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					            Statistics, Development and Human Rights




                Session I-PL 0




Conducting Surveys on Children Issues and
Reporting on Poverty and Childhood: The
         Experience of Pakistan


          Noor Muhammad LARIK




                      Montreux, 4. – 8. 9. 2000
                               Statistics, Development and Human Rights




Conducting Surveys on Children Issues and Reporting on
Poverty and Childhood: The Experience of Pakistan
Noor Muhammad LARIK
Director General, Federal Bureau of Statistics - FBS
92-052, Islamabad, Pakistan
T. + 9208489 F. + 9203233
statpak@isb.comsats.net.pk

ABSTRACT

     Conducting Surveys on Children Issues and Reporting on Poverty and Childhood: The
Experience of Pakistan

       The Child Labour issue in Pakistan has been much exploited at the international level during
the recent years. The Child Labour does exist in Pakistan as inherited in other developing
countries, especially in the South East Asia. Estimated Child Labour (i.e. children of 5-14 years) in
Pakistan was around 3 million during 1999, whereas, about 23.76 million children aged 5-14 years
were enrolled in schools at primary and middle level and about 12.67 million were without
schooling which is 35% of the total population between 5-14 years.
       The Child Labour in Pakistan mostly engaged in Agricultural Sector; Carpet Weaving,
tanneries, sports, goods industries, auto workshops; brick Kilns; transport sector, domestic services
and street children.
       The Government of Pakistan (GOP) has initiated a number of legislation including the
Employment of Children Act 1991. A National Commission for Child Welfare and Development has
also been established.
       As regards the Child Labour Statistics, a limited information was available till 1994.
Realising the importance of growing Child Labour Issues in the country and to launch action
programme for withdrawal and rehabilitation of working children and to have microanalysis to
facilitate policy makers. Specific research studies/surveys in different enterprises and occupations
were conducted in the country during 1995-96 years. Whereas as a national level survey was
conduct first time in 1996, by Federal Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with Ministry of Labour
& Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis. Due to limited scope and coverage of case studies/survey,
confined to one province the findings can not be generalised and used for other province because of
socio-economic variation among the provinces.
       A national plan of action and policy has been formulated for the elimination of child labour in
Pakistan.

RESUME

     Conduite d’enquêtes sur les enfants et rapports sur la pauvreté et l’enfance : l’expérience
du Pakistan

      La question du travail des enfants au Pakistan a été beaucoup exploitée sur le plan
international au cours des dernières années. Le travail des enfants existe bien au Pakistan, comme
en ont hérité d’autres pays en développement, notamment dans le Sud-Est asiatique. L’estimation
du travail des enfants (c’est-à-dire des enfants de 5 à 14 ans) au Pakistan était d’environ 3 millions
en 1999, alors qu’environ 23.76 millions d’enfants âgés de 5 à 14 ans étaient scolarisés au niveau
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primaire et moyen et que près de 12.67 millions n’étaient pas scolarisés, ce qui représente 35% de
la population totale âgée de 5 à 14 ans.
       Le travail des enfants au Pakistan est particulièrement présent dans le secteur de
l’agriculture, le tissage des tapis, les tanneries, l’industrie du sport et des biens de consommation,
les ateliers de mécanique automobile, les usines de briques, le secteur du transport, les services
domestiques ainsi que les enfants livrés à eux-mêmes dans la rue.
       Le Gouvernement du Pakistan (GOP) a mis en place une série de lois dont l’acte 1991 sur le
travail des enfants. Une Commission nationale pour le bien-être des enfants et le développement a
aussi été créée.
       En ce qui concerne les statistiques du travail des enfants, on disposait d’une information
limitée jusqu’en 1994. Face à l’importante recrudescence du travail des enfants dans le pays et afin
de lancer un programme d’action pour le retrait et la réhabilitation des enfants travailleurs, et
pour disposer d’une micro-analyse facilitant les décisions politiques, des études/observations
spécifiques dans différentes entreprises et métiers ont été conduites dans le pays dans les années
1995-96. C’est ainsi qu’une observation à niveau national a été conduite pour la première fois en
1996 par le Bureau fédéral des statistiques, en collaboration avec le ministère du Travail et de
l’Emploi et les Pakistanais outre-mer. En raison de la limitation du spectre et de la couverture des
études de cas/observations, confinées à une province, les résultats n’ont pas pu être généralisés et
utilisés pour d’autres provinces compte tenu des variations socio-économiques en fonction des
provinces.
       Un plan d’action et une politique nationale ont été formulés pour l’élimination du travail des
enfants au Pakistan.

