THE NEW FORD GALAXY
THE NEW FORD S-MAX
1. SAFETY SYSTEMS
1.2: Active Driver Assistance
1.3: Enhanced Intelligent Protection System
1.4: Accident Prevention
2.2: Duratec Petrol Powertrains
2.3: Duratorq TDCi Diesel Powertrains
3. DRIVING QUALITY
3.2: New Ford Interactive Vehicle Dynamics Control with
Continuously Controlled Damping
3.3: Evolution of MacPherson
3.4: Six Steps to S-MAX and Galaxy Vehicle Dynamics
3.5: New Architecture for Agility and Low NVH
4. PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMMITMENT
4.1: Genk Gears Up to Deliver New S-MAX and Galaxy
4.2: Environmental Concern as an Integral Part of the Business
1 – SAFETY SYSTEMS
New Technologies for active driver assistance include:
o Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) with Forward Alert audio and visual
collision warning system
o Collision Mitigation by Braking
o An enhanced Electronic Stability Programme (ESP) system
o A new Interactive Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) active
suspension system with Continuously Controlled Damping (CCD)
Enhanced Ford Intelligent Protection System (IPS) includes new driver's
knee air bag and ultra-stiff body structure for a rigid safety cell
o Better driver protection through more legroom and horizontally
stroking steering column
o Advanced Neck Injury Protection System for front seats
o High-level child protection with ISOFIX
o Front-end components designed for increased pedestrian protection
Advanced new features for accident prevention include advanced lighting
systems and a new high-tech Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)
The new Ford Galaxy and Ford S-MAX set new standards in the Ford range for
active and passive safety systems and features, and demonstrate Ford's no-
compromise approach to safety.
Safety is the foundation stone for Ford engineers when engineering new models –
the goal being to provide fully optimised protection for the vehicle occupants under
all conditions. Active safety systems are intended to aid the driver in avoiding a
crash, while passive safety systems deploy during an accident for protection and
In new Galaxy and S-MAX, particular attention has been paid to enhancing Ford's
acclaimed Intelligent Protection System (IPS) and introducing a wide range of new
technologies for active driver assistance and occupant protection – many of these
appearing for the first time in the segment and on a Ford product.
“Today there are more and more safety components integrated into vehicle
packages,” says Wolf-Rüdiger Giebeler, Supervisor Vehicle Safety and CAE
(Computer Aided Engineering) for S-MAX and Galaxy. "It is important to realise that
it‟s not just the number of elements that make up the system; it‟s their interaction
during a crash that makes the difference. At Ford, we don't just add componentry for
the sake of it. It has to improve the vehicle‟s overall safety and crash performance.”
1.2: Active Driver Assistance
A number of significant new safety technologies make their debut for Ford in the new
Galaxy and S-MAX, and are targeted at providing new levels of control and accident
In addition to standard Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) with Electronic Brakeforce
Distribution (EBD) and an optional enhanced Electronic Stability Programme (ESP)
system, Ford is also introducing a host of technologies that significantly help improve
All-new driver support systems, such as ACC, Collision Mitigation by Braking
(CMbB) and a new active suspension system - with continuously controlled damping
- will be available on Galaxy and S-MAX from the second half of 2006:
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) with Forward Alert (FA): ACC is an improved
cruise control system that helps to maintain a pre-set cruising speed. When the
system senses there is a vehicle within a preset distance ahead, ACC decelerates
automatically to keep this preset distance, and then accelerates back to cruising
speed once the road is clear again.
FA will warn you visually and through a chime if you get too close to the vehicle in
front. FA will also prime the brakes to increase the effectiveness of Electronic Brake
Assist to reduce the stopping distance.
Ford‟s ACC system combines several different elements that will allow the driver to
maintain easier control for accident avoidance. Together, ACC and FA form an
intelligent combination of cruise control with an adaptive, radar-controlled distance
Ford‟s new ACC system with FA operates as an advanced driver assistance system
with the following three stages of operation:
1. A clear road without obstacles ahead means no system interference, no
warning signals. ACC keeps the vehicle‟s speed constant as selected by
2. First stage of assistance: The gap to vehicles ahead becomes shorter or
obstacles are detected by the radar sensors. ACC releases the throttle to
allow speed modulation. Then, the ACC controlled vehicle will be following
at a constant time gap (or distance at a specific speed). This includes the
acceleration up to the set cruise speed and deceleration up to a maximum
level of around +/-3 m/s², which is a very mild, convoy-typical change of
speed. Note: The highest possible deceleration as performed in a panic
braking manoeuvre is about three times higher at the level of
approximately 9.81 m/sec²).
3. When the radar-detected gap ahead shrinks below a critical distance, the
warning signal “Too close to traffic ahead” appears in the instrument panel
centre and a warning chime may sound. Additionally, in the background –
normally unnoticed by the driver – the brake-system is being pre-tensioned
slightly and the servo boost assistance system is being modulated to
provide immediate brake performance only if required by the driver. By
braking, the driver will find the system pre-tensioned and prepared for best
possible brake performance. Ford‟s new Hazard Warning Light Assistant
will warn following traffic with flickering hazard light function
In developing the three operational steps of the ACC with FA system, Ford engineers
wanted to provide advanced driver assistance rather than remove responsibility for
vehicle control from the driver. The system is effectively an adaptive cruise control,
not an auto-pilot.
ACC with Forward Alert operates within a range of 30-180 kph. The system offers
audible and visual warnings in driving situations which may constitute a collision with
a vehicle in front.
The warning level is adjustable by the driver, who also has the choice to turn the
audio and visual warning system off.
Even when ACC is not engaged, Collision Mitigation by Braking (CMbB) will be
permanently working in the background and intervene with moderate braking only
when the occurrence of a collision becomes obvious.
Collision Mitigation by Braking (CMbB): The CMbB system operates once the risk
of insufficient safety distance is detected and the brake support begins to engage.
This brake system pre-charge enables quicker response when the driver presses the
Another feature which operates permanently is designed to increase the sensitivity of
the emergency brake assist. This feature triggers brake assist during full braking. It
is important for drivers to recognise that, although CMbB can mitigate the impact of
an accident, it cannot avoid a collision.
Forward Alert and CMbB system go into effect just before the driver has to take
action to avoid an accident. If the driver shows clear intent to avoid a collision – for
example by rapid steering input – brake support is inhibited.
The warning level is adjustable by the driver, who has the choice to turn off the audio
and visual warning system. The brake system pre-charge function, however, cannot
be deactivated and works permanently in the background.
Interactive Vehicle Dynamics Control with Continuously Controlled Damping:
This exciting new active suspension technology improves vehicle stability and
handling and reduces braking distance.
