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					  Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic




                                                                                         10/14/2009




TEAM
AWESOME
                   INTRODUCTION TO TWITTER




        A beginner’s guide | by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic


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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic




Contents
Attribution ...................................................................................................................................................... 3
   Wikipeda..................................................................................................................................................... 3
   Creative Commons ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 5
Twitter Background ........................................................................................................................................ 6
History ............................................................................................................................................................ 7
Finances .......................................................................................................................................................... 9
Technology ................................................................................................................................................... 10
   A Twitter profile ....................................................................................................................................... 10
   Interface ................................................................................................................................................... 10
   Content of tweets..................................................................................................................................... 10
Demographics............................................................................................................................................... 12
Outages ........................................................................................................................................................ 13
   The Twitter fail whale error message....................................................................................................... 13
Privacy and security...................................................................................................................................... 14
Criticism ........................................................................................................................................................ 15
Notable usage............................................................................................................................................... 16
   Use in campaigning .................................................................................................................................. 16
   Used to survey opinion............................................................................................................................. 16
   Use in public relations .............................................................................................................................. 16
   Use in reporting dissent ........................................................................................................................... 16
   Use in protest and politics ........................................................................................................................ 17
   Use in emergencies .................................................................................................................................. 18
   Use in criminal proceedings ..................................................................................................................... 18
   Use in space exploration .......................................................................................................................... 18
Similar services ............................................................................................................................................. 19
Top Web Links .............................................................................................................................................. 21
References .................................................................................................................................................... 23




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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic



Attribution
All the content in this report, except for the Top Web Links section is from Wikipedia, licensed under the
Creative Commons Share-Alike 3.0 Unported License (see below for an overview of both Wikipedia and
the Creative Commons). The following picture shows the full license below (it is also set up as a hyperlink
to the original web source for this license).

(Wikipedia, 2009)




Figure 1 - Wikipedia Creative Commons License

Our Contribution
We have attempted to add extra value to the content by structuring it in an easy to read, business report
format and to add an informative “Top Web Links” section. We have also added an index to help you
find what you are looking for. We hope you find it useful and worth the $1 purchase price. We have
prepared this report as part of a MS Word 2007 assignment for BSYS 1000 – Computer Applications I that
we are taking at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT). All proceeds will go to student clubs
within the School of Business at BCIT.

Wikipeda
Wikipedia is a multilingual, Web-based, free-content encyclopedia project based mostly on anonymous
contributions. The name "Wikipedia" is a portmanteau of the words wiki (a type of collaborative Web
site) and encyclopedia. Wikipedia's articles provide links to guide the user to related pages with
additional information.

Wikipedia is written collaboratively by an international (and mostly anonymous) group of volunteers.
Anyone with internet access can write and make changes to Wikipedia articles. There are no
requirements to provide one's real name when contributing; rather, each writer's privacy is protected


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unless they choose to reveal their identity themselves. Since its creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown
rapidly into one of the largest reference web sites, attracting around 65 million visitors monthly as of
2009. There are more than 75,000 active contributors working on more than 14,000,000 articles in more
than 260 languages. As of today, there are 3,062,069 articles in English. Every day, hundreds of
thousands of visitors from around the world collectively make tens of thousands of edits and create
thousands of new articles to augment the knowledge held by the Wikipedia encyclopedia. (See also:
Wikipedia:Statistics.)

Creative Commons
Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works
available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-
licenses known as Creative Commons licenses. These licenses allow creators to communicate which
rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators.




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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic



Introduction
This report will focus on an introduction to Twitter. It is intended for a general audience. In our Top
Web Links section, we have focused on some high quality blogs that help beginners get started with
using Twitter. Twitter has grown remarkably over the past years and shows no sign of stopping. It’s a
good idea to have an understanding of Twitter’s history, technology and popular uses of this new social
media technology.




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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic




Twitter Background
Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read
messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the
author's profile page and delivered to the author's subscribers who are known as followers. Senders can
restrict delivery to those in their circle of friends or, by default, allow open access. Users can send and
receive tweets via the Twitter website, Short Message Service (SMS) or external applications. While the
service, itself, costs nothing to use, accessing it through SMS may incur phone service provider fees.

The 140 character limit on message length was initially set for compatibility with SMS messaging, and has
brought to the web the kind of shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140
character limit has also spurred the usage of URL shortening services such as tinyurl, bit.ly and tr.im, and
content hosting services, such as Twitpic and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text
longer than 140 characters.

Since its creation in 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Twitter has gained notability and popularity worldwide. It is
sometimes described as the "SMS of the Internet"[3] since the use of Twitter's application programming
interface for sending and receiving short text messages by other applications often eclipses the direct use
of Twitter.

Twitter is ranked as one of the 50 most popular websites worldwide by Alexa's web traffic analysis.[4]
Although estimates of the number of daily users vary because the company does not release the number
of active accounts, a February 2009 Compete.com blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social
network[5] based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits.[5] In
March 2009, a Nielsen.com blog ranked Twitter as the fastest-growing site in the Member Communities
category for February 2009. Twitter had a monthly growth of 1,382 percent, Zimbio of 240 percent,
followed by Facebook with an increase of 228 percent.[6] However, only 40 percent of Twitter's users are
retained.[7]




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History

Twitter began in a "daylong brainstorming session" that was held by board members of the podcasting
company Odeo in an attempt to break out of a creative slump. At that meeting Jack Dorsey introduced
the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group, a concept partly
inspired by the SMS group messaging service TXTMob.[8]

The working name was just "Status" for a while. It actually didn’t have a name. We were trying to name
it, and mobile was a big aspect of the product early on ... We liked the SMS aspect, and how you could
update from anywhere and receive from anywhere.