Introduction1:

        Child labour is an inherent part of traditional and poor countries. The widespread practice of
child labour in any society is seen as a violation of human rights of a child. Child labour being the
most undesirable element of labour market, and inspite of legislation to curb it, still exists in almost
all developing countries. In Pakistan, since the last decade concern has been shown by the
government as well as by the civil society to protect the working children against unconducive
working conditions to their age and from other exploitation. Article 11(3) of the 1973 Constitution
of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan states that no child below the age of fourteen years will be
engaged in any factory or mine or any other hazardous employment. Article 37(a) provides that the
state shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within a
minimum period Article 37(c) also mention that the state shall ensure that children and women are
not employed in occupations unsuitable to their age or sex.

        Besides, constitutional provisions, Pakistan has a number of laws regulating the employment
of children. Some are: the Mines Act, 1923; the Factory Act, 1934; the West Pakistan Shops and
Establishment Ordinance, 1969; and the Road Transport Workers, Ordinance, 1961. Recently
enacted specific laws to deal with child and bonded labour are (i) the Employment of Children Act,
1991 (replacing the 1938 one), and (ii) the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1992
(Government of Pakistan, 1992).




1
 The author is the Director General, FBS, Statistics Division. The views expressed are personal views of the author and not
necessarily of the organization.
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        So far as legislation is concerned, child labour is not permitted. As such Pakistan’s laws
meet the norms and requirements of international standards. Pakistan is also a signatory of the
Declaration of the rights of the child adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. With respect to
international conventions and standards, the most important and relevant to child labour is
Convention No.138-Minimum Age Convention 1973, which is yet to be ratified by the Pakistan.
Under the new arrangements the ILO has adopted ILO “Declaration on Fundamental Rights”, and it
can now bind the non-ratifying countries to implement even those conventions which are not
ratified. The developed countries can impose trade sanctions against non-abiding countries and it is
apprehended that comparative advantage of developing countries, in terms of lower wages, will be
finished under the new arrangements.

        Pakistan has also established a commission called “National Commission for Child Welfare
and Development” (NCCWD). The overall objectives of the Commission include the assessment of
the impact of the constitutional, legal and administrative provisions having bearing on welfare and
development of children, proposing amendments and additions to the Constitution and national
laws, wherever feasible so in the light of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
(CRC); formulation of a National Policy for Child Welfare and Development in the country; and
drafting legislation to deter all forms of child abuse, including physical violence, child mutilation,
exposure to drugs, child labour and protection to children who are handicapped (mentally or
physically) or otherwise in need of social protection and services (Government of Pakistan, 1992b).

        The Commission acts as a coordinating agency with all Social Sector
Ministries/Departments and donor agencies like ILO. UNICEF as well as prominent NGOs working
in field of survival, protection and development of children. The Commission holds series of
national/provincial workshops/seminars for creating awareness at the grass root level about the
rights of the children.

         This paper reviews the establishment based child labour surveys/studies conducted in
various areas/pockets of the country and highlights the limitations of these studies. It provides
findings of the nation-wide household based Child Labour Survey, 1996 conducted by Federal
Bureau of Statistics and recommendations for combating child labour. This survey is providing
statistical base information at national level which are useful for monitoring the implementation of
human rights.

       This paper is divided into six sections. Following the introduction, Section-2 describes
population between 5-14 years of age in Pakistan i.e. their size participation in the labour force and
enrollment in primary and middle levels. Section-3 provides review of various research studies
/surveys conducted in Pakistan on children issues/child labour. Whereas, Section-4 presents brief
review of the national level survey on “Child Labour Survey, 1996”, while the Section-5 highlights
National Strategy for the Elimination of Child Labour and finally Section-6 concentrate on the
recommendations.

II.    Population 5-14 years in Pakistan

        According to 1998, Population Census, there are about 36.431 million children in the age
group 5–14 years, whereas 19.944 million of 5–9 years of ages and 16.487 million in 10–14 years.
It is about 29 percent of the total Population. The Population upto 14 years are 55.042 million,
which shares 43% of the total Population (Government of Pakistan, 1999).


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       Estimated on the basis of labour force participation rates, the quantum of children engaged
in economic activity are around 3 million.

