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					Fennell, M (1999) Overcoming Low Self-esteem: A self-help guide using cognitive




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             178
Index

A                                              Burnard, Philip 45, 49, 71
abuse, elderly people 125–6                    busyness 57, 58
ACCESS model, transcultural nursing 154          and healthy relating 41
acculturation 146–7
Action on Elder Abuse 126                      C
ageism 162–3                                   Career Framework, NHS 119–20, 121–2
aggressive behaviour 95–6                      caring 14–16
alternative medicine 164–5, 166                   transpersonal theory of 15, 23, 71, 72
Andersen, Susan 48                             Charlton, Cody 9, 13
Anderson, Nancy 153                            Cioffi, Jane 153
anger 90, 95–6, 99                             circular framework, communication 26–7
anxiety 90                                     class see socio-economic diversity
   and task-orientation 40, 41, 57             closure, CIPS framework 21–2
Arnold, Elizabeth 77, 80, 95, 96–7             Code of Professional Conduct (NMC) 62,
assertiveness 45, 96–7                               164
assessment                                     cognition see social cognition
   CIPS framework 17–19                        cognitive psychotherapy see psychotherapy
   portfolios 111–12                                 models of CIPS; schemas
   skilled performance 113–14                  cognitive stores/misers 66, 67
association, friendship 81                     colonialism 142
asylum seekers 143, 144                        communication 8–9, 168
attachment, healthy/unhealthy 33–4                barriers to 92–7
attunement, emotional 25                          circular/linear frameworks 26–9
   see also empathy                               definitions 11–12, 26
Augoustinous, Martha 41                           ethical/moral dimensions 164–6
                                                  relationship with interpersonal skills 13–14
B                                                 spontaneous versus learned 56–7
‘baby talk’, and the elderly 130–1, 162        community nursing 25, 29
Bach, Shirley 15, 16, 80                       Compassionate Mind Foundation 43
Balzer-Riley, Julia 26                         concepts 12
Banister, Peter 45                             confidentiality 18–19, 86
Baron-Cohen, Simon 36–7                        conflict 95–9
Bateson, Gregory 26–7, 62                      contextual factors 53, 59
behaviour, and social rules 87–9                  and empathy 54–6
Bendall, Eve 102–3                                and evidence-based CIPS 45–7
Benner, Patricia 15, 24–5                         see also environments
Bennett, Rocky 135                             continuing professional development (CPD)
biomedical model 164–5, 168                          see lifelong learning
biomedical/-psychosocial communication         contract workers 143
     styles 13                                 control 168
blip culture 58, 168                              and suffering 32–3
body language 54, 62, 115                      core beliefs see schemas
Boggs, Kathleen Underman 77, 80, 95, 96–7      counselling/psychotherapy models of CIPS
Bowlby, John 33                                      29–30, 44, 47–54, 58
Broadbent, Marc 69                                fallacy of individualism 125, 137–8
Brown, Brian 46, 58                            countercultures 134, 168
Buber, Martin, I–It/I–Thou theory 34–5, 138,   Cowles, Kathleen 32–3
     153                                       CPD see lifelong learning


