Lest Darkness Fall
Rome in Crisis, A.D. 235-285
Strategy & Tactics issue no. 234
Game Title: Lest Darkness Fall: Rome in Crisis, AD 235-285
Date of Publication: January 2006
Decision Games, PO Box 21598, Bakersfield, CA 93390
Decision Games hereby grants permission for its customers to download and/or print copies of this file for
their personal use. Discussion folders for this game are located on Consimworld.com's discussion board.
These “living rules” were first posted on 25 January 2006 . They contain 16,492 words.
On 14.4, The Emperor Creation Table, which appears in the lower-left of the mapsheet, the second sentence under the
result for a die roll of two reads: “IF TWO ARE MORE HEXES . . . “ That, of course, should read: “IF TWO OR
MORE HEXES . . . “
Table of Contents
3.0 Setting Up
4.0 How to Win
5.0 Turn Sequence
6.0 Roman Economics
7.0 Germano-Parthian Economics
8.0 Actions, Event Chits, Leaders,
Diplomacy & Treachery
9.0 Palmyra, Gallic Empire,
Caucasus, Dacia & Germania
11.0 Zones of Control
14.0 Charts & Tables
1.1 In General
Lest Darkness Fall: Rome in Crisis, A.D. 235-285 (LDF), is a low- to intermediate-complexity, two-player, strategic-level
wargame covering the third century crisis that beset the Mediterranean region and its environs. One player leads the Roman Empire
and its client states, while the other commands an amalgamation of its main enemies: barbarian Germanic tribes, Parthia, Palmyra and
rebel forces from within the Roman world itself.
That second player is generally on the offensive, trying to invade, loot and occupy core Roman territory, or perhaps reach the city
of Rome itself, in order to win. The Roman player wins by finally maintaining the territorial integrity of the empire against the
invaders. Despite that being the general situation, however, over the course of a typical match both players will have many
opportunities to attack and defend as they maneuver to achieve their goals.
1.2 Defining Sides
If a specific rule is said to apply to “all Roman units,” that means it applies to all units printed with a light-red background on one
side and a light-blue background on the reverse side, along with the one-sided, red-only, Roman emperor counter. Roman units with
their red-background sides showing are said to be “loyal.” Roman units with their blue-background sides showing are said to be
“rebels.” Note those two groups of units are opposed to each other, and red and blue units will therefore never co-exist in the same hex
at the same time.
The Roman player commands the loyal Roman units; the other player – the “Germano-Parthian” – commands all rebel Romans
along with all Parthian and German units. Further, during the second half of the game, the Germano-Parthian player may call the
“Gallic Empire” (a special sub-set of Roman rebels) into existence, after which he will also command those units.
The Roman player also commands the forces of the three tributary client states of the Caucasus: Armenia, Colchis and the
Kingdom of Iberia. Those three states field only static units, however; so the Roman player‟s options concerning them are limited.
The nominally pro-Roman client state of Palmyra starts the game inactive, and may be activated into play on the Roman side by
that player. The game turn after such an activation, Palmyra may switch sides to come under control of the Germano-Parthian player
1.3 Game Scales
Each completed game turn of LDF represents the passage of 10 years. Each hex on the map measures 100 miles (162 km) from
side to opposite side. The units in the game represent the Roman emperor and his court, his co-emperor (if one is in play), or rebel
claimants to the throne, legion bases and vexillations (mobile elements), garrisons and fortifications, Germanic tribes, Parthian gund
(corps), and Palmyran legion-equivalents. The individual units therefore represent everything from an individual and a few courtiers
up to 10,000 or so soldiers and their camp followers.
1.4 Population Center Hexes
Much of the game revolves around the control, taxation and looting of hexes containing “population centers.” There are three sizes
of population centers on the map. From smallest to largest they are: towns, cities and metropolises. Note that more than one of each of
those sizes may exist in the same hex.
1.5 Narrows Hexes
There are eight narrows hexes on the map: 2421, 2913, 3218, 3219, 3520, 3619, 4019 and 4119. It is critically important to
understand and always keep in mind only Roman units, rebel and loyal, are allowed to move into or through those hexes. All other
mobile units in the game – Germanic, Parthian, Palmyran – though allowed to attack into narrows hexes, may never move into or
through such places.
There is no set rule in this game for halving odd numbers or rounding off remainders. That is, sometimes remainders are rounded
up and sometimes they‟re rounded down. Follow the instructions given for each specific kind of division and rounding.
1.7 Non-Linear Rules
Because much of the action of this wargame is chit-driven, the course of play often bounces back and forth through the overall turn
sequence. That means, among other things, these rules can‟t be presented with a perfectly linear organization. Therefore, if you‟re now
starting to read them for the first time, you should go all the way through before deciding some explanation or detail is missing. As an
alternative path for first reading these rules, you might find it easiest to read sections 1.0 through 5.0; then go through sections 10.0
through 13.0; then go back and read sections 6.0 through 9.0, saving section 14.0 for last.
2.1 Map & Mapsheet
The single 34x22” mapsheet contains the map of the Mediterranean world on which LDF is played. A hexagonal (“hex”) grid is
superimposed over it in order to regulate the positioning and movement of units across it. Every unit in play is always in one hex or
another on the map. The mapsheet also contains the charts and tables needed to play. Their functions are explained in the appropriate
rules sections below.
2.2 Playing Pieces
The 176 die-cut cardboard playing pieces included in the game are variously referred to as “units,” “unit counters” and “counters.”
They represent the historic personalities and military formations that took part in this crisis. Their background colors and the icons
printed on the units identify them as to type, function and side.
2.3 Sample Units
Legion Base Element
Roman Infantry Vexillation
Roman Cavalry Vexillation
Palmyran Legion Equivalent
Roman Co-Emperor/Rebel printed on reverse
Design Note. Garrison/Fortification units are all of that. They combine the physical structures of population center fortifications with
a built in, and equally immobile, garrison of troops. The two are one and the same and inseparable from each other for all aspects
2.4 Static or Mobile
Static units never move from their hex of placement on the map other than to be put into the dead pile when eliminated. Mobile
units and personalities are free, within certain strictures, to move around the map once placed on it.
2.5 Background Colors
The background colors in which the units are printed indicate their nationality, or their status within the Roman regime, and
therefore the side they‟re on in play.
Red: Loyal Romans
Blue: Rebel Romans
Gold: Roman Client (or “Tributary”) States
Green: Germanic Barbarians
2.6 Combat Strength & Movement Factors
Unlike the counters used in most other wargames, those in LDF have no combat strengths or movement factors printed on them.
Cavalry vexillations have a movement factor of eight, while all other mobile units have movement factors of four. The two Roman
leaders have no movement abilities of their own, instead moving only when accompanying one or more mobile units.
Other than leaders, garrison/fortifications and Germanic units, every unit in the game has a combat factor of one.
Garrison/fortifications other than that of Ctesiphon (hex 5020) have combat factors equal to the unlooted treasury point values of the
hexes they occupy, but they may use that combat factor only to defend their own hex. The defensive value of the Ctesiphon
garrison/fortification is always eight (8).
All other combat units, including legion bases, may use their combat factors to attack enemy units in adjacent hexes as well as to
defend their own hexes. Leaders never attack or defend on their own, but do so when accompanying friendly mobile or static units into
Every Germanic unit has its combat factor determined afresh each time it goes into battle on offense or defense. To do that, the
Germano-Parthian player simply rolls a die at the start of each new battle‟s resolution when a tribal unit is involved, and then adds one
to that result. That final result, two through seven, is that Germanic unit‟s combat factor for that one battle.
2.6 Markers & Chits
The following counters are not units in the sense of those discussed above. Rather, they are markers or chits used to denote specific
rules functions or occurrences, and their uses are explained at appropriate places in the text below.
Game Turn Marker (see section 5.0)
Roman Treasury Point Marker (see section 6.0)
Roman Fortification Underway Markers (see 8.13)
Roman Population Center Looted Markers (see 8.14)
Event Chit (see 8.17 & 8.18)-text on white
Design Note. The number of each type of unit, marker and chit included in the game’s counter-mix is meant as an absolute limit,
except for “Looted” markers. Players may make up more of them if they need to do so. Also see the note at the end of rule 6.3.
3.0 SETTING UP
3.1 Getting Started
Players first decide between themselves who will command which side. That done, they should both separate, sort and set up their
own side‟s forces according to the following instructions. Both players may set up their own forces at the same time; it‟s not necessary
for one player to start or complete his set up before the other.
3.2 Roman Set Up
At the start of each game, all Roman forces on the map are loyal; there are initially no rebels. The Roman player should first note
on the map the hexes in which are printed the symbols indicating the starting presence of each legion. He should put one legion base
element and one infantry vexillation into each hex that has one such symbol printed within it. Note six hexes (2812, 3515, 3615, 3816,
4619 and 4719) each have two such symbols printed in them. The Roman player should put two legion base elements and two infantry
vexillations in each of those hexes.
He should then place the emperor counter and a cavalry vexillation in the Rome/Ostia hex (3318). Next, he should put one gold
garrison/fortification counter into each of the six hexes that constitute the Caucasus tributary states (see rule 1.2, third paragraph), and
another in the Palmyra hex (4720) along with all eight of the Palmyran legion-equivalent units.
Then he should take the two remaining cavalry vexillations and put them in the container being used to hold the chit pool (see 3.5
below). He should then put the “TPx1” marker in the “5” box of the Roman Treasury Point Track printed on the mapsheet; put the
“TPx10” marker in the zero (0) box of that same track, and place the “Game Turn” marker in the “Game Turn 1” box of the Turn
Record Track, which is also printed on the mapsheet.
Finally, he should set aside, within easy reach, the following units: the co-emperor piece, the “Fortify” marker, the 11 Roman
garrison/fortification units, and the 19 “Looted/Rebuild” markers. None of those counters begin play set up on the map; they enter
play later. That completes the set up of the Roman side.
