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Title Developing inquiry based learning in secondary geography

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					             Developing inquiry based learning in secondary
   Title     geography education topic : weather forecast : an
             actionresearch


Author(s)    Chan, San-wing, Frederick; –se°i®



 Citation



Issue Date   2003



  URL        http://hdl.handle.net/10722/51304



  Rights     unrestricted
     Developing Inquiry Based Learning in

        Secondary Geography Education

             Topic: Weather Forecast:

                 An Action Research




                  Frederick Chan san-wing




Project presented in part-fulfillment of the requirements of

the degree of Master of Science in Information Technology

in Education, The University of Hong Kong.
                             DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project represents my own work and that it has not

been previously submitted to this University or any other institutions in

application for admission to a degree, diploma or other qualifications.




                                 August 2003




                                     i
                           ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my thanks to the following.

My project adviser, Dr. Nancy Law, Dean of Faculty of Education for her valuable

advice and guidance, without her comments and advices, my project would not have

been on the right approach.

My project team members, Missy and my panel, Mr. Luis, and also teachers of other

disciplines, all are helpful and resourceful for their formulating and revision and caring

of the project action plans.

Special thanks should also be addressed to Four Form students and ICT technician, Mr.

Koop devoted their time to work with me.

Finally, I would like to delicate this project to my wife, Connie for her timeliness caring

and reminding, my son, Timothy and my little daughter, Tiffany.




                                           ii
                                      ABSTRACT

   This was an action research carried out by a teacher who had been teaching for

Geography in his secondary school for 9 years. For the past few years, he realized that most

of the students found the topics of Weather and Climate was the hardest topic they had

encountered. Although teachers were sharing the same feeling, no solid actions were taken

to solve the problem. Two unavoidable questions were raised, 1. Was teaching and learning

process not as effective as teachers expect? 2. What necessary actions were needed to be

done to tackle the problems?

   Two teachers teaching Form 4 Geography were invited to form a study team to look

into the problems collaboratively. The study adopted a reflective enquiry approach,

targeting at getting a better understanding of the situation that led to effectively planning

through a series of cycle of action research. Although the study covered only the topics of

factors affecting temperature and pressure, the focus of the study highlighted the

implementation of data-logging technology and Geology Information System to enhance

the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process of the topic.

   The study adopted a qualitative research approach, data were collected through multiple

channels like interviews, observations and questionnaires. The research centered on

evaluation of the findings in the first cycle for implementation in the second cycle.

   The study did not expect to achieve cut-and-dried solution to the objectives of the study,

the findings reflected teachers were the change agents in the process, they initiated the

changes, collected opinions and data, working out plans in the series of stages

collaboratively, consulted colleagues of other subjects, and obtaining senior support to

ensure the success of the study. Although the study imposed extra work load to the teachers,

they are resourceful and open, taking account of the point of views of each others. Students

                                              iii
also enjoyed the study during summer holidays. Besides, creating sense of collaborative

atmosphere within the Department, the study further initiated a reflective study of all

subjects in the staff development day in the coming year.

   Finally, the “teacher as researcher” and “teacher as the change agent” had imprinted to

the teacher that he would use collaborative action research approach as means to improve

his teaching profession.




                                             iv
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                          Page

DECLARATION                                                                      i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                               ii

ABSTRACT                                                                     iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                             v

Chapter I        INTRODUCTION

    1.1          Background of the Study                                      1

    1.2          Research Aims and Questions                                  2

    1.3          Objectives of the Research                                   3

    1.4          Specific Research Questions                                  3

    1.5          Significance of the Research                                 4

    1.6          Organization of the Research                                 5

Chapter II      LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1          Theoretical Conception for the Study                        6

    2.2          Action Research and its Nature                              6

    2.3          The Characteristics of the Action Research                   6

    2.4          The Stages of the Action Research                            7

Chapter III      THE RESEARCH METHOD

    3.1          General Framework of the Study                             11

    3.2          Design of the Instruments                                  13

    3.3          Resource Materials                                         16

    3.4          Procedure of the Research                                  16

              3.4.1   Teacher Reflection: Identification of the Problem     17

                                              v
           3.4.2    Discussion with the Interest Parties                       17

           3.4.3    Pilot Study                                                18

           3.4.4    Problem formulation: Schedule of the Action Research       23

Chapter    IV      DATE COLLECTION AND THE REPORTING OF DATA

     4.1    The First Cycle                                                    25

           4.1.1    Implementation of Action Plan I                            25

           4.1.2    Data Analysis: Evaluation of action plan I                 29

           4.1.3    Reflection                                                 34

     4.2    Action Re-planning: The second Cycle                               36

           4.2.1    Implementation of Action Plan II                           36

           4.2.2    Data Analysis: Evaluation of action plan II                39

           4.2.3   Reflection                                                  43

Chapter    IV.   CONCLUSION

    5.1    The Findings of the Study                                           44

    5.2    The Impact of this Research on Geography Department                 44

    5.3    Implications for the Research Methodology                           45

    5.4    Problems and Limitation of the Research                             46

    5.5    Recommendations                                                     47

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                   49

APPENDIX

APPENDIX A. Copy of Parents Letters for Summer Holidays Tutoring timetables.   51

APPENDIX B. Pilot Study Questionnaire Survey to Teachers.                      52

APPENDIX C. The Wireless Weather Station and its Components.                   56

APPENDIX D. The K145 Temperature Logger Data Sheet.                            57

                                           vi
APPENDIX E. Photos of Activities of Assembling of the Data Logger Kits.         60

APPENDIX F. Photos of Meeting of Team Members.                                  60

APPENDIX G.. Photos of the Erection and Placement of the Wireless               61

               Weather Station.

APPENDIX H. Tables of Summary of Meteorological Observations in Hong Kong       62

               of Each day of July (Summer) of 2003.

APPENDIX I. Spreedsheets of Monthly Average Temperature and Rainfall            63

              of July(Summer) Year 2003, Modified from the Use of IT in

              the Learning of Geography of Former PSHE Section, CDI,

              Education Department.

APPENDIX J. Tables of Summary (J1-J4) of Meteorological Observations            64

               in Hong Kong of year 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 (upto July),

               Modified from the Hong Kong Observatory.

APPENDIX K. Questionnaire Survey to Students for Plan I at Stage Two and        65

               Plan II at Stage Three.

APPENDIX L. Semi-structured Questionnaires to Students for Action Plan I &II.   70

APPENDIX M. Tables of Summary (M1-M4) of Meteorological Observations in         71

               Hong Kong of Months of 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 (upto July),

APPENDIX N. Spreedsheets of Monthly Average temperature and Rainfall of July    75

               and January of Year 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003(N1-N7, Modified

               from the Use of IT in the Learning of Geography of Former

               PSHE Section, CDI, Education Department

APPENDIX O. School Evaluation Form for Classroom Observation.                   82

APPENDIX P. Student Attendance Record.                                          83

                                          vii
                                               Chapter 1

                                       INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

    Most schools missions encouraged developing cooperation of students in academic and

non-academic aspects within and without the school environment. Classroom activities

such as group works or projects learning and extra-curricular activities of various interest

groups or uniformed groups all emphasized on the building of cooperation and

collaboration within the group members to accomplish their preset goals.

    Students were learning collaboratively within the school environment. However, most

research findings suggested teachers lack of collaboration were common in teacher

professional in Hong Kong. Fung (1997) found that the majority of school under research

had good culture of teacher participation in formulating school policies, empowerment,

effect communication, good relation, mutual support and teachers working according to the

missions of school occur fairly often. On the other hand, the level of teacher collaborations

was moderately low. Teachers only sometimes collaborated in teaching preparation,

students assessment and non-teaching duties such as administrative duties, school functions,

extra-curricular activities, and student discipline and guidance. Teachers seldom involved in

two importance aspects of collaboration as pinpointed by Fung (1997) were joint teaching

and mentoring.

    Lack of atmosphere for exchange experiences among teachers and little exposure to

new ideas after receiving professional training for teachers were also common. The

examination-oriented nature only allowed teachers devoting every effort to train students

for public examinations, thus little attention was paid to teaching techniques which would

stimulate pupils’ interests in the subjects.




                                                  1
1.2 Research Aims and Questions

   The use of data logging technology in humanities subject like Geography in HK was

not widespread. However in country liked UK, requirement of using ICT was a statutory

requirement in the geography national curriculum order started from 1999, where:

1. Selecting and using appropriate fieldwork techniques and instruments, such as using data

  logging equipment to gather raw primary data were clearly stated;

2. Students should be taught to select and use evidence from ICT-based sources and

  secondary sources of evidence, including satellite images;

3. Students were also provided the opportunity to communication their findings with others

  around the world,

4. and using ICT to assist in decision-making skills was explicitly encouraged.

   Our syllabuses for Secondary School Certificate Level Geography had been prepared

since 1984 and even new syllabuses for junior Geography introduced in1999, and new

syllabus for From 4 started on 2003, all had not explicitly stressed the importance of the

applications of data-logging technology and ICT in teaching and learning in the coming of

information age.

   However, teachers were change agents and should be reflective practitioners for their

own subjects. Teachers frequently heard that the Weather and Climate was the hardest topic

in Geography. Students always sought advices the possibility of not choosing questions in

that part in the HKCEE, which was very discouraging when heard of that.

  This study tried to explore the capabilities of data-logging technology and G.I.S as

integrating tools to promote collaborative teaching and learning at classroom level on the

Topics of Element of Climate and Weather of Hong Kong. It was hope that it would serves

as a starting point for teachers as a researcher to solve their own class problem in our

Geography department, and to looked into the teaching and learning process of teachers

                                            2
rather to rest the responsibilities to the students. In this study, a small project team of three

teachers would be formed, lesson plans and teaching materials would be collaborative

prepared and revised.




1.3 Objectives of the Research

   A series of actions were initiated within the project team with the following objectives:

   I. Short Term Objectives:

      1.To promote the technologies and its benefits to geography teachers;

      2.To initiate the teacher collaboration first within the geography department;

      3.To investigate the best practice of teaching the topic of Climate and Weather;

      4.To encourage greater teachers participation in joint preparation of teaching

         materials.

   II. Long Term Objectives:

      1. To generate a greater sense of mutual trust among teachers within the geography

          department and within the whole school at long term;

      2. To arise the standard of professional to technology within the geography

          department;

      3. To initiate the need for the change of pedagogical practice collaboratively..




1.4 Specific Research Questions

   Four major research questions which are used to guide the research as below:

   1. In what way did the adoption of inquiry based learning in this study change the

      classrooms practices?

                                               3
   2. How effectives are the classrooms become an inquiry based learning community.

   3. What difficulties and challenges emerge in the collaborative action research in?

      Teaching and learning?

   4. Were there changes of culture of collaborative teaching practices in our Geography

      department?




1.5 Significance of the Research

   Our school was not a pilot school enjoying support from the government in

computerization, but every teacher had our own desktop computer networked within the

school computer network system. Our Geography department was the first subject that had

her own computer system in geography room with more than 240G capacities to store a

vast amount of categorized video clips and teaching materials.

