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					Best Practices

    Literature Research
     Best Practices: Defined
An activity or procedure that has
produced outstanding results in
another situation and could be adapted
to improve effectiveness, efficiency,
ecology, and/or innovativeness in
another situation.
http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/infoskills/infolit/
best.asp
     Standard

A basis for comparison;
a reference point against
which other things can
be evaluated; "they set
the measure for all
subsequent work"

www.cogsci.princeton.edu/c
gi-bin/webwn
          Examples of Modes of Delivery
    Classroom Instruction  Instructor Led
                  Demonstrations, Discussions, and Field Trips

    CD-ROM/Computer Based Instruction            Blended Learning

Classroom Course  Instructor Led Enhanced with Technology
        Class Web Sites, Collaborations, Community of Practices,
        Simulations

     Readings and Programmed instruction: Self-Paced/Correspondence

Instructional television/videos   Distance Learning Instructor Led


 Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS)
         Search Terms
       Best Practices in Instructional Design
       Practices in Curriculum Development
       Standards for Instructional Design
       Best Practices in Education *
       Good ISD Practices
       Lessons Learned *
* It could be that that language has not been incorporated in the
   educational texts yet. — Director of Research, DAU
      Thoughts from the field…
 As for best practices for
  instructional designers, I
  can't think of any
  references. (Dr K. Clark,
  George Mason University)

 The issue is too
  broadly stated to be
  able to answer with a
  simple literature
  search. :-) (Jill Burger,
  V.P., Masie.com)
     Methodology




 Library Searches: Acker (DAU) & U Md.
 Internet Searches: Google, ProQuest, E-
  Books, ERIC, ASTD, ISPI, Ingenta.com,
  About.com, ASCD, etc.
          Bad News 

Results: No published
studies (since 2001*)
establish any Benchmarking
or Good Practices for
Instructional Designers
across media delivery modes.

* With advances in technology and increasing availability of
  broadband, research was limited to published works since 2001.
        Best Practices In Instructional Design
        IQPC March 31, 2004
          Paul Hasney, President
         Imagine Consulting said:
   “DIAGNOSIS BEFORE PRESCRIPTION”
                       Understand your client
                         Align with mission
                           Ask questions
                     Assess  Validate  Build

IQPC: International Quality and Production Center
    Good News 



There is a plethora of research
with suggestions on what’s
working in instructional design
within delivery modalities.
           Seven Principles of Good Under-
           Graduate Education*
  1.    encourage contact between students and
        faculty,
  2.    develop reciprocity and cooperation among
        students,
  3.    encourage active learning,
  4.    give prompt feedback,
  5.    emphasize time on task,
  6.    communicate high expectations, and
  7.    respect diverse talents and ways of learning.


*By Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson
         From “30 Things We Know about Adult
         Learners”*
      Adult tend to be less interested in survey courses
      Adults need to be able to integrate new ideas
      Conflicting information is integrated slowly
      Fast-paced, complex or unusual learning tasks interfere
       with the learning
      Adults tend to take errors personally
      Programs need to be designed to accept viewpoints from
       people in different life stages and with different value
       "sets"
      Adults prefer self-directed and self-designed learning
       projects
      Regardless of media, straightforward how-to is the
       preferred content orientation with a need for
       application and how-to information
      Self-direction does not mean isolation.
* by Ron and Susan Zemke
         From What Works in Distance Learning*
      Strategies Based on Instructional Design


                    Active Learning            Interaction




                                    Virtual
                                  Community

* HF O’Neil, 2003 Report to the Office of Naval Research
        ADL: Sharable Content Object Reference
        Model (SCORM)
The SCORM is a collection of
specifications and standards adapted
from multiple sources to provide a
comprehensive suite of e-learning
capabilities that enable interoperability,
accessibility and reuse of Web-based
learning content.
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
  Reasons to Implement SCORM
                Ability to deploy content in any SCORM
Portability        conformant Learning Management
                   System (LMS).

                Ability to search and retrieve content
                   objects, including lessons, modules,
Reusability
                   exercises, activities, media, etc. and
                   reuse them.

                Ability to track data about the learner and
Data tracking      the learner’s experience including
                   scores, time, comments, etc.

                Ability to combine content objects to
Sequencing         achieve sequencing or branching
                   strategies.
         Confluence of Instructional Design
         Best Practices
                                         Distance Learning
  Instructor Led Classroom




Self-Paced                                         Blended
                    Technology Infused
         Confluence of Instructional Design
         Best Practices
                                                   Distance Learning
  Instructor Led Classroom




               Universal Instructional Design Principles




Self-Paced                                                   Blended
                    Technology Infused
Instructional Systems
Series, GS-1750
   INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS
   SERIES, GS-1750
This series includes professional
positions the duties of which are to
administer, supervise, advise on,
design, develop, or provide educational
or training services in formal education
or training programs.
   INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS
   SERIES, GS-1750
The work requires knowledge of
learning theory and the principles,
methods, practices and techniques of
one or more specialties of the
instructional systems field.
The work may require knowledge of
 one or more subjects or occupations
 in which educational or training
 instruction is provided.
     OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION
1.   Occupational Analysis
2.   Instructional Design
3.   Instructional Materials Development
4.   Training Aids and Devices
5.   Instructional Services
6.   Instructional Program Evaluation
7.   Staff and Faculty Development
8.   Tests and Measurement
9.   Instructional Program Administration
   OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION
1. Occupational Analysis
2. Instructional Design
3. Instructional Materials Development
4. Training Aids and Devices
5. Instructional Services
6. Instructional Program Evaluation
7. Staff and Faculty Development
8. Tests and Measurement
9. Instructional Program Administration
        2: Instructional Design
In planning, coordinating, and developing components of
   instructional design based on the findings of
   occupational analysis, --
1. determine the learning objectives and task learning
   relationships, cluster learning events, organize course
   content, and develop instruction design plans;
2. analyze learning problems, select teaching strategies
   using appropriate models, and develop course plans
   using this information;
3. identify tasks that can be efficiently and
  effectively supported by job or skill performance
  aids;
   2: Instructional Design, continued
4. select suitable performance measures
   or develop new measures required to
   document effectiveness;
5. develop learning maps and perform
   learning analyses from the initial
   training levels through the operating
   levels of tasks or jobs;
6. derive performance objectives and
   criterion test items; and
7. use a systems approach to training.
      3: Instructional Materials Development
In developing, reviewing, and revising instructional
   materials for courses or occupations in accordance
   with specific learning objectives, employees --
1. -- plan and organize the work, determine possible
   sources of information, and conduct fact finding;
2.-- develop or revise the specific content,
   organization, style, format, emphasis, and treatment
   of each segment of the instructional courses or
   systems; and
3. -- develop finished products including lesson plans,
   training texts, television programs,
   programmed texts, or computer assisted instruction.
It’s Up to US…

             Let us define what good
            practices in instructional
            design are for the federal
            government, academic
            institutions, professional
            organizations and industry.

				
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posted:8/8/2011
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