3.3 Germano-Parthian Set Up
The Germano-Parthian player should first place all 17 barbarian Germanic tribal units included in the counter-mix into any 17
hexes of his choice in “Barbaria.” He may not put them into fewer hexes; no German stacking is allowed. (It may prove strategically
important to note Barbaria extends into what is present-day Scotland.)
Next, he should put a Parthian garrison/fortification counter in each of the population center hexes within that country, and then
also place all eight of that realm‟s gund units into any hex(es) of Parthia, including its population centers.
3.4 ZOC OK
Note that, within the limits given above, the units of both sides may be set up in each other‟s zones of control (see section 11.0).
3.5 Chit Pool
The two undeployed Roman cavalry vexillations (see 3.2 above), along with all two dozen of the event chits (numbered “1”
through “24” and printed white on black; see 2.6), should be put into a large-mouth container such as a coffee mug. That container and
the chits within it are called the “chit pool,” or simply the “pool.” See 8.17ff for more details.
4.0 HOW TO WIN
4.1 In General
In general, the Germano-Parthian player is attempting to invade the Roman Empire so as to overturn the territorial integrity of its
core area or reach and loot Rome/Ostia. The Roman player is endeavoring to prevent that from happening.
4.2 Germano-Parthian Sudden Death Victory
Play stops, and the Germano-Parthian player is declared to have won the game, the instant a Germanic barbarian tribe unit enters
the Rome/Ostia hex (3318), no matter what turn it happens to be when that takes place.
4.3 Turn 5 Victory
Play stops, and the Roman player is declared to have won the game, if on Turn 5 both players have already completed one or more
actions (see section 8.0), and there are no Germanic, Parthian, anti-Roman Palmyran or rebel units anywhere in any “Roman Core
Territory” hexes (see the Terrain Key printed on the mapsheet).
Play stops, and the Germano-Parthian player is declared to have won the game, if it‟s any point within Turn 5, there are one or
more Germanic, Parthian, anti-Roman Palmyran or rebel units in one or more “Roman Core Territory” hexes, and the Roman player
concedes he‟ll be unable to get all of them out of that territory during the remainder of that turn.
Play stops, and the Germano-Parthian player is declared to have won the game, if it‟s any point within Game Turn 5, there are one
or more Germanic, Parthian, anti-Roman Palmyran and/or rebel units in one or more “Roman Core Territory” hexes, and both players
sequentially choose “pass” as their action (see 8.19).
4.4 Victory in Turns 1-4
During Turns 1 through 4, failing the achievement of a Germano-Parthian “sudden death” victory as described above in 4.2, the
only way either player may win is if his opponent comes to view his own situation as hopeless in the longer term and therefore
4.5 No Draws
Given the victory conditions presented above, there are no drawn games; each match will be won by one or the other player.
5.0 TURN SEQUENCE
5.1 Turn Sequence Outline
Each turn of LDF is divided into a series of sequenced steps, the major categories of which are played through in the same order
each turn of the game. The player whose “action” is currently in progress is temporarily termed the “acting player.” The activity that
may take place during each action is outlined below. Neither player may go back to redo some poorly performed action or belatedly
carry out another action, unless his opponent graciously allows it.
5.2 Turn Sequence Outline
I. Mutual Administrative Phase
II. Alternating Actions Phase
A. Germano-Parthian Action
B. Roman Action
C. Germano-Parthian Action
D. Roman Action
E. Etc., Etc.
5.3 Turn Sequence Particulars
The mutual administrative phase is skipped during Turn 1. That turn, play begins with the Germano-Parthian player taking his first
The Germano-Parthian player is always the first player to take an action during each turn‟s alternating actions phase. After that,
players alternate taking actions one at a time (exception: see event chit no. 7, “Mad Dash”). Within that framework, there is potentially
no limit to the number of individual actions both players may take over the course a given alternating actions phase.
5.4 Ending a Game Turn
A turn ends whenever one of the following occur: 1) if during Turns 1 through 4 event chit no. 18, “The Gods Are Bored,” is
drawn by either player and the resultant die roll comes up even; 2) both players sequentially choose “pass” as their action, no matter
what turn is being played; or 3) during Turn 5, both players have already completed one or more actions, and there are no Germanic,
Parthian, anti-Roman Palmyran or Rebel units anywhere in any “Roman Core Territory” hexes. (In that last case, see 4.3).
5.5 Mutual Administrative Phase
Starting with Turn 2, both players will use the mutual administrative phase to work through their various economic and unit
replacement processes; see sections 6.0 and 7.0 for details on that.
5.6 All Chits Back Into the Pool
At the start of each new game turn after the first, both players immediately place back into the chit pool all the chits they‟re
holding in their hands at that time (see section 8.0 for more details on chit play).
6.0 ROMAN ECONOMICS
6.1 Revenue Producing Entities
The ability of the Roman player to maintain his armies in the field is based on the “treasury points” (TP) he gains from his ongoing
control over the unlooted population centers of his core territory, his control of the unlooted trans-river provinces of Dacia (hex 3816)
and Germania Decumates (hex 3215), and his control over the unlooted Caucasus tributary states and Palmyra. Note that looted core
territory population centers may be rebuilt and thereby brought back into the TP production process. All the other TP producing hexes
are, however, bankrupt for the rest of the game once they‟ve been looted.
The Roman player may also receive TP, on an opportunistic basis, from the play of event chit no. 24, “Revenue Windfall” (see
14.3), as well as from his army‟s looting of Parthian population centers (see 6.3 & 7.3).
6.2 Collecting TP
Starting with Turn 2, during each turn‟s mutual administrative phase, the Roman player should examine the map with an eye
toward calculating his current TP revenue. He should then record that amount on the Roman Treasury Point Track printed on the
mapsheet. If any TP were already recorded on the track, add the two numbers.
6.3 ‘Looting’ Defined
Whenever a Roman or Parthian TP-producing hex is first entered by an enemy unit, that hex is thereby automatically considered to
have been “looted,” which means it loses its TP-producing capacity. TP-producing hexes are all those described above in the first
paragraph of rule 6.1, along with all the population centers of Parthia. If a population center hex contains more than one population
center of the same size, or some combination of population centers of different sizes (see 1.4), the entire hex is looted altogether and at
one time. All town, cities and metropolises in the same hex always share the same status in relation to being looted, rebuilt,
Looted core area Roman population centers are shown to have that status by the placement in them of a “Looted/Rebuild” marker;
however, that‟s not true for looted Parthian, Caucasus and Palmyran population center hexes. They are shown to be “Looted” by the
absence of a garrison/fortification marker in their hexes. The backs of those places‟ garrison/fortification units have therefore been
printed with more “Looted” markers for use on Roman population centers if needed for that purpose.
It may also happen, though, that a Parthian, Caucasus hex, or Palmyra, may be emptied of its garrison/fortification marker due to
the plague (event chit no. 10; see 14.3) while still remaining unlooted. In such cases, remove the garrison/fortification marker, and
place a penny or other coin in the hex to indicate the special status.
6.4 Roman Recovery from Looted Status
The Roman player may choose to rebuild looted population center hexes that lie within his core territory. Similarly, looted
Parthian cities that aren‟t occupied by one or more Roman units automatically recover from being looted at the start of each new game
turn (see 7.2ff for details on that). Dacia, Germania Decumates, the Caucasus tributary states and Palmyra, once looted, remain that
way for the remainder of the game.
The rebuilding of any looted Roman population center hex is a two-action process. To perform a rebuild, the Roman player
announces, when it‟s his turn to perform an action (see section 5.0), he‟s initiating the rebuilding of a looted population center hex
within his core territory. Such hexes may not be under occupation by any German, Parthian, anti-Roman Palmyran or rebel units.
To indicate a looted hex is rebuilding, he turns over the “Looted” marker in that hex so the pick and shovel “Rebuild” side shows.
While that counter is in the hex with the “Rebuild” side showing, it‟s still considered looted. As a subsequent action, though not
necessarily his very next one, the Roman player may announce he‟s completing the rebuilding a that hex, at which time the “Rebuild”
marker is removed and the hex is again a revenue producer. In the interim, if an enemy unit of any kind enters a rebuilding hex, the
rebuilding process is overturned and the marker removed. Within those strictures, the rebuilding process may potentially be run
through any number of times for each population center hex within Roman core territory.
Design Note. Contrary to what you might expect, the process of rebuilding a looted population hex doesn’t cause the Roman player to
have to expend TP, either to start or finish it. The same is true, as you’ll find out when read 8.13, about the garrison/fortification
creation process. That’s because not all Roman economic resources are made the subject of these rules. There are also revenues
kept at the local level, not tabulated here as TP, which are nevertheless available for some imperial uses when guidance is applied
from above to move spending in certain directions.
6.5 Collecting Treasury Points
During every mutual administrative phase, starting with that of Game Turn 2, the Roman player should assess the number of TP
due him at that time. To do that he counts one TP for every unlooted town, two TP for every unlooted city, and three TP for every
unlooted metropolis within his core area. Thus, for example, the Rome/Ostia hex (3318), when unlooted, generates four TP for the
Roman: three for Rome itself, and one more for the town of Ostia, which is co-located in the same hex with Rome.
The Roman player should also award himself one TP for each unlooted hex of the Caucasus states, as well as one TP, each, for
unlooted Dacia and Germania Decumates. He should also give himself two TP for unlooted Palmyra (4720), provided that place is
also still unactivated or is active but still allied with Rome. See 9.1ff for more details on that.
At any time during any turn, the Roman player should award himself one, two or three TP the first time any of his units enter any
unlooted Parthian town (one TP), city (two TP) or metropolis (three TP) hex. See 7.3 for more details on that.