        The 1998-99 estimates indicate that participation rate of children in educational institutions
at Primary Stage (by and large 5-9 year age group) is 77% and that at the Middle Stage (by and
large 10-14 year age group) was 51%, which means 12.666 million children (4.587 million of
primary school age, including, 8.079 million of middle school age) are not enrolled in schools. The
detail breakup of these children, inclusive of about 3 million working children who are the main
focus, in addition to those dropped out of schools are as under:


CHILDREN OF 5-14 YEARS FOR THE LABOUR MARKET (1998-99)
   Age          Sex         *Total          **Labour             Total in
  Group                   Number of           Force              Labour
                           Children        Participatio           Force
                           (Million)       n Rate (%)           (Million)
    5-9         Total       19.944             2.66                0.53
   years        Boys        10.376             2.99                0.31
                Girls        9.568             2.31                0.22
                Total         16.487            12.65              2.09
   10-14        Boys           8.682            17.19              1.49
   years        Girls          7.805             7.61              0.60
            Total        36.431           7.19         2.62
   5-14      Boys        19.058           9.44         1.80
  years      Girls       17.373           4.72         0.82
*Population does not include the population of AJK, Northern Areas and FATA.
**Child Labour Survey, 1996, and Labour Force Survey, 1996-97, FBS.


CHILDREN 5-14 YEARS IN EDUCATION SCHOOL PARTICIPATION RATES; (1998-99)

        Stage           Sex      School           School          Out of
                               Participatio       Going           School
                                 n Rate          (Million)       (Million)
                                (Percent)
    Primary           Total        77                15.4            4.6
   (Class I-V)        Boys         92                 9.5            0.9
                      Girls        62                 5.9            3.7

        Middle        Total         51               8.4             8.1
       (Class VI-     Boys          64               5.5             3.2
         VII)         Girls         37               2.9             4.9

  Primary +           Total                          23.8           12.7
  Middle

III.      Status of Studies/Surveys on Children Issue/Child Labour conducted in Pakistan.

         Child labour is generally perceived in terms of population pressure, inadequate educational
facilities, poverty, parent’s attitude, low productivity, high unemployment, unpaid family helpers
especially in agriculture and large informal sector. As such it is a complex phenomenon to be
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tackled. In order to formulate the strategy and to monitor the implementation status of various
projects and programmes to eliminate and rehabilitate the working children, information on the
nature, quantum and other characteristics of the child labour on regular basis are required. However,
reliable information even on the number and nature of activities of the working children, age cohort
5-14 years, were not available till, 1996.

         Realising the importance of growing Child Labour Issue in the country and to launch action
programme for withdrawal and rehabilitation of working children and to have micro analysis to
facilitate policy makers, specific research studies/surveys in different enterprises and occupations
were conducted in the country during last 4-5 years. These studies/surveys were conducted to know
the extent and nature of child labour in different occupations like Brick Klines, Auto-workshops,
steel furnace, spare parts manufacturing, textile, light engineering, surgical instruments, soccer ball
stitching, carpet industries, hotel and restaurants. These surveys/case studies were mainly confined
in the province of Punjab, whereas, in other three provinces i.e. Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan only
one qualitative survey for child labour was conducted covering very small number of child labour
(925) between ages of 5-14 were interviewed in the study. These case/research studies in Punjab
province were conducted on the basis of purposive sampling technique with limited scope and
coverage. The findings of these studies cannot be generalized or used for planning and policy
making for other three provinces, which have different cultural and socio-economic backgrounds.

The brief review of the studies/surveys is as under:-
a.      Child Labour in Carpet Weaving Industry in Punjab. This research study was conducted by
Centre for Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment, Lahore, Pakistan in
collaboration with UNICEF, Punjab-Pakistan. The study was conducted in 5 districts i.e. Khushab,
Gujranwala, Sialkot, Lahore and Dera Ghazi Khan. Two carpet weaving villages from each of these
districts were selected for the study. Four different questionnaires were used to gather information
about villages, households involved in carpet weaving, the private carpet weaving centres owners,
the govt. weaving centres and the children involves in carpet weaving. One hundred and seventy
five children were interviewed from different places. The study provides some useful information
such as number of persons involved in carpet weaving industries in Punjab, extent of child labour
below 15 years in the industries, number of hours worked by children, their income, cases of finger
tips injuries and their schooling. Due to limited scope, the results of this study cannot be generalised
to assess the overall position of child labour in carpet weaving industries in Pakistan (Awan &
Khan, 1992).

b.     The Survey on child labour in Gujranwala, was conducted by Prof. Dr.Sh.Ezad Masood
(Advocate. High Court) in Gujranwala city in 1995 in collaboration with Insan Doost Foundation.
Three questionnaires were used for the child labour, employers and parents of the child labour.
About 929 questionnaires were filled by the children, 121 questionnaires from employers in five
each urban and rural areas. About 500 questionnaires were filled by the parents in selected areas.
According to the survey about 15500 children were reported to be as child labour in district
Gujranwala, working in workshops, restaurants and tea stalls, patrol pumps, shops, street hawker,
transport, agriculture and cattle poultry farms. Due to limited scope, with poor sampling
methodology, study results are doubtful. However, provides some interesting information for the
policy makers (Masood, 1995).