We wanted to capture that in the name — we wanted to capture that feeling: the physical sensation that
you’re buzzing your friend’s pocket. It’s like buzzing all over the world. So we did a bunch of name-
storming, and we came up with the word "twitch," because the phone kind of vibrates when it moves.
But "twitch" is not a good product name because it doesn’t bring up the right imagery. So we looked in
the dictionary for words around it, and we came across the word "twitter," and it was just perfect. The
definition was "a short burst of inconsequential information," and "chirps from birds." And that’s exactly
what the product was.

  —Jack Dorsey[9]

The original product name or codename for the service was twttr, inspired by Flickr and the fact that
American SMS short codes are five characters. The developers initially experimented with "10958″ as a
short code, though later changed it to "40404″ for "ease of use and memorability."[8] Work on the
project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 PM Pacific
Standard Time (PST): "just setting up my twttr".[10]

The first Twitter prototype was used as an internal service for Odeo employees, later launching publicly
into a full-scale version in July 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey and other
members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo and all of its assets—including
Odeo.com and Twitter.com—from the investors and other shareholders.[11] Twitter later spun off into
its own company in April 2007.[12]

The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest (SXSW) festival. During the
event usage went from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.[13] "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-
inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked
Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it. Soon everyone
was buzzing and posting about this new thing that was sort of instant messaging and sort of blogging and
maybe even a bit of sending a stream of telegrams."[14] Reaction at the festival was overwhelmingly



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positive. Laughing Squid blogger Scott Beale said Twitter "absolutely rul[ed]" SXSW. Social software
researcher Danah Boyd said Twitter "own[ed]" the festival.[15] Twitter staff accepted their prize for the
festival's Web Award with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just
did!"[16]




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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic



Finances
Twitter's San Francisco headquarters located on the 4th floor of 539 Bryant Street

In total, Twitter has raised over US$57 million from venture capitalists. The exact amounts of funding
have not been publicly released. Twitter's first round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is
rumored to have been between $1 million and $5 million.[17] Its B round of funding in 2008 was for $22
million[18] and its C round of funding in 2009 was for $35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and
Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square
Ventures, Spark Capital and Insight Venture Partners.[17] Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures,
Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.[19]

The Industry Standard has remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue.[20]
Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could make money from e-commerce
noting that many users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since they already use it to get
product recommendations and since companies already use it to promote products.[21]

Some of Twitter's documents covering revenue and user growth were published on TechCrunch after
they were retrieved by a hacker. These contained internal projections that in 2009 they would have
revenues of $400,000 in the third quarter (Q3) and $4 million in the fourth quarter (Q4) along with 25
million users at the end of the year. The projections for the end of 2013 were $1.54 billion in revenue,
$111 million in net earnings, and 1 billion users.[1] No information about how Twitter plans to achieve
those numbers has been published. Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting legal action for revealing
the details was a possibility.[22]




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Technology

A Twitter profile
Twitter has been described as akin to a Web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client.[23] The Twitter Web
interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework.[24] From the spring of 2007 until 2008 the actual messages
were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling[25] but since 2009 this has been
gradually replaced with software written in Scala.[26] The service's API allows other web services and
applications to integrate with Twitter.[27] Searches on the system make use of hashtags, words or
phrases prefixed with a #. A search for "beer" would turn up all messages that included #beer.[28]
Similarly, the @ sign followed by a username allows users to send messages directly to each other. A
message with @example would be directed at the user "example" although it can still be read by
anyone.[29]

Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the
United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. There
is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone and O2
networks.[30]

Interface
Technology author Steven Johnson describes the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple:"[31]

As a social network, Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. When you choose to follow
another Twitter user, that user's tweets appear in reverse chronological order on your main Twitter
page. If you follow 20 people, you'll see a mix of tweets scrolling down the page: breakfast-cereal
updates, interesting new links, music recommendations, even musings on the future of education.

On April 30, 2009, Twitter tweaked its web interface, adding a search bar and a sidebar of Trending
Topics—the most common phrases currently appearing in messages. "Every public update sent to Twitter
from anywhere in the world 24/7 can be instantly indexed and made discoverable via our newly launched
real-time search," explained Biz Stone. "With this newly launched feature, Twitter has become something
unexpectedly important—a discovery engine for finding out what is happening right now."[32]

Content of tweets


San Antonio-based market research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the US
and in English) over a 2-week period from 11:00a to 5:00p (CST) and separated them into six
categories:[33]

  * News

  * Spam

  * Self-promotion



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  * Pointless babble

  * Conversational

  * Pass-along value

The firm found that "pointless babble" was the largest category of Twitter content, making up 811 tweets
or 40.55 percent of the total number of messages sampled.

