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									    Sustainability Science Workshop, UN Headquarters, New York, October 5, 2010

Industry–Academia Collaboration
     Towards Sustainability

         on the case of
      Solar-PV Technology

            Katsumi Kushiya
          Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K.
            Solar Frontier K.K.
          The University of Tokyo

(1) Who is Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K. &
    Solar Frontier K.K.
(2) Successful results of Collaboration
    between Industry and Academia on
    the R&D of Solar-PV Technology
(3) International survival race on Solar-
    PV or Sustainable Growth of Solar-PV

        Showa Shell Sekiyu Group
                  Parent Company
                  Downstream oil business: refining & marketing

                                                          Basic Data FY 2009 -
                 Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K.                  US$
                                                          Listed in Tokyo Stock
                               Royal       General        Exchange Class 1
                               Dutch       Share-         Turnover: $21.6 B
                               Shell       holders        Total Assets: $12.5 B
                  15%             35%          50%        Market Cap: $ 3 B
                                                          ※Currency: $1 =\93.6
                                                          ※Stock price = \756
                              100% Subsidiary, Solar-PV
                              business: mfg & marketing

                  Solar Frontier K.K.

     100%                                            100%

Solar Frontier Europe, GmbH             Solar Frontier Americas, Inc.
                      30-year Experience in the Solar-PV
                                                                                                  Launching world’s largest
             Shell sold share of Avancis to Saint-Gobain August 2009                              mass production plant, total
                                                                         2009                     1GW Scale
     The JV, Avancis completed a 20MW CIS production facility 2008                    2010 New Worldwide Name Solar Frontier
  Shell Solar sold crystalline PV business to SolarWorld                               Production at 2nd plant started,
    Focus on CIS R&D, launched JV with Sant-Gobain                               2009
                                                         2006                         expanded capacity to 80MW/year &
                                                                                      Atsugi Research Centre opened
             Shell Solar acquired Siemens Solar      2003                         Commercial production in Miyazaki Plant 1
          Foundation of Shell Renewable                                 2006 Showa Shell Solar established
              Foundation of Shell Solar       1997
                                                                    2005 Decision made on commercial production of CIS
Siemens Solar acquired Arco Solar                            2004     Shell Solar Japan established
                                    1990               1993 Started the R&D of CIS funded by NEDO
        (Shell)                                   1992 Installed PV for the first residential application
                                           1990 Showa ARCO Solar re-launched as Showa Solar Energy

                                       1987   Showa Shell & Kyocera co-founded JPEA
                                              (Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association)
ARCO Solar                        1986
                                       Launched Showa ARCO Solar JV with ARCO Solar
started research
on PV                               Started X-Si module assembling (MODCO)
                     1981 Technical partnership with ARCO Solar
               1978 Showa Shell started R&D work on PV
       1974, 1978                                                                                 (Solar Frontier)
                    Oil crisis
                   Solar Frontier K.K., Today
                              2011, Third plant will start
                              commercial production
                              900 MW/year capacity
                              land =400,000 m2
                              bldg =190,000 m2

2009, Atsugi Research Centre :
Next gen. production technology
                                                             2009, Second Plant
the three key processes enlarged
                                                             60 MW/year capacity
substrate size, higher throughput,
                                                             Land=50,000 m2
higher efficiency.
                                                             Building=27,000 m2
                                                             Capex= USD 150M
                                                                     (JPY 15 Billion)

                                                             2007, First Plant
                                                             20 MW/year capacity
R&D - key technology development:                            land =25,000 m2
world record of 16.3 % efficiency was                        Bldg =6,000 m2
achieved in the NEDO R&D Program.                            Capex=USD 50M 5

(1) Who is Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K. &
    Solar Frontier K.K.
(2) Successful results of Collaboration
    between Industry and Academia on
    the R&D of Solar-PV Technology
(3) International survival race on Solar-
    PV or Sustainable Growth of Solar-PV