Keep a running total of available Roman TP using the markers in the counter-mix and the track printed on the mapsheet for that
purpose (and see 6.9 below).
6.6 Emergency Taxation
When the Roman player is collecting his TP as described above, he may choose to conduct emergency taxation (in effect, to loot)
any friendly controlled and unlooted population center hexes in his core territory. He thereby receives double the normal TP for each
such emergency taxed hex, but he must then also immediately place a looted marker in each such hex. Further, if an emergency taxed
hex is in the process of fortifying (see 8.13), or has a garrison/fortification unit in it, remove that garrison unit to the dead pile. Also
note the Rome/Ostia hex, the Caucasus states, Dacia, Germania Decumates, Palmyra and population center hexes in Parthia may never
be emergency taxed.
Emergency taxation is always carried out on a hex-by-hex basis, not town by town or city by city or metropolis by metropolis.
That is, an entire population center hex is emergency taxed, or not, but no such hex may have one or some of the population centers
within it treated in that way while others are let go.
TP generated by emergency taxation may be saved just as regular TP (not in two categories; TP are TP as far as the Roman
treasury is concerned), to the normal maximum of five TP surplus (see 6.9).
6.7 Demobilizing Units to Obtain TP
During every mutual administrative phase, starting with that of Turn 2, the Roman player may choose to demobilize a legion base
and its infantry vexillation in order to obtain two TP for each such twin demobilization. The only restriction is such demobilizations
must be carried out using the twinned base and infantry vexillation combination. That is, the Roman player may not choose to
demobilize two or more base elements while not demobilizing that same number of vexillations, or vice versa. If a survey of the board
shows his deployed infantry vexillations and bases don‟t match up one for one, he must first demobilize the over-supplied component
before any of the other kind of unit may be demobilized. Within that overall twinning stricture, though, demobilized bases and
infantry vexillations don‟t have to be in the same hex(es) at the time of their demobilization.
The adjacency of enemy units or the projection of their zones of control in no way interferes with the ability of the Roman player
to conduct demobilizations. They may be conducted in any hexes on the map. Note, too, cavalry vexillations may never be
demobilized, neither prior to nor after the creation of the central cavalry reserve (see 14.3, event no. 25).
6.8 Spending TP to Recover Eliminated Units
During every mutual administrative phase, starting with that of Turn 2, after carrying out the steps described above in 6.1 through
6.7, the Roman player may choose to spend TP to reclaim from the dead pile previously eliminated legion base elements and infantry
vexillations. Once a resolution of event no. 25 allows for the creation of central cavalry reserve (see 14.3), the Roman player may also
spend TP to reclaim from the dead pile eliminated cavalry vexillations. The cost is always one TP for each unit reclaimed.
Only eliminated or demobilized base elements and vexillations may be reclaimed from the dead pile by spending TP; eliminated
garrison/fortification units may not be reclaimed in that way (see 8.13 for details on how they enter and re-enter play). Also note this
reclamation process must use the same base and vexillation symmetry as the demobilization process described in 6.7. Exception: the
reclamation of eliminated cavalry vexillations is never tied to legion base element reclamations.
To put such reclaimed units back into play on the map, the Roman player should first place all the base elements that will be
returning, taking into account normal stacking limits (see 10.6), in any hexes within his core territory not then occupied by one or
more enemy units. After that, he should place his returning infantry vexillations, on a one for one matching basis, in those same hexes
that just received returning base elements. Such units have all their normal combat and movement abilities available for use in actions
as described in section 8.0.
Design Note. Rebel Roman units are always considered to be the “enemy” of the Roman player and his loyal units.
6.9 Carrying Over TP
Roman player may save and „carry over‟ TP from one turn to the next, but only up to a maximum of five TP carried over each
6.10 No Deficits
The Roman player may not run deficits of TP; his TP total may dip as low as, but never lower than, zero. If that occurs at any time
during the game turn, regular play is temporarily halted while the Roman player carries out enough unit demobilizations or emergency
taxation to make up the shortfall.
6.11 Rebel Roman Economics
Any rebel Roman faction on the board doesn‟t conduct any of the steps described above for the loyal Romans. Rebels get their
new troops, if any, through the process of conversion; see 8.3.
7.1 Germanic Barbarian Economics
During every mutual administrative phase, starting with that of Turn 2, the Germano-Parthian player should, as soon as all the
steps described above in section 6.0 have been carried out, take all the tribal units then in the dead pile and return them to the map. He
does so by placing them, one per hex, no more and no fewer, in any hexes of Barbaria not at that moment occupied by any other
unit(s) of either side. Such returning units have all their normal combat and movement abilities available for use in actions as
described in section 8.0. Roman zones of control in no way effect this process.
7.2 Parthian Economics
During every mutual administrative phase, starting with that of Turn 2 –and provided Parthian dynastic collapse hasn‟t occurred as
described below in 7.3 – the Germano-Parthian player should, as soon as the steps described above in section 7.1 have been carried
out, take all the Parthian static and mobile units then in the dead pile and return them to the map. He does so by placing a
garrison/fortification unit in every Parthian population center hex not at that moment occupied by one or more enemy units. He then
places the Parthian gunds he‟s reclaiming from the dead pile in one, some or all of those same hexes. Reclaimed Parthian units have
all their normal combat and movement abilities available for use in actions as described in section 8.0. Roman zones of control in no
way effect this process.
7.3 Parthian Dynastic Collapse
Parthian dynastic collapse is considered to have occurred the instant a Roman unit enters the Ctesiphon hex (5020). At that
moment all the Parthian mobile and static units anywhere on the map should be removed to the dead pile. The Roman player should
also award himself 11 TP for having laid low the Sassanids. He must also, immediately and without being assessed as using up any
actions, conduct the minimum number of movement actions needed to get all Roman units out of Parthia and back into Roman core
territory. While Parthia is collapsed, no units of either side may move or attack into its territory.
Once collapsed, the Parthian dynasty and realm remain in that state until one of the two following events take place. If event chit
no. 22 (Parthian Dynastic Resurgence) is played, that realm immediately recovers from its collapsed state. Or, as a second method of
Parthian recovery, during each mutual administrative phase after he‟s finished carrying out the steps described in rule 7.1, the
Germano-Parthian player should roll a die. If that result is a five or six, Parthia has recovered, and the Germano-Parthian player should
immediately reclaim all those units from the dead pile and deploy them as described in 3.3. (Note, too, that die roll is subject to being
negatively salted by the Roman player; see 8.8.)
Within the strictures above, Parthia may potentially go through the dynastic collapse and recovery process any number of times.
Also note this die roll may be both salted or chit-influenced by either player (see 8.8).
8.0 ACTIONS, EVENT CHITS, LEADERS, DIPLOMACY & TREACHERY
8.1 Alternating Actions Phase
Players alternate choosing and executing one “action” at time during each turn‟s alternating actions phase. Both players are free to
choose the action they‟ll perform as their next, picking from the summary list provided in table 14.2. Failed or otherwise disappointing
actions may be chosen to be repeated time after time within the overall alternating player sequence. Whatever action you choose, you
must always announce it to the other player before beginning its resolution.
Note some actions may be chosen by both players; some may only be chosen by the Roman player, and some may only be chosen
by the Germano-Parthian player. Generally, only actions presented on table 14.2 may be chosen as things to do in this phase. For
exceptions, see 6.10 and 7.3.
8.2 Movement Actions
A movement action is defined as the movement of one unit or stack (see section 10.0) from one hex to another (to another, etc.)
within the limits of the movement factors given in rule 2.6. A moving unit or stack is called a “force.”
A moving force may enter and pass through hexes containing any number of other friendly units without penalty, but new mobile
units may be added to an already moving force only if: 1) it‟s a loyal Roman force moving and the emperor is in accompaniment; or 2)
it‟s a non-Gallic rebel Roman force moving (see 8.3 below). Even in such cases, though, the units picked up begin moving only with
the movement factors remaining at the instant the emperor or co-emperor who picked them up, and they must accompany that leader
the rest of the way of his movement action. Also remember static units (see 2.3) never move once placed on the map except to go into
the dead pile.
Not all the units stacked in a hex need be moved together. The owning player might leave some behind or drop off some others
along the path of the overall move. Note, however, that expenditure of one move action doesn‟t allow units starting it stacked together
in the same hex to go off in different directions all as part of that one action.
8.3 Rebel Roman Action Details
Rebel Roman mobile units may be moved only when accompanied by the rebel Roman co-emperor unit. Whenever that force is
moving, each time it moves adjacent to a hex containing loyal Roman units other than the emperor himself, the Germano-Parthian
player should pause in its movement and roll a die. If that result is odd, the loyal Roman units to which the rebel co-emperor and his
force just moved adjacent remain loyal; if the result is even, immediately flip the rolled-for units so their rebel sides now show up.
Make one such die roll for each hex moved adjacent to during the course of the rebel co-emperor‟s every move. Make one die roll per
hex; all the units in one hex stay loyal or change to rebels together.
If a conversion roll succeeds in flipping to rebellion all the loyal Roman units then adjacent to the moving rebel co-emperor, that
leader and his force may keep moving within the limits of their normal movement factor, even entering the hex(es) of the converted
units and adding them, within normal stacking limits, to their force.
If a conversion roll fails, the rebel co-emperor and his accompanying force are considered to have had their movement action
brought to an end. After the Roman player took his next action, the Germano-Parthian player could choose to activate the rebel co-
emperor again, either to try to attack and fight his way out of the enemy zones of control, or call another move action. In that case, the
move action would have to start with a conversion die roll for each adjacent hexes containing a loyal Roman force. If those die rolls
all resulted in conversions, the rebel leader and his force could then actually move off. The Germano-Parthian player might also
simply choose to let such a „locked in‟ rebel co-emperor sit while he turned his attention elsewhere to take care of other pressing
If a rebel Roman co-emperor attacks into and occupies an unlooted and loyally defended Roman population center hex, that hex is
considered looted upon his entry. If a rebel co-emperor simply moves into an entirely undefended Roman population center hex, that
hex is also considered looted.