CCD improves suspension performance and allows the driver to select a different
suspension character. It offers three modes: Comfort, Normal and Sport.
Additionally, the CCD interacts with the ESP system to improve the dynamic
behaviour of the vehicle and to reduce the stopping distance on rough road surfaces
when ABS braking is applied.
Hill launch assist (available with ACC with FA or IVDC): This uses the brake
system and is engaged when the vehicle is stationary to avoid it from rolling back.
When stationary on a hill, the driver can release the brake pedal and move to the
accelerator pedal without the vehicle rolling backwards. It is normally automatically
activated, but the driver can also select a manual activation mode in the HMI cluster
Hazard Warning Light Assistant: This aids the driver in certain hazardous driving
situations, by automatically switching on the hazard warning lights whenever the
brake performance is more than 6-7m/s2, which is about 60-70 percent of possible
brake performance (9.81 m/s2). Once switched on the hazard warning lights can be
switched off at any time by pressing the hazard warning light switch. In addition the
Hazard Warning Light Assistant can automatically switch off the hazard warning
lights. The Hazard Warning Light Assistant is available with or without IVDC.
1.3: Enhanced Intelligent Protection System
New S-MAX and Galaxy owners will benefit from Ford‟s commitment to high-level
vehicle safety with a host of new features integrated in the Intelligent Protection
The Galaxy and S-MAX IPS system includes the latest state-of-the-art front air bags
and a new driver's knee air bag as well as side-mounted thorax air bags for the front
seats plus first-, second- and (for Galaxy) third-row window curtain air bags. Also
new is an advanced neck injury protection system.
Combined with 3-point seat belts, optimised pre-tensioners and load limiters, anti-
submarining seat subframes and a horizontal stroking steering system, these
features provide the occupants with a highly comprehensive safety system.
IPS is tailored to deliver active and passive safety protection and security. The IPS
concept covers preventative safety, dynamic avoidance, pre-crash collision
avoidance, in-crash occupant protection and post-crash rescue.
“Where we have really seen a difference in terms of air bag safety is when it comes
to occupant fatalities and side impact collisions,” says Giebeler. “The added upper
torso protection that has been added has caused a fairly substantial reduction in side
impact accident fatalities compared to each of the last several decades.”
New driver's knee air bag: A new driver's knee air bag provides several benefits to
the Galaxy or S-MAX driver.
o Improved occupant movement - The torso movement of the driver is
limited in a crash, thus increasing the distance between the chest and
steering wheel. This results in a minimising of driver impact once the
o Reduced crash loads - The knee air bag assists in evenly distributing the
crash loads over the driver‟s body to reduce peak loads as well as injury
risks to all body parts. It provides laterally deep air bag cushioning, fast air
bag positioning, earlier occupant interaction, and improved load
o More space – With the addition of the knee air bag, Ford's designers were
able to remove some of the bulk in the driver area freeing up more space
in addition to providing additional protection for the driver.
o Intelligent and sequential – What makes the driver protection system so
effective is that the knee air bag, the front air bag, the pretensioners, and
load limiters all release in an intelligently designed sequence so that all
safety components work in unison. The driver movement is tuned as both
air bags deploy to protect the knee and head areas.
Ultra Stiff Body Structure: The enhanced IPS system also includes an ultra-stiff
body structure and rigid safety cell as the structural integrity of the vehicle is
extremely important to occupant safety during a crash. Straight barrier-type
structures used in the front-end sheet-metal are designed to absorb and transfer
high-speed crash energy into the body underfloor and side structure, which reduces
the deformation of the passenger safety cell. Due to the stiff outer waistline of the
side doors, energy load during an accident is absorbed and stress is reduced in the
passenger safety cell as forces go down to the rear axle and underfloor area rather
than forcing the protection zone to collapse.
Ford S-MAX and Galaxy have a door-ring enforcement and B-pillar re-enforcement
made of ultra-high-strength steel (BORON) to improve crash integrity. The use of
ultra-high-strength steel helps to provide a sleek, lightweight design for both
vehicles. High-strength steel used in the doors reduces side impact intrusion, as
Advanced horizontal stroking steering column: Another critical component for
driver protection is the advanced horizontal stroking steering column fitted to new
Galaxy and S-MAX.
This feature adapts the stroke direction to the occupant‟s impact direction thus
allowing for more effective energy absorption from the steering column. The amount
of intrusion into the cockpit is reduced as the column moves away from the driver
under load instead of stroking down axially. This steering column was an industry
first when introduced in the latest Ford Focus and illustrates the benefit of Ford
Motor Company‟s Global Shared Technologies initiative.
In combination with the knee air bag, the horizontally stroking steering column offers
a comprehensive safety system for new Ford Galaxy and S-MAX drivers. It offers the
driver several benefits in the event of a crash scenario:
o Increased driver survival space – The comfort adjustment is directional,
decoupling from the crash stroke. During a high-speed frontal impact, the
steering column strokes horizontally and thereby increases the driver‟s
remaining survival space.
o Advanced energy absorption and stroke length – This leads to improved
management of head and chest load levels during impact.
o Steering column load limiting function – The steering column also offers a
load limiting function for the occupant‟s legs in case of an impact of the
knee to the steering column.
Safety pedals: Another critical driver interaction in a crash is the response of the
foot pedals. In the S-MAX and Galaxy, safety engineers have designed the pedals
with a retraction mechanism so that they are passive and give way upon intrusion
during a crash.
In case of an intrusion, the lightweight pedals will be pressed against the lower cross
beam and then will fold away from the driver‟s feet. A foam pad and a heel catcher
serve a dual purpose: they provide additional protection and a comfortable rest for
the driver‟s left foot both in left-hand-drive and right-hand-drive versions.
Optimised air bag deployment: Much care has been taken to create a state-of-the-
art air bag system which offers protection to the occupants in a wide range of impact
The development of the passenger air bag system posed a particular challenge for
Ford engineers because of the nature of the vehicles‟ interior design. The passenger
front air bag needs to fill both a large area in front of the occupant and the space
under a particularly large windscreen. This led engineers to develop a special
process for air bag unfolding and positioning. The new deployment method, where
the bag unfolds via windshield reflection, combines rapid air bag positioning with a
minimised risk for out-of-position occupants.
Furthermore, both Galaxy and S-MAX feature a new window curtain airbag that sets
new standards for people carriers. This system allows the airbag to be positioned
between an intruding obstacle and the occupant‟s head and shoulder even if the
distance in between has already become very small in the impact.
Safety belt system: The advanced safety belt system fitted to new Galaxy and S-
MAX provides several key safety features. As a Ford standard, three-point lap and
diagonal safety belts are fitted to all seats.