                         R&D of Solar-PV
                        This is a good example of collaboration
 Oil Crisis             between industry and academia.
1973 1979
                       National R&D program of Solar-PV was started.
  1975          1980            1990
    USA        Japan                  EU
Technology Development +                   Technology Development +
Market-pull strategy: Incentive, Subsidy   Market-pull strategy: Feed in Tariff

                        Solar-PV Cells Appearance

   Single Crystalline Si: From
      Space to Terrestrial                           Polycrystalline Si

Amorphous Si (film)              Amorphous Si/ micro-                     CIS   8
                                 crystalline Si (Tandem)
                   History of R&D of Solar-PV in Japan
                         : NEDO R&D Programs
Sunshine Program
                                        1st Generation PV Crystalline-Si PV:
=> Commercialization of
                                       Single Crystal Si to Polycrystalline Si
Sharp, Kyocera
                              Power source in the Space to Terrestrial Power Application

Sunshine and New Sunshine (1st
Phase) Programs                                   1st Generation Thin-film PV:
=> Commercialization of Fuji                           Amorphous Si, CdTe
Electric, Sanyo Electric, Kaneka,     After 2005, holding the market share in the European
MHI, Sharp (& First Solar)                       market, especially in Germany.

New Sunshine (2nd Phase)
                                                 2nd Generation Thin-film PV:
Program, Advanced PV Technology
Program and Future PV Technology        CIS, Amorphous Si/ Microcrystalline-Si Tandem
Program                               Higher performance than 1st Generation Thin-film PV
=> Commercialization of Showa
Shell Sekiyu, Kaneka, MHI
                                                  3rd Generation Thin-film PV:
                                             Organic Thin-film PV (DSC and Organic)
        Innovative Next Generation PV
        Technology Program and Future PV
        Technology Program                                                            9
               From Simple to Complex

                         IV Si

       III-V                                 II-VI
Epitaxial film:               Polycrystalline thin film:
(In,Ga)As Alloy System        CdTe

                     Polycrystalline thin film:
                     Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (Chalcopyrite Alloy)
                         I-III-VI2 Alloy: Group I= Cu, Group III= In and
                         Ga, Group VI = Se and S                     10
                   Never Ending Goal of R&D

         1st Generation PV: Crystalline-Si PV:
         Single Crystal Si to Polycrystalline Si
Power source in the Space to Terrestrial Power Application

                    1st Generation Thin-film PV:
                         Amorphous Si, CdTe
        After 2005, holding the market share in the European
                   market, especially in Germany.

                  2nd Generation Thin-film PV:
          CIS, Amorphous Si/Microcrystalline-Si Tandem
       Higher performance than 1st Generation Thin-film PV

                    3rd Generation Thin-film PV:
               Organic Thin-film PV (DSC and Organic)

                      Cost reduction                           Grid parity
                                           Best Research-Cell Efficiencies
                                                         from 1975 to 2004, prepared by NREL
                                                                                                                                                                                               III-V: Over 40%
                          Multijunction Concentrators
                 36         Three-junction (2-terminal, monolithic)                                                                                                                        Spectrolab
                            Two-junction (2-terminal, monolithic)
                 32       Crystalline Si Cells                                                                                                            Energy                   NREL/
                            Single crystal                                                                                                                                        Spectrolab
                 28         Thin Si

                          Thin Film Technologies                                                                                                                           UNSW                       CIS:
                             Cu(In,Ga)Se2                                                                                                                          UNSW
                 24                                                                                                    Spire                           UNSW
Efficiency (%)