Every Geography teachers could equally access to the readymade teaching materials

contributed by each others to prepare their teaching and learning activities. One of the

geography teachers was assigned as subject ICT coordinator to maintain our computer

system. Recently, the computer system had been updated. An atmosphere of exchanging

ideas and teaching materials had been initiated. At present stage, geography teachers were

still seldom work together to enrich each others at classroom level.

   For the coming school term of 203-2004, the teaching days was going to change from

6-days cycle to 5-days week. One of the main objectives was to create every Thursday

afternoon an opportunities for subject teachers to work collaborative in preparing teaching

and learning activities. Uncertainties of the successfulness of the new arrangement were

spreading. It was hoped that the research findings of this study serves as facilitator for the

whole school to appreciate the fruits of teacher collaboration.

                                              4
1.6 Organization of the Study

 This research project had a total of five chapters. Chapter One was the introduction to the

project, hereby the objectives and research questions were described. Chapter Two was the

general review of the contemporarily literatures to formulate the research framework for the

project. Chapter Three stated the methodology used. Chapter Four presented the findings of

the study. Chapter Fiver would highlight the conclusions, limitations and recommendations

                                     for further study.




                                             5
                                           Chapter II

                                  LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Theoretical Conception for the Study

   The research method applied in this study was action research method. Many studies

reported the employment of action research could improve the teaching and learning

capabilities of the teacher researchers themselves.




2.2 Action Research and its Nature

   Action research, according to Carr and Kermis(1996) was a form of self-reflection

enquiry undertaken by the participants of an educational practice, teacher, principal, student

and the like in education situation in order to improve their own educational practices, by

getting a better understanding of these practices and the situations in which these practices

were carried out. Action research, according to John Elliott (1987) was “concerned with the

everyday practical problems experienced by teachers, rather than the “theoretical problems:

defined by pure researchers within a discipline of knowledge”.




2.3 The Characteristics of the Action Research

   Carol Santa in1993 stressed that teachers used the same teaching methods years after

years, without ever questioning their effectiveness. They did not think enough about what

they did or took sufficient time to reflect. Therefore, they did not grow and change. Action

research was particular useful for practitioners who wished to improve their understanding

of their practices. As its name implied, an action research was intended to achieve both

“action” and “research”. It was useful to situation in which we wished to bring to action in

                                               6
the form of change. Action research was critically reflective in nature. Researchers usually

work together regularly and systematically critique what they were doing. They refined

questions they were asking and the methods they were using, and the subsequent action

plans they were developing. Action research often involved clients as co-researchers to plan

for the next step. Researchers met to recollect and critique their findings, to decide what to

do for the next step.

  Action research methods were most likely to be appropriate when we did not know

where to start, and did not have a lot of time to invest in the study. Action research did not

usually provide causal explanation of what was studied. It was not intended to give precise

answers as those addressed by experimental researches. The research process was

continuously modified on the way response to what happens.

   In particular, action research was regarded as giving answers to the particular situation,

and which could not be generalized to other situations. It might not be safe to assume that

other situation were the same. Therefore action research was often limited by the local

relevance for its findings.




2.4 The Stages of the Action Research

   A variety of forms of action research had been revolved. The basic stages of them

embraced were:

 1. Problem identification;

 2. Action planning;

 3. Implementation;

 4. Evaluation, and Reflection.

   The findings gained from the initial cycle feed into planning for the second cycle, for

                                              7
 which action plan was carefully revised, whereby researchers gained knowledge by

 critically reflection upon their own actions and experiences.

 The following diagram showed the process of action research modified from Sagor(1992).




  Lee (2003) tried to simplified action research into a 4P model. It served as a reflective

tool for school to peruse school based development. The 4-P model included:

(1) Pragmatic Problem Clarification;

(2) Flexible Planning;

(3) Creative Programs Action;

(4) Critical Progress Evaluation.

  He further added three elements into the model to form a 4P-3C model

(1) Caring ethic;

(2) Constructivist approach;

(3) Commitment to change;

                                              8
  The conceptual model of 4P-3C was as following:




Chen (2001) proposed a 5R reflective model of action research, it comprised the following

elements:

   (1) Reflect;

   (2) Recognize;

   (3) Realize;

   (4) Response;

   (5) Resolve.




                                           9
The conceptual model of 5R was shown below:




                                        10
                                       Chapter     III

                               THE RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 General framework of the Study

   The aim of this project was to apply inquiry based learning to teach the topic of Weather

and Climate of Certificate level Geography. Two more Geography teachers were invited to

form a small study team for lesson revisions and planning’s, and gave advices and

comments on the progress of the project. It was hoped to create an opportunity to promote

professional interaction and create a more collaborative culture in the Geography

department.

   According to C.D.C (1984), geography encouraged students to observe, ask, questions

and seek answer. Students should develop a wide range of skills and techniques concerned

with the collection, organization, presentation, interpretation and evaluation of information

about the world. Students should be aware of the need for, and be committed to, responsible

action where aesthetic and moral question arise in relation to the maintenance of a balanced

environment.

   Geography sought to arouse and satisfy students’ curiosity about the world and the

desire to make sense of what they perceived. It enhanced students’ ability to look at the

spatial distribution and interaction of physical and human aspects as well as environment

issues in a geography way, which were hardly found in other disciplines or school of

thought in Secondary level. Overall, geography aimed at developing an enquiring mind in

teaching and learning by asking the following key questions:

  1. What could be observed?

  2. Where were the features located?

  3. Why were they there?

  4. What generalizations could be made?

                                             11
  5. How would they develop?

  6. How ought they change?

Stimpson (1995) further developed the key questions for geography enquiring to:

1. What ~What were the features in the landscape? What was the nature of the pattern,

          activities or events being studies?

          How frequent were these features happens? How big were they? What were they

          made of?

2. Where~Where were these features located? What patterns did they form? With what

           other features were they associated? What associations were evident?

3. Why~    Why were they there? What were the causes? What were the forces at work?

           What factors could be recognized?

4. How~    How did they happen? What were the processes at work? How did the

            features form?

5. So what~ So what would happen in the future? What predictions could be made?

             What were the social consequences of the patterns, activities or events and the

             changes that were happening? What were the impacts? What were the gains

             and losses? What could be done? How could alternatives be evaluated? What

             ought to happen? How should it be managed for the mutual benefit of human

             and physical environment?

   Very often, action research was a collaborative activity where teachers worked together

to help one another designing and carrying out investigations in the classrooms. It provided

a way to investigate issues of interest or concern in classrooms and research findings can be

incorporate into future teaching practice. Teachers thus could think of the classrooms as a

research laboratory, and involved students in research collaborative, and share the findings

with them. Teachers observed carefully, reflect systematically, and reflections to improve

                                                12
teaching. Action research was an improvement to professional practice at local classroom

level developed through the self-reflective spiral in the cycle of planning, action,

observations and reflection.




3.2 Design of the Instruments

    A study team of a total of 3 teachers would be form. The study would be conducted

over a period of 3 stages. The first stage was the preparation stage. During the second stage,

strategies will be redeveloped and various data were collected to study the most effective

way of teaching and learning. According to the investigation and preliminary analysis of the

results, teaching materials and learning activities would be modified for the third stage.

After the second and third stage, data would be compare and analyze for the change of

student learning outcome. Team members give advises and comments on the progress of

the study.

    After the late second stage, groups of students were asked to keep daily records of

temperature, air pressure, humidity and precipitation from the Observatory. Six students

recorded temperature with the data-logger at home and from the Observatory data for past

three years, data were then entered the into the teacher-developed spreadsheet template, and

weather charts were derived weekly to determine the mean mode, median and the pattern of

their data.

    At the end of third stage, students transfer the averages and totals to a summary

database, make graphs, and compare the weather with the Summary of Meteorological

Observations across different months and seasons of last three years. Finally, the G.I.S

(MapInfo Professional v7.0) would be employed by teacher to formulate the patterns of

rainfall and temperature, and to predict the weather trends.

                                             13
  The domains the students should be achieved in the projects included the followings:

i. Knowledge domain:

 To compare weekly, monthly and seasonal weather observations to review the

 characteristics and factors affecting the local physical environment: climate

ii. Skills domain:

  An opportunity for teachers and students became familiar with new sources of climatic

  information: the weather charts, installation the wireless weather station, building and

  installation the data loggers, recording and computation. Computer programs such as

  Geographical Information System, excel, spreadsheets and graphing sets of data were

  prepared. Students would know how to interpret weather maps and weather forecasts,

  and understand the factors affecting the local weather conditions.

iii. Affective domain:

 The usage of data loggers together with online information to collect real-time weather

  data instead of random, meaningless numbers created an opportunity for teachers and

  students real-time reflection to develop group skills of working collaboratively.



   In this action research study, qualitative research method and triangulation approach

were employed. Qualitative researchers often relied on the principle of triangulation to

enhance the creditability of the study. It referred to the use of multiple sources of data and

collection strategies, all of which should agree in their findings (W. Newton Suter 1998,

p.272). Triangulation was a type of qualitative cross-validation(corroboration) or data

cross-checking procedure whereby multiple data sources or data collection procedures were

expected to agree. A researcher might discover patterns in interviews, checked to see

whether the same pattern holds up in written correspondence, in printed materials, in

minutes of a meeting, in personal journals, or among observers. The researcher could also

                                             14
check to see whether the same pattern using the same data collection technique was

consistent over time. If the multiple sources of data collection were in agreement, the



findings were believed to be more credible. Triangulation greatly enhanced the validity of

qualitative findings (W. Newton Suter 1998, p.229). Triangulation, used in all types of

qualitative traditions, refers to the process of using multiple data collection methods, data

sources, analysts, or theories to check the validity of the finding. If similar themes were

noted in the data collected from a variety of sources, the credibility of the interpretation was

enhanced (Paul D. Leedy, p.169). The sources of study here included:

 a) Questionnaire survey on 1) the research group members, 2) three invited science

     teachers, and 3) the students;

 b) Interview on the research group members, and group of students;

 c) Class observation by one of the research group members;

  These three methods employed hoping to ensure the maximum of cross-validity and

evaluation of data credibility. The questionnaire surveys tried to obtain a general pattern of

teaching collaboration of the teachers and the effectiveness of teaching of the topic under

this study.

    The interviews tried to look into detail of some specific questions and to check the

consistency of the pattern. Additional, video recordings were used to reproduce the teaching

and learning process especially for clue findings.




                                              15
3.3 Resource Materials

   In this study, the following resource materials were employed:

   1) Summaries of Meteorological Observatory data from 2001-2003.

   2) 1 set of wireless weather station WS-7000 of La Crosse Technology set at school.

   3) 1 set of temperature logger of Pasco Science workshop 500 Interface and 6 sets of

       temperature logger assembly kits.

   4) Computer software: MS excel, and GIS software of MapInfo Professional v7.0. of

       MapInfo Corporation.

   5) Teacher-developed spreadsheets for data recording and computation and graphing.




3.4 The Procedure of the Research

   The study was carried out within the classroom and using the works of Kemmis et. al.

and other researchers the “cycle of action research.” with the following process:

1. Teaching reflection

2. Problem formulation

3. Data collection

4. Data analysis

5. Reporting results for consistency

6. Action (re)planning

   Each cycle in the action research process were planned by the teachers working together

prior to the commencing of the next cycle.