Front safety belts have pyrotechnic pretensioners and load limiting retractors that
tighten to reduce body movement in the event of air bag deployment. The retractors
control the force applied to the occupant‟s chest upon impact.
The finely tuned interaction of air bags, load limiters, adjustable safety belt anchors,
anti-twist belt material, and optimised belt routing all combine to maximise occupant
“It really is a very simple system when you break it down, and exceedingly effective,”
Advanced seat design: Both S-MAX and the new Galaxy offer advanced safety
seating that doesn‟t sacrifice ergonomics, comfort or attractiveness. The safety belt
buckles, for instance, are in an ergonomically optimised position, which leads to
better belt geometry at hip height and provides a more controlled geometry. The seat
belt material offers controlled flexibility and the belt is guided by the plastic valence
on the lower part of the seat.
Advanced Neck Injury Protection System: Another important area of safety
systems improvement for Ford engineers was in the case of rear-impact collisions.
With the new Advanced Neck Injury Protection system, the advanced headrest
frontal shape and active mechanism lead to a minimal relative movement between
head and upper body during low speed rear impacts. Early guidance keeps the
head and neck free of impulsive movement, resulting in less neck strain. Three
components, therefore, are critical to the success of the system:
- Headrest designed for optimum protection of all occupant sizes, including a
headrest locking feature
- An active protection system that minimises relative movement between head and
neck by the headrest pushing towards the head during an impact
- Seatback foam which allows controlled guidance of the occupant
Child protection & ISOFIX: Today's family car customers take the safety of their
child passengers very seriously, so Ford engineers have worked hard to make the
new Galaxy and S-MAX two of the safest vehicles in which children can travel.
To give customers maximum choice as to where in the vehicle they carry their child
passengers, Ford is offering a Passenger Airbag Deactivation key-switch option.
Ford dealers perform the installation of the switch, and this benefits both dealer and
vehicle owner in terms of greater individual customer communication and
Ford also offers ISOFIX anchors for child seats, which improves child protection in a
collision. Additionally, Ford offers a range of accessory ISOFIX child seats as part of
the company‟s co-operation with Britax-Roemer.
Pedestrian Protection: Ford of Europe's Design team have conceived the new
Galaxy and S-MAX body shapes with front end structures that are safer for
Four specific tests are now used to assess initial designs for pedestrian safety –
lower leg to bumper, upper leg to hood edge, child head to hood, and head to hood
top and windscreen.
In addition, In order to minimise the effect of a lower leg impact, a lower leg stiffener
is introduced to the lower part of the Galaxy and S-MAX bumper system. The lower
leg stiffener is designed to reduce the angle of the knee bend during an impact. A
foam layer in front of the bumper steel structure absorbs leg impact energy.
New headlamps are constructed to break away easily, thus minimising the potential
effects on the pedestrian‟s head in the event of an impact. Bonnets are designed
with a complex honeycomb-like structure to allow an improved level of softness. A
sloping bonnet line also allows a greater distance between the bonnet surface and
the engine block, battery box, washer bottle, and other components which helps to
mitigate an impact‟s effects. For the windscreen wiper spindles, special brackets
have been designed which collapse under moderate loads for further energy
absorption in case of a head impact.
Post-crash safety: Ford‟s integrated Intelligent Protection System (IPS) also
includes several features designed for post-crash safety. The fuel tank filler pipe has
been placed higher above the rear axle towards the centre of the vehicle to minimise
the risk of it being affected in a collision. Also, a fuel filter shield in the engine
compartment is made of high strength steel and protects against any fluid leakage
that might occur in the impact area.
1.4: Accident Prevention
In order to make driving safe in all weather conditions Ford offers a series of safety
features for S-MAX and the new Galaxy that contribute to accident prevention.
Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) and Run-Flat Tyres: Ford's new Tyre
Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) warns the driver when a tyre becomes deflated
so that the tyre pressure or problem can be resolved before it becomes a major
issue. The system is available with or without optional Run Flat Tyres enabling the
driver to continue a journey even with a puncture.
TPMS has been designed to assist the driver in maintaining tyre pressures at their
optimal levels. Tyre valve-mounted wheel sensors respond to four body-mounted
low frequency antennae, sending tyre pressure and tyre temperature signals to the
Ford's new monitoring system provides two levels of warning. A soft alarm at 25-per
cent deflation uses a chime and a temporary warning signal appearing on the
instrument cluster. At 35-per cent deflation, the warning is stronger with a permanent
acoustic and visual alarm.
The system also adjusts automatically with the change of tyres, for example from
winter to summer specification. It also takes into account any increased pressures
for heavy loads. TPMS is mandatory for Run Flat Tyres but can be ordered as an
option with normal tyres.
As the traditional storage space for a spare wheel has been utilised to package the
third row of seats in Ford Galaxy and for increased loadspace in S-MAX, a puncture
repair kit (Conti Comfort Kit) is provided with both vehicles. This consists of repair
liquid and an electric tyre pressure compressor.
Advanced Lighting Systems: Auto-Lighting is available on all S-MAX and Galaxy
models. Once enabled, it will automatically turn on front and tail lamps when a light
sensor detects a decrease in daylight. It will also turn the lights off once there is
enough daylight to be driving without lamps. This feature relieves the driver from the
task of turning the lights on and off as conditions change.
Auto-Lighting can be specified with either of the two available lighting systems:
Advanced Front Light System (AFLS) or Bi-Xenon Headlamps. AFLS features a set
of conventional halogen lamps which swivel in twisty corners to provide better
illumination of curves. According to the steering angle and the driving speed, they
slightly pivot their beams to follow the way the driver intends to go – and are
supported at low speed by one static cornering light per side. The safety advantage
is clear: pedestrians at the roadside, animals or objects on the road can be seen at
an earlier stage when entering the curve or manoeuvring into parking lots.
High intensity discharge or Bi-Xenon headlamps, produce a much brighter light than
conventional halogen lamps. They offer twice the light density on the road at one-
third of the energy input of conventional lights. For S-MAX and Galaxy, the Bi-Xenon
lamps can be specified as part of a Bi-Xenon Adaptive Front Lighting System which
includes static bending lights, automatic headlamp levelling and washer jets.
Static bending lights are automatically turned on when the vehicle is travelling below
70 km/h, and the steering turns at a degree of at least 30 degrees. This helps to
avoid accidents in times of reduced visibility and especially increases pedestrian
SECTION 2: POWERTRAINS
New Galaxy and S-MAX offer performance and driving quality to match the
Two Duratorq TDCi diesel and two Duratec petrol engines with a power
range from 100 PS to 220 PS
Diesel Stage IV emissions as standard with available coated Diesel
Particulate Filter (cDPF) systems
Top-of-the-range S-MAX available with 220PS, 2.5-litre Duratec 5-cylinder
engine, as used in the Focus ST
Transmissions combine driving enjoyment with good fuel economy and
The new Ford Galaxy and the Ford S-MAX can be specified with a wide variety of
powertrains from frugal Duratorq diesels to, in the S-MAX, a performance-biased
220PS 2.5-litre Duratec 5-cylinder petrol engine.