Conversational messages accounted for 751 messages or 37.55 percent, tweets with "pass-along value"
i.e. retweets – accounted for 174 messages or 8.70 percent, self-promotion by companies made up 117
tweets or 5.85 percent, spam was 75 tweets or 3.75 percent and tweets with news from mainstream
media publications accounted for 72 tweets or 3.60 percent.[33]

Social networking researcher Danah Boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what
the Pear researchers labelled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "peripheral awareness" or
"social grooming".[34]




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Demographics

Most of Twitter's usage share comes from older adults who might not have used other social sites before
Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. "Adults are just catching up to
what teens have been doing for years," he said.[35]

Just 11 percent of Twitter's users are aged 12 to 17, according to comScore.[35]

comScore attributes this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first gained
popularity in business settings and news outlets, which resulted in an older-skewing early adopter
profile. However, comScore as of late, has noted that as Twitter has begun to "filter more into the
mainstream, along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined
the ranks of the Twitterati."[36] Nielsen Online estimates that retention rate for Twitter is 40%.[37]




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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic



Outages


The Twitter fail whale error message.
When Twitter experiences an outage, users see the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying
Lu,[38] an illustration of red birds using nets to hoist a whale from the ocean along with the text [39]
"Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again."[39]

Twitter experienced approximately 98 percent uptime in 2007, or about six full days of downtime.[40]
Twitter's downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such
as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote address.[41][42] During May 2008 Twitter's new
engineering team made architectural changes to deal with the scale of growth. Stability issues resulted in
down time or temporary feature removal.

In August 2008, Twitter withdrew free SMS services to users in the United Kingdom[43] and for
approximately five months instant messaging support via a XMPP bot was listed as being "temporarily
unavailable".[44] On October 10, 2008, Twitter's status blog announced that instant messaging (IM)
service was no longer a temporary outage and needed to be revamped. Twitter aims to return its IM
service at some point but says this requires some major work.[45]

On June 12, 2009, in what was called a potential "Twitpocalypse", the unique identifier associated with
each tweet exceeded the limit for 32-bit signed integers.[46] While Twitter itself was not affected, some
third-party clients found that they could no longer access recent tweets. Patches were quickly released,
though some iPhone applications had to wait for approval from the App Store.[47] On September 22, the
identifier exceeded the limit for 32-bit unsigned integers, again breaking some third-party clients.[48]

On August 6, 2009, Twitter and Facebook suffered from a denial-of-service attack, causing the Twitter
website to be offline for several hours.[49] It was later confirmed that the attacks were directed at one
pro-Georgian user around the anniversary of the 2008 South Ossetia War, rather than the sites
themselves.[50]




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Privacy and security
Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties. The
service considers that information an asset, and reserves the right to sell it if the company changes
hands.[51] While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target users based on their history of
tweets and sometimes may quote tweets in ads.[52]

A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since Twitter used
the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update
someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing.[53] The vulnerability could only be used if the spoofer
knew the phone number registered to their victim's account. Within a few weeks of this discovery
Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could specify to
authenticate SMS-originating messages.[54]

On January 5, 2009, 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrator's
password was guessed by a dictionary attack.[55] Falsified tweets—including sexually explicit and drug-
related messages—were then sent from the accounts.[56]

Twitter launched the beta version of its Verified Accounts service on June 11, 2009, allowing famous or
notable people to make it clear which Twitter accounts belongs to them. The home pages of these
verified accounts display a badge to indicate this special status.[57]




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Criticism
The Wall Street Journal wrote that social-networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed feelings in the
technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters. Fans say they are a good way to keep in
touch with busy friends. But some users are starting to feel "too" connected, as they grapple with check-
in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing
what they're having for dinner."[58] "Using Twitter for literate communication is about as likely as firing
up a CB radio and hearing some guy recite ‘The Iliad’ ", said tech writer Bruce Sterling.[59] "For many
people, the idea of describing your blow-by-blow activities in such detail is absurd," hypothesized writer
Clive Thompson. "Why would you subject your friends to your daily minutiae? And conversely, how much
of their trivia can you absorb? The growth of ambient intimacy can seem like modern narcissism taken to
a new, supermetabolic extreme — the ultimate expression of a generation of celebrity-addled youths
who believe their every utterance is fascinating and ought to be shared with the world."[60] On the other
hand Steve Dotto opines that part of Twitter's appeal is the challenge of trying to publish such messages
in tight constraints.[61] "The qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-baked are what makes it so
powerful," says Jonathan Zittrain, professor of Internet law at Harvard Law School.[62]

Nielsen Online reports that Twitter has a user retention rate of 40 percent. Many people drop the service
after a month so the site may potentially reach only about 10% of all Internet users.[63] In 2009, Twitter
won the "Breakout of the Year" Webby Award.[64][65]

During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radio's Weekend Edition, Daniel Schorr noted that
Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. In response,
Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users
wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories.[66]

In an episode of The Daily Show on February 26, 2009, guest Brian Williams derided tweets as only
referring to the condition of the author in any given instant. Williams implied that he would never use
Twitter because nothing he did was interesting enough to publish in Twitter format.[67]

During another episode of The Daily Show on March 2, 2009, host Jon Stewart negatively portrayed
members of Congress who chose to "twitter" during President Obama's address to Congress (on
February 24, 2009) rather than pay attention to the content of the speech. The show's Samantha Bee
satirized media coverage of the service saying "there's no surprise young people love it—according to
reports of young people by middle aged people".[68]

In March 2009, the comic strip Doonesbury began to satirize Twitter. Many characters highlighted the
triviality of tweets although one defended the need to keep up with the constant-update trend.[69]
SuperNews! similarly satirized Twitter as an addiction to "constant self-affirmation" and said tweets were
nothing more than "shouts into the darkness hoping someone is listening".[70]