                                             16
3.4.1 Teacher Reflection: Identification of the Problem

     Among the various research methods we had studied, action research allowed teachers

acted as reflective teachers to solve their own classroom problems by series of cyclical

stages. High forms geography teachers frequently heard that the topic of Weather and

Climate was the hardest topic in Certificate Examination of Geography. Students always

sough advices the possibility of not choosing questions in this part in the HKCEE. It was

very discouraging to teacher whenever heard of years by years.

   The inefficiency of teaching and learning always rested to the students’ inability to

conceptualize certain important concepts, that students in reality would have few ways to

address their opinions on the teaching strategies.

   It was easy to think of many of the existing classroom problems that hinders the

effective teaching and learning of the topic. For example, the large classroom size of

excessive 42 students each class in upper form, insufficient fresh air ventilation in the

classroom, the lack of learning motivation, the shortening attention span of the students and

the mixed abilities in the same classroom.

   The above situation has two important implications to the teachers. Firstly, did the

teaching and learning process ineffective? Secondly, what changes in teaching and learning

should be done for reflective teachers? Were we willing to hear the same comment years

after years with little intention or willingness to do something to make the change?



3.4.2 Discussion with the Interest Parties

      Teachers always tried different strategies to combat difficulties individually and

lonely. At the moments, our department had established a data bank of hundreds of

multimedia video clips (in MPEG format) and digital photos (in JPEG format) and teaching

materials. We recorded and trimmed our own field trips video and photos. It was pleasure

                                              17
and our tradition to join field trips with teachers even we were not required. However, we

seldom thought of formal collaboration strategies to identify common critical teaching and

learning problems that were happening in the classroom.

   In this study, two additional geography teachers are invited to form a research study

team, and two classes of form four students comprised 80 students participate in this study.

   The study was intended to be carried out on May. Unfortunately the outbreak of the

SARS led to total class suspension of Hong Kong. A series of counseling activities to

combat SARS was launched after the re-opening of the school. Moreover, the shortening of

school hours and the restructure of the teaching scheduled made the study seemed

impossible to be finished at the end of June. Luckily, the school authority encouraged the

extension of teaching days and additional tutorial lessons beyond Summer holidays with the

consent of parents, especially for the upper forms(Appendix A).



3.4.3 Pilot Study

     The purpose of pilot study was to detect and eliminate any deficiencies or

unforeseeable misunderstanding concerning the design and interpretation of questions at

early stage.

     A pilot study was carried out on June to investigate the problems. A group six of the

Form Five students who had finished their Certificate Examinations were invited to an

informal interviews.   Among the students, there was three that intending to drop the part

of weather and climate in the Certificate Examination.

   As stated by Powney & Watts (1987), the purpose of the pilot interviews was a check to

the structure or organization of the interview met the requirements of the research project, a

practical test of the logistics of the interview; and an opportunities to practice the social

interactive skills necessary for the kind of interview chosen. It was an unstructured

                                             18
interview. The aims of interview were clearly expressed to the students. They were

encouraged to express their opinions or difficulties in studying the topic of Weather and

Climate.

The summary of the interview as follow:

Teacher: Thanks for you kind cooperation. This was an informal interview aims to collect

           information to alleviate the teaching and learning problem in the topics of Weather

           and Climate which most of the students found difficulty to understand . Your

           opinions will be recorded and will be discussed in the coming meeting with the

           study team for the lesson plan preparation only. The interview took about 30

           minutes. Your opinions were denoted by given name only. Please felt free to

           express your opinions.

Teacher: Why did you think the topic Weather and Climateis the hardest topic to you all?

Student Ng: The topics coverage was very broad, hard to remember every concepts.

Student Chong: The upper form students told it was the hardest topic, they advised me not

                  to spend too much time on them.

                  Sir, did you remember you failed me on the question of Weather in the

                  mock exam. I got 2 out of 22 marks. Luckily the Cert. Exam had questions

                  set on this topic, or I would have been finished. It is very lucky indeed!

Student Wang: I shared the same feeling with Chong. The topic was abstracts, hard to grasp

                 the ideas you told us in the class, although you use powerpoint with video to

                 teach us.

Student Li: Science students might understand better than students of Art students like us.

             You also told us that to be a climatologist was privilege of Science not Art

             stream students. It was discouraging because I wanted to study Geography in

             Form Six and might be in the University.

                                               19
Teacher: Which topic or topics were hard to encounter, and why?

Student Ho: I thought the first chapter of Factors Affecting Temperature was hard to me.

              The reason was not clear, but I thought it was remote to me.

Student: The Coriolis force was hard to conceptualize. I still could not understanding the

           direction of wind deflection in N. and S. Hemisphere.

Teacher: This was a common problem to students, not limited to you. How about you,

           Chong ?

Student Chong: I mixed up the pressure of cool and hot air, and high pressure and low

                  pressure. I tried to memorize them as much as I could in the Cert. Exam.

Student Wang: I was frightened by the weather maps, I could not identify the pressure cells

                 and their symbols and the associated weather conditions.

Teacher: What could be done to make you understand the topics.

Student Ng: Sir, if more examples and analogies were used, we could easily understand.

              Did not speak too fast. Demonstrating us the formation processes of high, low

              pressures. Demonstrate how to plot isohyets and isotherms to us.

 Student Chong: Sir, you could teach us how to predict weather, especially predict typhoon.

                     Did more passed papers were also necessary.

   At the same time, pilot questionnaire survey to teacher were sent out to teachers of the

two Geography teachers, and in additions to 3 science teachers who had the greater chance

to implement data- logging technology in their teaching and learning activities were

invited.




                                               20
 The following tables were extracted from the teachers’ questionnaires(Appendix B).

         Item on the state of collaboration atmosphere do occur in the school.   Weighted

                                                                                 mean

  1      School provide necessary atmosphere to facilitate collaboration                2.8

  2      School management appreciate collaborations                                    3

  3      School has effective communication system                                      2.4

  4      School non-teaching duties allow you to collaborate with teachers              4.6

  5      Teaching duties allow you to collaborate with teachers                         2.4

  6      School recognition teachers’ efforts                                           2.2

  7      Teacher trust the school management                                            2.2

  8      The school management accept teacher’s problems                                2

  9      Teachers are helpful and resources                                             3.4

  10     Teachers trust to each others 276                                              3

  11     Teachers have sufficient channel to address their opinions 94637               3.6

  12     Teachers always seek advice from their Senior                                  2.6

  13     Teachers are provided with high autonomy                                       3.6

  14     Teachers’ conflict are observable                                              3.2

  15     Teachers are willing to share resources                                        2.6

         Average weighted mean                                                          2.9

      From the survey, it was found that teachers’ readiness to collaboration in teaching

activities were limited. The average teaching experience was 11 years. Among the five

teachers, two were subject panels, the survey revealed that they show a higher level of

collaboration with teachers than to general teacher. Teachers were helpful and resourceful,

and provided with high autonomy, but little collaboration atmosphere was found.



                                                21
            Items on the frequency of subject teacher’s collaboration    Weighted mean

            do occur in the school

1           Regular meetings with subject teachers                            3.6

2           Develop school based curriculum together                           2

3           Work with teacher(s) in setting examination papers                4.8

4           Work with teacher(s) in setting test papers                       2.6

5           Prepare teaching material together with teacher(s)                3.6

6           Observe classroom teaching of teacher(s)                          3.2

7           Open class observation to other teacher(s)                        1.8

8           Give comments to teacher(s)to improve teaching                    2.6

9           Accept advice from other teacher(s)                               2.8

10          Evaluate student’s progress together                              3.2

11          Solve classroom problems with other teacher                       1.8

12          Co-teaching in classroom                                          1.2

13          Advise new teaching strategies to teacher(s)                      2.8

14          Use of data-logging technology in teaching                         2

15          Use of G.I.S in teaching                                           1

            Average weighted mean                                             2.6

     The survey showed there were regular collaborations in subject matters, especially in

preparation of teaching materials and setting examination papers. However, the survey

showed little collaboration in classroom level, limited collaboration in solving classroom

problems and co-teaching activities. There was a low rate of using data-logging

technology and G.I.S in school.




                                             22
3.4.4 Problem formulation: Schedule of the Action Research

     The schedule was interrupted and postponed unexpectedly by SARS, one of the invited

teachers would extend teaching days beyond summer holidays, and consented to work

together on the topic of Weather and Climate. While the other invited teacher, due to his

planned holidays schedule, failed to follow our plan. He was in turn invited as critical

friend in this study. However, the student size was reduced to a class of 40 students because

one class has 2 addition summer tutorial subjects besides Geography. The schedule was

crashed. Therefore, the compare and analyze for the change of student learning outcome

between two classes were given up.

     The action research was conducted during the month of June and July. The revised

 schedule was as followed:

The following tables showed the planned schedule of the study

 Stage      Date/Month     Action Plan

 1          April          Ground work:

                           1. Identifying and Formulating the research problems;

                           2. Constructing the research framework;

                           3. Quoting the price of Wireless weather station(Appendix C),

                               temperature data-loggers(Appendix D) and the G.I.S system.

            May            1.Invited two Geography teachers to form Research Study

                             Group;

                           2. Ordering the equipments.




                                             23
    June         1.Interviewing with a group of Form 5 study to gather their

                   opinions of the topic under study;

                 1.Installation and demonstration of the wireless weather stations

                   to the research group teachers(Appendix E);

                 2.Inviting Form 4 interested students to wedge the temperature

                   data-logger and demonstration(Appendix F) ;

                 3.2nd meeting of preparation of scheme of work(Appendix G).

    July         1.Development of data collection methods: teachers and students

                  questionnaires and pilot test to invited Form 5 students.

2   July 14-23   1.Implementation of Action Plan 1;

                 2.Questionaire survey and interviews;

                 3.Data analysis and evaluation of Plan I;

                 4.Discussion with team member and critical friend ;

                 5.Formulation of Plan II.

3   July 27-30   1.Implementation of Plan II;

                 2.Questionaire survey and interviews;

                 3.Data analysis and evaluation of Plan II;

                 4.Discussion with team member and critical friend;

    August 1-5   1.Preparation of final report




                                   24
                                        Chapter     IV

                DATE COLLECTION AND THE REPORTING OF DATA

4.1 The First Cycle

4.1.1 Implementation of Action Plan I

     Plan I aimed at introducing the topics of Weather and Climate to give student a general

picture to lessen their worry. Data record sheets were delivered to all grouped of students

Students with special interest to topic of Weather and Climate were identified. They were

invited to wedged the temperature data loggers kits together with teacher in geography

room after school. They learnt how to download the driver and connected the interface, the

data were logged instantly in Window 98 environment. These students formed a group to

collect temperature data in their respective home location. They were also interested invited

to erect the wireless weather station with teacher on one of the school building which

student are excluded of entry. They learnt the elements of weather by holding the receiver

panel which is amazing to them. The receiver panel was later settled in the geography room

for demonstration and data reading. Students were grouped with 4 students. Each group was

assigned to record the weather data for a month, especially attention is made to record the

average daily temperature, average rainfall and pressure(Appendix H). They were also

advised to collected data through the Observatory online.

