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					                                Journalism Reading Logs

       In this democratic society, journalism is quite important to many of us. We see

journalist reports virtually on daily basis. Currently, sources such as free press and

independent media have rapidly been introduced and shape the economy. With the help

of these sources people can have a better knowledge and understanding with different

political and economic issues that has develop within the environment. As people

continue to look at these democratic issues that are happening in the society, they are

gaining more accurate and intelligible information and experiences based on both politics

and economics aspect and discover new ways to enhance the society. Having explored

different political issues that have bring upon to the public sphere through various

sources, active individuals are now given the opportunities to equipped with information

and knowledge of the world in order to make their up to date decision on any particular

circumstances. Media and free press has become common, citizen can now watch

journalist resources and recognize what is actually occurring at the specific moment. As

they absorb more ideas and realize the concerns and reassurances in the society, people

will have better understanding of what to do when election time comes aboard. Since

election time happens every four years, so it will give a large amount of time for people

to review issues that have appeared. With individual gossiping along with each other and

journalism reports published on texts and showing on commercial television, the gathered

of free flow information has become consistently significant to the democratic process

within the current society. In the news perspective, I think television news on almost all

channels have increasingly become very reliant and rely too much on commercial and

industrial journalism. Having presents these journal issues from the news media, one
may think that the emphasis of the news is telling non-important daily issues to the

audiences and somehow is given reports as entertainment more than the original news

report itself for the audience. Although these kinds of negative subject matters may create

problems or concerns for the viewers, but many people are still regarding journalism as

an important and hot topics for many years to come in this democracy world. There are

four areas concerning journalism that I want to explore more about it. They are ‘Agenda-

setting on the function of media’; ‘News practices and writing’; ‘Misperception of the

news’; and finally ‘The Youth audience’.

     First of all, having watch various of movies and read the articles inside the Agenda-

setting and bias folders, one thing come to my mind is that analysts from different media

around the world have investigated and acknowledge the agenda setting bias of media

issue for quick some time. They are trying to find new ways to develop new ideas and

eliminate obstacles that are presenting in this world. Since news media that appear on

both television and newspaper which could have significant impact and control over the

media matter, such as the events that are being aired or presented, it may therefore create

influence on the vision of the audience about that particular event. Whether it is a good

or bad event, when audiences look at the screen on television or pictures on newspaper,

they will assume that it is real and had actually occurred. This is how news can be so

influential. Based on the articles on Maxwell McCombs, I think that although the

influence that placed on the media agenda can be extensive, but it does not prove to

determine the public agenda itself. People are able to distinguish the basic relevance

between themselves and the public sphere based on the subject matters and attributes

advanced by the news media. Beside this, another point that has stuck me is the theoretic
approach with the Framing, Priming, and the Agenda-Setting Theory. As I have learn in

class and from the video that we watched, I think these kind of process create many

different perspective and no doubt deny the problem outlook on the media itself having

directly influence and impact the audience. Both Framing and Priming look at different

media issues that are brought up by the audiences and journalists. With the Priming

aspect, the media is trying to tell the audiences with a preceding context that is somehow

being ascertained and interpreted by the media. From this informed reason, one would

believe that the media is trying to create standards into different ways that is view

acceptable by the audiences. Whenever there are any significant events that have

happened and appeared on news media, the audiences or readers can easily identified the

trueness and important side surrounding that particular subject. On the other hand,

Framing implies any issues of the media that are considered rather important from the

journalists’ perspective. People tend to follow the sources that the journalists have

established on the reports, they believe that the words from journalists are always

considered correct and which can influence them. Look at stocks exchange in the

economic sense, whenever there are ups and downs in the stock market, people will likely

influence by the comment that were made by the journalists. Since journalists are the

professional and are familiar with all the economic background, so most people follow

their lead and put in money in the stock market that are considers as important and

profitable stock. Another interesting aspect is the September 11 issues that had happen

few years ago. Nowadays whenever we watch the news in television or on newspaper,

we as audiences or readers still are given the information of revenge, terrorism, and

security. It seems that nothing can be solved or ignored since this issue had happened.
As journalists continue to establish reports and mention on this issue in television and

newspaper media, people are always tend to follow what has happen in the press

conference from the government or corporations and become a day-to-day topic for them.