                             CdTe                                                                                                            UNSW                                                NREL
                                                                                                                       UNSW                                                                   Cu(In,Ga)Se2
                             Amorphous Si:H (stabilized)                            Spire         Stanford                                                                                  14x concentration
             20           Emerging PV
                                                          ARCO                                                          Georgia Tech         Sharp
                                                                                                                                                          Georgia Tech               NREL
                             Organic cells       Westing-                                          Varian                                                                                        NREL       NREL
                                                                                                                       University                                                   NREL
             16                                           No. Carolina
                                                         State University
                                                                                                                      So. Florida
                                                                                                                                                     Euro-CIS                AstroPower
                                                                                              ARCO           Boeing
                                                                     Kodak                                                          Boeing
             12                                 Boeing
                      Masushita                                                                                                                             United Solar
                                                     Kodak           Boeing             AstroPower
                 8                      Monosolar
                                                    Boeing                              Solarex                           Energy
                                  University                                                                                                                                               Berkeley     Princeton
                 4                of Maine
                                                        RCA                                                                                                            University
                                    RCA         RCA                                                                                                                    Konstanz                         NREL
                        RCA                 RCA
                 1975                       1980                              1985                                    1990                            1995                             2000              12 026587136
                       Technology Transfer for
                    Commercialization: CIS Solar cells
 R&D                       Transition                               Commercialization

 Stuttgart Univ. ==>             ZSW ==>                            Würth Solar

 Uppsala Univ. ==> Solibro AG ==>                                   Solibro (Q-Cells)

Johannesburg Univ. ==>                                  Johanna Solar (Bosch Solar CISTech)

 NREL              ==>                                        Global Solar Energy (Solon),
                                                                Miasole, Nanosolar, Stion,
                                                                                and more

 Hahn Meitner Institute (Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie)   ==> Sulfurcell

 [ARCO Solar] ==>[Siemens Solar Ind.]==>[Shell Solar GmbH] ==> AVANCIS

Showa Shell Sekiyu               ==>                                Solar Frontier
 Honda Engineering                 ==>                                Honda Soltec
              Role of industry and academia
  -Academia: demonstrate the potential of the materials
  excellence on a small-area solar cell.
  -Industry: improve the global competitiveness on a product.

20 % Cell
demonstrated by
NREL (20.0 %,
2008) and ZSW
(20.3 %, 2010).

                                   16 % Module efficiency race.
                                   Solar frontier is the top runner.

        between industry and academia
Happy time
  R&D        Transition   Commercialization


     Factor of Academia


(1) Who is Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K. &
    Solar Frontier K.K.
(2) Successful results of Collaboration
    between Industry and Academia on
    the R&D of Solar-PV Technology
(3) International survival race on Solar-
    PV or Sustainable Growth of Solar-PV

Solar-PV System
   How a grid-connected PV system works
   (Source: EPIA “Solar Generation V -2008”, p.19)

   1:PV array 2:PV array combiner/Junction box
   3:Grid-tied inverter 4:Import/Export meter
   5:Connection to the grid 6:Load
                  Related Industries in Solar-PV
Equipment makers      Raw materials and module parts suppliers
Related companies of Equipment            Organization for IEC
maintenance, Industrial waste             Certification: JET (J), TÜV (G),
disposal, Analytical works                UL (USA), Organization for ISO
                                             Authorities for license and
Educational institutions                     approval: Local government
to bring up the people with                  (Application and notification),
special talent or skills                     Fire authorities, Agency for
                                             High-pressure gas law,
                   Utility companies         Keeping various laws and rules

PV system integrator &        Distribution networks, Storage/Warehouse
installer of House
builders, Building firms,     Parts related to the Solar-PV systems:
Electrical appliance          Battery, Power conditioner, Rack and related
stores, Large-scale           goods, Electrical wire/Cables, Distribution
shopping center (SC)          panel, Switchboard, Meters, Displays 18
              Industrialization of Solar-PV
                  So far, two successful ideas

Basic idea   Name of the      Remarks
Market-      Feed-in Tariff   High level of customer satisfaction,
pull                          because Solar-PV system owners
                              are profitable.
             Incentive        Sustainable?
             Green            Can Solar-PV system owners sell
             Certification    their amount of CO2 emission?
             RPS              Only for the industry
Tax          “Tax             Effective to invite the Solar-PV
Incentive    Heaven“          manufacturers who look for a
                              location to set up their plants. 19
         Approaches for Industrialization
 Feed-in-Tariff System = good for Developed
  countries: Germany, Spain, other EU countries, the
  USA and Japan