The lesson plan of the stage 2 were as following:

 Topic: Climate and Weather: The factors affecting the temperature

 Learning objectives:After the five sessions,

                       1.the students should be able to differential between weather and

                          climate;

                       2.the students should be able to identify elements of climate;



                                             25
                        3. the students should be able to explain the factors affecting

                             temperature, pressure and wind;

                        4. the students should be able to conclude the temperature and

                             pressure differ between coastal and interior region;

                        5. the student should be able to appreciate the use of weather data

                             loggers;

                        6. the students should be able to appreciate the variation of

                             weather data collect from the Observatory online.

Lesson Planning

Session                             Learning Activities                        Time allocated

14/7      1.Introduction:Temperature data logger (Pasco Science                20mins

            workshop 500 Interface )were set and display by projector

            in geography room with x-axis represent time and Y-axis

            represent temperature in degree Celsius , 4 volunteers were

            invited to test body temperature                                   25 mins

          2.Video showing how weather data were collected by the               10mins

            Observatory                                                        5 mins

            ----break-----                                                     20mins

          3.Differential between weather and climate

          4.Heat balanced concept and heat transfer concept introduced

16/7      1.Introduction of traditional measuring tools of temperature         10mins

          2.Demonstration of Excel to calculate different aspects of 20mins

            temperature(Appendix I):

            1.Daily average temperature, 2.monthly average temperature



                                                26
         3. Annual range of temperature and 4.daily range of

         temperature                                                      10mins

         -downloadable at school intranet system and ICQ shared file. 30mins

                          ----break-----

       3.Explaining the first fours factors affecting temperature with 10mins

         powerpoint presentations                                         15mins

                          ----break-----

       4. Explaining the last fours factors affecting temperature with

         powerpoint presentations

       5.Interviewing of students

21/7   1. Revision of the factors affecting temperature.                  20mins

       2. Explaining the global distribution of i).monthly average 20mins

        temperature and ii.) Annual range of temperature.

                              ----break-----                              10mins

       3.Assignment:data recorded sheets are provided for 30 July, last 35mins

        session use

        2 groups of students recorded yearly weather data from

        2000-2002,2 groups recorded monthly weather data from 2001

        to 30 July 2003, 1 group recorded school weather data upto

        July 30,2 group recorded home temperature data upto July

        30(Appendix J1-J4),.

         -Data retrieval from Observatory is demonstration.

         -Electronics files can also be downloadable at school intranet

          system and my ICQ shared file.

22/7   1.Explaining the concept of pressure                               15 mins

                                           27
       2.Eleborating the three factors affecting pressure

         i. How temperature affected pressure                             10mins

          ---- Q & A with break----                                       15mins

         ii. How attitude affected pressure                               10mins

          ----Q & A-----                                                  5mins

         iii. How latitude affected pressure and the formation of four 20mins

            pressure belts                                                5mins

            ----Q & A ----

23/7   Explaining factors affecting wind speed and direction

       1. Pressure gradient                                               10mins

       2. Earth rotation: wind deflation

         i. demonstrating the pattern of wind movement from high 5mins

          pressure to low pressure with no earth rotation.

            --------------break------------                               5mins

         ii. Demonstrating the pattern of wind movement from high 20mins

            pressure to low pressure with earth rotation in North

            Hemisphere only                                               10mins

             --------------break------------                              20 mins

         iii. Generalizing the pattern and direction of wind movement

            in N. and S. Hemisphere.                                      5mins

         --------------break------------                                  15mins

         iv. Explaining the change of wind direction associate with the

            shift of ITCZ.

       3. Questionnaire and interview of students




                                               28
4.1.2 Data analysis: Evaluation of Action Plan I

     The study was the first attempt in school trying to improving teaching and learning in

the geography department. There were no precedents to follow, moreover it involved a

large number of students and several colleagues and the time is limited.

     If questionnaire survey was the only data- collection method, the study will be limited

and yield little contributions. To ensure adequate and accurate data to be collected, and the

information collected reflect as close as to the actual situation of the student, triangulation

approach in data collection and evaluation were used.

     More than three methods of data collection were employed in this study

 Questionnaire Survey

     Separate questionnaire survey to five teachers was done on the plan I). It was useful to

 obtain information on the overall state of teachers’ collaborative-readiness or

 technology-readiness.

 Questionnaires to student were done to s tudents immediately after action plan I(Appendix

 K).The questionnaires were anonymous to ensure the genuine response could be obtained.

 The 5-point Likert scale was used to ensure against the high rating on the midpoint

 response.

 From the student survey, students were generally not rejected additional tutorial lesson

 during Summer holidays. However, they were less able to conceptualize the relationship

 between temperature and air pressure. They had interested in knowing new technology

 related to the topics. They could not able to read weather chart and learn how to predict

 weather at this stage.




                                              29
Interview

   Interviews to 4 students were conducted in Action Plan I after the questionnaire

survey(Appendix L). Interview served as an explanatory means to identify relationship and

trends of the learning outcomes that could not reveals in the questionnaire survey.

Semi-structured interview (Appendix 3) were used to eliminate irrelevancies during the

conversation. It is preferred to interviewer with little experience that might often misled by

the interviewees in return.

   Special attention was given to the selection of interviewees to reduce bias:

1. the student interviewees should be voluntary,

2. they had attended all the tutorial lessons.

3. they were approachable and friendly and open students

4. the purpose of the interview was made clear

5. there was a warm-up drills

   The interview was conducted in the geography room after the lesson while other

students had left, where the interviewee felt comfortable and ease.

1. Warm-up Questions:

  Teacher: I know all of you are interested in Geography. Tell me which topic you liked

  most.

  Student1: topics of Weathering and Mass Wasting

  Student2: Folding and Faulting

  Student3: Volcanoes.

  Student4: Plate Movement

  Teacher: Other than the exam. Curriculum, what other topics were you interest in?

  Student2: The Solar System

  Student3: The Formation of the Universe.

                                                 30
  Student4: The dating technology

  Teacher: Other than the presentation and the worksheet I gave, what others materials did

  you generally use to help you to study Geography.

  Student1: Borrowed books from school library.

  Student2: Searched on web ,for example the Hong Kong Education City. But resources in

               Chinese were limited. Most of them were from Taiwan.

  Student3: I planed to attend tutorial class after school.

  Student4: I did not have extra time to find additional materials because homework was a

               burden to me, everyday I could only finished homework after 11:00PM! Time

               was not enough.

2. Formal Questions:

  Teacher: Let us went to the point. Was the topic Weather and Climate hard to understand?

  Student1: Sir, very hard.

  Student2: I thought it was easy to me.

  Student3: I still could not able to understand the topic.

 Teacher: Thought one of the taught topics that were slimier to the topic (as easy/difficult

 as).

 Student1: It is as difficult as Weathering

  Student2: As difficult as rocks

        Student3: Not too difficult.

        Teacher: How did you like use IT in teaching Geography.

        Student1: O.K

        Student3: Very good, we could know new technology.

        Student1:It should relevance to the syllabus.

        Teacher: Were the variety of activities able to help you to understand the topics

                                                31
Student1: Yes., or we lost interest

Stucent2: More advices on the theme, or we would be sidetracked.

Student3:Good, but afraid of not finished the curriculum.

Teacher: Which class activities impressed you most?

Stucent1: Measuring body temperature?

Student2: Video of demonstration on the use of liquefy nitrogen of the Science

           Museum you recorded

Student3: Video demonstrating the deflection of a ball.

Student4:Demonstrating how to generating of the Excel File

Teacher: Whenever you come across problems, how would you overcome.

Student1: Try to memorize them as much as possible.

Student2: ICQ to you.

Student3. Leave them until test come.

Student4: Seek advices from classmates

Teacher: Advise activities to arise your interest during class lesson.

Student1: Role playing and more Field trips

Student2: Building models.

Student3: More class discussion with marks awarded

Student4; more quiz would be better.

Teacher: Which part of activities you appreciated most?

Student1: More technology presented and demonstration.

Student2: Video with elaboration

Student3: Could download you teaching materials, but not stable.

Student4: The preparation works prepared to us

Teacher: What were needed to improved in my teaching?

                                         32
Student1:Did not talk too fast.

         Why did not apply the concept learnt to the typhoon that come this week?

Student2: Had more breaks.

          Did not talk too much about out- syllabus topics.

Students3:Punished heavily those who disturb the lesson.

Student4: Home works were not enough.

Teacher: As a whole, how did you think the portion of teacher and student effort to the

          success of the Cert. Exam. ?

 Student1: Teacher:30%, student:70%

 Student2: Teacher:30%, student:70%

 Student3: Teacher:40%, student 60%

 Student4: It was the responsibility of student herself.



Classroom Observation

Classroom observatory by teacher was necessary. Although the observatory was

limited to one lesson out of the 5 in he Plan I, it still provided the necessary clues such

as observation of teacher and student interaction, teaching objectives and the

effectiveness of the teaching and learning activities. Most of all, it was the invaluable

opportunities without any official pressure to advise each other. In addition, a third

party observation could:

1. to advise expertise on the subject matters;

2. to provide unique views or critiques;

3. to provide spiritual support.

The following are the summary of comments of the observation record which was

translated to English version:

                                         33
     1. Preparation was enough. Variety of activities suit to the topics.

     2. Presentation was clear, not dull, can attract student attention.

     3. The flow was smooth, but demonstration should set upper time limit, too lengthy.

     4. Adequate subject knowledge, examples were appropriate, content is appropriate.

     5. Most students were attracted, especially during activities, but little attention to

         those that lack interested in.

     6. Had enough questioning, student were able to response, interaction was enough.

     7. Enough teaching materials no monotonous appeared

     8. Enough response to students’ questionings.



4.1.3 Reflection

   It was arbitrage to divide Plan I into 5 lesson of 1-1/2 Hrs each. The topic of Weather

and Climate consists of 8 chapters. The research project could cover half of the chapters by

the end of the research time limit. At first, the project was designed to predict the weather

and climate by introducing the necessary elements of factors that affecting the weather and

climate. In turn, which meant those concepts related to each element that affecting weather

and climate were deliberately left away. In reality, it was costly to find additional lessons to

teach back the concepts. Moreover, it was afraid that the line of thought of students may be

serious disturbed. The speech pace was also slowed down and lesson breaks had increased

to allow students to absorb.

   From the survey of the teachers, teacher in collaboration to solve individual teaching

problem was uncommon practice in the school. However, the school management provided

positive message to encourage collaboration. What were the underlying reasons that

hindered the development of teacher collaboration in classroom level in our school would

be an interested researchable topic. Moreover, the usage of ICT included the data-logger

                                              34
and wireless weather station and even G.I.S was rare in Humanity subject in our school. It

would be quite interesting to introduce them to the teachers and students. The form 4

students all known well of the Excel, but with little application to apply what learnt in

reality. It was perfect to ask them to collect weather data and input to the spreadsheet to

generate the pattern of temperature and rainfall so as to pave way to predict weather in the

plan II.