c.     The Carpet Weaving Children & their Families. A Survey of Kalokay & Kalekey Villages
November 1995 was conducted in collaboration with Training. & Education of Carpet Weaving
Children (TECC) and International Labour Organisation (ILO). The survey was conducted in two
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villages Kalokay (district Shaikhupura) and Kalekey (district Hafizabad). The universe of the study
comprises the children and families involved in carpet weaving at Kalokay and Kalekey. Two
separate schedules were used for data collection from the children and households involved in
carpet weaving. The purpose was to help or obtain the necessary insights into the phenomenon of
child labour in carpet weaving as being practised locally in the universe of the study and to provide
a sound database for developing a relevant intervention to combat the problem. There were about
569 households in these two villages involved in carpet weaving. Hence, one-third sample of
households from each village was selected by random sampling techniques. According to the
findings of the study, about 45 percent of the children involved for carpet weaving are between the
age of 10 to 12 years. Fifty four percent of the children working in carpet weaving had never been
to school, 37 percent have attended school but dropped out during the first two years at school.
Poverty was the major reason for leaving education. Ninety four percent of the children working in
carpet weaving suffered fingertip injuries and according to their families frequently suffered from
backache, pain in the nails, cough cold and fever. The average income per family for carpet
weaving was about Rs.2250/- per month (IPEC, 1995).

d.     The study on Child Labour in the Football Manufacturing Industry was conducted by
Directorate of Labour Welfare, Punjab in collaboration with International Programme on the
Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) of International Labour Office in July-August, 1996. The study
was conducted in two tehsil of Sialkot. A total of 270 Football stitching children (5-14 years of
ages), 17 workers, 12 employers of workers and 11 families were interviewed. The survey
estimated that about 17 percent stitching workers were children working on full time basis.
Whereas, about 42 thousand adults working as football stitching workers in two tehsils. The study
also provides profile of the villages, background, information about child labour and their families,
employers etc. (Government of Punjab, 1996).

e.       The Study on Child Labour in the Surgical Instruments Manufacturing Industry was
conducted by Centre for the Improvement of Working Conditions & Environment, Directorate of
Labour Welfare, Punjab in collaboration with International Programme on the Elimination of Child
Labour (IPEC) of International Labour Office during Sept - Oct 1996. It was conducted in the
vicinity of Silakot City and the nearby villages. Where factories of surgical instruments are located.
Four different types of questionnaires were used to collect the information as: i. Child and adult
workers; ii. Heads of families, whose children are involved in surgical manufacturing industry; iii.
Employers/contractors; and iv. The villages/localities where work is being carried out. A total of
208 child workers (under 14 years of age), 43 adult workers, 21 employers/contractors and 24 heads
of families were interviewed. About 31 percent of the workers in the factories/workshops were
children, whereas, approximately 25,000 workers were reported to be involved. In these
workshops/factories, the number of child workers in the surgical instruments industry were about
7700. No girl worker among the child labour is found. Most of the children (94%) were engaged in
the filing, which possess no serious hazards to health. The remaining 6% children were employed in
the grinding/polishing of the surgical instruments. This job is harmful posing risk to the health of
the workers. Average monthly earning for child labour was found as Rs.1300/-, whereas, for adult
un-skilled workers it was Rs.1650/- per month (Government of Punjab, 1996).

f.     The study on “Qualitative Survey on Child Labour in Pakistan” was conducted to elicit
information of the nature and type of occupation the children are involved in and the geographical
and occupational concentration of child labour. The study was conducted by socio-economic and
business consultants for the Ministry of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis under the ILO-
IPEC supported action programme. This study was conducted in 1996 in the four provinces of
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Pakistan. The total of 925-child labour between the age of 5 to 14 years were interviewed for
detailed study during the year. The study provides information about the economic situation of child
labour their education, working condition and health hazards etc. (ILO, 1996).

g.      A Survey of Child Labour. (in Steel Furnaces & Spare Parts Manufacturing Industry
Baghbanpura, Lahore). was conducted during 1998 by the government of Punjab in collaboration
with International Labour Organisation. The survey was conducted in Baghbanpura, Lahore to
assess the pattern of employment and extent of child labour in the following manufacturing
industries:Steel furnaces, Re-rolling mills, Foundries, Auto parts manufacturing workshops, Tool
making, Nut and bolt manufacturing, Bicycle arts manufacturing, Die making, Lock making, Wire
making and Agricultural instruments manufacturing. Two different questionnaires were designed to
collect information on the children and their employers. The data collected from 84 enterprises
employing 416 workers and their owners. The study provides information of working condition of
child labour, health and poverty dimension of child labour and case study of employers and child
workers. Due to the limited scope and coverage of one area at Lahore, the findings of the survey can
not be generalised (Government of Punjab, 1998).