Also, a point made by Donald Shaw about how people and media are judged as important

catch my attention as well. Whenever I watch different media, it seems that nowadays

people like to talk about celebrities too. No matter where we come from, we always get

the information about the celebrities in our own countries. This may happens because

media think it is important to know what famous people are doing at the current time

theme. Look at Lindsay Lohan or Paris Hilton, before they have become celebrities and

going to jail because of drunk and drive, many people may not even know who they are

and treat them as a normal individual. It is because of the news media that keeps

mentioning about them and others, so audiences like us will finally be familiar with their

names and everyday routine. Somehow, I think entertainment news like this can bring

substantial profit to the news organization as they are closely linked together.

     The second point that I want to tackle is the Misperception of the news. After

looking at different articles and surveys, it is interesting to see that people get mislead or

inform to the political issues and figures that were developed according to the national

media. Different nations present different numbers on the political and economic aspect

of the issues that have found. Sometimes it is really hard to collect all the correct data

and figures to present a well structured analysis since everyone in the world has different

visions and understandability to the subject that are being examined. As the result of the

data is misleading, people may be trick and become unsatisfied. If researchers present

any false numbers or research and appear on national news network or newspaper, then it
is very embarrassing and somehow it will damage the organization image and cost a lot

of money to make their reputation back on track. A good example is the stock market. If

any journalists or researchers presents misinform data or figures to the public and find out

by some people, then it may cost them or company a fortune to bring them back on the

correct path. That why people should take consider amount of time to do research and

present correct information to the public whenever is appropriate. Also, according to the

article written by Max Frankel, he also mentions about Saddam Hussein the purchasing

decision of weapons and other explosive items that he has with thoughtful research and

examination. But somehow the journalists have suffering and misleading information

and fail to uncover if all the planning that Hussein makes is the truth. The information is

misperception, they can not figure out the best method to acknowledge the result and

procedures. After reading the article on Misperception, the media and the Iraq war, I

have found that although there are still some figures that are misleading, but most people

support the war. Well, I guess the primary reason is because it has been reported in the

news media for a long time and it did create a very huge impact to lots of Americans, so

they want to fight back and give Iraq revenge. The extent of Americans misperception

varies greatly depending on the source of news that they listened. In different news

channel on television, reporters or journalists may present various numbers that are

perhaps different with respect to each other. As audience continue to look at these

channels, they may find the numbers are really misleading as some may have numbers

that are significantly low and some that are high. So it is really unbelievable. I think the

variations in misperceptions according to news media cannot easily be explained as the

result of the characteristics between each of the audience. Audiences have varies
according to demographics as party identification and education. Different network

channel present different political aspect, there may be some channels that are for religion

viewers, some that are more educated for people and students, and also some that tackle

on political and democratic issues. As these channels present the numbers, it would create

diverse result as it is giving out the numbers that are more suitable for that particular area.

However, if people get their news from print media, then they will have more confident

on the work as these media have fewer misperceptions as people pay more attention

towards it. According to Steven Kull, the channel CNN is one good example that

misperception will less likely to apply. In another article, George Gerbner also illustrated

that television has generated the misperception on crime rate in the society. I think this is

true because it is really tough to account for crime that has happen in the public sector.

Some people may even look at crime as a funny thing and try to experience and portray

themselves as one criminal after watching it on the television screen.