Both vehicles benefit from Ford's acclaimed driving quality, now defined as Ford
PrecisionDrive. While S-MAX provides the inspiring driving dynamics its sporty
looks promise, the new Galaxy makes comfort a priority.
The powertrain range for the new Ford Galaxy and the Ford S-MAX is extensive and
offers both state-of-the-art turbo-charged common-rail diesel engines and clean and
efficient petrol units.
Key advancements in the powertrain story for both models include:
Latest state-of-the-art clutch
Dual-mass-flywheel matched systems technology
Upgraded hi-tech electronic engine management systems used together with
electronic throttle for precision torque control throughout every millisecond
New and highly efficient integrated radiator/intercooler/condenser heat exchanger
Diesel engines employ sophisticated high pressure multiple injection techniques
to smooth out the combustion process, controlling cylinder pressure rise rates
and provide the ultimate in smooth NVH and clean emissions performance
Available for both vehicles, according to market, is Ford's refined 125-PS, 1.8-litre
Duratorq TDCi diesel, available with either Ford's Durashift 5-speed or 6-speed
transmission. A 140-PS 2.0-litre Duratorq TDCi engine is also available for both
Galaxy and S-MAX and comes with a Ford Durashift 6-speed transmission. This
engine can also be specified with an optional advanced coated DPF (cDPF) system.
In selected European markets, the 2.0-litre Duratorq TDCi is also available in a 130-
PS displacement with cDPF as an option.
The petrol engine choice for both models includes Ford's light and efficient 145-PS
2.0-litre Duratec HE petrol engine, equipped with a Ford Durashift 5-speed
At the top of the range, the Ford S-MAX will be available uniquely with the smooth
and exhilarating 220-PS, 2.5-litre Duratec 5-cylinder petrol engine, which derives
from that fitted to the Ford Focus ST performance model.
2.2: Duratec Petrol Powertrains
220PS Duratec 5-cylinder: This is available only in the S-MAX, and offers 220 PS
(162kW) at 5,000 rpm and an impressive peak torque of 320 Nm from 1,500 all the
way through to 4,800 rpm.
Top speed is targeted at 230 kph. Powerful acceleration enables this S-MAX to
compete with performance models as it only needs 7.9 seconds to push from zero to
100 kph. To reach 100 kph from 50 in fourth gear takes only 8.6 seconds thanks to
the close-ratio gearbox, which complements the sporty performance of the
This high-performance, 20-valve, all-aluminium, DOHC design is mated to Ford‟s
highly successful Durashift M66 6-speed transmission, which features triple
synchromesh for the lower gears. It is quick, responsive and operates smoothly for
driving enjoyment and economy.
This impressive performance does not come at the cost of economy. In the
combined ECE mode, new S-MAX consumes just 9.4 litres of petrol per 100
“The reception we have seen so far to the Duratec 5-cylinder in the Focus ST has
encouraged us, and we expect it to be particularly well-received in the S-MAX,” says
Jens Ludmann, Chief Programme Engineer. “For a vehicle like S-MAX, which was
built with sporty performance in mind, this petrol engine was the perfect choice for
the hero model.”
This exciting performance engine contains a wealth of engineering expertise.
Attributes of the powertrain that enhance the vehicle include:
o Light Metal Alloy Cylinder Block – The 2.5-litre light metal alloy cylinder
block is bolted on to a ladder-type, cast-aluminium bedplate to strengthen
the main bearing architecture. This provides the six crankshaft bearings
with solid support, which is very important because of high operating
bearing loads for turbos.
o Belt-driven Overhead Camshafts – The camshafts actuate tappets
controlling the four-valves per cylinder linked to a dual independent
variable valve timing system. The camshafts can be continuously fine-
tuned (50 degrees intake, 30 degrees exhaust side) delivering more
useable torque and a better driveability over the whole rev range. It also
leads to improved fuel consumption and cleaner emissions over the entire
load range across all operating conditions.
o Engine Management System – The Bosch ME 9.0 electronic management
system allows precise control of cam-variation, hydraulic valve operation,
turbo boost, electronic throttle position, ignition timing and fuel injection
calibration. The end result is a better throttle response, improved engine
power development and very smooth and responsive vehicle control under
o Turbocharger – The compact and lightweight turbocharger is designed to
be fully integrated. It is cast in one piece along with the exhaust manifold,
resulting in increased thermodynamic efficiency.
o Knock Sensors – The engine knock sensors adjust spark timing and
cylinder pressure to deliver high-level performance from 95 octane petrol.
The use of this premium quality fuel is rewarded by a higher power output
of approximately 12 to 15PS. The engine has been calibrated to operate
with fuel octane ratings from 91 to 98 RON to optimise engine power
output and protect engine durability.
o Intercooler – Placed in front of the radiator, the heat exchanger cools the
warm air exiting from the turbocharger unit, operating with efficiencies up
to 77 per cent, reducing engine air inlet temperatures from 150 degrees
Celsius to 35 degrees Celsius.
“Our engineers pulled out all the stops with this engine and it really shows,” said
Ludmann. “You name it, from reduced flywheel mass to refined and precision-tuned
accelerator throttle response characteristics, all the way to new injectors and new
timing calibration and ignition strategies, this engine is truly agile in its performance.”
145PS, 2.0-LITRE DURATEC HE: Ford's 2.0-litre Duratec HE petrol engine is
available in both the Galaxy and the S-MAX and offers 145 PS (107 kW) at 6,000
rpm and peak torque of 190 Nm at 4,500 rpm.
This efficient and affordable petrol engine currently powers Ford Mondeo and now
brings its exceptional driveability and performance to the new Ford S-MAX and
Galaxy. It is lightweight and compact, offering both good performance feel and high
levels of driving quality.
The 2.0-litre Duratec HE engine is an integral part of Ford‟s powertrain range,
offering an exceptional balance of torque and power combined with a high level of
fuel economy. It offers 90 per cent of peak torque in a broad range between 2,000
and 6,000 rpm, while meeting strict European Stage IV emissions standards.