h.      The Child Labour Survey in the Auto Repair Workshops in District Sialkot was conducted in
1998 in Sialkot District by Labour and Manpower department, government of Punjab in
collaboration with IPEC, ILO. The Auto workshops found in the clusters around Bus and Wagon
stands, Truck stations in urban areas in the Sialkot district were covered. In addition motorcycle,
motor car and Rikshaw and repair workshops scattered in the urban localities as well as workshops
in the rural areas for tractors and motor cycles were also covered. Five different
questionnaires/forms were used for data collection. About 353 child workers, 27 parents, 32 adult
workers and 24 managers/employers were interviewed. The report provides information on extent
of child labour in Auto repair industry in Sialkot, working condition of the child workers and adult
workers and family condition of child workers (Government of Punjab, 1998).

i.       The Child Labour in the Brick Kilns: This study was conducted by Labour Manpower
Department, Government of the Punjab in collaboration with ILO (IPEC). This study was
conducted in 1998 in Sialkot district. Brick Kilns are usually found in the cluster of 3-5 KM. Most
of these clusters are located along side busy roads. Five different questionnaire/forms were designed
to collect the information. These questionnaires are as: i.Information to be collected from child and
adult workers; ii.Information about the family of child workers; iii. Information about the
employers/managers/contractors; iv.Basic information about the process of each workshop in the
district; and v. Medical history of selected working and school-going children (from similar social
backgrounds). The data was collected from 295 children workers and covered 41 parents/guardians,
22 adult workers and 27 employers/managers. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of
work on the health of the working children. Special forms were designed which were used to record
the health and safety status of the child workers by a physician. About 25 working children from
Brick Kilns located in all the three tehsils of Sialkot were physically examined. Similarly 26 non-
working children, school going children of same socio-economic background were also examined
to compare and evaluate the health status of children working in Brick Kilns. The study provides
information about extent of child labour of Brick Kilns Industry in Sialkot, working conditions of
the children at the Brick Kilns (Government of Punjab, 1998).

j.    The study on “Street Apprentices, Child Labour in Auto Workshops in Lahore” was
conducted in 1999 in Lahore City among the Auto Repair Industry in Lahore. Three different
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questionnaires/forms were designed for collection of data: i. Information about the child workers; ii.
Information about the workshops, its process and the employer himself; and iii. Medical history of
selected working and school-going children of similar social backgrounds. The main focus of the
survey was the child workers, about 4238 workshops were found in the city. A total number of
persons employed in the workshops were 19071. Of these 3378 were children at the age of 12-14
years while, the other i.e. 15693 workers were adults. Only the child workers were interviewed.
Besides, the child workers, the employers were also interviewed. The main objective of the survey
was to document the working conditions of children in the auto repair workshops in Lahore. The
main emphasis was on exploring their ages, gender profile working hours, remuneration, education,
health safety problems and recreational activities, their hopes, expectation and to use the findings to
suggest practical measure for the improvement of their working conditions and to combat child
labour in this sector. The study suggests that only male children and adults were employed in auto
repair workshops. The minimum age of child workers was found 08 years and maximum 14 years.
About 58 percent of the children working in these workshops were between the age of 12 to 14
years. About 53 percent respondent children had attended school yet almost all of them are dropped
out. Whereas, 47 percent had attended the school, 68 percent of the children dropped out before
completing primary education, 25 percent from middle and 7 percent at high level. The children
who joined workshops are treated as apprentice and are provided only lunch. They do not receive
any fixed wages, however, the employer usually give them the pocket money ranging from 5-10
rupees per day. The average monthly earnings of 3378 responded children range from rupees 200 to
1350 per month. About 291 of the working children had marks of cuts/wounds, 22 percent have eye
problems, 26 percent skin problems and about 20 percent respiratory problems (Government of
Punjab, 1999).