If the rebel co-emperor moves next to a loyal Roman force containing the emperor, there is no conversion die roll; there is only
mutual stasis until the situation is worked out with combat or treachery. Note, too, there is never any move action conversion die roll
going the other way. That is, the emperor is unable to reconvert rebel units by simply moving next to them and rolling a die. See 11.4
more on this aspect of play.
If a rebel co-emperor moves into the Rome/Ostia hex, simply move the emperor counter from wherever it is on the map into the
Rome/Ostia hex, while also setting aside the rebel co-emperor counter and flipping all rebel units on the map (excluding those of the
Gallic Empire if it‟s been activated into play). Then the Roman player should roll a die and deduct that number of TP from his total.
The two Roman leader units may never occupy the same hex at the same time, nor may they even pass through one another‟s
hexes, no matter the loyalty status of the co-emperor.
8.4 Leader Movement & Combat Characteristics
Neither of the leader pieces is ever allowed to move out of their present hex except in the accompaniment of one or more friendly
mobile units. Similarly, a leader shares the fate of the last friendly unit, mobile or static, in his hex (but also see the explanation of the
“exchange” combat result in 13.11).
When moving with a force, the effect of a leader, loyal or rebel, is to increase by one the normal movement factor of that force
from four to five, or from eight to nine if the force is made up entirely of cavalry. Note, however, though a moving emperor or co-
emperor is allowed to pick up units and add them to his own moving force within the expenditure of one movement action, the
reciprocal is not true. A moving force that begins its action without the emperor or co-emperor may not move into either of those
leaders‟ hexes (or, for that matter, the hexes of any other leaderless force) pick him up and keep on moving. In such a situation, if you
wanted to combine two or more forces, you‟d have to move the non-accompanied force into the other force‟s hex, end its move action
there, let your opponent conduct his action, then resume with the newly combined force using another action of your own.
Whenever either leader is in a hex with a force that undergoes combat, either on offense or defense, his effect is to shift the odds of
that battle one column in his side‟s favor.
8.5 Roman Cavalry & Infantry Moving
If a multi-unit Roman force, rebel or loyal, contains both cavalry and infantry vexillations and the emperor or co-emperor, the
infantry exhaust their movement action after they‟ve expended five movement points. In that case, however, provided the emperor or
co-emperor has been in accompaniment from the start of the move, the leader and the cavalry may continue moving, as part of that
same action, to the end of the cavalry‟s leader-enhanced movement factor of nine. Just as in 8.4, though, the reciprocal of this situation
is not doable. Similarly, if a Roman force, loyal or rebel, containing both cavalry and infantry begins a movement action, and neither
leader is present, as soon as the infantry exhaust their movement factor of four, that movement action is also ended for the cavalry in
that same hex.
8.6 Attack Actions
Expending an action to launch an attack means any one force in one hex is thereby empowered to attack any one enemy force in
any one adjacent hex. There are never any multi-hex attacks or defenses in this game. Note, though, defending doesn‟t require the
expenditure of an action; when a force is attacked it defends itself „free of charge.‟ See section 13.0 for more details.
8.7 Creating & Eliminating a Co-Emperor
Whenever there is no co-emperor piece on the map, loyal or rebel, the Roman player may choose as his action to create one. To do
so, he simply selects that counter and places it, loyal side up, in any hex anywhere on the map then containing one or more loyal
Roman mobile units. That placement ends that action.
Similarly, when there is no loyal or rebel co-emperor piece on the map, the Germano-Parthian player may choose as his action to
attempt to create a rebel co-emperor. To do so, he rolls a die. On a result of five or six, a rebel co-emperor is created. The Germano-
Parthian player then places that piece, rebel side up, in any hex anywhere on the map then containing one or more loyal Roman units
other than the emperor himself and other than in the Rome/Ostia hex itself. The Roman units in the hex of placement are thereby
immediately converted to rebels. That placement ends that action.
Once created, a co-emperor may be removed from play only as the result of combat or treachery. Whenever a rebel co-emperor is
removed from play for any reason, immediately flip back over to loyal status all rebel Roman units, static and mobile, everywhere on
the map other than in the Gallic Empire (see 9.5).
If there is a rebel co-emperor piece anywhere on the map, the Roman player may decide to expend an action to try to eliminate him
with treachery. To do so, he rolls a die. On a result of five or six, the rebel co-emperor is eliminated and all rebel units, other than in
the Gallic Empire (see 9.5) flip back to loyal status.
Design Note. The possession of event chit nos. 2 and/or 17 may make play of a diplomacy or treachery action much more tempting for
the player holding it/them.
8.8 Emperor’s Ability to ‘Salt’ Diplomacy & Treachery Actions
Provided only that he‟s got the TP to do it, any time the Roman player decides to conduct any diplomacy or treachery action, he
may also decide to „salt‟ that action. The decision to „salt,‟ and how much „salt‟ will be applied, must be announced prior to rolling for
the action‟s resolution.
To salt, the Roman player simply announces what number of TP he will spend to enhance his diplomacy or treachery action. Any
number from one through three may be expended in each Roman diplomacy or treachery action. The effect of each TP so spent is to
increase the enhanced action‟s die roll result by one. Results increased to more than six are treated as six. And, yes, the Roman player
may salt in conjunction with the use of event chit nos. 2 or 17; however, no combination of salting or chit play is allowed to add more
than +3 (plus three) to any treachery or diplomacy die roll. That means no such die roll can ever be made a sure thing.
No matter the final outcome of a salted action, the spent TP are indeed spent, and they should immediately be deducted from the
Roman TP total. Note there is no corresponding Germano-Parthian ability to salt or counter-salt diplomacy or treachery actions,
though countering chit play is allowed.
Note also if a salted Roman diplomacy or treachery endeavor fails, and the Germano-Parthian player immediately counters with
play of event chit no. 2, that second die roll would not be considered salted unless the Roman player made a new TP expenditure. (All
of that would be, though, part of the same Roman action.) The same would hold true again if the Roman player had used event chit no.
17 to aid his first die roll: the Germano-Parthian countering-play of chit no. 2 would require a reroll without the benefit of 17‟s
influence (and all that would take place with the span of one action).
Within the same general strictures given above, the Roman player may also choose to negatively salt Germano-Parthian diplomacy
or treachery actions in an effort to get them to fail. Prior to making any treachery or diplomacy die roll, the Germano-Parthian player
must pause in order to give his opponent time to decide whether he will attempt negative salting of that action.
Note also the Roman intention to salt must be announced prior to either player‟s declaration of chit play to influence that action.
8.9 Germano-Parthian Treachery Against the Emperor
The Germano-Parthian player may choose as his action to attempt treachery against the Roman emperor. To do so, he rolls a die.
On a result of five or six, the emperor is eliminated and the Emperor Creation Table (14.2) must immediately be consulted.
Consulting table 14.2 doesn‟t constitute another action for either player. Going to that table to resolve the emperor‟s elimination
and replacement all takes place within the scope of this one treachery action (or combat action if the emperor is eliminated in that
way). The Roman player should roll the die when the table is consulted.
8.10 Germano-Parthian Diplomacy With a Loyal Co-Emperor
The Germano-Parthian player may choose as his action to attempt diplomacy with a loyal Roman co-emperor. To do so, he rolls a
die. On a result of five or six, the co-emperor and all Roman units stacked with him are flipped so their rebel sides show upward. That
flipping ends that action.
8.11 Roman Treachery Against a Rebel
The Roman player may choose as his action to attempt treachery against a rebel co-emperor. To do so, he rolls a die. On a result of
five or six, the rebel co-emperor piece is eliminated and removed to the dead pile. All non-Gallic rebel units across the map are
immediately flipped so their loyal sides show upward. That elimination and flipping ends the action.
8.12 Roman Diplomacy Against a German Tribal Unit
The Roman player may choose as his action to attempt diplomacy against any Germanic barbarian unit then located inside Roman
core territory. To do so, he rolls a die. On a result of five or six, the selected Germanic unit is considered to have succumbed to the
diplomatic effort. In that case simply pick it up and place it in the dead pile, from where it may be recovered in the next game turn
according to rule 7.1.
Design Note. Other than those actions described above, there are no other diplomacy or treachery actions available for
implementation by either player.
8.13 Fortifying Roman Core Area Population Centers
The Roman player may choose as his action to begin the fortification of any population center hex lying within his core territory
(see the terrain key). He may select any population center hex within that area provided both the following are true at that moment.
First, it may not already contain a “Fortify” marker or garrison/fortification unit (no double-fortifying), though other types of loyal
Roman units may be present. Second, it may not be occupied by an enemy unit of any kind.
To indicate the beginning of that hex‟s fortification process, place the “Fortify” marker in it. That ends that action, but the hex is
not yet fortified. To complete the process, the Roman player must expend another action. He may do that as his very next action,
though he‟s not required to do so. Note, though, the single “Fortify” marker included in the counter-mix is meant as a limit; the
Roman may never have more than one hex undergoing fortification at one time. When or if the Roman player announces he‟s
finishing a hex‟s fortification as his action, he does so by removing the “Fortify” marker and putting in its place a garrison/fortification
unit, loyal side up.
Note there is no defensive advantage in having a hex undergoing fortification; those combat factors only take effect once
construction is completed (see 13.10). Note, too, the Germano-Parthian player may not conduct any kind of rebel Roman fortifying,
while the Parthian garrison/fortification units come and go in that country according to rules 7.2 and 7.3. Similarly, the Palmyran and
Caucasus fortifications that begin play on the map (see 3.2), if ever eliminated, are gone for good. Finally here, also note the Roman
player has no ability to fortify the Parthian population centers he might seize during play.