 “Tax Heaven” Policy = good for Developing
  countries: Malaysia, one of Oil-producing countries
  and High population having a high level of
  education ( Strength of Asian countries).
   Companies decided to construct the mfg plant in
  Malaysia = First Solar, Q-cells, SunPower and

 “Development of Environmentally-Friendly City”
  = good for Oil-producing countries; Masdar City
  (Abu Dhabi), KACST (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)
    Development of wide range of infrastructure     20
                                                         Impact of Feed in Tariff

                                      4000     ◆Incentive (Financial support) was finished in Japan.
 Cumulative Installed PV Power [MW]
Cumulative Installed PV Power [MW]

                                               ◆Revised Feed-in-Tariff was effective in Germany.







                                             1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

                                                                             Japan   Germany
   Source: Table 2 Cumulative installed PV power (MW) in IEA PVPS Countries Historical Perspective of
   Trends in Photovoltaic Applications Survey Report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2007
           Solar-PV related companies in
             Germany after FIT system
• New industry & Job Creation: In Germany, exclusively
  PV-system related companies were created, such as PV
  dealer/ distributor, PV-system installer/ integrator
  (i.e. downstream business sectors) because Feed-in-
  tariff system is a market-pull policy.

• However, too rapid growth of the German PV market
  was the main reason of the delay to create the
  upstream business sectors of Solar-PV business, i.e.
  mfg companies in Germany.
• Therefore, the German PV market had to import the PV
  products from the world to keep its growth rate.
                     What Feed in Tariff changed
                2004 [%]                     2007 [%]                    2009 [%]
   PV          World Total       PV         World Total      PV         World Total
 Company         Prod.,        Company        Prod.,       Company        Prod.,
                1.19 GW                      3.73 GW                    10.66 GW
   Sharp          27.1         Q-Cells         10.4       First Solar      9.5
 Kyocera          8.8           Sharp          9.7         Suntech         6.6
  Q-Cells                     Suntech
                  6.3                          8.8          Sharp          5.6
(Germany)                     (China)
                  6.3          Kyocera         5.5         Q-Cells         5.0
                              First Solar                   Yingli
  Sanyo           5.4                          5.5                         4.9
                             (CdTe, USA)                   (China)
 BP Solar                      Motech                      JA Solar
                  4.4                          5.3                         4.8
(Australia)                   (Taiwan)                     (China)
Schott Solar
                  4.4           Sanyo          4.4         Kyocera         3.8
                        Solar-PV: Two Categories
                Two concepts for the technology development

Crystalline-Si Solar Cells & PV Modules
                                           •Separated or batch
11 Nine
                                           •Focused on Solar
SEG-Si     Cz                              cell processing
            or                    Moduling •Different players
SOG-Si    Casting
 Up to 8 Nine                                          Installation
                            Solar Cell                     &
                            Processing                   Sales

 Thin-film Solar Cells & PV Modules

  Raw              Circuit                 •Less players
 materials      Manufacturing              •Turn-key makers
                                           •Venture capital
                                           •Many start ups 24
                       Expansion of Production Volume
                            in First Solar (CdTe)

First Solar announced that
1) They started the production in
the beginning of 2002 and reached
the accumulated production volume
of 1 GW (1000MW) in march, 2009.

2) It took for 6 years to reach the
first 500 MW, but only for 6 months
to achieve the next 500 MW. 3) In
2009, they will produce 1 GW per

                                      In 2009, 23 production     25
                                      lines and 4000 employees
                    From Raw Materials to Waste
                   (Control of product Life Cycle)
       Basic device-design concept:
       1)Achieve high performance for the grid parity.
       2)Meet the RoHS Directives containing neither Cd nor Pb.
       3)Mfg capacity over GW

   Selection of                          Mfg
   Raw Materials
                                                     Quality Assurance
                    Sales and Service                Meet the IEC
                         Long-life product           systems and the ISO.

Future subject ?                                     Minimize the waste
                   Materials Recycle,                Prepare the Materials
                   Recovery of valuables              cycling society
                                                     Complete the Life cycle
                                                      control.               26

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