k.      The study on “Child Domestic Servants in Islamabad” The study was carried out by
Dr.Seema Pevez and Uzma Athar for urban area of Islamabad with the objectives: i. the socio-
economic background of child domestic servants and their employers; ii. the reasons of which these
children work and also the reasons of their employment; iii. the element and the extent of
exploitation i.e. working hours, amount of payments, mode of payments, etc; iv. the utilization of
children’s income and their contribution towards family income; v.the extent of awareness
concerning children’s rights and one’s obligation, moral and religious, amongst the parents, child
workers and the employers, and vi. to put recommendations for the effective solution of the issues.
Two hundred households having domestic servants of less than 16 years of age were covered. These
households represent upper and middle socio-economic status group of urban Islamabad. The
information was collected through interview of the employers of Child Domestic Servants, women
working as Child Domestic Servants, and parents/guardian of domestic servants. The findings of the
study indicates that every 6 household in Islamabad has Child Domestic Servant (CDS). The
majority of the CDS were mainly girls; main reason for working given by CDS was the economic
need i.e. poverty. Early exposure to work environment as created a sense of apathy in these CDS.
Most tragic aspect of the child labour phenomenon is that the parents themselves becoming the
greatest abusers of their children (Seema & Uzma, 1992-94).

IV.    Child Labour Survey, 1996

       From the above mentioned review of studies/summaries, it appears that no national level
survey was conducted except the one conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics in collaboration
with the Ministry of Labour and ILO in 1996 to identify the quantum of child labour, their socio-
economic characteristic etc. The brief sample design and findings are as under:-


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Methodology

         Methodology of Child Labour Survey has been envolved with the basic objective to estimate
the prevalence of child labour incidence in a precise way. For this cluster approach was adopted.
The universe consists of all urban and rural areas of the four provinces of Pakistan. Keeping in view
the geographical level of the estimates at national/provincial levels stratification plan was
formulated. In stratification plan large size cities were treated as independent strata and further sub-
stratified into low, middle and high income groups. The remaining urban areas of the administrative
division were also further sub-stratified into low, middle and high income groups with the objective
to distribute sample to low and middle income groups in higher proportion, as child labour activity
were expected to be more prevalent in these groups. In rural areas of Punjab, Sindh and NWFP each
administrative district had been treated as an independent stratum in Balouchistan, which is the
sparsely populated province, administrative division was considered as a stratum.

       In total 1865 clusters were determined for Child Labour Survey; 640 in rural and 1225 in
urban areas. In these clusters in all 140, 298 households were listed; 48,123 in rural and 92,175 in
urban areas. From the listed households, information was obtained from those households which
were having at least one economically active child of 5-14 years. It was found that only 7.4%
(10,438) households have at least one economically active child. All the households reporting child
labour were enumerated by direct interview method (Government of Pakistan, 1996).


Findings

       i.      FBS survey, in 1996, determined that out of 40 million children aged 5-14 years,
               3.313 million were engaged in economic activities on full time basis. The economic
               activity participation rate of children was estimated at 8.3%.
       ii.     Out of these children, 73% (2.4 million) were boys and 27% (0.9 million) girls. A
               major portion of child labour, about 2.1 million, was found in the higher age group
               i.e. 10-14 years which is about 7 times of those in the lower age group of 5-9 years.
               Of the total child labour 2.9 million were found in rural areas and 0.4 million in the
               urban areas. The concentration of child labour in rural areas was, thus, about eight
               times higher than in urban areas. As for the labour force participation rate of
               children, it was 10.29% in rural areas and 3.25% in the urban areas.

       iii.    About 71% of the 3.313 million employed children were engaged in elementary
               occupations relating to agriculture, sales and services, mining, construction,
               manufacturing and transport sectors where farm activity dominates. Craft and related
               trade activities were the next major occupations that absorb about 19% of the
               working children.

       iv.     In agriculture sector, 67% of the employed children were engaged, whereas the
               manufacturing sector was ranked second by employing about 11% children. The
               other sectors with significant incident of child labour were wholesale and retail trade;
               community, social and personal services; and transport, storage and communication
               with 9%, 8% and 4% share, respectively.

       v.      The working hours statistics show that about 46% of the child workers had to work
               more than 35 hours a week. A good proportion i.e. about 13% worked for more than
               56 hours.
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       vi.     The susceptibility of children to work related injuries and diseases was reflected
               from the fact that 7% of the working children suffered from illness/injuries
               frequently, 28% occasionally and 33% rarely. Male children were more prone to
               injuries/illness as compared to the female. Majority of the children (about 70%)
               worked as unpaid family helpers, followed by employees (23%) and self-employed
               (7%). Significant urban-rural differentials were observed in employment status. In
               rural areas about 75% children were working as unpaid family helpers while in urban
               centers the proportion was less than one-third. The survey result revealed that one
               third of the employed child workforce was literate. Working boys were more
               educated than the girls. The literacy rate was found higher among child workers in
               the urban areas (42%) than those were in the rural (32%).

       vii     Among the reasons described by the parents/guardians for letting their children
               work, the most common was to get assistance/help in household enterprises; about
               54% parents narrated this reason. Twenty-seven percent parents stated that they did
               so to have the household incomes supplemented and 14% sent their children to work
               because no one else was available for household chores.