                                                                                                 179
Index


              credibility 118                                     Douglas, Jenny 155                               1
              cultural competence/awareness 152–3                 dress codes 129–30                               2
              cultural diversity see diversity                                                                     3
              cultural negotiation/accommodation 148–9            E
                                                                                                                   4
              cultural preservation 148                           Egan, Gerard 73
              cultural relativism 147, 168                        elderly people                                   5
              cultural repatterning/restructuring 149–51             ageism 162–3                                  6
              culture 129, 141, 168                                  and ‘baby talk’ 130–1, 162                    7
                 counter-/subcultures 134, 168                       elder abuse 125–6, 127                        8
                 cultural beliefs 132                                nursing home design 127                       9
                 definitions 145–8                                emic/etic characteristics 146                    10
                 and friendships 81                               emotional attunement 25
                                                                                                                   1
                 Sapir–Whorf hypothesis 132–4                        see also empathy
              cultures, organisational 39–40, 59                  emotions 76, 89–92
                                                                                                                   2
                 blip culture 58, 168                                over-involvement 79–80                        3
                 defence mechanisms 40, 135–6                     empathy 37–8, 53–6, 59, 168                      4
                 and evidence-based CIPS 58                       engagement, rules of 86–9                        5
                 fallacy of individualism 125, 137–8              environments 127–8                               6
                 and healthy relating 38–41                          external/internal 39                          7
                 medical versus patient 68                           see also cultures, organisational; social     8
                 task- versus person-orientation 40, 41, 57,             environments
                                                                                                                   9
                    58, 138                                       EPP see Expert Patients Programme
                                                                  Essence of Care 10                               20
              D                                                   Essential Skills Clusters (NMC) 7, 10–11         1
              Dai, David 89–90                                    ethics, communication 164–6                      2
              decision making                                     ethnicity 129, 168, 147                          3
                 CIPS framework 20–1                                 see also immigration; institutional racism;   4
                 patients 73                                             multiculturalism                          5
              defence mechanisms, organisations 40,               ethnocentricity 147, 168
                                                                                                                   6
                   135–6                                          ethnocentrism 137, 151–2, 168
              dehumanisation 162, 163                             eudaemonistic model 94, 168                      7
              deliberative social thinking 64–6, 67               European Union (EU) 9, 142                       8
              denial, organisations 136                           evaluation, CIPS framework 21                    9
              Department of Health (DH) 9, 119                    evidence-based CIPS 30–1, 32, 44–59, 60          30
                 Dignity in Care Campaign/Essence of Care            contextual factors 45–7                       1
                   10                                                and empathy 53–6                              2
                 Expert Patients Programme (EPP) 73–4                first-/second-level communication 56–7
                                                                                                                   3
              descriptors see level descriptors, qualifications      historical development 45
              DeVito, Joseph 70, 80, 85                              and organisational cultures 58
                                                                                                                   4
              Dickson, David, Hargie-Dickson model 47,               principles 58–9                               5
                   83–4, 127                                         see also counselling/psychotherapy            6
              Dignity in Care Campaign 10                                models of CIPS                            7
              disability 10, 163                                  evidence-based practice 31, 53, 102, 103,        8
              discrimination 147, 155, 168                               168                                       9
              disgust 38, 54, 90                                  expectancy violation theory 83                   40
              displacement, organisations 136                     experiential learning 45–7, 100, 104–8,
                                                                                                                   1
              diversity 38, 141–2                                        168
                 cultural diversity 148–51                        Expert Patients Programme (EPP) 73–4             2
                 definitions 145–8                                                                                 3
                 ethical/moral dimensions 164–6                   F                                                4
                 immigration/migration 141, 143–5, 169            facial expressions 38, 54, 115                   5
                 multiculturalism 146, 151–6, 160                 fact versus opinion 19                           6
                 social diversity 156–63                          fear 90                                          7111


        180
feedback 114–15                                Honey, Peter, learning styles inventory 112,