The mere projection of an enemy zone of control into a hex undergoing fortification is not enough to prevent, halt or abort that
action, actual occupation by one or more enemy units is needed to do that.
8.14 Rebuilding Looted Roman Core Area Population Centers
The Roman player may choose as his action to begin the rebuilding of any looted population center hex lying within his core
territory. See the Terrain Key and 6.4 for details.
The mere projection of an enemy zone of control into a hex undergoing rebuilding is not enough to prevent, halt or abort that
action, actual occupation by one or more enemy units is needed to do that.
Design Note. The processes described above in 8.13 and 8.14 don’t require the expenditure of TP, only the expenditure of actions.
8.15 Activating Palmyra or the Gallic Empire
If it‟s Turn 3 (only), the Roman player may choose as his action to activate Palmyra into play; see 9.3 for details. If it‟s Turns 4 or
5, the Germano-Parthian player may choose to attempt diplomacy actions to bring Palmyra over to his side; see 9.4 for details. If it‟s
Turn 4 or 5, the Germano-Parthian player may choose as his action to activate the Gallic Empire into play; see 9.5 for details.
8.16 Deploying Heavy Roman Siege Equipment
Provided event chit no. 21, “Roman Heavy Siege Equipment,” has been drawn from the chit pool, the Roman player may choose
as his action to deploy it onto the map. See 14.3, no. 21 for details.
8.17 Chit Draws as Actions
Either player may choose as his action to draw a chit from the chit pool, provided only that he holds no more than six chits in his
„hand‟ of chits at that time. No player may ever hold more than six unplayed chits at any one time. If you have more than that number
in your hand, but still want to use an action to make a chit draw, you must first put back a chit. You may knowingly choose which chit
to put back into the pool, but that return must take place prior to making your new chit draw (thereby creating the chance of redrawing
the same chit you just put back into the pool).
No matter which player draws them, the instructions for chit nos. 10, 18, 19, 20 and 25 call for their immediate implementation
and resolution. Play of any other chit than the five enumerated above requires the expenditure of an action other than the one that was
used to draw it from the pool.
If a chit‟s explanation contains a statement calling for its return to the pool at the start of the new game turn, that chit may still be
held, unplayed by the player who drew it and within the normal hand maximum of six, through to the end of the present turn. If,
however, the owning player does once play the chit, it isn‟t, after being resolved, returned to the general chit pool until the start of the
next turn. Once they‟re played, simply set aside such chits in a separate pile until the next turn begins. (In other words, events with
that instruction will be put into play no more than once per game turn.)
If a chit‟s explanation contains the statement: “Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use,” it means just that. Such
chits may be held in the owning player‟s hand as long as he wants but, once played, they are immediately put back into the chit pool,
and are thereby available for possible redraw that same game turn.
8.18 Chit Plays as Actions
Either player may choose as his next action to play a chit he already possesses in his hand. Such a play doesn‟t entitle him to a free
chit draw in order to replenish his chit hand.
8.19 Win a Battle, Draw a Chit
You may draw a free chit every time you win a battle. “Win” means you attack, clear that hex of all defenders, and advance after
combat with one or more of your involved units. “Free” means the chit pull itself doesn‟t use up an action. You‟re allowed to make
such pulls, but are not required to do so; though the decision to do so, or not, must be made before the next action is announced.
If, for any reason, either player decides he doesn‟t want to take another action despite the fact it‟s his turn to do so, he should
simply announce he‟s passing. That done, however, if the other player also passes as his next action, that turn ends, which may have
serious consequences (see 4.3). If one player passes and the other player then takes an action other than passing, the first player then
has another chance to take an action. The game goes on in that way until both players call a “pass” in immediate succession.
9.0 PALMYRA, GALLIC EMPIRE, CAUCASUS, DACIA & GERMANIA DECUMATES
At the start of play, the city state of Palmyra (hex 4720) is nominally a tributary client state of Rome with a TP value of “2”;
however, special rules modify and condition that status in important ways.
9.2 Palmyra During Turns 1 & 2
During all of Turns 1 and 2, along with the mutual administrative phase of Turn 3, all eight Palmyran legion-equivalent units,
along with its single garrison/fortification counter, must generally remain passive within hex 4720. While in that initial state they can‟t
move or attack. They will defend their hex normally against any Parthian attack, but they exert no zone of control until the instant
such an attack (if any) takes place. Similarly, during Turns 2 and 3 mutual administrative phases, Palmyra contributes its city‟s two TP
to the Roman treasury count, and Palmyra will likewise not join any rebel Roman faction. Roman units, loyal or rebel, may not attack,
move into or through the Palmyra hex.
If the Germano-Parthian player decides to attack Palmyra during Turns 1 or 2, the effect is to bring that place actively and
permanently into play as an unswerving Roman ally for the rest of the game. In such a case, the Roman player thereafter completely
and fully commands all Palmyran units. They may not stack with Roman units but, again, Palmyran forces will never join a rebel
Roman faction. Loyal Roman units may move through an active and allied Palmyra, but they may not end a move action there. If
brought into active play by a Parthian or rebel Roman attack, Palmyran forces are replenished in the same way as Parthian forces as
described in 7.2 (only via the Palmyra hex), and will do so in each turn‟s mutual administrative phase until one begins with Palmyra
having been looted by Parthian or rebel Roman forces.
9.3 Palmyra in Turn 3
Starting with Turn 3‟s alternating actions phase, the Roman player may choose to expend an action to declare the activation into
play of Palmyra as his full ally. If that Roman action is declared, Palmyran forces instantly begin projecting normal zones of control
and come under Roman player control. In such a case they may not stack with Roman units but, again, Palmyran forces will never join
a rebel Roman faction. Loyal Roman units may move through an active and allied Palmyra, but they may not end a move action there.
If brought into active play in this way, Palmyran forces are replenished in the same way as Parthian forces as described in 7.2 (only
via the Palmyra hex), and will do so in each turn‟s mutual administrative phase until one begins with Palmyra having been looted by
Parthian or rebel Roman forces. Roman-allied and active Palmyran units may not make use of event chit no. 21, heavy siege
9.4 Palmyra in Turns 4 & 5
If the Roman player declines to expend an action to bring Palmyra into play as his ally during Turn 3, the ability to make that
action is thereby forfeit by him for the remainder of the game. In either case, starting with Turn 4‟s alternating actions phase, the
Germano-Parthian player may expend diplomacy actions (potentially any number of them until his treachery die roll succeeds the first
time) to try to bring into active play on his side a still-inactive Palmyra or to convert permanently to his side a Roman-allied Palmyra.
Just as in other diplomacy actions, the action succeeds on a result of five or six, which may be modified by chit play and/or salting.
Once Palmyra is brought into active play as a Germano-Parthian ally via that player‟s diplomacy, or a Roman-allied and active
Palmyra is converted to a Germano-Parthian ally by diplomacy, that new status is unalterable for the rest of the game.
Palmyran forces then instantly begin projecting (or continue projecting) normal zones of control and come under Germano-
Parthian player control. In such a case they may not stack with Parthian or rebel Roman units. Parthian units may move through allied
Palmyra, but they may not end a move action there. If brought into active play in this way, Palmyran forces are replenished in the
same way as Parthian forces as described in 7.2 (only via the Palmyra hex), and will do so in each turn‟s mutual administrative phase
until one begins with Palmyra having been looted by loyal Roman forces.
9.5 Gallic Empire
The Gallic Empire starts play as that part of Roman core territory in Europe extending west of the Rhine River and the boundary
line that meets at the point where hexes 3315, 3415 and 3416 all come together. It includes the island of Britain (the island on which is
located the town of Londinium in hex 2813), but excludes all the Mediterranean (Mare Internum) islands.
If it‟s Turn 3 or later, the Germano-Parthian player may choose to expend an action to activate the Gallic Empire into play on his
side. No die roll is involved in declaring the action, but the following must all be true at the time of that action in order for it to take
place: 1) neither Roman leader counter may be anywhere within Gallic territory; 2) no rebel Roman units may be anywhere within
Gallic territory; and 3) no Germanic unit may be anywhere within Gallic territory. Those three preconditions having all been met
simultaneously and an action expended, the Gallic Empire is considered to have been activated into play; flip all Roman units inside
that area to so their rebel sides show.
While the Gallic Empire is active, all the following pertain: 1) its forces are under command of the Germano-Parthian player; 2)
Gallic forces may only move or attack into Gallic Empire hexes; 3) Germanic units may not move or attack into Gallic Empire hexes;
4) rebel co-emperors, as well as all other rebel Roman units that weren‟t part of the original Gallic Empire force, may not move or
attack into Gallic Empire hexes; 5) Gallic Empire forces are considered leaderless for all game purposes; and 6) Gallic Empire units
do exert ZOCs normally, but not into hexes lying outside Gallic Empire territory as shown on the map and described above.
If Turn 4‟s or 5‟s mutual administrative phases begin with the Gallic Empire still active, the Germano-Parthian player should, as a
special first step of those phases, replenish Gallic troop strength by going into the Roman dead pile and withdrawing from it sufficient
infantry vexillations (never cavalry) to place one atop each Gallic legion base element that doesn‟t already have a corresponding
vexillation unit on the map in Gallic territory.
The Gallic Empire ceases to exist the instant the Roman emperor enters Trier (hex 3114). At that moment flip over all surviving
Gallic Empire units to their loyal sides; all the special rules given above cease to apply for the rest of the game. Population centers
within Gallic territory that are entered by loyal Roman units during the rebellion there are considered to have been looted, and will
need to go through the normal rebuild process if they‟re again to produce TP.
9.6 Caucasus States
The three Caucasus states – Colchis, Armenia and the Kingdom of Iberia – begin the game as active Roman tributary client states.