        The above national level survey on Child Lahour was conducted by Federal Bureau of
Statistics to identify such households where the children under 15 years of age were engaged in
economic activity i.e. participating in the labour market. Due to specific objective and
methodology, a socio-economic comparison among the households which have child labour and
those who do not have could not be possible, because only such households were interviewed in the
survey which have child labour.

        The national level sample survey i.e. Labour Force Survey is being conducted by FBS on
annual basis. It covers the population 10-14 years. However, it does not include the population 5-9
years. Hence, quantum of child labour participation 5-14 years may not be available on regular
basis from any survey/study conducted in Pakistan.

V.     National Strategy for the Elimination of Child Labour

        A multi-pronged and phased programme for the gradual elimination of child labour in all
employment sectors will be launched and implemented by the governmental organizations;
employers, workers and social welfare organizations and other bodies in coordination with the
international organizations, viz. ILO, UNICEF, etc. The programme will especially focus on
awareness raising, monitoring of situation, and strengthening the information base, expansion of
educational opportunities and empowerment of families to reduce their dependence on child labour.

        The Delivery System to achieve the above objective of the Policy is based on two
fundamental principles: i) networking of existing institutions to integrate various activities, ii)
strengthening of institutions and intensification of their activities. This will be made possible by
adopting a comprehensive and integrated approach towards implementation of various activities by
utilizing the existing infrastructure to a greater extent. Wherever necessary, new institutions will be
set up and systematic integration of different activities will be ensured. Various activities to be
undertaken in each area are listed below (Government of Pakistan, 2000).



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                                Statistics, Development and Human Rights


Awareness raising and advocacy

        Awareness raising and advocacy inherently are essential to address the child labour issue
effectively. These are essential components of the programme to bring about an attitudinal change
in the society and pave the way for the protection of children’s rights. The systematic awareness
raising programmes will be launched through mass media (Radio, Television and news papers),
orientation and training programmes of field staff of Federal/Provincial Labour Manpwer
Department; Seminars/Workshops at Regional/Field level will also be organized. Besides, Web-
site will be explored to keep world informed for the measures taken in Pakistan to combat child
labour. Various publications highlighting children issues and rights of children will be published by
the Ministry of Labour and Manpower and provincial Labour Departments.

        Trade unions, employers’ organization, NGOs and community based organizations will play
participatory role at various forums established for the supervision of programmes to combat child
labour. They will also be involved in the awareness raising and informal education programme.

Expansion of educational opportunities

        The National Education Policy announced by the Ministry of Education in 1998 sets the
goals for universalization of basic education. The Policy envisage that 90% of the children in the
primary age group (5-9) are expected to be in schools by the year 2002-3; the promulgation and
enforcement of compulsory primary education law could be possible by 2004-5; and gross
enrollment is likely to rise to 105% by the year 2010. The Policy lays emphasis also on vocational
training and technical education. The students after basic education will be able to opt for
vocational schools if they want to join a profession. As this Policy will be a stepping stone in the
spread of educational opportunities, it will help in the elimination of child labour in the long run. As
such, it ensures to narrow down gradually the scope of entry of children in the labour market, by
taking the educational opportunities to the doorsteps of the deprived and under-privileged segment
of the society.

         Educational opportunities for children will be further enhanced through launching of crash
literacy programmes for school dropouts and introducing apprenticeship, vocational and skill
development programmes for the working children in pursuance of the National Action Plan for
Elimination of Child Labour. FBS is presently processing data related to the private educational
institutions working in Pakistan which will indicate the children enrolled in educational institutions.

Empowerment of poor families

       Programme for poverty alleviation is the main stake to combat child labour in the long run.
Banks and financial institutions will be reached to float micro credit schemes for development of
family business. Ministries of Industries, Finance and Commerce will play the desired role.

        The major elements of the national strategy for poverty eradication in terms of Social Action
Programme of the Government, include provision of employment opportunities, promotion of
sustainable economic growth; extending rural credit and micro finance facilities; creation of labour
intensive work with high spin-off effects; income generation schemes for poor families;
encouraging participation of women in earning activities; and creation of safety net for the
vulnerable.


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                                 Statistics, Development and Human Rights


Social safety net

        Low-income families including old-aged and handicapped parents are practically in a
difficult situation to meet their basic necessities of life. It is, therefore, impossible for them to send
their children to schools. The only alternative to such families is to depend on their children for
their livelihood or supplement their incomes. Such families need attention for their social
protection. A comprehensive social safety net will be evolved by the Government through the
extension of current social security/social insurance services being provided by Pakistan Baitul Mal,
Social Security Institutions, Employees Old-Age Benefits Institution, State Life Insurance
Corporation, etc to support the low income families to reduce their dependence on children.