Equipped with this engine, S-MAX reaches a target maximum speed of 197 kph,
while the Galaxy reaches a target of 194 kph. Acceleration figures are equally close,
with the S-MAX rated from zero to 100 kph in 10.9 seconds and Galaxy in 11.2
Fuel consumption for both models is almost identical. In combined ECE mode
Galaxy consumes a reasonable 8.2 litres and S-MAX just 8.0 litres per 100
Several features of the engine clearly illustrate why it provides an optimal blend of
performance, fuel economy and emissions and is a perfect match for both Ford S-
MAX and new Galaxy:
- A fine-tuned metallurgical process of a congruent but inverse amount of wear in
the valve gear and between valve and valve seat helps keep the valve clearance
fully constant over a full engine life cycle of up to 250,000 kilometres.
- A lightweight nylon intake manifold with equal length inlet tracts to maximise
combustion efficiency, fuel economy as well as emission and NVH performance.
- An Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) system which helps to reduce NOx
emissions and improves fuel economy.
- An all-aluminium alloy construction for light weight for improved performance and
- The rigidity of the engine block facilitates a stiff mounting of the transmission,
which helps tremendously to minimise vibrations induced into the body.
Ford‟s proven Durashift MTX-75 5-speed manual transmission provides Ford S-MAX
and Galaxy with an effortless and refined shifting character. It features dual-cone
synchronisation of the first, second and third gears, another measure contributing to
reduced shifting forces.
2.3: Duratorq TDCi Diesel Powertrains
All Ford Duratorq common-rail diesel engines fitted to the new Ford S-MAX and Ford
Galaxy minimize emissions and conform to the European Stage IV emission
standards. The technology deployed to achieve these high levels includes a new
combustion system and new fuel injectors.
DURATORQ TDCi 1.8-LITRE DIESEL: The 1.8-litre Duratorq TDCi diesel engine is
available in both the Galaxy and the S-MAX and offers 125 PS (92 kW) at 3,700 rpm
and peak torque of 320 Nm at 1,800 rpm. Ford's transient overboost facility boosts
that torque to a peak of 340 Nm.
This state-of-the-art engine offers strong engine torque performance combined with
low noise levels and excellent fuel economy. 80 per cent of peak torque is available
between 1,400 and 3,500 rpm.
The cylinder head and block are made of precision-cast iron. The noise-attenuating
and strength properties of a cast iron design help keep the noise considerably low at
a level that is regarded as excellent among all comparable modern diesel engines.
Drivers will also have a choice of two proven transmissions as the 1.8-litre TDCi can
be mated with either the Durashift MTX75 5-speed manual or the Durashift MMT6 6-
Combined with the Durashift MMT6 gearbox, this engine provides S-MAX with a top
speed of 190 kph (MTX75: 187 kph), accelerates from zero to 100 kph in 11.4
seconds (MTX75: 11.6) and consumes 6.2 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres in the
combined ECE mode (MTX75: 6.2).
When working together in the Galaxy, the 125-PS power plant and the MMT6
transmission are capable of a top speed of 187 kph (MTX75: 184) and an
acceleration from zero to 100 kph in a swift 11.8 seconds (MTX75: 11.9). Fuel
consumption in the combined ECE mode of 6.3 litres per 100 kilometres is achieved
in both engine-transmission combinations.
Also available for Galaxy only is a 100-PS (74 kW) version of the 1.8-litre Duratorq
TDCi, boasting maximum torque of 280 Nm at 1,800 rpm. Using the Durashift
MTX75 gearbox, this achieves a target maximum speed of 171 kph, acceleration
from 0 to 100 kph in 14.3 seconds, and combined fuel consumption of 6.3 litres per
Ford has further improved its TDCi engine line-up to meet higher performance
standards and Stage IV emission standards. This extends an impressive Duratorq
TDCi legacy, building on current applications in Focus and Focus C-MAX, and
providing new Ford S-MAX and Ford Galaxy with a balance of robust power and
New refinements to the Duratorq TDCi 1.8-litre engine include a new combustion
system and new fuel injectors that feature micro-sac nozzles and piezo actuation
which deliver precise measurements of fuel at high pressure. This ensures efficient
and effective combustion for increased performance and reduced fuel consumption
Power has been increased from 115 to 125 PS, and peak torque from 280 to 320
Nm. A new water jacket design within the cylinder head and a new water pump
provide more efficient cooling to meet increased thermal demands.
DURATORQ TDCi 2.0-LITRE DIESEL: The 2.0-litre Ford Duratorq TDCi diesel
engine, available in both the Galaxy and the S-MAX, offers 140 PS (103 kW) at
4,000 rpm and peak torque of 320 Nm at 1750 rpm. Under normal driving conditions,
Ford‟s advanced transient overboost facility allows even stronger pulling power with
a peak torque of 340 Nm.
There is also a 130 PS version of this 2.0-litre Duratorq TDCi engine available for
selected European markets.
Both engines come with Ford‟s Durashift 6-speed manual transmission as standard,
and both will be offered for certain markets with the new Ford coated Diesel
Particulate Filter (cDPF) system.
With this engine and transmission combination, S-MAX reaches a top speed of 196
kph and Galaxy 193 kph. Galaxy accelerates from zero to 100 kph in 10.5 seconds;
new S-MAX in just 10.2 seconds. For a stretch of 100 kilometres, the cars‟ combined
ECE mode fuel consumption is impressively low with the S-MAX needing just 6.4
litres and Galaxy 6.5 litres.
The 130 PS engine will also be available at a later date with a Durashift AT6 6-speed
The cylinder head is completely made of aluminium, while the block is made of cast-
iron. The strength and noise-attenuating properties of the cast-iron block help to
keep the considerable level of noise produced by the four half-litre cylinders under
Like the smaller 1.8-litre engine, the 2.0-litre unit uses latest generation common-rail
injection technologies to balance and refine the engine's combustion acoustic
characteristics to new, low levels.
Single and twin pilot injections are used, together with split main injections, to
smooth out the combustion process for more progressive and more complete
combustion. This technology simultaneously optimises emissions and acoustic
Up to 1,650 bar of injection pressure is generated, and a dual-mass flywheel helps to
balance idle speed – in the interest of best possible fuel economy – at a low 800 rpm
without any tendency to rattle or vibrate.
Ford‟s engineering efforts to optimise for the best possible fuel economy also include
a low-friction valve train with roller cam followers and hydraulic plunger.
This Duratorq TDCi offers a low level of fuel consumption in real-world driving, giving
S-MAX and Galaxy a strong and dependable cost of ownership equation. Other
engine benefits include:
- Lightweight and low friction offering excellent torque at low engine speeds with
low fuel consumption.
- Meeting and surpassing emissions requirements and availability of a coated
Diesel Particulate Filter (cDPF) system.
Coated Diesel Particulate Filter (cDPF): Ford's optional cDPF system traps
carbon deposits as they exit from the combustion system, preventing their release
into the atmosphere. Under favourable conditions the system then cleans itself with a
controlled 'burn-off' process, thus providing a self-contained clean air system without
the need for service maintenance.