     Also from the students’ feedback, the tropical storm of T.S. KONI and S.T.S

LIMBUDO that started to affect Hong Kong on and after 23 July should be a valuable topic

to allow them apply the concept of temperature and pressure into practice because the fresh

daily data of the tropical storms could be accessible from the Observatory . Moreover the

comparison of July weather to the past 3 years July weather would be interesting to student

to differentiate the effects of tropical storm to the weather of Hong Kong includes the

variation of temperature, pressure, rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and direction.

     On the other hand, it was found that 4 students were eager to learn more out of the

classroom. They are willing to spend time with teacher to wedge the data loggers and tested

at home, and erected the wireless weather station on the school building. They showed

special attention to the variation of weather during the tropical storm period. However,

some students reflected that collecting data were time consuming, they prefer the

ready-made data prepared by teacher.




                                            35
4.2 Action Re-planning: The Second Cycle

      The data collected were discussed with study team to prepare the formulation of Plan

II. Plan II was based on the reflections from the feedback teachers and students in the first

cycle. It was formulated to address the problems found in Plan I. The same data collection

procedure of Plan I were used. Evaluation of data would provided in-depth detail to the

research questions, and recommendations would then be formulated.



4.2.1 Implementation of Action Plan II

     The lesson plan of the stage 2 were revised after consulted with the teacher as follow:

 Topic: Climate and Weather: The factors affecting the temperature

 Learning objectives:After the three sessions,

                       1.the students should be able to differential weather symbols in

                          weather chart

                       2.the students should be able to identify the high pressure cell to

                         low pressure cell

                       3. the students should be able to explain and the birth and death of

                          tropical cyclone

                       4. the students should be able to appreciate the e weather condition

                          associate with the tropical cyclone,

                        5. the student should be able to generalize the pattern of climate

                         especially for July(Summer) and January( Winter)

                       6. the students should be able to appreciate the variation of weather

                          data and prediction of weather with given weather data.




                                             36
Lesson Planning

Session                                Learning Activities                 Time allocated

28/7      The measurement of pressure

           i. the introduction of operation of apparatus.                  10mins

           ii. the displaying of isobars on weather map                     5mins

           iii. the measurement of wind speed and wind direction, and 15mins

                  its displaying of weather map.

                  --------------break------------                          5mins

           iv. displaying the world distribution pattern of pressure 20mins

                    belts.                                                 5mins

                  --------------break------------                          10mins

           v.      introduction of air mass and front                      5mins

                  --------------break------------                          15mins

           vi. explaining the characteristics of anticyclone and cyclone

29/7      1.The introduction of tropical cyclone

            i.)         its characteristics (with video)                   25mins

            ii.)        its formation and path                             10mins

                        -------------break------------                     5mins

            iii.)       its associated weather.                            10mins

                         -------------break------------                    10mins



          2.The monsoon wind and its wind direction                        15mins

          3.The local wind                                                 10mins

          4.Questionnarie                                                  10mins



                                                    37
       5. Interview with group of students                            30mins

30/7   Consolidation:(in computer room)

       1.differentiation of coastal and inland climate:               15mins

         i. daily temperature

         ii. daily max.and min.temperature

         iii. rainfall

         iv. wind direction and speed

       2.Special topic: Trace the birth and death of typhoons T.S.    20mins

         KONI and S.T.S LIMBUDO

          ---------------break------------------------                5mins

       3. Prediction of weather                                       25mins

         i.Teacher demonstrating how of construct of climate chart.

         iii.Students construction respective climate chart

          (assignment on 21/7)w/ special attention to temperature,

          pressure and rainfall of :

          a) the monthly difference from 2000-2003(Appendix           10mins

               M1-M4);                                                25mins

          b) The seasonal difference of July to January from

               2000-2003(Appendix N1-&N7);

          (Readymade data in excel format were also prepared and

          accessible to student)

         ii. Group presentation the weather patterns

         ---------------break------------------------------

       4.Analsizing the distribution of temperature and rainfall by

         using G. I.S

                                              38
           5. Questionnaire survey

           6. Interview with students same as in Plan I



4.2.2 Data analysis : Evaluation of action plan II

Questionnaire survey

The questionnaire to students in Plan II was identical to Plan II, aiming at comparing the

students learning outcome in the two stages

                                     請在適當位置填上( ˊ )
 項 第一部份:有關課程部份                          非常             十分                        非常
 目                                      同意             同意    同意       不同意        不同意
 1    暑期補課對你學業有幫助
 2    你能掌握影響溫度及氣壓
      的因素.
 3    你能從 data logger 的數據,
      掌握溫度的變化.
 4    你能了解溫度與氣壓的關                                  r
      係.
 5    你較喜歡掌握最新學科知
      識和技巧.
 6    你開始能閱讀天氣圖.
 7    此課題有助你預測未來的
      天氣情況.
      第二部份:有關教學活動
 1    多形式的課堂活動能幫助
      你較專心上課.
 2    多形式的課堂活動能助你
      加深對課程的認識.
 3    多形式的課堂活動能提高

                                              39
    上課時的投入度
4   多形式的課堂活動能提高
    上課時的學習氣氛
5   多形式的課堂活動使上課
    時變得更有趣
6   多形式的課堂活動有助增
    加不同學習領域的知識
7   多形式的課堂活動對學習
    幫助不大.
    第三部分:有關學生學習方式
1   在多形式的課堂活動中,你印象最深刻的是?(可選擇多於一項)
    □ 使用 data logger 教學        □使用 wireless weather station 教學
    □ 影片放映(大氣橫流及龍捲風)           □電腦投影片教學
    □ 導師編寫講義教學                 □網上搜集天氣數據
    □ 分組電腦室製作氣候圖據              □利用 G.I.S 教學
    □ 其他:
2   你喜不喜愛課堂上多讓學生參與活動?
    □喜愛     □不喜愛
    原因:
3   除導師的講義外,你希望有那些課堂活動有助你掌握課程?請列出前三名.
    □ 影片欣賞及答問比賽           □分組討論及匯報
    □ 使用電腦投影片             □工作紙及作業填寫
    □ 模型製作及示範             □多用黑/白板教學
    □ 角色扮演                □模擬遊戲
    其他:


4   哪一部分或課題你最能掌握:




                          40
 5    哪一部分或課題你較有困難:




 6    請寫出你對導師的其他建議:




The return rate for the first and second Questionnaire surveys was 32 out of 35 and 30 out

of 32 respectively. From the survey, student had generally greater understanding of the

relationship between temperature and pressure. They understood how the Observatory

obtained and collected data from remote weather stations.

Most of them agreed that Summer tutoring were useful to them. The using the data loggers

could allow them visualize the weather changed overtime, especially during the tropical

storms period. They had improved their understanding the relation between temperature

and pressure. They were also willing to know more about new technology. Overall, they

were still not able to read weather map. For the items listed in the second part of the

questionnaire, it was found that students generally welcome group works. It was found that

they were demanding students, they enjoyed varieties of classroom activities, even though

some who not always active in class. They were not satisfied by sitting in the classroom,

they prefer to interactive activities and more variety in the class lessons. They asked more

field trip, and video playings. However, they showed little interest in the presentation of

G.I.S. It was found that some students still preferred teacher use blackboard and books

rather than frequent powerpoint presentations. Some students reflected that they liked notes

taking and blackboard using.




                                            41
Interview with the same Group of Student

   One student said the consolidation lesson was a great success, she claimed that she was

attracted by the weather charts showing the birth and death of tropical storms and their

moving paths. She expected teacher would give her new insight in addition to textbooks.

This was the students who were interested to borrow the wireless weather station and

temperature data logger to test at home. Two of the students still found the topics hard to

understand. They requested additional tutorial.

Discussion with Research Team and Critical Friend

   The team member was also invited to attend the last consolidation lesson. The same

class observation evaluation form was used.

   The following are extracted from the evaluation

   1. The lesson was well prepared with different set of data. Variety of activities is

        appropriate.

   2. The scheme could be orderly presented. The presentation of typhoon was attractive.

   3.   The flow was smooth and with good timing. But some groups could not follow.

   4.   Expertise in provided opportunity to student formulates the weather charts.

   5.   Most of the students were engaged in class activities, but some were surfing the

         web

   6.   An opportunity to provide student higher order thinking skill.

   7.   The use of spreadsheets was under carefully designed. The created weather charts

         could be locked and viewed together provided reinforcement to students.

   8. Large amount of data misled students




                                              42
4.2.3 Reflection

     The consolidation lesson was held in a different setting, the computer room. Students

were simulated whenever the learning scenery change, they could sit with groupmates.

However the setting of the computer room, in reality did not favor the work of

collaboration in lesson as each individual student had a computer in front of them. If

computers had to be shared, much collaboration and division of work could be achieved

during lesson.

     Students were interested in the moving path of the two tropical storms presented by

powerpoint presentation. However the tropical storm typhoons T.S. KONI and S.T.S

LIMBUDO were passed Hong Kong, not attacking Hong Kong at their full scale. The

variation of data of weather during the storms period was not apparent to students. The

presentation using the G.I.S to form 4 students was not success despite much effort had put

into. After discussed with the group member, the main reason was that the syllabus required

a general wide, not specific coverage in the content. Moreover Form 4 students would easy

loss track by the high detailed map and aerial imagery.




                                             43
                                         Chapter    V

                                      CONCLUSION

5.1 The Findings of the Study

The followings were the findings of the study:

1. The Cultivation of Better Relationship

  Teachers within the department were more willing to share and exchange ideas or

  problems related to the topic or students despite the physical remoteness of the staff

  room sitting.

2. The growth and extended professionalism

  The teachers were interested in the readymade spreadsheets and the data loggers,

  although these relatively recent technologies imposed difficulty to them all.

3. Every teacher can started action research

  Action research had been questioned for its generalization. Because of its research nature

  that allowed every teacher to be an reflective teacher or ‘teacher as researcher’ .

4. Encourage and improve inquiry skill

  Action research is a series of stages problem solving processes which was identical to the

inquiry approach of teaching and learning Geography. The “Identify of Problem” was

similar to the key question of “What could be observed?”, “Where were the features

located? ”And “Why were they there?” “How would they develop?” in the landscape and

“Action planning” was similar to “How ought they changes?”




5.2 The Impact of this Research on the Geography Department.

   It was found that the impact of this study was significant to the Geography department.

As stated by Fullan, M. & Stiegelbauer,S.(1991), the reduce professional isolation of

                                               44
geography teachers was occurring and allowing sharing of successful practices and provide

support to teachers. Teachers were interested in use the data logger especially the one,

Pasco Science workshop 500, borrowed from Chemistry subject, the interface was

attractive. Our panel was eager to order 2 set of stream velocity meters, although not with

data logger function. Moreover, the Science subject panel allowed us to use their

data-loggers upon request. However, our department had no plan to purchase and install

G.I.S software of any kinds. In reality, besides the cost of the software itself, the lack of

ready made data set prohibited teachers to advance in that field. The preparation work and

the compatibility across operation systems should not be overlooked. At the moment,

teachers’ computers were using Window 98 operation system, Geography Room

Windows2000 Professional, while computer rooms were Window NT version. In turn a set

of 3-D imageries over Hong Kong were bought. Our department had recently changed to a

faster speed computer equipped with additional external USB hard disk.