Each of their total of six hexes produces one TP for the Roman treasury count in each mutual administrative phase they begin
unlooted, calculated on a hex by hex basis. Once looted, a Caucasus hexes remains looted for the remainder of the game. Beyond that,
all mobile units (including leaders) of both sides are free to move or attack normally into and out of Caucasus hexes.
9.7 Dacia & Germania Decumates
The two trans-river provinces of Dacia and Germania Decumates begin the game as active Roman provinces lying outside core
territory. Each of those two hexes produces one TP for the Roman treasury count in each mutual administrative phase they begin
unlooted, calculated on a hex by hex basis. Once looted, a trans-river province hex remains looted for the remainder of the game.
Beyond that, all mobile units of both sides (including leaders) are free to move or attack normally into and out of the Dacia and
Germania Decumates hexes (also see 12.7)
10.1 In General
“Stacking” is the word used to describe the piling of more than one friendly unit in the same hex at the same time. Enemy units
never stack together; beyond that, however, stacking rules are in effect all during each turn‟s mutual administrative phase, as well as at
the start and end of every action taken by either player during every alternating actions phase. During move actions and retreats after
combat, beyond the universal stricture given above against friendly and enemy stacking, units friendly to each other may enter and
pass through each other‟s hexes, no matter what number of units may be involved.
10.2 Germanic Stacking
At the times described in 10.1, there is no Germanic stacking allowed. That is, there may not be more than one Germanic unit per
10.3 Parthian Stacking
At the times described in 10.1, there may never be more than one Parthian garrison/fortification unit or up to eight gunds in any
10.4 Palmyran Stacking
At the times described in 10.1, there by never be more than one Palmyran garrison/fortification unit and/or up to eight legion-
equivalents in any one hex. When active on the Roman side, Palmyran units may not stack with any other units of the Roman side,
though passing through such hexes during move actions and retreats after combat is allowed. The same is true of Palmyran and
Parthian stacking interactions when the former is active on the Germano-Parthian side.
10.5 Roman Stacking
Loyal and rebel Roman units may never stack together, nor may they pass through each other‟s hexes at any times. Within that
overall loyal/rebel prohibition, Roman stacking is as follows.
10.6 Roman Static Unit Stacking
There may never be more than a single garrison/fortification counter in any one population hex at any one time. There may never
be more than two legion base elements in any one hex at any one time, though one or two such units may be stacked in a population
center hex that also contains a garrison/fortification counter.
10.7 Roman Infantry Vexillation Stacking
If no friendly leader is present in their hex, no more than two Roman infantry vexillations may stack together in the same hex at
the same time. Those two units may, however, also stack together with a hex that‟s simultaneously stacked full of Roman static units
as described in 10.6 above.
If a friendly leader counter is present in their hex, the stacking limit on Roman infantry vexillations is thereby increased to a
maximum of eight, plus the maximum of static units as given in 10.6. If a Roman stack that was legal, due to the presence of a leader,
suddenly comes into violation of the stacking rules due to the departure or elimination of that leader, the player in command of that
stack must immediately conduct the minimum amount of unstacking necessary into any, some, or all of the adjacent land hexes in
order to again bring the stack into compliance with these rules. If that is impossible for any reason, that portion of the overstacked
units still overstacked after the correction are removed to the dead pile. Such emergency unstacking doesn‟t require the expenditure of
10.8 Roman Cavalry Vexillation Stacking
Prior to the establishment of the central cavalry reserve, Roman cavalry vexillations generally don‟t count for stacking. However,
there may never be more than one cavalry vexillation per hex at the times described above in 10.1. Thus, within that no more than one
per hex limit, one pre-reserve Roman cavalry vexillation may be freely added to any other Roman stack, no matter if it‟s otherwise
already stacked to the full legal limit.
Once the cavalry reserve has been created (see 14.3, event chit no. 25), Roman cavalry vexillations count for stacking. After that
event, treat Roman cavalry just as if they were infantry vexillations for stacking purposes. That is, they might stack, with other cavalry
or with infantry, in a maximum stack of two mobile units when leaderless, and a maximum stack of eight when a leader is present
(figure static units separately as described above in 10.6 and 10.7).
10.9 No Fog o’ War
There is no fog of war in this game due to the span of time represented by each turn. That means both players are always free to
examine the other‟s stacks and know the amount of TP in the Roman treasury. Only the exact composition of your chit hand, though
not the number of chits in it, may be kept secret from your opponent (but also see 14.3, chit no. 13).
None of the markers illustrated in rule 2.6 count for stacking in any way. Deploy them onto the map, stacked or unstacked,
according to the specific rules governing of their uses.
11.0 ZONES OF CONTROL
11.1 In General
The six hexagons immediately surrounding a hex containing one or more units constitute the “zone of control” (ZOC) of those
units. All units active in the game exert zones of control except for leaders and garrison/fortifications. If, however, a unit(s) that
doesn‟t project a ZOC is/are stacked with one or more units that do project ZOCs, the presence of the unit(s) without ZOCs in no way
inhibits the others‟ ZOC projection.
A unit may generally never exit a hex containing an “enemy zone of control” (EZOC) during any move action (but see 8.3 for
Zones of control never extend across all-sea hexes or into all-sea hexsides; they do extend into, out of, and across all other in-hex
and hexside terrain and water features, with but one exception. That exception is: Germanic zones of control never extend across
Rhine or Danube River hexsides in either direction.
Also see the third paragraph of rule 9.5 for an important detail about the ZOC of units of the Gallic Empire.
11.2 Exerting ZOC
All units that project ZOC exert them throughout the entire turn, regardless of the phase or action being taken. The projection of a
ZOC into a hex is never negated by the presence of friendly or enemy units in the hex into which the ZOC is being projected.
11.3 No Extra Movement Cost
Units don‟t pay any extra movement points to enter EZOC or ZOC. In general, though, all units must end their move action in the
first hex they enter containing an EZOC, but see 8.3 for an important exception. Similarly, no unit in an EZOC may in general use a
move action to leave that hex, but again see 8.3 for the important exception. Friendly ZOC don‟t inhibit friendly movement in any
11.4 Exiting EZOC
There are only three ways for a friendly unit to exit a hex that has an EZOC projected into it: either by retreat- or advance-after-
combat, or by removal, also as a result of combat, of the enemy units exerting the EZOC. Of course, a friendly unit may also „leave‟
an EZOC by being eliminated in combat. See section 13.0 for more details on combat.
Note that rebel Roman ZOC work to pin Germano-Parthian units of all types and nationalities, and vice versa, even though all
those units are nominally on the same side. If the Germano-Parthian player manages to get some of his other units tangled up with
rebel Romans in that way, he may choose to use an attack action against or by the rebel Roman force in an effort to break free.
11.5 ZOC Reciprocity
If a given friendly unit or stack is in an EZOC, the enemy unit projecting that EZOC is also in the ZOC of that friendly unit or
force (provided it contains one or more units that project ZOC; see 11.1 above). The two forces are equally, simultaneously and
mutually effected by each other‟s ZOCs. If there is a ZOC and an EZOC being projected into the same hex, both co-exist in that hex.
There is no additional effect from having more than one ZOC and/or EZOC projected into the same hex at the same time.
11.6 EZOC & Retreat After Combat
Despite the generally harsh strictures given above on EZOC, units are allowed to retreat-after-combat into and/or through such
hexes; see 13.12ff for details.
12.1 In General
Every mobile unit in the game has a movement factor (MF) as described in rule 2.6. That movement factor is the number of
“movement points” (also referred to as MP) available to the unit to use in moving across the map when activated by the expenditure of
a move action by its owning player. A given unit or stack may receive any number of move action activations during the course of any
given turn‟s alternating actions phase, either sequentially or intermittent with other units performing other actions.
12.2 Movement Strictures
MPs may not be accumulated from action to action or phase to phase, nor may they be given or loaned from one unit or
stack to another. A player may move all, some, or none of the friendly mobile units within a stack he‟s activated for a move action in
each of his movement phases throughout the game at his own discretion.
Units that move are not required to expend all their MP before stopping. The move action of each individual unit or stack must be
completed before that of another is begun. A player may change the position of an already moved unit or stack only if his opponent
agrees to allow it. See 8.2ff for more details.
Units move from hex to adjacent hex; no “skipping” of hexes is allowed.
The movement of one side‟s units takes place only during that side‟s own move actions; no enemy movement takes place during
the other‟s player actions (exception: see retreat-after-combat, 13.12).
12.3 Enemy Units
Units may not enter hexes occupied by enemy units.
12.4 No Terrain Costs
Unlike the majority of other wargames, in this game units don‟t pay varied movement costs due to different types of terrain being
in the hexes they‟re entering. Every hex entered costs every moving unit one MF from its movement allowance in order to do so. If a
moving unit doesn‟t have an MP remaining to it, it may move no farther during that move action.
12.5 Narrows Hexes Movement
Only Roman leader or Roman mobile units, rebel or loyal, are allowed to move into or through narrows hexes. They do so just as
if there were a bridge located where the narrows arrow symbol is printed in each such hex. For example, a Roman unit might go from
hex 4018 into narrows hex 4118, then from there into any of the four surrounding land hexes. No extra MP costs are involved.
12.6 Roman Sea Movement
If a Roman mobile unit or stack, with or without a leader present, loyal or rebel, begins a move action in a coastal population
center hex, it may use sea movement to go directly from that hex to any other friendly controlled coastal population center on the map.
Exception: no sea movement ever originates or ends in the Petra hex (4623). Such port to port transfers use up the entire capacity of a
move action. Units using sea movement may both depart from and/or land in EZOC.