This system contains a ceramic filter body of around 4 litres volume mounted behind
the exhaust manifold plus a special regeneration support unit on the engine's intake
manifold. Together these components enable the filter system to regenerate in any
possible drive condition automatically without requesting any input from the driver
and without compromising driveability noticeably during regeneration.
The advantages of the system are:
Additive systems have an additional additive tank that primes the fuel tank
with the additive (a metallic catalyst) at every refuelling. On the Ford cDPF
the additive is embedded in the filter washcoat, hence no additional complex
priming system is required and no refilling of the tank.
Long life – a „normal‟ additive DPF tank needs refilling after approx 60k km,
whereas the new Ford cDPF has been developed to last at least 200.000km.
SECTION 3: DRIVING QUALITY
New Ford Galaxy and Ford S-MAX deliver acclaimed Ford passenger car
Ford PrecisionDrive will reinforce appeal of driving quality attributes to
New vehicle architecture features greater stiffness and improved NVH
Refined chassis and suspension systems - New Galaxy emphasises comfort;
new S-MAX targets sportiness
New features include Ford's first Interactive Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC)
with Continuously Controlled Damping (CCD) system
Hill Launch Assist also available as part of IVDC
“A first-class suspension system – that was our strategy when we went to work on
the Ford S-MAX and the new Galaxy,” said Andreas Woehler, Vehicle Dynamics
Manager. “We looked at every aspect of both vehicles – how we could improve noise
isolation, road surface interference and overall comfort – basically any element we
thought could enhance the driving experience. We talk about the established Ford
Driving Quality DNA, offering precision ride and handling, steering and overall
vehicle dynamics. This vehicle embodies blends those into an exciting new design.”
Ford has long been known for producing vehicles with excellent driving dynamics.
Both the new Ford S-MAX and Galaxy offer a highly refined chassis and suspension
system. S-MAX is more oriented towards a sports feel, while Galaxy emphasises
comfort, but also features many dynamic driving characteristics that make it a
rewarding driver‟s car.
“We clearly defined how S-MAX and Galaxy should be distinct and distinguishable
from each other so that customers will know exactly what to expect,” says Woehler.
Galaxy and S-MAX driving quality attributes will be packaged as Ford
PrecisionDrive to firmly establish Ford's leadership credentials in customer minds.
3.2: New Interactive Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) with Continuously
Controlled Damping (CCD)
Ford has chosen to debut its optional Interactive Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC)
active suspension system with Continuously Controlled Damping (CCD) on the all-
new Ford S-MAX and Ford Galaxy models. IVDC also includes Hill Launch Assist
Continuously Controlled Damping is an adaptive damper system that controls the
pitch and roll of the vehicle by continually monitoring and adjusting the damper rate
every two tenths of a second.
Customers can choose their preferred ride quality from three ride settings – Sport,
Normal or Comfort. IVDC monitors the road and vehicle behaviour and, depending
on conditions, will automatically adjust to Sport mode to prevent body roll and
It also means that on even road surfaces, new Galaxy and S-MAX progress using
low levels of damping force for excellent driving comfort. If, however, the vehicle
encounters a pitching road surface, the system immediately stiffens for optimal body
control. All this happens automatically, and changes are barely noticed by the driver.
This active suspension system makes particular sense for larger vehicles like Ford
S-MAX and Galaxy, where the relation of payload to maximum kerb weight is
relatively high. It enhances dynamic stability, particularly under critical driving
situations, and avoids excessive ESP system intervention. The system ensures the
vehicle avoids excessive body movement and also reacts well to dramatic lateral
movements. Additionally, the input of road vibrations to the driver is reduced to
provide a more comfortable ride overall.
When IVDC is specified, Hill Launch Assist (HLA) is also provided. This uses the
braking system to prevent the car from rolling backwards when starting to drive up a
In summary, IVDC with CCD and HLA enhances comfort and safety through
improved levels of handling and stability, and shorter braking distances
3.3: The evolution of a Ford tradition: MacPherson at its most refined
Ford has opted for the trusted MacPherson front suspension system for both models,
focusing on precision and package.
A design honed by Ford since the 1950s, the MacPherson strut system has been
continually improved from generation to generation. The suspension subframe is
extremely rigid and wide, sitting in isolating rubber mounts for enhanced ride
The system also supplies several other benefits to enhance driving dynamics for new
Ford S-MAX and Ford Galaxy:
o Isolated Subframes – Used on both front and rear suspension, these body-
mounted subframes are critical to NVH performance while enhancing
steering and suspension system performance.
o Control Arm Hydro Bushings - The control arm‟s soft hydro-bushing and
stiff rubber bush are designed in such a way that high lateral stiffness for
steering precision and fine-tuned longitudinal compliance for minimal
impact harshness is achieved.
o S-shaped springs and dual path strut mounts – The springs enable
complete lateral force compensation in the dampers despite the minimal
package space they require. With this design, ride comfort is clearly
enhanced due to the elimination of friction in the suspension system. The
inclination of the top mount against the damper axis enhances the ride and
handling and supports the side load compensation, thus reducing friction.
With the use of dual path strut mounts, spring and damper isolation can be
tuned independently, resulting in optimal absorption of road inputs.
3.4: Six steps to S-MAX and Galaxy vehicle dynamics
Achieving passenger car-like driving characteristics in larger, spacious vehicles like
the new Ford S-MAX and Galaxy required special attention to the suspension and
steering system. The major modifications in comparison to the original Galaxy are:
Wider Track - The front track (1,589mm) is 59mm wider than the current Galaxy and
the rear track (1,605mm) is 81mm wider.
New front suspension design - When addressing the elementary needs for both new
front suspensions of the Ford S-MAX and Galaxy, it was necessary to achieve high
lateral and camber stiffness and, at the same time, fine-tuned longitudinal
compliance to absorb bumps. Also required were intelligently controlled toe changes
in case of lateral and longitudinal forces for predictable handling.
Ford engineers also took a repeated component-by-component approach to lower
steering friction and compliance for optimal system performance and best steering
and handling control.
The lower control arm uses hydro-bushings at the rear for efficient disturbance
rejection, resulting in clearly enhanced rolling comfort. The arm allows the necessary
aft movement of the wheels (to absorb bumps) whilst being extremely stiff in a lateral
direction (for handling precision).
New rear suspension design – A proven multi-link design has been chosen for the
rear suspension of the new Ford Galaxy and Ford S-MAX. It utilises a subframe
mounting system featuring rubber bushings. This suspension concept is already
familiar in the Ford Focus 'Control Blade' system. This acclaimed design uses four
links to control each wheel precisely.