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Notable usage

Use in campaigning
Twitter was used by candidates in the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign throughout the race. Democratic
Party nominee Barack Obama used it for publicity.[71] The Nader–Gonzalez campaign updated its ballot
access teams in real-time with Twitter and Google Maps.[72] Twitter use increased by 43 percent on the
day of the United States' 2008 election.[73]

Used to survey opinion
During the CBC News television coverage of the Canadian federal election on October 14, 2008, the CBC
cited tweets regarding Elizabeth May and Stéphane Dion along with a graph of items mentioned on
Twitter as evidence that people were calling for Dion to step down in response to the election
results.[74]

Use in public relations
In Britain, the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills released a Twitter strategy written for the
use of other departments. The strategy advised the departments on why Twitter was used by the
Government and how they could tweet and promote their doing so effectively.[75] The ICAEW suggested
that the document could also be useful to the private sector or as a general introduction to Twitter.[76]

In October 2008, a draft U.S. Army intelligence report identified Twitter as a "potential terrorist tool".
The report said it "is already used by some members to post and/or support extremist ideologies and
perspectives."[77][78]

David Saranga of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that on December 30, 2008, that Israel
would be the first government to hold a worldwide press conference via Twitter to take questions from
the public about the war against Hamas in Gaza.[79]

Use in reporting dissent
On April 10, 2008, James Buck, a graduate journalism student at University of California, Berkeley, and his
translator, Mohammed Maree, were arrested in Egypt for photographing an anti-
government[clarification needed] protest. On his way to the police station Buck used his mobile phone to
send the message “Arrested” to his 48 "followers" on Twitter. Those followers contacted U.C. Berkeley,
the U.S. Embassy in Cairo, and a number of press organizations on his behalf. Buck was able to send
updates about his condition to his "followers" while being detained. He was released the next day from
the Mahalla jail after the college hired a lawyer for him.[80]

On April 7, 2009, thousands of young anti-communist[according to whom?] protesters stormed the
presidency and the parliament building in Chişinău, the capital of Moldova, accusing the government of
electoral fraud. Information about these events was disseminated through Twitter using hashtag #pman.
This hashtag came from the name of the central square in Chişinău: Piaţa Marii Adunări Naţionale.[81]
Twitter was also used to mobilize for the protests.[82]




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Use in protest and politics
In June 2009, following allegations of fraud in the Iranian presidential election, protesters used Twitter as
a rallying tool and as a method of communication with the outside world after the government blocked
several other modes of communication.[83][84][85][86] On June 15 Twitter rescheduled a planned 90-
minute maintenance outage after a number of Twitter users and the US State Department asked Twitter
executives to delay the shutdown because of concerns about the service's role as a primary
communication medium by the protesters in Iran.[87][88] CNN's coverage of the conflict was criticized in
tweets with the hashtag #CNNfail.[89] Twitter was also used to organize DDoS attacks against Iranian
government websites.[90]

In August 2009, when American opponents of President Barack Obama's health insurance reform
proposals attacked the British National Health Service, thousands of NHS users took part in a Twitter
campaign expressing their support for the NHS with use of the #welovetheNHS hashtag. The hashtag was
initiated by Irish comedy writer Graham Linehan, who said he wanted to use a twitter campaign "as a
counterweight against the lies of the American right".[91] The campaign also received the support of
several politicians including British Prime Minister Gordon Brown.[92][93][94]

New York City activist Elliot Madison used twitter to report an order to disperse message from the
Pittsburgh police during the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh protests. Police raided Madison's hotel room, and one
week later Madison's New York home was raided by FBI agents, who conducted a sixteen-hour search.
Police claim Madison and a co-defendant used computers and a radio scanner to track police movements
and then passed on that information to protesters using cell phones and the social networking site
Twitter. Madison is being charged with hindering apprehension or prosecution, criminal use of a
communication facility, and possession of instruments of crime. The FBI took miscellany such as
refrigerator magnets, and a Curious George stuffed animal, despite that the warrant issued actually
asked for evidence that indicated that potentially there were violations of federal rioting laws. In light of
the United States Department of State's recent public support of twitter use in the politics of Iran,
Moldova, and Honduras it is asked whether the State Department supports speech in the United
States.[95][96][97]

When The Guardian newspaper was served in October 2009 with an unprecedented "super-injunction"
banning it from reporting on a parliamentary matter, it published a cryptic article reporting what little it
could. The paper claimed that this case appears "to call into question privileges guaranteeing free speech
established under the 1688 Bill of Rights".[98][99] Alan Rusbridger, the paper's editor, credtied Twitter
users with taking the initiative to uncover the muck that the press was not allowed to print, namely that
the injunction was taken out by the London solicitors Carter-Ruck on behalf of commodities trader
Trafigura, who did not want public discussion of the 2006 Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste dump scandal and the
resulting Minton Report (available on Wikileaks [100]) The reporting injunction was lifted the same day,
as Carter Ruck withdrew it before The Guardian could challenge it in the High Court.[101] Rusbridger
credited the rapid back-down of Carter-Ruck to Twitter[102], as did a BBC article[103]; the Wikipedia
Reference Desk also quickly figured out what the cryptic article referred to[104].