                                                                                                     Index
feeling                                             123
    experiential learning 104                  Howard, Alex 49
    see also emotions                          humanistic approach 48–50, 58, 125, 169
feminism 161                                     fallacy of individualism 125, 137–8
first-level (spontaneous) communication
       56–7                                    I
Fiske, Susan 50                                iceberg model, cultural factors 148, 149
framework for CIPS 17                          idealisation, organisations 136
    assessment 17–19                           identities and roles 69–70
    decision making 20–1                       I–It/I–Thou theory 34–5, 138, 153
    ending and closure 21–2                    immigration 141, 143–5, 169
    planning 19–20                             individualism 49, 169
    review and evaluation 21                      fallacy of 125, 137–8
frameworks, communication 26–9                 infantilisation/baby talk, elderly people
friendships 77–80                                    130–1, 162
    professional friends 80–1, 169             information
Fry, Roger, experiential learning theory 104      gathering 17–19
                                                  interpretation/clarity of 62–4, 93–4, 116,
G                                                    117–18
gaze 88                                           processing 62–4, 104
gender diversity 160–2                            see also social thinking
Gerrish, Kate 153                              institutional racism 125, 134–6, 152
Gestalt theory 103, 168                        instructions, clarity of 116–17, 118
Goffman, Erving 88–9                           interpersonal skills
Greenberg, Leslie 37–8, 54                        definitions 12, 169
grief 90                                          relationship with communication
   see also loss; suffering                          13–14
                                               interpretation of information 62–4, 93–4,
H                                                    116, 117–18
Hall, Edward 82                                   see also social thinking
Hamilton, Janet 130                            intimacy, degrees of 82
happiness 89                                      nurse–patient relationships 71
Hargie, Owen, Hargie-Dickson model 47,            proxemics 82–3, 88
      83–4, 127                                   self-disclosure 83–6
Hartrick, Gwen 15                              invisible/unseen care 15–16
health promotion model 94, 99
healthy relating 32, 33, 169                   J
   and attachment 33–4                         Jack, Kirsten 112
   empathy 37–8, 53–6, 59, 168                 jargon 19
   I–It/I–Thou theory 34–5, 138, 153           Jones, Aled 13
   and organisational cultures 38–41
   theory of mind 36–7, 170                    K
helping relationships 72–3, 75                 Kagan, Carolyn 45, 52
Henderson, IW 72                               Kohut, Heinz 54
Hendricks, Jon and C Davis 127                 Kolb, David
Henley, Alix 146                                 experiential learning theory 104
hierarchies, professional 20                     learning styles inventory 112, 123
hierarchy of needs 94
higher education (HE), level descriptors       L
      108–11, 169                              language 8
Hofstede, Geert 146                               Sapir–Whorf hypothesis 132–4
homosexuality 161–2                            language barrier 148, 155