In Ford S-MAX and Galaxy, the system is optimised for low road noise thanks to the
design of the bushes. The design of the linkage ensures that the lateral stiffness of
the original system is retained.
Much like the front suspension, several rear suspension targets were set to achieve
a highly robust chassis for S-MAX and Galaxy. The targets included high lateral and
camber stiffness for precise handling quality, and high longitudinal compliance to
absorb road irregularities. Predictable handling was achieved by intensively tuned
elasto-kinematic characteristics of the suspension.
Isolated Subframe – Used for mounting the suspension system, the isolated rear
subframe is one of several measures aimed at isolating noise and vibration from the
Handling character – Producing a fun-to-drive large family vehicle required special
attention to the tuning of the suspension and steering systems in order to achieve
enhanced stability with a taller vehicle. A wider track and bush attachment base
combine to provide resistance to roll movements.
Steering System - The new S-MAX and Galaxy feature a rack-and-pinion steering
system with hydraulic power assistance, which provides the best possible steering
feedback of all systems. The system was developed for optimal stiffness and
reduced friction. With a new variable-displacement pump, the system became more
fuel-efficient and less complex – because the system creates less heat, the cooling
feature could easily be deleted.
The result is a steering system that is characterised by its ease and precision - a
major factor contributing to overall driving quality by helping to reduce fatigue and
Electro-Hydraulic Power Assisted Steering (EHPAS) is available with the 2.0-litre
Duratorq TDCi diesel engine and will make both vehicles among the best handling
cars available in their market segments. The EHPAS system can easily determine
individual driving situations like country road cruising or parking – and it can
automatically apply the precise dose of hydraulic support to the steering system. At
rising speed, less steering assistance is needed and EHPAS will automatically stiffen
the steering for better steering feedback and road contact.
The EHPAS system, which powers the rack-and-pinion steering‟s hydraulic pump
with an electrical pump motor, considers signals not only from the speed sensors,
like traditional hydraulic systems, but also from the steering wheel‟s rate of speed.
Engineers tuned the effects on steering feel of tiny changes to the shape and
function of the valves inside the variable displacement pump and steering gear. This
gives S-MAX and Galaxy their precise and intuitive steering performance at any
New architecture for agility and low NVH
The newly developed vehicle architecture used for both the new Ford S-MAX and
Galaxy is a direct result of Ford Motor Company's Global Shared Technologies
initiative. Having started this process with the latest C-segment products sharing
technologies between Ford of Europe, Volvo and Mazda, the approach has evolved
for a new generation of C/D segment products. New Ford Galaxy and New Ford S-
MAX are the first examples.
A key element of this process is the development of higher body torsion rigidity due
to optimal geometry. This in itself is the solid foundation for the vehicles‟ dynamic
Ford engineers used a strongly refined MacPherson type front suspension with wider
subframe, similar to the one in Mondeo, for the front suspension, and a control blade
controlled independent rear suspension with double A-arm design similar to that of
the Focus and Focus C-MAX.
Larger suspension bushings were also placed farther apart, lowering forces on the
body and momentum on the unsprung weight. The rear suspension separates
mounting bushes from the body panels and uses an isolated subframe to improve
road noise isolation.
The overall NVH levels (noise, vibration, harshness) were therefore reduced
significantly to some of the lowest levels available today. Reduced sound levels from
road noise, wind noise and powertrain noise add to the interior ambience.
Ford engineers took several steps to ensure a relaxed driving atmosphere. Audible
road noise, for example, was reduced by applying soundproofing material in the
wheelhouses. Also, a major reduction of wind noise was achieved by detailed
streamlining of the body design and fine-tuning the door structure.
Both Ford S-MAX and the new Galaxy have spent many thousands of hours in the
wind tunnel for aerodynamic improvement to every design detail. Carefully
controlling the airflow by letting it stream smoothly is achieved by a flush, almost
seamless integration of the windscreen and side windows. Improved seals, the
positioning of the wipers and the aerodynamic design of the outside mirrors also
greatly contribute to reducing wind noise.
SECTION 4: PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL
New Ford S-MAX and Galaxy augment existing Mondeo production at
Genk plant in Belgium
Assembly Plant with a 40-year tradition is first to produce vehicles
featuring Ford‟s 'kinetic design' form language
Advanced use of Computer Aided Manufacturing
Experienced, motivated, and international workforce with high level of
Implementation of additional audits for even higher product quality
Ford sustainability strategy includes environmentally sound production
4.1: Ford Genk gears up to deliver new S-MAX and Galaxy
Among the successful models that have rolled off the lines at the Ford production
site located near the Belgian city of Genk were Taunus (Cortina), Transit, Sierra and
Escort. It has also been the home of the Ford Mondeo since its original launch in
Since the start of production in Genk in 1964, 12.6 million vehicles have been built
on the site. Today, the total site area comprises 137 hectares, of which there are 57
hectares of floor space. A 21-kilometre railway network and 10 kilometres of roads
interconnect the plant‟s various production facilities with the public train and highway
Located to the site‟s north and south are two supplier parks. A 900-metre conveyor
belt forms a vital link between the suppliers and the Ford manufacturing lines. It
provides just-in-sequence delivery of parts.
Ford undertook several important steps to integrate a second body line for the
addition of new S-MAX and Galaxy to the existing product line-up at the Genk
Before initial steps were taken to build prototypes, the successful use of Ford‟s
special C3P Virtual Series System had been increased.
The C3P system uses an integrated computer based toolset for modelling and
information management. C3P, now an essential part of FPDS, Ford‟s computer
based product development system, is an integration of design and analysis tools
within a single collaborative environment. The term „C3P‟ is derived from four key
– CAD - Computer-Aided Design
– CAM - Computer-Aided Manufacturing
– CAE - Computer-Aided Engineering
– PIM - Product Information Management.
This bundle of technologies allows engineers to address design and packaging
issues as well as cross-carline interfaces with computer-generated models.
Another enormous benefit from C3P Virtual Series is that by replacing the physical
prototypes with the digital mock-ups, time to market and development costs are
“With this Virtual Series technology, we are reducing the number of issues we may
face designing a vehicle before we even do the actual physical design,” said John
Scholfield, Manager C3P Methods. “By use of the Ford C3P system, we use several
elements of computer design technology to assist in the tooling and manufacturing
processes. It gives us a level of clarity early in the design process that we did not
have before. We think it offers Ford a great advantage to bring design to reality far
more quickly than in the past”.
Special training and audits for increased quality standards: Special attention
has been given to training the motivated and well educated workforce at Genk.