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Use in emergencies
Research reported in New Scientist in May 2008[105] found that blogs, maps, photo sites and instant
messaging systems like Twitter did a better job of getting information out during emergencies than either
the traditional news media or government emergency services. The study also found that those using
Twitter during the fires in California in October 2007 kept their followers (who were often friends and
neighbors) informed of their whereabouts and of the location of various fires minute by minute.
Organizations that support relief efforts are also using Twitter. The American Red Cross started using
Twitter[106] to exchange minute-to-minute information about local disasters including statistics and
directions.[107]

During the 2008 Mumbai attacks eyewitnesses sent an estimated 80 tweets every 5 seconds. Twitter
users on the ground helped compile a list of the dead and injured. In addition, users sent out vital
information such as emergency phone numbers and the location of hospitals needing blood
donations.[108] CNN called this "the day that social media appeared to come of age" since many
different groups made significant use of Twitter to gather news and coordinate responses.[108]

In January 2009, US Airways Flight 1549 experienced multiple bird strikes and had to be ditched in the
Hudson River. Janis Krums, a passenger on one of the ferries that rushed to help, took a picture of the
downed plane as passengers were still evacuating and sent it to Twitpic before any other media arrived
at the scene.[109][110]

The Australian Country Fire Authority used Twitter to send out regular alerts and updates regarding the
February 2009 Victorian bushfires.[111] During this time the Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd, also
used his Twitter account to send out information on the fires, how to donate money and blood, and
where to seek emergency help.[112]

Also in April, public health departments used Twitter to provide updates on H1N1 cases.[113]

Use in criminal proceedings
The first criminal prosecution arising from Twitter posts began in April 2009. Agents of the FBI arrested
Daniel Knight Hayden. Hayden was accused of sending tweets threatening violence in connection with his
plan to attend a Tea Party protest in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.[114]

In July 2009, Horizon Realty Group, a Chicago real estate management company, sued a former tenant,
Amanda Bonnen, for libel based on a Twitter message sent to friends. Horizon contends that Bonnen
defamed Horizon by posting a tweet to her friends that said, "You should just come anyway. Who said
sleeping in a moldy apartment was bad for you? Horizon realty thinks it's ok." Horizon asked for at least
$50,000 for the alleged libel.[115] The lawsuit prompted widespread comment from journalists, bloggers,
and legal experts.[116]

Use in space exploration
In February 2009, NASA won a Shorty Award for its near real-time status updates in 2008 of the
unmanned Mars Phoenix Lander mission.[117]



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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic



In May 2009, astronaut Mike Massimino used Twitter to send updates of the Hubble Space Telescope
repair mission, the first time Twitter was used in space.[118][119]

On October 21, 2009, Nicole Stott and her Expedition 21 crewmate aboard the International Space
Station, Jeff Williams, are scheduled to participate in the first tweetup from the station with members of
the public gathered at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. This will involve the first live Twitter
connection for the astronauts[120]. Previously, astronauts onboard the Space Shuttle or ISS have sent
the messages they desire to send as tweets down to Mission Control which then posted the message via
the Internet to Twitter.[121]

NASA also provides an aggregate feed of all official NASA astronauts' tweets via NASA Astronauts on
Twitter.


Similar services
A number of services like Twitter exist, including some which send text messages to multiple people at
once. Some services use a similar concept as Twitter but add country-specific services or combine the
micro-blogging facilities with other services, such as file sharing. Other services provide similar
functionality, but within closed networks for corporations, nonprofits, universities, and other
organizations.[122]




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                                                                                       Page 20 of 33
Top Web Links
Here is a list of what we feel are the top websites to help new users of Twitter get started.
Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic




                                                                                       Page 22 of 33
Index
Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic




References

 1. "Hacker Exposes Private Twitter Documents". The New York Times. 2009-07-15.
http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/15/hacker-exposes-private-twitter-documents/?hpw.. Retrieved
2009-07-15.

 2. Dorsey, Jack (2009-09-18). "2009 Person of the Year ceremony and presentation". Webster
University.

  3. D'Monte, Leslie (2009-04-29). "Swine flu's tweet tweet causes online flutter". Business Standard.
http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/swine-flu%5Cs-tweet-tweet-causes-online-
flutter/356604/. Retrieved 2009-05-28. "Also known as the 'SMS of the internet', Twitter is a free social
networking and micro-blogging service"

 4. "twitter.com - Traffic Details from Alexa". Alexa Internet. 2009-07-13.
http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/twitter.com. Retrieved 2009-07-13.

 5. Kazeniac, Andy (2009-02-09). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs".
Compete.com. http://blog.compete.com/2009/02/09/facebook-myspace-twitter-social-network/.
Retrieved 2009-02-17.

 6. McGiboney, Michelle (2009-03-18). "Twitter's Tweet Smell of Success". Nielsen.
http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/twitters-tweet-smell-of-success/. Retrieved 2009-04-
05.

 7. Hoffman, Stefanie (April 29, 2009). "Twitter Quitters Outnumber Those Who Stay, Report Finds".
United Business Media.
http://www.crn.com/security/217200834;jsessionid=0AQSMPNH52QRQQSNDLOSKHSCJUNN2JVN.
Retrieved 2009-04-29.

 8. Sagolla, Dom (2009-01-30). "How Twitter Was Born". 140 Characters.
http://www.140characters.com/2009/01/30/how-twitter-was-born/. Retrieved 2009-06-25.

 9. Sano, David (2009-02-18). "Twitter creator Jack Dorsey illuminates the site's founding document".
Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/technology/2009/02/twitter-creator.html. Retrieved
2009-06-18.

 10. Dorsey, Jack (2006), "just setting up my twttr", Twitter, http://twitter.com/jack/status/20,
retrieved 2009-06-19

 11. Malik, Om (2006-10-25). "Odeo RIP, Hello Obvious Corp". GigaOM.
http://gigaom.com/2006/10/25/odeo-rip-hello-obvious-corp/. Retrieved 2009-06-20.