VI.    Recommendations

       For framing adequate policies at national level following recommendations are to be made:

       i.      To find out the number of children engaged in carpet, sports goods, garments,
               tanneries, automobile workshops, hotels and other hazardous industrial activities and
               their working environment, further Child Labour Surveys through Establishment
               approach need to be carried out. This survey will enable the govt. progressively to
               prohibit, restrict and regulate child labour with a view its ultimate elimination.

       ii      Seminars/workshops need to be conducted for discussing the legal aspects for
               combating child labour. These seminars/workshops will concentrate on the
               implementation status of various act in this regard in general and in developing
               countries in particular.

       iii.    There is a need for a more strict implementation of the laws which already existed in
               the statute books and various codes and for a careful scrutiny of the legislative and
               judicial pronouncement on various child rights subject.

       iv.     The regional level workshops/seminars may be organized among the developing
               countries to share the experiences of child labour issues and the steps being taken for
               its elimination.

       v.      To know the quantum of child labour in various discipline/occupations in the
               countries national level sample surveys may be conducted. The sample frame would
               be available for various establishments employing child labour through economic
               census being conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics in the country during
               2000-2002.

       vi.     National level child labour survey may be conducted after every 03 years to know
               the results of various steps being taken in the country for elimination of child labour.

       vii.    The developing countries, where the child labour issues are serious. The
               ILO/UNICEF may provide funds for rehabilitation/elimination of child labour.

       viii.   Operational research studies may also be conducted for the elimination of child
               labour in various disciplines.




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                                           Montreux, 4. – 8. 9. 2000
                              Statistics, Development and Human Rights



REFERENCES

Awan, S.A. & Khan, A.A. (1992), Child Labour in Carpet Weaving Industry in Punjab, Lahore:
UNICEF, Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan, (1992), National Commission for Child Welfare and Development, First
Report on Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Government of Pakistan, (1992b). The implementation of convention on the rights of the child
(First Report). NCCWD, Ministry of Health, Special Education and Social Welfare, Islamabad.

Government of Punjab, (1996) Child Labour in the Surgical Instruments Manufacturing Industry,
Report of a Research Survey, in collaboration with IPEC-ILO, Pakistan.

Government of Punjab, (1996), Child Labour in the Football Manufacturing Industry, Report of a
Research by the Directorate of Labour Welfare, Punjab in collaboration IPEC, (ILO).

Government of Pakistan (1996). Summary Results of Child Labour Survey, Federal Bureau of
Statistics, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Government of Punjab, (1998), A Survey of Child Labour in Steel Furnaces & Spare Parts
Manufacturing Industries, Baghbanpura, Lahore, Labour and Manpower Department, Punjab,
Lahore.

Government of Punjab, (1998), Report of Child Labour Survey in the Auto Repair Workshops in
District, Sialkot, Labour and Manpower, Punjab, Lahore.

Government of Punjab, (1998), Child Labour in the Brick Kilns, District, Sialkot, Report of Survey
in collaboration of IPEC of ILO, Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan, (1999), Street Apprentices: Child Labour in Auto Workshops in Lahore,
Labour and Manpower, Lahore, Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan (1999), Provisional Tabulation of Population Census, 1998 Bulleton No.6,
Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Islamabad.

Government of Pakistan, (2000). Draft National Plan of Action and Policy for the Elimination of
Child Labour (A frame work and consultation document), Ministry of Labour, Manpower and
Overseas Pakistanis (Child Labour Unit), Islamabad, Pakistan.

IPEC, ILO-BLCC-PCMEA (1995), Carpet Weaving Children & their Families (A Survey of
Kalokay & Kalekey Villages), Pakistan Academy of Social Sciences.

ILO-IPEC (1996), Qualitative Survey on Child Labour in Pakistan, prepared in collaboration with
Ministry of Labour, Manpower & Overseas Pakistanis and SEBCON (Pvt.) Ltd. Islamabad,
Pakistan.

Masood Sh.Ezad (1995), Survey Report on Child Labour in Gujranwala, Chairman Child on
Women Development Centre, Model Town, Gujranwala.


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                                        Montreux, 4. – 8. 9. 2000
                             Statistics, Development and Human Rights


Seema Pervez & Uzma Athar (1992-1994), Child Domestic Servants in Islamabad, Pakistan
Psychological Foundation, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad,
Pakistan.




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