. Murial Stuart’s “In the Orchard” and Sir Walter Raleigh’s “The
Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” are good examples of poems that refute the concept of
carpe diem. (All of the poems mentioned here are popular and easily found on the
internet.) Addressing conflicting views can strengthen your argument since this
demonstrates that you have considered other possibilities before arriving at your beliefs.
In the conclusion, you will summarize what should have been learned through your
analysis. What do you want readers to take with them?

Option II: Rogerian Argument:
Often arguments which center on refuting an opponent’s perspective are antagonistic and
can cause people to lose their morale and identity, their desire to work together and drive
to succeed. Rogerian argument, based on the psychology of Carl Rogers, however,
requires one to consider the different stances thoroughly, find common ground, and arrive
at a compromise. Address conflicting views fairly, accurately, and empathetically. This
approach can strengthen any argument since it demonstrates that one has considered other
possibilities before arriving at a belief. In closing, you will summarize what can learned
through careful analysis and compromise. For example, if you used the same topic, carpe
diem, as listed above, you might find a middle ground between living and loving for the
moment and denying sensual gratification for pragmatic and moral reasons. The end
result of a Rogerian argument is a solution that is more likely to satisfy all parties.

*Be sure to read pages 655-67 of Reading Literature and Writing Arguments.

Objectives:
      To effectively use ethos to build trust in the audience.
      To effectively use logos to persuade your audience.
      To think outside of binary oppositions, which often doom a debate to failure.
      To learn how to use the rhetorical triangle effectively and see how ethos, logos,
       and pathos interact.
      To integrate or synthesize the ideas from selected readings.
      To learn the value and necessity of compromise when approaching complex
       issues.
      To write an essay that is thoroughly developed and logically organized.
      To incorporate in-text citations and develop a Works Cited page.
      To achieve a tone that is reliable and academic.

Requirements:

      MLA format
      Length: 4-6 pages, typed, double-spaced (not including Works Cited page)
      12-point font (New Times Roman or Arial)
      3-5 sources
      At least one source must come from the text; more may be used.
      At least one source must come from outside the text; more may be used. An
       outside source may be an article, essay, book, short story, poem, song, play, or
       film.
      Include a minimum of three direct quotations.

Option I: Articulating a Claim Organization:

         I. Introduction
                 Introduce the theme.
                 Explain the relevance of this theme to your audience. The appeal to
                   your audience’s ethos is important in this type of argument.
                 Offer an original thesis statement which expresses your own beliefs.

        II. Body A
                Begin with the opposite of what you originally believed about the
                  topic when you first considered it. What do some other people
                  believe about this topic?
                Remember that there are generally many ways of looking at any
                  topic, so do not oversimplify the opinions which differ from your
                  own.
                Find literature that exemplifies these attitudes and offer appropriate,
                  documented quotations. Remember to use an author’s full name the
                  first time he or she is introduced.
                Show an understanding and appreciation of these arguments.
                  Do not resort to attacking others’ opinions, even if they are very
                   different from your own.
                  This section of the paper should be about 1-2 paragraphs.

       III. Body B
                Now explain your beliefs about the issue.
                Focus on several reasons for believing as you do, but limit each
                  paragraph to one solid argument.
                Be sure to include references to literature and/or other outside
                  sources. If you agree with an author, his or her words can serve as
                  support for your claims.
                While you obviously support this approach to the topic over the
                  view(s) detailed earlier in the essay, you should always show respect
                  and fairness for anyone affected by this argument. Be aware that not
                  everyone has the same belief system, values, or religion as you.
                This section of the paper is the bulk of your argument and should be
                  about 3-5 paragraphs.

       IV. Conclusion
               Summarize your argument.
               Give readers advice if appropriate.

        V. Works Cited page
              On a separate page, give the necessary bibliographic information of
                 the sources used in the essay.
              Use MLA format.
              Double-space and use “hanging” indention.
              Alphabetize the sources by the authors’ last names.


Option II: Rogerian Argument Organization:

         I. Introduction
                 Introduce the theme.
                 Explain the relevance of this theme to your audience. The appeal to
                   your audience’s ethos is important in this type of argument.
                 Offer an original thesis statement which expresses your own beliefs.

        II. Body A
                Begin with the opposite of what you originally believed about the
                  topic when you first considered it. What do some other people
                  believe about this topic?
                Find literature that exemplifies this attitude and offer appropriate,
                  documented quotations. Remember to use an author’s full name the
                  first time he or she is introduced.
                   Show an understanding and appreciation of this argument.
                   Do not resort to attacking this opinion, even if it is very different
                    from your own.

        III. Body B
                 Now explain the other side of the issue. This may be your original
                   opinion, if your opinion has changed substantially.
                 Cite literature that supports this attitude.

       IV. Body C
               Identify common ground between the two stances.
               Find a compromise between both attitudes.
               Provide evidence from additional outside resources to support the
                 compromise.