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 12. Lennon, Andrew. "A Conversation With Twitter Co-Founder Jack Dorsey". The Daily Anchor.
http://www.thedailyanchor.com/2009/02/12/a-conversation-with-twitter-co-founder-jack-dorsey/.
Retrieved 2009-02-12.

 13. Douglas, Nick (2007-03-12). "Twitter blows up at SXSW Conference". Gawker.
http://gawker.com/tech/next-big-thing/twitter-blows-up-at-sxsw-conference-243634.php. Retrieved
2009-06-20.

 14. Levy, Steven (2007-04-30). "Twitter: Is Brevity The Next Big Thing". Newsweek.
http://www.newsweek.com/id/35289. Retrieved 2009-06-20.

 15. Terdiman, Daniel (2007-03-10). "To Twitter or Dodgeball at SXSW?". CNET.
http://news.cnet.com/8301-17939_109-9696264-2.html. Retrieved 2009-06-20.

 16. Stone, Biz (2007-03-14). "We Won!". Twitter. http://blog.twitter.com/2007/03/we-won.html.
Retrieved 2008-05-07.

 17. "Twitter Raises Over $35M in Series C". MarketingVOX. 2009-02-16.
http://www.marketingvox.com/twitter-raises-over-35m-in-series-c-043192//. Retrieved 2009-06-17.

 18. Womack, Brian (2008-11-12). "Twitter Shuns Venture-Capital Money as Startup Values Plunge".
Bloomberg L.P. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109&sid=afu06n0L7LZ4. Retrieved
2008-11-12.

 19. Miller, Claire Cain (2008-10-16). "Twitter Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another". The New
York Times. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/16/ttwitter-sidelines-one-founder-and-promotes-
another/#more-1642. Retrieved 2008-11-05.

 20. Snyder, Bill (2008-03-31). "Twitter: Fanatical users help build the brand, but not revenue". The
Industry Standard. http://www.thestandard.com/news/2008/03/28/twitter-fanatical-users-help-build-
brand-not-revenue. Retrieved 2008-05-07.

 21. Miller, Claire (2009-06-19). "Twitter Plans to Offer Shopping Advice and Easy Purchasing". The New
York Times. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/06/19/twitter-plans-to-offer-shopping-advice-and-easy-
purchasing/. Retrieved 2009-06-20.

 22. Stone, Biz (2007-07-15). "Twitter, Even More Open Than We Wanted". Twitter.
http://blog.twitter.com/2009/07/twitter-even-more-open-than-we-wanted.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07.

 23. Stutzman, Fred (2007-04-11). "The 12-Minute Definitive Guide to Twitter". AOL Developer
Network. http://dev.aol.com/article/2007/04/definitive-guide-to-twitter. Retrieved 2008-11-12.

 24. Gomes, Lee (2009-06-22). "The Pied Piper of Pay". Forbes.
http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2009/0622/software-internet-innovation-digital-tools.html. Retrieved
2009-06-16.




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 25. Payne, Alex (2008-01-16). "Announcing Starling". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2008-01-
20. http://web.archive.org/web/20080120141113/http://dev.twitter.com/2008/01/announcing-
starling.html. Retrieved 2009-01-11.

 26. Venners, Bill (2009-04-03). "Twitter on Scala". Artima Developer.
http://www.artima.com/scalazine/articles/twitter_on_scala.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17.

 27. "API Documentation". Google Groups. http://groups.google.com/group/twitter-development-
talk/web/api-documentation. Retrieved 2008-05-08.

 28. Flynn, Montana (2009-04-08). "How To: #Hashtags on twitter (#quote, #followfriday, etc..)".
Complimedia. http://blog.complimedia.com/2009/04/how-to-hashtags-on-twitter-quote-followfriday-
etc/. Retrieved 2009-06-17.

 29. Strachan, Donald (2009-02-19). "Twitter: how to set up your account". The Daily Telegraph.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/4698589/Twitter-how-to-set-up-your-account.html. Retrieved 2009-
06-14.

 30. Andrews, Robert (2009-03-27). "Twitter brings back UK SMS; Vodafone first, others to follows". The
Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/pda/2009/mar/27/twitter-socialnetworking1. Retrieved
2009-06-07.

 31. "How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live". Time. 2009-06-05.
http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1902604,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-21.

 32. Stone, Biz (2009-04-30). "Twitter Search for Everyone!". Twitter.
http://blog.twitter.com/2009/04/twitter-search-for-everyone.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07.

 33. Kelly, Ryan, ed. (2009-08-12), "Twitter Study - August 2009" (PDF), Twitter Study Reveals
Interesting Results About Usage, San Antonio, Texas: Pear Analytics

 34. boyd, danah (2009-08-16), "Twitter: "pointless babble" or peripheral awareness + social
grooming?"

 35. a b Miller, Claire Cain (2009-08-25). "Who’s Driving Twitter’s Popularity? Not Teens". The New York
Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/technology/internet/26twitter.html. Retrieved 2009-09-
18.

 36. Lipsman, Andrew (2009-09-02). "What Ashton vs. CNN Foretold About the Changing Demographics
of Twitter". comScore. http://blog.comscore.com/2009/09/changing_demographics_of_twitter.html.
Retrieved 2009-09-18.