5.3 Implications for the Research Methodology

   Phil Riding, Sue Sowell & Plil. Levy. (1995) pointed out action research methodology

offered a systematic approach to introducing innovations in teaching and learning. It sought

to do this by putting the teacher in the dual role of producer of educational theory, and user

of that theory. That was both a way of producing knowledge about higher education

learning and teaching. No separation needed be made between the design and delivery of

teaching, and the process of researching these activities, thereby bringing theory and

practice closer together.

   Further their sayings, action research was participative in that those involved contribute

equally to the inquiry, and collaborative in that the researcher was not an expert doing

                                             45
research from an external perspective, but a partner working with and for those affected by

the problem and the way in which it was tackled. With the innovation of information

technology, research programs had started to focus upon electronic support for

collaborative learning and work (CSCL). In area of computer supported collaborative work

(CSCW), researchers were interesting the changing contexts how collaborative work

b r o u g h t      a b o u t      b y     t h e     n e w      t e c h n o l o g i e s .




5.4 Problems and Limitations of the Research

   In planning this project, some precautions were undertaken to avoid bias and

misinterpretation of data. A teacher was invited as critical friend in the project to give

advices and criticisms. Pilot test for questionnaires and lesson plans had been arranged.

Triangulation of data collection approach was also adopted.

   Despite the precaution measures, problems found in the data collection process could be

unavoidable. The evaluation forms of the two class observations by team teachers were

superficial. Teacher was kind enough to give general comments. As they were colleagues,

there was danger that interviewees’ wordings of interview and questionnaire were

transformed that not revealed the true situation. Such potential discrepancy had been

pointed out by Powney and Watt (1987) as one of the basic hazard of interview.

   Students had to collect data at home, it was difficult to evaluate their work as a work of

group or an individual, the effectiveness of enquiry process cannot be easily assessed.

The results of findings could hardly be generalized because of the subjective research

methodology and its small sample size.




                                            46
   The following practical problems also create problems to the study.

1. The tight timing for preparation of the equipments;

2. The physical setting of our geography room and computer room did not facilitate

  collaboration as planned;

3. The compatibility of software and authorization across platforms of computers of

  Geography room, computer room , teacher desk and home had waste lot of time to

  manage.

4. ICT technicians, laboratory technicians and teachers were not used to the installation and

  the interfaces of data loggers and wireless weather station and the G.I.S, everything were

  start new to us.

5. The rate of absentee started to increase by the end of the study periods(Appendix O).

6. The project was financially supported by the teacher alone.




5.5 Recommendations

1. Action research as an Assessment or Evaluation of Teacher Profession

  Action research should be added as part of the training program for pre and post-

  teaching training. It was a reflective process for teacher to solve the teaching and

  learning problems. Action research could also be an essentials part for teacher

  assessment and evaluation program or become a reflection program for the school staff

  development.

 2. Publication of Action Research Projects

      Action research projects should have channel to be collect, assess and publish. We

  had known of Collaborative Action Research Network, CARN, but locally such network

  still remain in the state of journal publication, the known two were the Journal of

                                              47
  education of the Hong Kong Teachers’ Association and the PartnerSHIP of the School &

  University Partnership for Educational Renewal Project of the Chinese University of

  Hong Kong.

3. Workshops or Seminars for Exchange of findings

      The channels for exchanging of experience were important. Workshops or seminars

  were effective means to disseminate the findings in action research. The most important,

  it provided the channels for those who worked for the same area to share and exchange

  information.

4. Working with Experts

   Action research was not hot issue to teachers. They were not used to the research

  process of     theory development, literatures reviewing and data collecting process.

  Working with experts from University or Authorities should be inclusive to each others.

 5. Financial support from the school authority

    Funding for small scale action research projects, especially those started in local

 school were limited. Equipments and models might need to be designed and built, which

 were costly to be bared by teachers themselves. Schools should provided funding to

 teacher research group that would benefit to the school in return.




                                             48
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adrianna Karam Koleski,(2000) The Impact of layers of relationships on Teachers’
Learning: A Case Study of a Collaborative Action Research Model. Available at
http://educ.queensu.ca/~ar/(viewed on December 2,2002)


An Expanded Sourcebook.(2nd Edition). Qualitative Data Analysis, pp8-9.SAGE
Publications.London.


Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action
Research. Falmer Press.


Che Ying KWAN. On the Views of the Participants of Putonghua teachers In-services
Training Course Towards Action research,pp.41-51.New Horizons in Education. Journal
of Education.Hong Kong Teachers’ Association


Fung,Y.W.,& Lee,C.K.(1989) Development of Geographical Education in Hong Kong in
the Post-war Years. Geography Bulletin, 18:5-12, Hong Kong: Education Department.


Fullan,M. & Stiegelbauer,S.(1991). The New Meaning of Educational Chang.
London:Cassell


Johnson, Beverly. Teacher-As-Researcher. The Education Resources Information Center.
Eric Clearinghouse on Teacher Education Washington DC.     Available at
http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed355205.html(viewed on December 9,2002)


Kemmis,S.,& McTaggart,R.(1982). The action research planner. Victoria,
Australia:Deakin University Press.


Paul D.Leedy.(1997). Practical research. Planning and Design (6th Edition). Simon &
Schuster/A Viacom Company.New Jersey.USA.




                                          49
 Phil Riding, Sue Sowell & Plil Levy.(1995) An Action Research Approach to Curriculum
 Deveopment.Department of Information studies. University of Sheffield, Sheffield,UK.
 Available at http://informationR.net/ir/1-1/paper2.htm(view on December 10,2002)


 Powney, J. and Watts,M.(1987). Interviewing in Educational Research. London. Routlege
 and Kegan Paul.


 Santa, C. M.,(1993). Researcher’s comments. In W.Borg, J.Gall, & M.Gall, Applying
 educational Research: A practical guide(3rd edition),pp.401-402.New York: Longman.


 Stimpson, P.G.(1990).Education Papers 10. Approachers to the teaching of Geography:The
 Hydrological Cycle and the Drainage Basin. Faculty of Education, University of Hong
 Kong.


 Tom Russell. Introducing Preservice Teachers to Teacher Research. Faculty of
 Education.Queen University. Kingston. Ontario. Available at
 http://educ.queensu.ca/`ar/aera2000/(viewed on December 10,2002 )


 W. Newton Suter.(1998). Primer of Educational Research.University of Arkansas at Little
 Rock.


楊宏珩.<< 行動研究:以高中化學教學試行合作學習為例>> 台北國立彰化師大科學教
育研究所碩士論文. 網址:                pei.cjjh.tc.edu.tw/sci-edu/edu_3_10.htm(viewed on
Februry 18,2003.)


周學政 (1998)<<資訊教育軟體與教材資源中心地理科教學實驗計劃>>全球資訊網應
用 於 地 理 教 學 之 研 究 . 國 立 台 灣 師 範 大 學 地 理 學 系 . 網 址 :
http://nerc1.ckjhs.tyc.edu.tw/111.htm(viewed on February 22,2003.)


李子健(2003)<序言>.<<反思性實踐的初探>>夥伙航.第四期.pp3-5.香港中文大學 教
育學院. 大學與學校黟伙協作中心.




                                           50
APPENDIX A

中四級地理科暑期補課事宜
各位家長:
  由於會考在即,中四級同學應善用暑期期間,故貴子弟將於下列日期及時間須回校補習
地理。敬希查照。

中四誠班
日期:               時間:                        地點:
14/7              8:30am-10:00am             地理室
26/7              1:00pm-2:30pm              地理室
21/7              10:30am-12:00pm            地理室
22/7              10:30am-12:00pm            地理室
23/7              10:30am-12:00pm            地理室
28/7              10:30am-12:00pm            地理室
29/7              10:30am-12:00pm            地理室
30/7              10:30am-12:00pm            電腦室


此致
貴家長
                                                              校 長 x x x
                                                              二○○三年七月四日

--------------------------------請簽署後於結業禮或之前交班長轉交校務處-----------------------------------


敬覆者:本人知悉並同意敝子女                    ﹝中     級    班   號,聯絡電話:              ,

                                   緊急時家長聯絡電話:                         ﹞
參加暑期補習活動。

    此覆
                                                          x   x 中 學 x 校 長


                                                          家長                    簽署

                                                          二零零三年            月      日




                                         51
APPENDIX B

                                     Questionnaire Survey

Dear Mr./ Mrs.                  ,

   I am now preparing my final Project for the Master of Science in Information Technology in

Education of the Faculty of Education of the University of Hong Kong. I am grateful if you would

spend a few minutes to complete the attached questionnaires.

  This survey intends to study the level and pattern of teacher collaboration in our schools. The

questionnaire consists of three parts: Part One asks about personal information of teachers. Part Two

asks about perception of teachers towards the working environment in subject and non-subject aspects.

Part Three asks about attitudes of teacher towards collaboration in teaching activities.

  All information provided will only be used for research purpose of this Project and will be kept

confidential. The copy of the Project can be issued to you upon your request.

  Thank you for your kind assistance.

                                           Student of MSc [ITE ], Faculty of Education

                                           University of Hong Kong.

                                           Frederick Chan san-wing



[Please kindly return the completed questionnaire to Frederick Chan san-wing on or before 30/7 ]




                                                  52
Part One
Questions 1 to 5 ask about your personal information. Please tick (     ) the corresponding space
provided.
1. Sex:      Male (        ) ; Female (         )
2. Age: 21-25 (            )   26-30 (          ) 31-35 (         )   36-40 (        )
            41-45 (       )    46-50 (          ) 51-55 (        )    55-60 (        )
3. Education Level:Teacher Certificate                                                        (      )
                      Bachelor Degree                                                         (      )
                    Bachelor Degree and Cert. of Edu/ P.C.Edu/ Dip.of Edu.                    (      )
                    Master Degree / Doctor Degree                                             (      )
4. Teaching experience:1-5 years (          ) 6-10 years (      ) 11-15 years      (      )
                        16-20 years (       ) 21-25 years (    ) 0ver 25 years (        )
5.Nos. of years teaching in the present school:
                         1-5 years (         ) 6-10 years (       ) 11-15 years (         )
                        16-20 years (       ) 21-25 years (      ) 0ver 25 years (        )
6. Subjects taught during 2002-2003:
   For teachers with teaching Geography:
   Geography                                                                                  (      )
   Social subjects (includes History, Economics, E.P.A)                                       (      )
   Chinese( includes Language, Literature, Putonghua Chinese History)                         (      )
   English ( includes Language, Literature)                                                   (      )
   Cultural subjects (includes Physical Education, Art, Musics).                              (      )
   Practical subjects includes Home Economics                                                 (      )