     Thirdly, News practices and writings are also considers essential to the journalism

environment. In order to have present good reports to the audiences and readers,

journalists need to develop and require important writing skills and techniques, they need

to establish writings that are persuasive and arguable. People will then understand what

journalists are trying to interpret and examine in order for them to have the same

comments and ideas. When working on news practices, learners may be able to require

training in the news rooms and learn from the others. They should split their time theme

accordingly and plan a working hour table so they will follow it and do whatever they

have schedule on that particular day. I think the article on BBC training and development

is a very helpful guide for people to follow studio crew who wish to become a news
reporter or journalist in the future. It gives the ideas what each learner should do in a

day-to-day basis so they will be more familiar with the overall subject. They will get to

learn different news method such as acquire script techniques, practical exercises, and

broadcast some programs in the television workshop. If one is really into this kind of job

position, it would be a very exciting career. Besides learning in a news studio, I think

another aspect to be familiar with news practices is through the digital constellation.

According to the article by Bruce Fell, he illustrated the point that ‘While recognizing

that traditionally, areas such as television journalism have always worked in tandem with

camera operators and vision editors to re-present people and circumstances; the digital

age ought to be understood within the context of shifting workplace expectations.’ From

this, I am agreeing with him that nowadays, probably in the past twenty years, digital

device such as computers had clearly established a market in the society. People can now

easily get access to the internet and watch the news from that as well. Having said this,

digital journalists are now changing their style of role into a more communicate person as

both wordsmith and image-maker. They will be greater opportunities to present

themselves through these roles as they still able to attract, maintain and inform the

audiences from this digital media. Nowadays, journalists no longer need pencil and

notepad to do their researches and reports; rather they are more accessible in doing news

resources and journalism based on the online element from the Internet. By adding

video, animation and multimedia, people who search online can easily get to understand

the information better that journalists are trying to reach such as a news story or video

that present a particular story. Right now, I think teaching journalism students about

visual literacy are more important than in past years. As digital device has become
popular and assume the trend will continue for the next century, it is no doubt that

computers may perhaps bypass the television industry. The reason for this is because

whenever TV operators do stories, they need to carry footage to take shots without visual

guidance which can sometimes become very inconvenient. But with the access of online

industry, some journalists have to video and edit footage; they can even develop visual

literacy on their stories as well. By doing this, journalists can bring more excitement to

the stories so audiences will pay more attention to it as the general public are currently

increasing to digest information via images.

     Finally, the last point that I want to examine is the Youth audience. Nowadays, as

digital devices have become essential to people especially to the young audience, it seems

that texture materials regarding journalism has started to fade out. Although newspaper

are still the primarily source for people to read, but there are different study that has

shown the newspaper selling rate has been dropping since the arrival of technology like

Internet. One of the reasons that I think it is declining is the fact that young audience

relies on using computers to do virtually everything nowadays, including reading

newspapers. As this is becoming a trend, these young audiences would rather use

computers than continue flipping pages in the newspaper. Another element that

decreases the textual materials comes from the fact that young audience now enjoy to

have mouth-to-mouth conversation, somehow by talking they may eventually bring up

topics that are related to political or economic issues. Despite the low credibility ratings

that these young audiences carry, it is still very interesting to see that some of these

young people would get together and talk about politic issues as well. Based on the

article on the Pew Research Center, I think that technology has changed the lives of
young audiences in this generation significantly. Back then, people use to watch

journalism on paperwork or television, but at this generation, young audiences can have

the opportunity to look at journalism on digital media as well. As these audiences grow

up with the internet, they are more capable to use them to expand their social network

and watch different events that have occurred around the world in the political aspect. I

think that although young audiences may not able to vote yet, but as the election time

comes they may also able to make strong comments about the lack of politic knowledge

that are presented inside the government arena. These young generations can influence

the politic culture and perhaps bring positive result to the society, and by this, it also

gives one the chance to realize and understand their true identities.

     Overall, I think journalism can create different issues and subject matters, such as

the topics that I have mentioned above. One should try to acknowledge and understand

the role of journalists before pursuing their careers of it.

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