        V. Conclusion
               Summarize your argument.
               Give readers advice if appropriate.

       VI. Works Cited page
              On a separate page, give the necessary bibliographic information of
                 the sources used in the essay.
              Use MLA format.
              Double-space and use “hanging” indention.
              Alphabetize the sources by the authors’ last names.


Suggested Readings:

You are not limited to the following topics, but these may give you an idea of what might
be appropriate for this assignment:

Chapter 1:

      Discuss the role of the parent in teaching a child how to behave. Read Jamaica
       Kincaid’s “Girl” (15-16).
      Discuss parents’ and children’s responsibility toward each other. Read Robert
       Hayden’s “Those Winter Sundays” (21-22).
      What constitutes a “good” neighborhood? Look at the image on page 21.
      Discuss the effects of war and the reasons young people enlist in the military.
       Read Wilfred Owen’s “Dulce Et Decorum Est” (22-23).

Chapter 2:
      Discuss the value of work. Does it enhance our lives beyond financial security?
       Or does it suck the life out of us? Read William Wordsworth’s “The World Is Too
       Much With Us” (556) and Marge Piercy’s “To Be of Use” (56-57).
      Discuss increasing commercialism. Read Jane Martin’s “Rodeo” (53-55).

Chapter 3:

      Discuss the effects of discrimination, either upon those who are prejudiced or
       those against whom are discriminated. Read Frank Chin’s “Donald Duk and the
       White Monsters” (69-73), Dwight Okita’s “In Response to Executive Order
       9066” (137), and/or Richard Roderiguez’ “The Chinese in All of Us” (169-75).
      Show how society forces individuals to lie, either to themselves or others, to
       fulfill expectations. Read Kate Chopin’s “Desiree’s Baby” (65-68), Frank Chin’s
       “Donald Duk and the White Monsters” (69-73), or Tim O’Brien’s “On the Rainy
       River” (107-18).
      When someone commits violent crimes, how much freedom does he forfeit?
       Whom should we admire and why? Read Etheridge Knight’s ”Hard Rock
       Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminally Insane” (134-5).
      Focus on the effects of one’s environment growing up. How does one’s own
       community enhance or limit one’s opportunities? Read Maile Meloy’s “Ranch
       Girl” (102-6) and/or Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use” (394-400).

Chapter 4:

      Discuss the ethics of hunting. Read James Fenimore Cooper’s “The Slaughter of
       the Pigeons” (211-17).
      Define wisdom. Address the assumptions that people make based on economic
       status and age. Read Eudora Welty’s “A Worth Path” (250-6).
      What is home? Is it simply a place where one can feel “happy to be alive,” as
       Lucille Clifton writes in “For deLawd” (262-3)?
      Discuss the value of the wilderness. Do we need it, even if we never actually go
       there, as Edward Abbey claims in “The Heat of Noon: Rock and Tree and Cloud”
       (287-92)?
      Discuss the virtues of being alone in nature. Read Henry David Thoreau’s
       “Solitude” (322-7).

Chapter 5:

      In Gracy Paley’s “A Conversation with My Father” (372-76), the narrator writes
       a story for her father and he criticizes her lack of realism. He views her optimistic
       ending as naïve and an indication of the younger generation’s inability to see life
       seriously. Write an essay that shows what the younger and older generations have
       in common. Use outside sources that illustrate the divide in generational values
       and work from there.
      Peter D. Kramer’s “Divorce and National Values” (445-47) as a springboard,
       explain how American individuality and the inherent compromise in marriage are
       not at odds with one another. Find outside sources that explain the role of
       individualism in America and the need for compromise in matrimony.
      “Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use: For Your Grandmama” (394-400) addresses the
       role of heritage in family. Write a Rogerian argument that finds common ground
       between those who say one should become “American” when moving to the
       United States and those who favor preserving old traditions and lifestyles.
      In “A Conversation with My Father,” the narrator writes a story for her father and
       he criticizes her lack of realism. He views her optimistic ending as naïve and an
       indication of the younger generation’s inability to see life seriously. Write an
       essay that shows what the younger and older generations have in common. Use
       outside sources that illustrate the divide in generational values and work from
       there.
      Define family. How does this definition family change with divorce or death of a
       parent? On Tidy Endings (425-442).
      Focus on marriage. What should be the rights of a widow or widower? Read
       Harvey Fierstein’s On Tidy Endings (425-442).

Chapter 6:

      Define education and discuss its purpose. Who is responsible for education? Read
       “The Lesson” (465-70) by Toni Bambara, “Cathedral” (471-81) by Raymond
       Carver, and “Theme for English B” (559-60) by Langston Hughes.
      Do people actually gain insight in an instant, as happens in Raymond Carver’s
       “Cathedral” (471-81)?
      Address the duties of a soldier. How much of oneself must be put aside to serve in
       the military? Read Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried” (512-524).
      Discuss finding balance between individual privacy and community. Read Robert
       Frost’s “Mending Wall” (556-7).
      Discuss the rights of animals and the need for eating meat. Read Tom Regan’s
       “Religion and Animal Rights” (633-43).

				
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