                                                                                               181
Index


              Lauder, William 54                            multidisciplinary teams 125–7                   1
              learned communication 56–7                    Mumford, Alan, learning styles inventory 112,   2
              learning disabilities 10                           123                                        3
              learning
                                                                                                            4
                  assessment 111–12, 113–14                 N
                  experiential 45–7, 100, 104–8, 168        Narayanasamy, Aru 132, 135, 151, 154            5
                  integrating theory and practice 30–1,     National Health Service (NHS) 151–2             6
                      101–2                                   Career Framework 119–20, 121–2                7
                  learning for reality 102–3                  Modernisation Agency 9                        8
                  level descriptors 108–11, 169             National Statistics Socio-economic              9
                  lifelong 45, 100, 101, 118–22                  Classification (NS-SEC) 158–9              10
                  students’ teaching skills 114–18          1984 (Orwell) 133
                                                                                                            1
              learning styles inventories 112–13, 123       non-judgementalism 49–52
              Leininger, Madeleine 14, 23, 145, 150           see also social thinking
                                                                                                            2
              Leitch review of skills 121                   non-verbal communication 38, 54, 62, 115        3
              level descriptors, qualifications 108–11,     nurse-focused communication 56–7, 169           4
                      169                                   Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC)             5
              lifelong learning 45, 100, 101, 118–22          Code of Professional Conduct 62, 164          6
              Lindeman, Eduard 118–19                         Essential Skills Clusters 7, 10–11            7
              linear framework, communication 26–7            Standards of Proficiency 4–7, 24, 30, 33,     8
              linguistic determinism/relativity 133              38, 102, 109, 118
                                                                                                            9
              listening skills 115                          nursing homes 125–6, 127
              literature searching 13                       Nussbaum, Jon 127                               20
              loss 32–3, 169                                                                                1
              Lovering, Sandy 153                           O                                               2
                                                            objects, precious/unwanted/useless 34–5         3
              M                                             organisations see cultures, organisational      4
              Maben, Jill 102                               Orwell, George, 1984 133                        5
              McCabe, Catherine 53                          over-involvement 79–80
                                                                                                            6
              MacLeod Clark, Jill 45
              McMahon, Richard 72                           P                                               7
              Macpherson Report (1999) 135                  Padesky, Christine 131–2                        8
              marginalisation 162, 163                      pain, cultural attitudes to 153                 9
              Maslow, Abraham, hierarchy of needs 94        Parfitt, Barbara 151–2                          30
              meaning, experiential learning 105            patient-centred communication 56–7              1
              meaning/interpretation of information 62–4,   Pender, Nola, health promotion model 94, 99     2
                   93–4, 116, 117–18                        personal space 82–3, 88
                                                                                                            3
              Melia, Kath 87                                person-centred/oriented care 9, 10, 13, 40,
              mental health nursing 10, 47–8                      47
                                                                                                            4
              Menzies Lyth, Isabel 40, 57                   person-situation context 47, 127                5
              metacognitive practice 52, 58–9, 169          Petrie, Pat 26                                  6
              migration 141, 143–5, 169                     Pevalin, David 157–9                            7
              Miranda, Regina 48                            phatic conversations 71                         8
              misunderstandings 95                          planning, CIPS framework 19–20                  9
              Moon, Jenny 111                               Plato 119                                       40
              moral practice 32, 169                        Polish migrants 144
                                                                                                            1
              moral principles, communication 164–6         population see diversity
              Morgan, Gareth 40, 135                        portfolios, assessment 111–12                   2
              Morse, Janice 14, 56                          power dynamics, nurse–patient 18                3
              motivation, health promotion model 94         prejudice 41, 125, 152, 155–6, 169              4
              Muir Gray, Sir JA 31                             schemas as self-prejudice 131–4              5
              multiculturalism 146, 151–6, 160                 stereotyping 9, 51–2, 161                    6
                see also diversity                          privacy see confidentiality; proxemics          7111


        182
professional friends 80–1, 169                    Rogers, Carl 47, 53, 55




                                                                                                          Index
professional hierarchies 20                          Rogerian principles 47, 49, 58, 137, 169
professional migrants 143                         roles and identities 69–70
professional relationships 71, 77–81, 169         Rose, David 157–9
professionalism 117                               Ruesch, Jurgen 26
proxemics 82–3, 88                                Ryan, Ellen 130
psychological care 15–16
psychology, healthy relating 36–7                 S
psychotherapy see counselling/psychotherapy       sadness 90
     models of CIPS                                  see also loss; suffering
                                                  safety 62–4, 124
Q                                                 Sapir, Edward, Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
qualifications framework 108–11                          132–4
Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) 108–9,             Sawley, Linda 152
     123                                          schemas 50–1, 55, 125, 170
quantitative/qualitative research 32                 as self-prejudice 131–4
                                                  Schott, Judith 146
R                                                 Scott, Brian 55
race see immigration; multiculturalism            SCT see self-categorisation theory
racism, institutional 125, 134–6, 152             second-level (learned) communication
Radsma, Jenny 15                                         56–7
rationalisation 40, 136, 169                      SEEC 109
realist view of organisations 39                  self 52
recency, social thinking 66–7                        types of 83–4
reciprocity/receptivity, friendship 81            self-awareness 52–3, 154, 170
Rees, Charlotte 113                               self-categorisation theory (SCT) 129, 134
reflection 108, 112–13                            self-disclosure 83–6
reflective writing 112, 169                       self-esteem 35, 57, 170
refugees 143                                      self-generating thoughts 67–8
regression, organisations 136                     self-prejudice, schemas as 131–4
relational caring 15                              sense-making activities 113
relationship formation                            sensitivity, and suffering 32
   helping relationships 72–3, 75                 settlers 143
   six-stage model 70–2                           sexual abuse, elderly people 125–6
   skilled helper model 73                        sexual orientation 161–2
relationships                                     Sheard, Charlotte 113
   barriers to 92–7                               significant others 48
   and emotions 76, 89–92                         SIT see social identity theory
   I–It/I–Thou 34–5, 138, 153                     six-stage model, relationship formation
   over-involvement 79–80                                70–2
   professional/social 71, 77–81, 169,            skilled helper model, relationship formation
      170                                                73
   rules of engagement 86–9                       skills, importance of 121–2
   safe 62–4                                      Skills for Health Career Framework 119–20,
   see also healthy relating; intimacy, degrees          121–1, 123
      of; therapeutic relationships               Smith, Anne 112
repression, organisations 136                     Smith, Carol 94
research see evidence-based CIPS                  social cognition 50, 55, 60
respect 37                                           social thinking 61, 64, 64–8, 170
review, CIPS framework 21                         Social Cognition Paper Archive and
Reynolds, William 55, 56                                 Information Center 60
Robb, Martin 155                                  social constructionist view of organisations 39
Rodgers, Beth 32–3                                social-environment theory 127