                                                   53
   For teachers with teaching non-Geography:
                  Social subjects (includes History, Economics, E.P.A)                        (      )
   Chinese( includes Language, Literature, Putonghua Chinese History)                         (      )
   English ( includes Language, Literature)                                                   (      )
   Science (includes Phycic, Chemical, Biology, Integrated Science)                           (      )
   Cultural subjects (includes Physical Education, Art, Musics)                               (      )
   Mathematics /Additional Mathematics/Computer Studies/Computer Literacy.                   (      )
   Practical subjects includes Home Economics                                                 (      )
7. Non-teaching duties:
   Class Teacher                                                                               (     )
   Panel Chairperson/ Department Head                                                          (     )
   Convenor of Functional Groups                                                              (     )
   Teacher-in-charge of various Extra-curricular activities Clubs                               (     )
                                                     53
Part Two
This part records the state of collaboration atmosphere do occur in the school. Please tick (   ) the
corresponding space provided.
                                  How often do you find the situations do occur in the school
      Items                       Always     Often     Sometimes Seldom             Never
                                    (5)       (4)          (3)           (2)          (1)
 1    School provide                         44                       222
      necessary atmosphere to
      facilitate collaboration
 2    School management                        4          333           2
      appreciate collaborations
 3    School has effective                                33            222
      communication system
 4    School non-teaching       555            44
      duties allow you to
      collaborate with teachers
 5    Teaching duties allow                               33            222
      you to collaborate with
      teachers
 6    School recognition                                  33            22           1
      teachers’ efforts
 7    Teacher trust the school                            33            22           1
      management
 8    The school management                               3             222          1
      accept teacher’s
      problems
 9    Teachers are helpful and                 44         333
      resources
 10   Teachers trust to each                   4          333           2
      others 276
 11   Teachers have sufficient                 444        33
      channel to address their
      opinions 94637
 12   Teachers always seek                                333           22
      advice from their Senior
 13   Teachers are provided                    444        33
      with high autonomy
 14   Teachers’ conflict are                   4          3333
      observable
 15   Teachers are willing to                  4          3             222
      share resources




                                                     54
Part Three
This part records the frequency of subject teacher’s collaboration do occur in the school. Please tick
(     ) the corresponding space provided.

                                  How often do you find the situations do occur in the school
      Items                       Always    Often      Sometimes Seldom Never
                                    (5)      (4)           (3)          (2)        (1)
 1    Regular meetings with                 444        33
      subject teachers
 2    Develop school based                    4                        22         11
      curriculum together
 3    Work with teacher(s) in     5555        4
      setting examination
      paper
 4    Work with teacher(s) in                            333           22
      setting test papers
 5    Prepare teaching                        444        33
      material together with
      teacher(s)
 6    Observe classroom                       4          3333
      teaching of teacher(s)
 7    Open class observation                             3             22         11
      to other teacher(s)
 8    Give comments to                        4          3             222
      teacher(s)to improve
      teaching
 9    Accept advice from                      44         333
      other teacher(s)
 10   Evaluate student’s                      4          3333
      progress together
 11   Solve classroom                                    3             22         11
      problems with other
      teacher
 12   Co-teaching in                                     2                        1111
      classroom
 13   Advise new teaching                                3333          2
      strategies to teacher(s)
 14   Use of data-logging                                33            2          11
      technology in teaching
 15   Use of G.I.S in teaching                                                    11111




                                                   55
APPENDIX E




APPENDIX F




                                            60




APPENDIX G
The 455MHz Wireless Sensors mounted on Tripod on the Roof of of the Wireless Weather Station.
The receiver panel and its data logger and additional sensor are placed on
Geography room. Weather data are recorded on record sheet daily.




                                            61
APPENDIX H
  2003 年 7 月 (冬 季) 每 日 平 均 氣 象 要 素 紀 錄
  日      每日      每日平均      每日平均海平面      每日      盛行風向      平均風速
 DAY   平均氣溫(℃)   相對濕度(%)    氣壓(hPa)   降雨量(mm)   ( 360∘)   (m/s)
  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
平均值

                              62
APPENDIX I


工作紙 2.2 :輸入 2003 年 7 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 七月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
      o
        C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                              年平均溫度                #DIV/0! ℃
   28                          最高月平均溫度                    0.00 ℃
   29                          最低月平均溫度                    0.00 ℃
   30                                 月溫差                 0.00 ℃
   31                                年降雨量                 0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.

                                             63
APPENDIX J1                      2000 年 香 港 氣 象 觀 測 摘 要
 月 份                                        平均雲量               總雨量
                                                               (mm)              平均每日
                平均日最                         (%)
         平均           平均 平均日最 平均 平均相對                                   總日照      太陽總輻 總蒸發量 盛行風向 平均風速
                高溫度
        氣壓(hPa)      氣溫(℃) 低(℃) 露點(℃) 濕度(%)                              (hr.)     射量     (mm) (360∘) (km/hr.)
                 (℃)
                                                                                  (kj/m2)

  一月      1019.5   19.1    17     15.3   12.2   74        64   70.3     130.7     9.63    72.1     50     25.7
  二月      1017.8   17.4   15.4    13.6   11.8   80        70   27.6     99.7      9.31     54      60     24.8
  三月      1015.3   21.5   19.2    17.2   15.2   79        67   40.9     137.1     13.15   94.3     40      22
  四月      1011.1   25.1   23.1    21.4   20.4   85        85   547.7    77.3      10.35   79.9     70     21.8
  五月      1008.6   28.4   26.1    24.5   22.3   80        75   208.3    148.5     15.59   126.3    80     21.3
  六月      1007.1   30.8   28.3    26.4    24    78        70   443.3    207.1     17.28   144.2    230    22.7
  七月      1003.5   31.3   28.8    26.9   24.9   80        71    304     221.9     17.73   157.6    240    23.9
  八月      1004.5   30.8   28.5    26.6   24.9   81        71   600.7    176.4     14.76   136.3    240     17
  九月       1009    29.9   27.7    25.8   21.9   72        61   152.6    217.2     17.32   145.6    80     23.7
  十月      1011.9   27.8    26     24.2   21.5   77        70   204.1    165.5     12.56   120.6    80     32.5
 十一月      1016.6   22.9    21     19.2    16    74        68   96.8     119.6     10.34   81.8     10     28.7
 十二月      1018.4    21    18.9     17    14.3   76        55    56      163.9     10.76   72.6     70     25.3

平均/總值     1011.9   25.5   23.3    21.5   19.1   78        69   2752.3   1864.9    13.23   1285.3   70     24.1

  正常 1012.9 25.7   23 20.9   18.6   77   65   2214.3                    1948.1    14.46   1528.8   80    22.6
 觀測站                     天 文 台                                                   京 士 柏               橫 瀾 島
天文台於六月五日 15 時 4 分錄得本年最高氣溫 34.2 攝氏度。
天文台於一月二十七日 7 時 26 分錄得本年最低氣溫 7.2 攝氏度。
橫瀾島於九月一日 5 時 32 分錄得本年最高陣風 101 公里/小時,風向 280 度。
京士柏於四月二十三日 0 時 44 分錄得本年最高瞬時降雨率 279 毫米/小時。
                                                     64
APPENDIX J2                     2001 年 香 港 氣 象 觀 測 摘 要
 月 份                                                平均雲量     總雨量
                                                     (%)     (mm)              平均每日
               平均日最
        平均           平均 平均日最 平均 平均相對                                  總日照      太陽總輻 總蒸發量 盛行風向 平均風速
               高溫度
       氣壓(hPa)      氣溫(℃) 低(℃) 露點(℃) 濕度(%)                             (hr.)     射量     (mm) (360∘) (km/hr.)
                (℃)
                                                                                (kj/m2)

 一月      1017.5    19    17.3   15.6   13.3   78        68     47.6   112.2      9.07    59.7    60    24.9
 二月      1016.9    20    17.6   15.5   13.7   79        66     10.9   127.9     11.51    67.4    50    22.1
 三月      1014.9   22.8   20.6   18.6   16.2   77        72     56.5   140.4     13.32    94.2    60    20.5
 四月       1012    24.5   22.4   20.6   19.7   85        86     133     79       10.25    71.3    70    21.6
 五月      1007.5   29.1   26.7    25    23.3   82        79     162    149.5     15.01   120.9    80    17.4
 六月      1005.6   29.8   27.6   25.7   24.8   85        81   1083.6    114      11.71   113.8    220   20.2
 七月       1004    30.5   28.1   26.2    25    84        77    656.4   136.3      12.9   129.8    100    25
 八月      1005.4   31.6   29.2   27.1   25.2   80        70    318.9   207.9     15.69   144.6    90    17.2
 九月      1007.4   30.3   28.1   26.2   23.1   75        60    563.3   162.3     13.39   132.7    360   19.2
 十月      1014.7   27.8   26.1   24.6   20.7   73        61     10.7   205.9      14.7    124     80    26.9
十一月      1018.6   23.6   21.5   19.5   14.2   65        43     4.3    206.4      13.1   102.3    70    26.3
十二月       1022    20.1   18.3   16.4   12.9   72        62     44.6    143       9.78     80     60    26.4
平均/總值 1012.2      25.8   23.6   21.8   19.3   78        69   3091.8   1784.8    12.54   1240.7   70    22.3
 正常      1012.9   25.7   23     20.9   18.6   77        65   2214.3   1948.1    14.46   1528.8   80    22.6
觀測站                                天 文 台                                       京 士 柏               橫 瀾 島
天文台於八月二十三日 15 時 52 分錄得本年最高氣溫 34.0 攝氏度。
天文台於十二月二十二日 7 時 1 分錄得本年最低氣溫 8.9 攝氏度。
橫瀾島於七月六日 19 時 15 分錄得本年最高陣風 112 公里/小時,風向 190。
京士柏於四月九日 17 時 47 分錄得本年最高瞬時降雨率 330 毫米/小時。
                                                   65
APPENDIX J3                     2002 年 香 港 氣 象 觀 測 摘 要

                                                                              平均每日
               平均日最
        平均           平均 平均日最 平均 平均相對                              總日照         太陽總輻 總蒸發量 盛行風向 平均風速
               高溫度                         平均雲量         總雨量
 月 份   氣壓(hPa)      氣溫(℃) 低(℃) 露點(℃) 濕度(%)                         (hr.)        射量     (mm) (360∘) (km/hr.)
                (℃)                         (%)         (mm)
                                                                               (kj/m2)