12.7 Roman Riverine Movement
If a Roman mobile unit or stack, with or without a leader present, loyal or non-Gallic rebel, begins a move action in any
Rhine/Danube riverbank hex, it may use riverine movement to go directly from that hex to any other riverbank hex not then occupied
by a Germanic unit or opposing Roman unit. Such moves use up the entire capacity of a move action. A unit or stack leaving from the
north bank may come ashore on the south bank and vice versa and, either way, they may both depart from and end in EZOC.
The ability to conduct riverine movement is permanently lost to Roman units, rebel and loyal, as soon as either the Dacia and/or
Germania Decumates hexes have been looted. Gallic Empire units may never use riverine movement, and when using riverine
movement for non-Gallic rebel Roman units, the Germano-Parthian player must still observe the movement prohibitions given in rule
13.1 In General
Combat is always voluntary. In any given combat, the player whose action it is, is termed the “attacker,” and the other player is the
“defender,” no matter what the general situation across the map.
The attacker totals the combat strength of all the units attacking a given hex and compares that total to the total combat strengths of
the defending units in the hex under attack. The comparison is expressed as a ratio between attacking and defending strength points
(attacking strength points divided by defending strength points), and is simplified by rounding down to one of the odds ratios listed
across the top of the Combat Results Table (CRT) printed on the mapsheet. For example, if 13 strength points were attacking four
strength points, the combat odds ratio would be 3.25 to 1, rounded off, in favor of the defender, to three to one (3:1).
Having determined the combat odds, the attacker rolls a die. The result indicates the line on the CRT that‟s cross-indexed with the
column representing those particular combat odds. The intersection of line and column yields a combat result. That result should be
immediately applied to the involved units before going on to resolve any other action.
13.3 Attack & Defense Limits
No unit may attack more than once per combat action, and no enemy unit may be attacked more than once per combat action.
Over the course of any given alternating actions phase, though, any given friendly unit may take part in any number of combat actions
and any given enemy unit may be attacked in any number of combat actions.
13.4 Attack is Voluntary
Combat is never mandatory. The acting player may choose which of his forces adjacent to enemy forces will attack on an action by
action basis. An enemy occupied hex may be attacked by as many units as can be brought to bear against it from any one immediately
adjacent hex. Units may attack only enemy units to which they are directly adjacent.
13.5 No Multi-Hex Combat
If a friendly unit or stack is in EZOC being projected from more than one adjacent enemy occupied hex, a single attack action only
permits it to attack into one of those enemy occupied hexes. Of course, later combat actions could be expended in order to attack the
other hexes, or the same hex more than once, during the same alternating actions phase.
Friendly units in two or more hexes may not combine their attack strengths and attack a single defender hex. A single attack may
never have as its objective more than one hex, nor may friendly units located in more than one hex in any way be combined into the
same attacking force.
13.6 Mandatory Defender Commitment
The defending player may not withhold from combat any unit in a hex under attack.
13.7 Combat Strength Unity
A given unit‟s or stack‟s combat strength is always unitary. It may not be divided among different combats either in attack or on
13.8 River Effects on Germanic Attacks
Whenever a Germanic unit attacks through a Rhine or Danube River hexside, that attack suffers a one column leftward odds shift
(in favor of the defenders).
13.9 Roman Leader Effects on Combat
Whenever a Roman unit or stack, loyal or rebel, participates in combat on offense or defense and there is a leader unit its hex, the
combat odds of that battle are shifted one in favor of the side with leader. If a leader is present on both sides, their effects are mutually
13.10 Static Units in Combat
Garrison/Fortification units are the one type of unit in the game that may never attack; they only defend in their hex of placement.
Other units that are eligible to attack and that are in the same hex as a garrison/fortification unit are not thereby inhibited in their
ability to attack in any way. In such cases, simply leave out the garrison/fortification unit when making the combat odds calculation as
well as when applying that battle‟s combat result.
Garrison/fortification units have different defense strengths generally based on the TP revenue-generating capacity of the unlooted
population center hex in which they‟re located. That is, a garrison/fortification unit has a defense strength of one, if that‟s the number
of TP that hex would generate under normal taxation (see 6.1). Thus, for example, a garrison/fortification unit in, say, the Rome/Ostia
hex would have a defense strength of four; in hex 4521 that strength would be two; in hex 4119 it would be five, etc. Note, however,
that the Ctesiphon hex, when controlled by the Germano-Parthian player, always has a garrison/fortification strength of eight. The
strength of a garrison/fortification unit is not affected by the presence of other friendly units being in the same hex. The
garrison/fortification units located in the Caucasus each have defense strengths of one.
Roman legion base elements, loyal as well as rebel, may attack into adjacent hexes (unlike the other kind of static unit,
garrison/fortifications). Base elements attack with a combat factor of one and are treated in all ways as normal attackers, except
they‟re never allowed to advance after combat.
13.11 Combat Results
Combat results are always applied only to the units involved in the fight being resolved by that particular die roll. There are never
any „carry over‟ results from one combat to another. Those results are as follows.
AE (Attacker Eliminated): all involved attacking units, including any leader present, are eliminated and removed to the dead pile.
AS (Attack Stalled): nothing happens; there is no movement or losses on either side. The attack action is still considered to have been
DE (Defender Eliminated): all involved defending mobile and static units, including any leader present, are eliminated and removed to
the dead pile. The victorious attacker may conduct an advance-after-combat (see below, 13.13).
DR (Defender Retreat): all involved defending mobile units, including a leader if one is present, are retreated-after-combat by their
owning player (see below, 13.12). All involved defending static units are simply eliminated and removed to the dead pile. The
victorious attacker may conduct an advance-after-combat (see below, 13.13).
EX (Exchange): all involved defending mobile and static units, including leaders, are eliminated and removed to the dead pile. The
attacking player must then remove from among his involved units that same number (though not necessarily the same types) of
units. If the attacker had a leader present, he is eliminated only if all other friendly units in the attacking force with him have also
13.12 Retreat After Combat
When a combat result requires a player‟s units involved in a battle be retreated, the player who owns those units must immediately
move them one hex away from the present location. Units retreating after combat in this way may be moved out of and/or into EZOC.
A retreating unit or stack may not, however, be retreated into a hex or across a hexside otherwise prohibited to it.
Note that retreat-after-combat has nothing to do with the MFs used by units during move actions. A unit making a retreat-after-
combat during a combat action doesn‟t carry over any MP loss into any of its subsequent move actions.
Within the restrictions given here and below, if more than one hex is available to receive a retreating force, the owning player may
choose the hex into which hex he‟ll retreat the unit. If one or more retreat paths lead into a hex(es) without EZOC, while other paths
contain hexes with EZOC, the player making the retreat must choose from among the hexes without EZOC.
If, for any of the reasons described above or below, any unit is unable to make a legal retreat after combat, it is eliminated in place.
In such cases, a normal attacker-advance-after-combat is still allowed (see 6.14).
13.13 Overstacking & Retreats
If the only hex available to a force retreating after combat is one into which it would be violating stacking rules, the owning player
should move it into that hex and then move it another hex into one (or more) where it won‟t be violating stacking. If there‟s still no
hex(es) that can legally receive the retreating force located one hex beyond the original hex of retreat, then eliminate the excess
13.14 Advance After Combat
In general, whenever a defended hex is vacated as the result of combat, one, some or all of the non-static units in the involved
attacking force may advance into that hex. Such advances are made entirely without regard to EZOC. The advance must be made
immediately before the resolution of the next action is begun. Note that advance after combat has nothing to do with the MFs used
during move actions. A force making an advance after combat does so as part of the same attack action that just emptied the hex of
13.15 Odds Limits
Attacks made at final odds of less than 1:3 receive automatic “AE” results. Attacks made at final odds greater than 6:1 receive
automatic “DE” results. When calculating battle odds, always apply all applicable odds shifters prior to looking at the CRT. At that
time, if the calculated odds ratio lies outside the span of odds presented across the top of the CRT, apply the first sentence of this
14.0 CHARTS & TABLES
14.1 Game Turn Record Track
On the mapsheet.
14.2 Action Summary List
On the mapsheet.
14.3 Event Explanations
1. Flanking Move. Play this is at the start of the resolution of any battle and you get a column shift of the odds in your favor. Return
this chit to the pool immediately after each use.
2. Beseech the Gods. You may play this at any time, immediately after any die roll by either player. That die roll is rolled again, and
that second result must be the one that‟s implemented. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use.
3. From the Jaws of Death. The Roman player may play this at any time there is one or more German unit in mainland Italy (hexes
3217 and 3316 and south within the „boot,‟ inclusive). First, he puts this chit back in the pool, along with any other chits presently
in his hand that he‟d like to be rid of. He then rolls a die and picks at random that number of event chits from the pool up to the
hand maximum of six. The Germano-Parthian player may play it in that same manner any time there is one or more units of the
Roman side in Barbaria and/or Parthia. Once played, return this chit to the pool at the start of each new game turn.
4. Inspired Subordinates. This chit allows you to do one of the following: 1) shift the combat odds of any one combat one column in
your side‟s favor; or 2) increase the movement of any one unit or stack by an additional hex. For a stack of units to use the movement
bonus, they must all move together and may not drop off units. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use.
5. Into the Valley of the Shadow of Death. Play of this chit allows you to move any one enemy force up to its normal movement
allowance, into any legal hexes, including EZOC, using all normal movement rules. The moved force may start in any EZOC hex,
but must stop as soon as it enters another EZOC hex. Units may be not dropped off along the way. Return this chit to the pool
immediately after each use.
6. They Shall Not Pass. You may play this during any one enemy attack. Play the chit after the attack has been declared but before
the die is rolled. For that one combat both the following pertain: 1) shift the odds a column in favor of the defense; 2) a DR result
converts to an AS. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use. This chit may not be played in a battle in which the
attacker has already used chit 15.