                                                                                                    183
Index


              social environments 129                       theory of mind 36–7, 170                       1
                 fallacy of individualism 125, 137–8           see also empathy                            2
                 institutional racism 125, 134–6, 152       therapeutic relationships 13, 15, 72–3,        3
                 shifting networks 134                            170
                                                                                                           4
                 young and older persons 129–31                counselling/psychotherapy versus nursing
                 see also prejudice; schemas                      29–30                                    5
              social identity theory (SIT) 129, 134         Timmins, Fiona 53                              6
              social location, assessment 18                transactional framework, communication         7
              social relationships 71, 77–81, 170                 26–7                                     8
              social rules 86–9, 170                        transcultural nursing 23, 125, 154–6,          9
              social skills 45                                    170                                      10
              social thinking 61, 64, 64–8, 170             transference 48
                                                                                                           1
              socio-economic diversity 156–60               transpersonal theory 15, 23, 71, 72
              Southern England Consortium for Credit        trust 37
                                                                                                           2
                    Accumulation and Transfer (SEEC) 109                                                   3
              splitting, organisations 136                  U                                              4
              spontaneous (first-level) communication       unhealthy relating 33, 170                     5
                    56–7                                    unseen/invisible care 15–16                    6
              spontaneous social thinking 64–5                                                             7
                 self-generating thoughts 67–8              V                                              8
              Srull, Thomas 65                              ‘Vicky Pollards’, nurses as 130, 131
                                                                                                           9
              Standards of Proficiency (NMC) 4–7, 24, 30,
                    33, 38, 102, 109, 118                   W                                              20
              stereotyping 9, 51–2, 161                     Watson, Jean, transpersonal theory of caring   1
              Sternberg, Robert 89–90                            15, 23, 71, 72                            2
              subcultures 134                               welfare state 160                              3
              suffering 32, 32–3, 170                       White, Ethelrene 132, 135, 151                 4
              systems model, communication 27               Whorf, Benjamin, Sapir–Whorf hypothesis        5
                                                                 132–4
                                                                                                           6
              T                                             work settings
              task-oriented cultures 40, 41, 57, 58, 138      physical design 127–8                        7
              task-/relationship-oriented information 118     see also cultures, organisational            8
              Taylor, Shelley 50                            workshops 45–6                                 9
              teaching skills, students 114–18              World Health Organization (WHO) 9              30
              Teekman, Bert 113                             Wyer, Robert 65                                1
              theory                                                                                       2
                 integrating with practice 30–1, 101–2      Y
                                                                                                           3
                 theory–practice gap 102–3                  Yeaxlee, Basil 118–19
                                                                                                           4
                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                           6
                                                                                                           7
                                                                                                           8
                                                                                                           9
                                                                                                           40
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                                                                                                           2
                                                                                                           3
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                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                           6
                                                                                                           7111


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