 一月      1020.5   19.3   17.3   15.5   12.7   75   55     25          161.9    10.11    62.3    20     20
 二月      1020.6    20    18.2   16.6   14.1   77   63    4.6          145.8    12.37    73.6    60    22.9
 三月      1015.6   23.5   21.5    20    17.8   81   77   238.7         104.4    10.45    85.5    70    19.5
 四月       1013    26.9   24.6   22.8   21.2   82   73    12.4         176.8    14.47   100.7    80    18.4
 五月       1009    29.3    27    25.2   23.4   81   77   275.6         160.2    15.59    126     90    18.6
 六月      1006.4    31    28.8    27    24.9   80   77   237.6         181.2    15.65   132.7    210   22.2
 七月      1002.8   31.3   28.9   26.7   25.4   82   79   320.8         165.5    13.96   133.2    220   17.9
 八月      1005.1   30.7   28.4   26.6   24.8   81   68   365.9         189.3    15.59   129.9    230   22.4
 九月      1009.5   29.1   27.2   25.5   23.3   80   71    723          146.1    12.99   113.9    90    21.5
 十月       1014    26.8   25.2   23.7   20.7   77   71    199          136.8    11.24    98.5    80    23.4
十一月      1018.1   23.4   21.5   19.7    16    72   56    23.3          176     11.98    94.2    60    24.7
十二月      1019.8   20.2   18.2   16.4   14.7   80   76    64.1         125.8     9.19    61.2    10    24.3
平均/總值 1012.9      26     23.9   22.1   19.9   79   70   2490      1869.8       12.8    1211.7   70    21.3
 正常      1012.9   25.7   23     20.9   18.6   77   65   2214.3    1948.1       14.46   1528.8   80    22.6
觀測站                                天 文 台                                      京 士 柏               橫 瀾 島
天文台於七月五日 15 時 14 分錄得本年最高氣溫 33.6 攝氏度。
天文台於十二月二十七日 2 時 23 分錄得本年最低氣溫 6.8 攝氏度。
橫瀾島九月十一日 16 時 41 分錄得本年最高陣風 112 kn/hr,風向 120。
京士柏於七月十七日 1 時 47 分錄得本年最高瞬時降雨率 232 毫米/小時。                         66
APPENDIX J4               2003 年 香 港 氣 象 觀 測 摘 要
 月 份
                                                                   平均每日
                平均日最
         平均           平均 平均日最 平均 平均相對                     總日照      太陽總輻 總蒸發量 盛行風向 平均風速
                高溫度                         平均雲量   總雨量
        氣壓(hPa)      氣溫(℃) 低(℃) 露點(℃) 濕度(%)                (hr.)     射量     (mm) (360∘) (km/hr.)
                 (℃)                         (%)   (mm)
                                                                    (kj/m2)

 一月
 二月
 三月
 四月
 五月
 六月
 七月
 八月
 九月
 十月
十一月
十二月

平均/總值

 正常
觀測站                         天 文 台                                  京 士 柏             橫 瀾 島




                                           67
APPENDIX K               問 卷 調 查 (第 二 及 第 三 階 段)


中四級同學:

在暑期間補課至今已完成,導師希望藉此問卷調查了解同學對本課題的掌握程度,從而
與本科導師綜合出教授本課題的教學策略。本問卷調查亦是以不記名方式進行及不涉及分數的
定奪,請同學抱最大誠意填寫。多謝 。
                         請在適當位置填上( ˊ )
  第一部份:有關課程部份            非常同意    十分同意      同意     不同意    非常不同意
                           (5)       (4)    (3)    (2)    (1)


2 你能掌握影響溫度及氣壓
  的因素.
3 你能從 data logger 的數據,
  掌握溫度的變化.
4 你能了解溫度與氣壓的關                    r
  係.
5 你較喜歡掌握最新學科知
  識和技巧.
6 你開始能閱讀天氣圖.
7 此課題有助你預測未來的
  天氣情況.
  第二部份:有關教學活動
1 多形式的課堂活動能幫助
  你較專心上課.
2 多形式的課堂活動能助你
  加深對課程的認識.
3 多形式的課堂活動能提高
  上課時的投入度
4 多形式的課堂活動能提高
  上課時的學習氣氛
                                     68
5 多形式的課堂活動使上課
 時變得更有趣
6 多形式的課堂活動有助增
 加不同學習領域的知識
7 多形式的課堂活動對學習
 幫助不大.
 第三部分:有關學生學習方式
1 在多形式的課堂活動中,你印象最深刻的是?(可選擇多於一項)
 □ 使用 data logger 教學    □使用 wireless weather station 教學
 □ 影片放映(大氣橫流及龍捲風)       □電腦投影片教學
 □ 導師編寫講義教學             □網上搜集天氣數
 □ 分組電腦室製作氣候圖據          □利用 G.I.S 教學
 □ 其他:
2 你喜不喜愛課堂上多讓學生參與活動?
 □喜愛     □不喜愛
 原因:
3 除導師的講義外,你希望有那些課堂活動有助你掌握課程?請列出前三名.
 □ 影片欣賞及答問比賽           □分組討論及匯報
 □ 使用電腦投影片             □工作紙及作業填寫
 □ 模型製作及示範             □多用黑/白板教學
 □ 角色扮演                □模擬遊戲
 其他:


4 哪一部分或課題你最能掌握:


5 哪一部分或課題你較有困難:


6 請寫出你對導師的其他建議:




                         69
Appendix L

Semi-structured Questionnaires to student for Action Plan I &II.

前言:多謝你們留下接受訪問。是次訪問主要是作為補充你們在課堂上剛完成的問卷調查。是

次訪問將較深入收集你們對此 5 堂暑期補習班所教授的天氣與氣候一課題在教與學上的掌握程

度以及對我使用資訊科技教學提出意見。你們的寶貴意見有助我在此課題的反思及改進。此訪

問需時約 30 分鐘。




甲.熱身題:

1. 你們對地理科興趣濃厚嗎?

2. 請你講講你們喜愛的地理課題,課程以外的亦可。

3. 除書本,工作紙外及講義外,你們還會用哪此途徑學習地理?




乙.正題

1.到目前為止,你們對天氣及氣候這課題掌握得如何?

2.請想想,你們覺得哪(些)已教課題與本課題(天氣及氣候)在難易程度上是相若的?

3.你們對利用 IT 設備上課有何看法?

4.多些不同輔助活動能否更幫助你們掌握學習?

5.哪些課堂活動令你們印象深刻?

6.當有學習出現疑難時,你們會用哪(幾)種方法來解決?

7.提議一些補充活動使你們更有興趣學習這課題。

8.我在這課題上的教學法有哪些值得讚揚的?

9.有哪些地方是有需要改善的?

10.要有好的地理會考成績,你認為導師與學生的付出比例是多少(例如:50:50)?

                                          70
APPENDIX M1

工作紙 1.1 :2000 年度全年溫度及降雨量分佈圖
1.) 輸入 2000 年度 1)月平均溫度 及 2)月平均降雨量
2.) 試描述月平均溫度與月降雨量的分佈及其關係


           月        月
 月     平均溫度 降雨量
           o
               C    mm
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec




年平均溫度 (oC)         #DIV/0!
       o
年溫差( C)              0.00

最高月平均溫度
 o
( C)                 0.00
最低月平均溫度
(oC)                 0.00
年降雨量(mm)             0.00




Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.                     71
APPENDIX M2
工作紙 1.1 : 2001 年度全年溫度及降雨量分佈圖
3.) 輸入 2001 年度 1)月平均溫度 及 2)月平均降雨量
4.) 試描述月平均溫度與月降雨量的分佈及其關係


           月        月
 月     平均溫度 降雨量
           o
               C    mm
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec




年平均溫度 (oC)         #DIV/0!
       o
年溫差( C)              0.00

最高月平均溫度
(oC)                 0.00
最低月平均溫度
 o
( C)                 0.00
年降雨量(mm)             0.00




Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI, Education
Department, 1999.                             72
APPENDIX M3
工作紙 1.1 :2002 年度全年溫度及降雨量分佈圖
5.) 輸入 2000-2001 年度 1)月平均溫度 及 2)月平均降雨量
6.) 試描述月平均溫度與月降雨量的分佈及其關係


           月        月
 月     平均溫度 降雨量
           o
               C    mm
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec




年平均溫度 (oC)         #DIV/0!
       o
年溫差( C)              0.00

最高月平均溫度
(oC)                 0.00
最低月平均溫度
 o
( C)                 0.00
年降雨量(mm)             0.00




Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.                   73
APPENDIX M4
工作紙 1.1 :2003 年度全年溫度及降雨量分佈圖
7.) 輸入 2000-2001 年度 1)月平均溫度 及 2)月平均降雨量
8.) 試描述月平均溫度與月降雨量的分佈及其關係


           月        月
 月     平均溫度 降雨量
           o
               C    mm
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec




年平均溫度 (oC)         #DIV/0!
       o
年溫差( C)              0.00

最高月平均溫度
(oC)                 0.00
最低月平均溫度
(oC)                 0.00
年降雨量(mm)             0.00




Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.                    74
APPENDIX N1

工作紙 2.1 :輸入 2000 年 7 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 7 月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
       o
         C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                          年平均溫度              #DIV/0! ℃
   28                       最高月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   29                       最低月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   30                             月溫差                0.00 ℃
   31                            年降雨量                0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.
                                           75
APPENDIX N2

工作紙 2.1 :輸入 2001 年 7 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 七月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
      o
        C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                          年平均溫度              #DIV/0! ℃
   28                       最高月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   29                       最低月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   30                             月溫差                0.00 ℃
   31                            年降雨量                0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.

                                           76
APPENDIX N3

工作紙 2.2 :輸入 2002 年 7 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 七月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
      o
        C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                          年平均溫度              #DIV/0! ℃
   28                       最高月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   29                       最低月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   30                             月溫差                0.00 ℃
   31                            年降雨量                0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.
                                             77
APPENDIX N4

工作紙 2.1 :輸入 2000 年 1 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 1 月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
       o
         C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                          年平均溫度              #DIV/0! ℃
   28                       最高月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   29                       最低月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   30                             月溫差                0.00 ℃
   31                            年降雨量                0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.
                                           78
APPENDIX N5

工作紙 2.1 :輸入 2001 年 1 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 1 月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
       o
         C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                          年平均溫度              #DIV/0! ℃
   28                       最高月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   29                       最低月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   30                             月溫差                0.00 ℃
   31                            年降雨量                0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.
                                            79
APPENDIX N6

工作紙 2.1 :輸入 2002 年 1 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 1 月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
       o
         C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                          年平均溫度              #DIV/0! ℃
   28                       最高月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   29                       最低月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   30                             月溫差                0.00 ℃
   31                            年降雨量                0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.
                                            80
APPENDIX N7

工作紙 2.1 :輸入 2003 年 1 月份每日日平均溫度與日降雨量

 1 月 日平均溫度 日降雨量
       o
         C  mm
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27                          年平均溫度              #DIV/0! ℃
   28                       最高月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   29                       最低月平均溫度                  0.00 ℃
   30                             月溫差                0.00 ℃
   31                            年降雨量                0.00 mm
Spreadsheet modified from The Use of IT in the Learning of Geography, PSHE Section,CDI,
Education Department, 1999.
                                         81
APPENDIX O
                    觀課紀錄                 (觀課者/科主席填寫)

授課者:                               觀課者:
課題:
科目:          斑級:              上課時間/日期:
請就下列各項教學表現對受評核人員作出評核
教學表現
觀課            指引                 評語
備課            備課充足,有完善計劃和策略,切
              合學生需要。
表達方式          表達清晰,有條不紊,生動有趣,激
              發學生學習興趣。
時間運用          靈活掌握時間,教學詳略得宜,達
              至該節教學目標。
學科知識          掌握學科專門知識,了解教授內容
              與整科課程的關係;選取合適教學
              內容。
課室管理          能有效地處理學生的不當行為。
              學生能依指導,有秩序地進行各項
              學習活動,使學生學習順利,成果
              顯著。
發問技巧          善用提問技巧,配合學生的反應,
              刺激學生高層次思維,鼓勵學習。
使用教具/器材/黑板    有效地運用教具,加強說明,並能
              增加學生學習興趣,促進學習成效
照顧學生個別差異      對學生的反應,觸覺敏銳;教學設
              計和師略切合學生的能力。


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