 37. Martin, David (2009-04-28). "Twitter Quitters Post Roadblock to Long-Term Growth". Nielsen
Online. http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/twitter-quitters-post-roadblock-to-long-
term-growth/. Retrieved 2009-09-26.




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 38. Walker, Rob (2009-02-15). "Fail Whale". Consumed (New York Times Magazine): p. 17.
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/15/magazine/15wwln_consumed-t.html?_r=2. Retrieved 2009-02-15.

 39. a b Whyte, Murray (2008-06-01). "Tweet, tweet there's been an earthquake; How an online social
network chirpily called Twitter is becoming anything but trivial". Toronto Star.
http://www.thestar.com/News/Ideas/article/434826. Retrieved 2008-06-01.

 40. "Twitter growing pains cause lots of downtime in 2007". Pingdom. 2007-12-19.
http://royal.pingdom.com/2007/12/19/twitter-growing-pains-cause-lots-of-downtime-in-2007/.
Retrieved 2009-06-17.

 41. Dorsey, Jack (2008-01-15). "MacWorld". Twitter. http://blog.twitter.com/2008/01/macworld.html.
Retrieved 2008-05-07.

 42. Kuramoto, Jake (2008-01-15). "MacWorld Brings Twitter to its Knees". Oracle AppsLab.
http://theappslab.com/2008/01/15/macworld-brings-twitter-to-its-knees/. Retrieved 2008-05-07.

 43. "Changes for Some SMS Users—Good and Bad News". Twitter (blog). 2008-08-13.
http://blog.twitter.com/2008/08/changes-for-some-sms-usersgood-and-bad.html. Retrieved 2009-06-14.

 44. Dorsey, Jack (2008-05-23). "Twitter IM down May 23rd–May 24th". Get Satisfaction.
http://getsatisfaction.com/twitter/topics/twitter_im_down_may_23rd_may24th. Retrieved 2008-07-29.

 45. Williams, Evan (2008-10-10). "IM: Not coming soon". Twitter status blog.
http://status.twitter.com/post/53978711/im-not-coming-soon. Retrieved 2008-12-31.

 46. Siegler, MG (2009-06-12). "Twitter Moves Up The Twitpocalypse. All Hell May Break Loose Today.".
TechCrunch. http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/06/12/all-hell-may-break-loose-on-twitter-in-2-hours/.
Retrieved 2009-07-18.

 47. O'Brien, John (2009-06-24). "The age of the Twitpocalypse". news.com.au. News Limited.
http://blogs.news.com.au/techblog/index.php/news/comments/macchat_2009_the_age_of_the_twitpo
calypse/56653. Retrieved 2009-07-13.

 48. Parr, Ben (2009-09-21). "Twitpocalypse II: Twitter Apps Might Break Tomorrow".
http://mashable.com/2009/09/21/twitpocalypse-ii-update/. Retrieved 2009-09-23.

 49. Claburn, Thomas (2009-08-06). "Twitter Downed By Denial Of Service Attack". InformationWeek.
http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/attacks/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=219100308.
Retrieved 2009-08-06.

 50. "Web attack 'aimed at one blogger'". BBC News. 2009-08-07.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8189162.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-07.

 51. "Twitter Privacy Policy". Twitter. 2007-05-14. http://twitter.com/privacy/. Retrieved 2009-03-11.




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 52. Hansell, Saul (July 16, 2009). "Advertisers Are Watching Your Every Tweet". The New York Times.
http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/16/advertisers-are-watching-your-every-tweet/. Retrieved 2009-
07-17.

  53. Gilbertson, Scott (2007-06-11). "Twitter Vulnerability: Spoof Caller ID To Take Over Any Account".
Webmonkey.
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. Retrieved 2009-04-06.

 54. Leyden, John (2009-03-06). "Twitter SMS spoofing still undead". The Register.
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/03/06/twitter_sms_spoofing_risk/. Retrieved 2009-06-17.

 55. Stone, Biz (2009-01-05). "Monday Morning Madness". http://blog.twitter.com/2009/01/monday-
morning-madness.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17.

 56. Bellantoni, Christina; Stephen Dinan (2009-01-05). "Obama's Twitter site hacked?". The
Washington Times. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/jan/05/obamas-twitter-site-hacked/.
Retrieved 2009-01-05.

 57. "Twitter power players get shiny 'verified' badges". 2009-06-12. http://news.cnet.com/8301-
13577_3-10263759-36.html. Retrieved 2009-07-01.

 58. Lavallee, Andrew (2007-03-16). "Friends Swap Twitters, and Frustration". The Wall Street Journal.
http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB117373145818634482-
ZwdoPQ0PqPrcFMDHDZLz_P6osnI_20080315.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07.

 59. Jason, Pontin (2007-04-22). "From Many Tweets, One Loud Voice on the Internet". The New York
Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/business/yourmoney/22stream.html. Retrieved 2009-06-
21.

 60. Thompson, Clive (2009-09-05). "I'm So Totally, Digitally Close to You". The New York Times
Magazine. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/magazine/07awareness-t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all.
Retrieved 2009-08-22.

 61. Lewis, Nick (2009-04-16). "Tweet this: It's the year of the Twitter". The Vancouver Sun.
http://www.vancouversun.com/Entertainment/Tweet+this+year+Twitter/1470046/story.html. Retrieved
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 62. Cohen, Noam (2009-06-20). "Twitter on the Barricades: Six Lessons Learned". The New York Times.
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 63. Goldsmith, Belinda (April 29, 2009). "Many Twitters are quick quitters: study". Reuters (Thompson
Reuters). http://www.reuters.com/article/deborahCohen/idUSTRE53S1A720090429. Retrieved 2009-04-
29.