During initial manufacturing of an increased number of prototypes, production
coaches trained workers in every area of the process. While overseeing the
implementation of production, the coaches also helped to establish the best
ergonomic situations at every workstation. Both coaches and line workers
successfully developed solutions for concerns as early as possible in order to deliver
even higher product quality.
During the initial stages of production – a phase called "Plateau Launch" – Variability
Reduction Teams work together with product engineers to refine processes and
facilitate smooth, high-quality manufacturing. Only when the output complies with
Ford‟s raised quality standards will production volumes be raised to full level.
During production, the Ford Customer Product Audit FCPA is constantly active. A
“run card” is attached to each vehicle on the plant‟s four trim lines. Each single step
of manufacturing has to be signed off by the respective worker. The vehicle and the
run card are then checked afterwards by a line inspector. Final product quality will be
thoroughly checked by Genk‟s internal Customer Care Centre. Additionally, every
vehicle‟s interior NVH behaviour will be tested on an indoor test track.
Ford Genk Assembly Plant Key Facts:
Name of plant Genk Assembly Plant
Location Genk, Belgium
Current Ford product line-up Mondeo, S-MAX, Galaxy
Product history Taunus, Transit, Escort, Sierra,
Start of production January 1964
Cumulative production 1964-2005 12.6 million units
Capacity per annum 270,000 units
Number of employees 5,006 (as of Dec. 31, 2005)
Employee diversity Belgian, Turkish, Italian, Spanish
Site area, floor space 137 hectares, 57 hectares
Number of supplier companies in park 10
4.2: Environmental concern as an integral part of the business
For Ford, responsibility for the environment has been a key part of the company's
business case since Henry Ford started to build cars more than 100 years ago. The
company‟s founder, for example, recycled wooden delivery crates into running
boards and turned scrap wood into charcoal.
These early initiatives led to the development and integration of a sustainability
management system that takes into account all production operations. Ford Motor
Company is committed to socially and environmentally responsible behaviour and
today is taking a leading role within the automotive industry in addressing these
issues. As a result, Ford aims to minimise the environmental effects of its plants and
its vehicles during their entire lifecycle and to develop mobility solutions to meet the
expectations of current and future generations.
Allergy-tested vehicle interior: Ford leads the industry in providing car interiors
that are certified as allergy friendly. The first cars worldwide to receive the “Allergy-
Tested Interior” seal of approval were Ford Focus and Focus C-MAX. The renowned
German TÜV Rhineland Group, an independent testing and assessment
organisation, tested and certified both cars in 2005. This certification has been
confirmed by the British Allergy Foundation.
For TÜV certification, production vehicles are subjected to an extensive analysis,
including testing of the passenger compartment‟s air quality for the concentration of
organic substances, such as formaldehyde, phenols, phthalates and solvents. Ford
aims to continuously expand this initiative, and the new Ford Galaxy and S-MAX are
currently being tested according to stringent TÜV criteria. An announcement of the
result is expected later in 2006.
Legislation requires plastics and elastomers to be marked and substance restrictions
to be adhered to. Both S-MAX and Galaxy follow all these regulatory requirements.
In 1984 – on a voluntary basis ahead and beyond of any regulatory requirements –
Ford developed and introduced a „Restricted Substance Management Standard‟ to
determine which substances should be avoided, eliminated or phased out in both its
products and manufacturing plants. Ford‟s extensive substance management
process allows testing both vehicles for allergy friendliness.
Recycling: Ford was the first automotive company to issue worldwide vehicle design
recycling guidelines to engineers and suppliers in 1993. One result, for example, is
that 308 parts across Ford‟s European vehicle range are now made with recycled
non-metallic materials. This helped to divert approximately 18,300 tons of waste from
landfills in 2004 alone. Regarding material from renewable and sustainable sources,
16,400 tons were used in 267 different Ford vehicle parts in Europe at the end of
Recyclable and renewable materials in new S-MAX and Galaxy: Ford‟s
European Recycling Teams have been very successful at implementing the
extensive use of recycled and renewable materials in the new models produced at
Genk. For instance, door panel inserts and other insulation materials consist of
renewable materials, such as wood, kenaf and cotton. More than 30 different
components of the S-MAX and Galaxy are made with recycled plastic materials,
ranging from instrument panel parts, air filter housing, air deflectors, fan and shroud,
wheel arch liners and battery cover. Recycled plastic is also utilised for insulation
and sound deadening. The materials – predominantly grades of recycled
polypropylene and polyamide – do not compromise vehicle performance or quality.
Weight: An important factor for Ford in material selection is weight. Saving weight
improves fuel economy. In parallel to achievements in weight reduction through
integration and design optimisation, improvements have also been achieved through
material and process changes. For example, changing the material used in the
underbody coating helped to save 1.8 kilograms of the total weight from each
vehicle. This in return results in an increased environmental friendliness due to lower
fuel consumption and lower emissions.
Environmentally sound production: As an industry leader in its commitment to
environmentally sound production, Ford in 1998 became the first automotive
company to certify all its manufacturing plants worldwide under ISO 14001.
Additionally, Ford asked its suppliers to follow the good example, resulting in more
than 80 per cent of the major suppliers being certified.
Ford business units agreed to a five-year programme of efficiency improvements.
Since 2000, Ford facilities, including Genk, have accordingly reduced their energy
use by 18 per cent and cut CO2 emissions by more than 15 per cent.
Water usage has been globally reduced by nearly 19 billion cubic metres. Also, Ford
introduced a Total Waste Management in 1995 at all of its plants. Currently, 90 per
cent of all packaging in use is returnable, and all facilities seek to increase that
Another issue the Ford environmental programme addresses is the reduction of
volatile organic compounds (VOC). These compounds are emitted from
manufacturing facilities, including painting operations.
A significant step towards VOC reduction at Ford Genk has been taken with the
production start of new S-MAX and Galaxy. By raising the paint shop‟s level of
automation, Ford has achieved an increase in efficiency and a decrease in
emissions. The use of paint with a higher portion of solid content (and therefore
fewer solvent agents) helps in cutting VOC emissions further.
Advanced sustainability assessment: From the very start of their development,
Ford S-MAX and the new Galaxy have piloted the Ford Product Sustainability Index
(PSI). The PSI is currently applied by engineering management for internal purposes
to track and encourage progress towards environmental, social and consumer
economic objectives into the Ford product development process.
PSI considers the whole product life cycle from raw material construction through to
production and vehicle operation through to the end-of-life operations. The reflected
indicators include life cycle global warming, life cycle air quality, use of sustainable
material, restricted substances (including allergy-tested interior) and drive-by exterior
noise as well as social and economic aspects, which include pedestrian and
occupant safety, mobility capability, life cycle cost / cost-of-ownership. Using the PSI,
Ford can target continuous improvement from one vehicle generation to the next.