William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture_2_ by hcj

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									Computer Organization
and Architecture


Chapter 1
Introduction
Topics
• Computer Architecture

• Computer Organization

• Organization and Architecture

• Structure and Function
Computer Architecture (1)
• Definition?
• “The design of integrated system which
  provides a useful tool to the programmer.”
  (Baer)
• “The study of the structure, behaviour, and
  design of computers.” (Hayes)
• “The design of the system specification at a
  general or subsystem level.” (Abd-Alla)
• “The art of designing a machine that will be a
  pleasure to work with.” (Foster)
Computer Architecture (2)
• “The interface between the hardware and the
  lowest level software.” (Hennessy and
  Patterson)

• Keyword:
  —Design
  —System
  —Structure
  —Art     Tool   Interface
Computer Architecture (3)
• Therefore, computer architecture refers to
  —Attributes of a system visible to programmers
  —Attributes that have a direct impact on the execution
   of programs

• Attributes
  —Instruction set
  —Data representation
  —I/O mechanisms
  —Addressing techniques
Computer Organization
• Organization refers to operational units and
  their interconnections that realize the
  architectural specifications.

• Attributes: hardware details transparent to
  programmers
  —Control signals
  —Computer/peripheral interface
  —Memory technology
Architecture & Organization (1)
• Architecture is attributes visible to programmers
• Organization is how features are implemented
• Example:
  —Architecture: multiply instruction?
  —Organization: hardware multiply unit or done by
   repeated addition? (how is it implemented?)
• Example:
  —IBM/370 architecture
  —different models (organizations)
Architecture & Organization (2)
• Family Concept
  —All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture
  —The IBM System/370 family share the same basic
   architecture
  —This gives code compatibility (at least backwards)


• Organization differs between different versions
Structure & Function (1)
• Computer
  —Complex system=> How can we design/describe it?

• Hierarchic system:
  —A set of interrelated subsystems, each subsystem
   hierarchic in structure until some lowest level of
   elementary subsystems is reached

• At each level of the system, the designer is
  concerned with structure and function.
Structure & Function (2)
• Structure is the way in which components relate
  to each other

• Function is the operation of individual
  components as part of the structure
Function
• Basic computer functions:
  —Data processing
  —Data storage
  —Data movement
  —Control
Functional view
• Functional view of a computer



                                      Data
                                      Storage
                                      Facility

        Data
                          Control
        Movement
                          Mechanism
        Apparatus


                                      Data
                                      Processing
                                      Facility
Operations (1)
• Data movement
  —e.g. keyboard to screen

                                         Data
                                         Storage
                                         Facility

        Data
                             Control
        Movement
                             Mechanism
        Apparatus


                                         Data
                                         Processing
                                         Facility
Operations (2)
• Storage
  —e.g. Internet download to disk

                                          Data
                                          Storage
                                          Facility

         Data
                              Control
         Movement
                              Mechanism
         Apparatus


                                          Data
                                          Processing
                                          Facility
Operation (3)
• Processing from/to storage
  —e.g. updating bank statement

                                        Data
                                        Storage
                                        Facility

        Data
                            Control
        Movement
                            Mechanism
        Apparatus


                                        Data
                                        Processing
                                        Facility
Operation (4)
• Processing from storage to I/O
  —e.g. printing a bank statement

                                          Data
                                          Storage
                                          Facility

         Data
                              Control
         Movement
                              Mechanism
         Apparatus


                                          Data
                                          Processing
                                          Facility
Structure
• Four main structural components
  —CPU
  —Main Memory
  —I/O Devices
  —System Interconnection
  Structure - Top Level


 Peripherals                      Computer

                          Central            Main
                          Processing         Memory
                          Unit

   Computer
                                Systems
                                Interconnection



                                    Input
                                    Output
Communication
lines
Structure - The CPU


                                    CPU

  Computer                                  Arithmetic
                      Registers             and
I/O                                         Logic Unit
  System   CPU
   Bus
                            Internal CPU
Memory                      Interconnection



                                  Control
                                  Unit
Structure - The Control Unit


                              Control Unit

      CPU               Sequencing
ALU                     Logic
              Control
   Internal
               Unit
     Bus                       Control Unit
                               Registers and
Registers
                               Decoders



                                 Control
                                 Memory
Outline of the Book (1)
•   Computer Evolution and Performance
•   Computer Interconnection Structures
•   Internal Memory
•   External Memory
•   Input/Output
•   Operating Systems Support
•   Computer Arithmetic
•   Instruction Sets
Outline of the Book (2)
•   CPU Structure and Function
•   Reduced Instruction Set Computers
•   Superscalar Processors
•   Control Unit Operation
•   Microprogrammed Control
•   Multiprocessors and Vector Processing
•   Digital Logic (Appendix)
Internet Resources
- Web site for book
• http://WilliamStallings.com/COA6e.html
  —links to sites of interest
  —links to sites for courses that use the book
  —errata list for book
  —information on other books by W. Stallings
• http://WilliamStallings.com/StudentSupport.html
  —Math
  —How-to
  —Research resources
  —Misc
Internet Resources
- Web sites to look for
• WWW Computer Architecture Home Page
• CPU Info Center
• ACM Special Interest Group on Computer
  Architecture
• IEEE Technical Committee on Computer
  Architecture
• Intel Technology Journal
• Manufacturer’s sites
  —Intel, IBM, etc.
Internet Resources
- Usenet News Groups
• comp.arch
• comp.arch.arithmetic
• comp.arch.storage

								
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