7. Mad Dash. Play this chit any time it‟s your turn to conduct an action. It‟s play allows you to conduct two actions sequentially,
without the other player being allowed to take an action between them. That‟s one double-action for each activation of this chit.
You don‟t have to announce what will be the second action until the first action is completed. Return this chit to the pool
immediately after each use.
8. Morale. The Roman player may play this any time he‟s about to attack Ctesiphon (hex 5020). The Germano-Parthian player may
play this any time he‟s about to attack Rome/Ostia (3318). The effect is to shift the combat odds one column in the attacking side‟s
favor. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use.
9. Desertions. This chit may be played at any time. The effect is, the player who plays it is allowed to remove to the dead pile any one
enemy mobile unit other than a leader. Using this chit uses up an action for the player playing it. Return this chit to the pool
immediately after each use.
10. Natural Catastrophe. This chit must be played the instant it‟s picked by either player. Implement all of the following: 1) both
players immediately return all their chits to the pool; then: 2) roll a die and implement the result from the list below. Once played,
if the die roll result below is three through six, set aside this chit and return it to the pool only at the start of the next new game
turn. If the die roll result below is one or two, return the chit to the pool immediately upon implementing that result. In that case,
the chit may appear again during that same game turn.
1-2 Runaway Inflation. If the are any TP in the Roman treasury, they are forfeit. The Roman player then also rolls a die and must
emergency tax and/or demobilize units in order to cancel that deficit number (one through six TP).
3-4 Epidemic. Roll a die for every unit on the map: static, mobile and leader, even including inactive Palmyrans. On a result of “1,” a
rolled-for unit is removed from play and put into the dead pile. If an emperor is felled, consult table 14.2 immediately at the end of
this epidemic‟s resolution.
5-6 Whom the Gods Would Destroy They First Make Mad. Implement “1-2” and “3-4” above.
11. Parlay. Either player may play this chit by calling out “Parlay!” when his opponent begins a move action other than Roman sea or
river movement. The effect is, during that movement-action, the affected enemy force may not move into any hex containing any
of your ZOC, nor into any unlooted population center controlled by you. Using this chit doesn‟t use up an action for the player
playing it. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use.
12. Rally. You may play this at the end of any battle in which you had one or more combat units eliminated, either on offense or
defense. The effect is to allow you to openly select any one of those eliminated combat units and return it immediately to play in
the same hex in which the losses took place. That placement forestalls the ability of an otherwise totally victorious attacker to enter
a previously cleared, but now suddenly reoccupied, hex. This chit may not be used to replace a leader. Return this chit to the pool
immediately after each use.
13. Spies. You may play this chit at any time. It allows you a one-time examination of all of the event markers then in the enemy
player‟s hand. You may not make reminder notes of any kind. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use.
14. Good Staff Work. You may play this after the enemy has played any chit other than catastrophe (no. 10). The effect of this chit is
to negate the effect of the just-played enemy chit. Return that chit to the pool without it being implemented. Return this chit to the
pool immediately after each use.
15. Wild Charge. You may choose to play this at the end of any one attack you make in which you‟ve just rolled a DR result and
have one or more mobile units involved. Roll the die again. If that second roll is even, the effect is to convert the earlier DR result
to a DE. If that second roll is odd, the effect is to convert the earlier DR result to an EX. Additionally, you must advance-after-
combat all surviving, non-static, attacking units. (Ignore that last statement, though, if such an advance would carry any Germano-
Parthian unit into a narrows hex.) Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use. This chit may not be used in a battle in
which the defender has already played chit 6.
16. Barbarian Sea Raid. To play this chit as an action, the Germano-Parthian player must have a barbarian unit in any coastal hex of
Barbaria. Playing this chit allows that unit to raid up to six hexes into and across all-sea hexes and hexsides, ignoring EZOC, but it
may not raid into or through narrows hexes containing any non-Germanic unit. The raiding barbarian unit doesn‟t actually move
from its coastal hex. Any undefended Roman population centers in a raided hex are considered to have been looted. Population
centers defended by any one or more Roman units can‟t be raided. If the Gallic Empire is active, none of its population centers
may be raided. Alternatively, the Germano-Parthian player may choose to raid up to three hexes from the north African Imperial
boundary. Towns in a Roman (loyal or rebel) or Palmyrene ZOC cannot be looted. The play of this chit may not be done as part of
the same action as the draw of this chit.
If the Roman player draws this chit, he must show it to the Germano-Parthian player to verify it was indeed his draw, and he then
places it back into the pool unplayed. The Roman player‟s chit draw action is still considered to have been used up by that draw
and return. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each use.
17. Agents in Enemy Camp. Play of this chit allows the player using it to increase by two (+2) the result of any one of his own
diplomacy or treachery die rolls, or reduce by two (-2) the result of any one of his opponent‟s diplomacy or treachery die rolls. The
use of the chit must be declared prior to the die roll it‟s being used to modify. Return this chit to the pool immediately after each
18. The Gods are Bored. If this chit is pulled by either player on Turns 1 through 4, immediately roll a die. If that result is even, the
game turn ends. If the result is odd, nothing happens. In that case, immediately return the chit to the pool and the other player takes
his next action. If this chit is pulled during Turn 5, simply set it aside; it is considered to be “No Event,” though the player who
drew it is still considered to have completed an action.
19. Bread & Circuses. This chit must be implemented the instant it‟s drawn by either player, and it uses up the drawing player‟s
action. The effect is, no matter who drew it, internal political crises compel the Roman player to conduct empire-wide gladiatorial
games, food giveaways, and other such massive public entertainments and doles. Resolve the issue by rolling a die, adding one to
that result, and immediately deducting that number of points from the Roman treasury. Return this chit to the pool immediately
after each use.
Alternatively, the Roman player may refuse to sponsor the games, but he must make that decision prior to rolling the die. In that case,
the Germano-Parthian player may pick any unlooted population center hex in Roman core territory, other than Rome/Ostia, that is
empty of all units at that moment, and immediately place a garrison/fortification marker there with its rebel side showing. That
place is thereafter automatically friendly to any rebel co-emperor and yields no taxes until retaken (and rebuilt) by the Roman
20. Persecutions. This chit must be implemented the instant it‟s drawn by either player, and uses up the drawing player‟s action. The
effect is, no matter who drew it, that internal political crisis moves the Roman player to conduct an empire-wide persecution of
Christians. Resolve the issue by rolling a die, adding one to that result, and immediately deducting that number of points from the
Roman treasury. Remove this chit from play for the rest of the game after its first implementation.
21. Roman Heavy Siege Equipment. If the Germano-Parthian player draws this chit, he must immediately give it to the Roman
player, and that hand-off counts as completing an action for the Germano-Parthian. The Roman player keeps this chit in his hand
(whether he draws it himself or it‟s handed to him, and within the normal hand limit) until he wants to commit it as an action
during any of his actions. To use this chit, he places it atop any loyal Roman force that‟s about to attack an unlooted population
center hex anywhere on the map. It‟s effect is to double the combat strength of that attacking force in its attack. Once placed, this
chit remains in that hex until either the enemy population center being attacked is taken or there are no other Roman units in the
hex with it. At that time place the chit back in the pool.
22. Parthian Dynastic Resurgence. The Germano-Parthian player may play this chit any time he has it in his hand during any
alternating actions phase, which constitutes an action. He does so by immediately reclaiming from the dead pile all the Parthian
mobile and static units then in it, and immediately placing them back on the map under the same strictures as given in 7.2. Play of
this chit may be used to end a state of Parthian dynastic collapse.
If the Roman player draws this chit, he must first show it to his opponent as verification of that draw; then he simply puts it back into
the pool, thereby ending that Roman action. When it has been played by the Germano-Parthian player, this chit is not returned to
the chit pool until the start of the next game turn.
23. German Population Increase. The Germano-Parthian player may play this chit any time he has it in his hand during any
alternating actions phase, which constitutes an action. He does so by rolling a die, adding three to that result, and immediately
reclaiming from the dead pile up to that number of Germanic tribal units from it,and immediately placing them back on the map
under the same strictures as given in 7.1.
If the Roman player draws this chit, he must first show it to his opponent as verification of that draw; then he simply puts it back into
the pool, thereby ending that Roman action. When it has been played by the Germano-Parthian player, this chit is not returned to
the chit pool until the start of the next game turn.
24. Roman Revenue Windfall. The Roman player may play this chit any time he has it in his hand during any alternating actions
phase by rolling a die, adding three to that result, and immediately reclaiming from the dead pile that number of Roman legion
base camps and/or infantry vexillations. Place them immediately under the same strictures as given in 6.8. Alternatively, he may
decide simply to credit himself the number of TP equal to the final die roll result (but not more than five); or he may take a mixture
of units and TP.
If the Germano-Parthian player draws this chit, he must first show it to his opponent as verification of that draw; then he simply puts it
back into the pool, thereby ending his action. When it has been played by the Roman player, this chit is not returned to the chit
pool until the start of the next game turn.
25. Roman Cavalry Vexillation Reinforcement. When either player draws any one of the Roman cavalry units from the pool, that
unit is immediately placed on the map as a Roman reinforcement. If the Germano-Parthian player draws a Roman cavalry unit
from the pool, he should hand it to his opponent for placement on the map. Either way, that draw counts as using up an action for
the player who made it. The Roman player may normally place a newly received cavalry unit in any hex containing one or more of
his units that doesn‟t already have a cavalry unit in it. Each time a cavalry unit is drawn from the pool, the Roman player should
also roll a die. On a result of six, the Roman player may from then on form a “central cavalry reserve” (see 10.8). Prior to that,
return any Roman cavalry unit to the chit pool whenever it‟s eliminated for any reason. Note the cavalry reserve die roll is not
subject to salting.
14.4 Lest Darkness Fall Emperor Creation Table
14.5 Terrain Key
14.6 Combat Results Table