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 64. "13th Annual Webby Special Achievement Award Winners". Webby Awards.
http://www.webbyawards.com/webbys/specialachievement13.php/#twitter. Retrieved 2009-05-05.

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2009". PC World.
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 68. "Twitter Frenzy". Comedy Central. 2009-03-02.
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 69. Trudeau, Garry (2009-03-02). "Doonesbury@Slate Daily Dose 3 March 2009". The Washington Post.
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 70. Faure-Brac, Josh (2009-03-16). "Twouble with Twitters // Current". SuperNews!.
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 71. Obama, Barack (2008-05-07). "Twitter / BarackObama". Twitter. http://twitter.com/BarackObama.
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 72. Nader, Ralph (2008-07-13). "VoteNader.org - Road-trip Across America". Nader for President 2008.
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 73. Whitney, Daisy (2008-11-05). "CNN, MSNBC Web Sites Most Popular on Election Day". TV Week
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 76. "UK Government gets guide to Twitter". ICAEW, eChartech. September 2009.
http://icaew.com/index.cfm/route/167261/icaew_ga/en/Faculties/IT/Publications_and_technical_guida
nce/eChartech/UK_Government_gets_guide_to_Twitter. Retrieved 2009-09-03.

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 80. Simon, Mallory (2008-04-25). "Student "Twitters" his way out of Egyptian jail". CNN.
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 82. "Students use Twitter to storm presidency in Moldova". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-04-07.
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storm-presidency-in-Moldova.html. Retrieved 2009-06-16.

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 85. Bright, Arthur (2009-06-15). "Iranian media crackdown prompts Tweets and blogs". The Christian
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 87. LaVallee, Andrew (2009-06-15). "Web Users in Iran Reach Overseas for Proxies". The Wall Street
Journal. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/06/15/web-users-in-iran-reach-overseas-for-proxies/.
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dyn/content/article/2009/06/16/AR2009061603391.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2009-07-09.




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 89. Terdiman, Daniel (2009-06-14). "'#CNNFail': Twitterverse slams network's Iran absence". CNet.
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websites-20090617-chgy.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17.

 91. Mann, Bill. "Graham Linehan’s We Love the NHS campaign shows political power of Twitter", "The
First Post", 2009-8-14.

 92. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/twitter/6021362/Gordon-and-Sarah-Brown-join-US-pro-
NHS-Twitter-campaign.html

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iesapos+over+nhs/3308762. Retrieved 15 August, 2009.

  94. Jacobson, Seth (12 August, 2009). "How Father Ted creator Graha Linehan sparked NHS backlash
on Twitter". The First Post. http://www.thefirstpost.co.uk/52120,news,how-father-ted-creator-graham-
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100. Minton report: Trafigura toxic dumping along the Ivory Coast broke EU regulations, 14 Sep 2006

101. The Guardian, 13 October 2009, Gag on Guardian reporting MP's Trafigura question lifted

102. [1]

103. [2]

104. [3]




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 105. Palmer, Jason (2008-05-02). "Emergency 2.0 is coming to a website near you". New Scientist.
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106. "American Red Cross". Twitter. http://twitter.com/RedCross. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

107. Bloxham, Andy (2008-12-20). "Facebook 'more effective than emergency services in a disaster".
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108. a b Busari, Stephanie (2008-11-27). "Tweeting the terror: How social media reacted to Mumbai".
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109. Cellan-Jones, Rory (2009-01-16). "Twitter and a classic picture". BBC.
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 110. Marrone, Matt (2009-01-16). "Twitter grabs spotlight with Janis Krums' US Airways crash photo,
then won't shut up about it". New York Daily News.
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111. Young, Emma (2009-02-10). "Crisis puts a new face on social networking". The Sydney Morning
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83fk.html. Retrieved 2009-06-07.

112. "Kevin Rudd". Twitter. http://twitter.com/KevinRuddPM. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

 113. Kieffman, Sandy (2009-07-27). "Health pros atwitter over tweeting". Contra Costa Times
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114. Poulsen, Kevin (2009-04-24). "FBI Arrests Oklahoma Teabagger For Twitter Threats". Wired News.
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115. "Defamation lawsuit for US tweeter". BBC News. 2009-07-29.
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116. Meyerson, Ben; Wang, Andrew (2009-07-29). "Tweet lawsuit: Chicago Landlord sues ex-tenant
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07-29.




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Introduction to Twitter by Aston, Gonzales, Mann, Peterson, Smith, Wong, and Zecevic



117. Dwayne Brown (February 10, 2009). "NASA Receives Shorty Twitter Award". NASA.
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118. Malik, Tariq (2009-05-11). "Now, even NASA astronaut is on Twitter". msnbc.com.
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119. Bates, Claire (2009-05-13). "Hubble astronaut sends first ever Twitter message from space to say
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120. "NASA Takes Tweetups to New Heights". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/collaborate/tweetup.html.
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121. Etan Horowitz (May 22, 2009). "The great debate over Astro Mike's 'tweets from space'". The
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122. Calore, Michael (2007-05-15). "Twitter Cloning: Tiny Blogs Bloom Everywhere". Wired (magazine).
http://www.wired.com/software/webservices/news/2007/05/twitter_clones. Retrieved 2009-06-17.




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