Do you think you would like to
work in a factory producing
goods? Why? Why Not?
In the United States and France, political revolutions brought
in new governments. A different type of revolution now
transformed the way people did work. The Industrial Revolution
refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods
that began in England during the 18th century. Before the
Industrial Revolution, people wove textiles by hand. Beginning in
the mid 1700s, machines did this and other jobs as well. The
Industrial Revolution started in England and soon spread to
Continental Europe and North America.
Improvements in farming methods in the 1700s boost crop
Many small farmer lost their land, move to the city, and
become urban workers.
Britain possesses ideal conditions for the growth of industry.
Key inventions revolutionize industry during the 1700s and
The textile industry is the first to benefit, with the
inventions of machines to produce cotton cloth.
Transportation expands with the invention of the steam
engine and the construction of canals, roads, and railroads.
Among the first who experimented in the
early 1700s was the gentleman-farmer
Jethro Tull. Concerned with the wasteful
practice of scattering seeds by hand over a
wide area, Tull invented a seed drill, which
made it possible to plant seeds in the soil in
regular rows. Tull also developed a horse-
drawn hoe that could uproot weeds between
rows and it could also break up the soil- all
proved to produce positive results and
higher crop yields.
England’s cotton came from plantations in the
American South in the 1790s. Removing seeds
from the raw cotton by hand was hard work.
In 1793, an American inventor named Eli
Whitney invented a machine to speed the
chore. His cotton gin multiplied the amount of
cotton that could be cleaned. American cotton
production skyrocketed from 1.5 million pounds
in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810.
James Watt’s steam engine could pump water
from mines three times as earlier versions.
Steam engines were fired by coal, thus they
did not need to be located near rivers. This
led to an increase in cotton production. In
1760 Britain imported 2.5 million pounds of raw
cotton by the 1780s they imported nearly 22
The invention of the flying shuttle
made spinning on a loom easier, but
the spinning jenny, invented in 1768 by
James Hargreaves, allowed spinners to
create yarn in greater quantities.
Began in the 1780s in Great
Britain; stemmed from the
The growing demands of cotton
clothes in Britain and the vast
colonial empire led to
manufactures seeking new ways
to increase production.
The European manufacturing
process shifted from small-
scale production by hand at
home to large-scale production
by machine in a factory
The steam powered engine created a
cheap, convenient source of power. Once
it was realized that the steam could be
used to propel boats- Robert Foulton, an
American inventor ordered an engine
from the Boulton and Watt factory.
Initially used to transport people in
America, later steam ships were used to
transport goods. This led to other
countries wanting to increase water
transportation by creating networks of
canals to transport raw materials for
The first commercially successful
steamship of the paddle steamer design,
North River Steamboat (later known as
the Clermont), operated on the Hudson
River between New York and Albany.
She was neither the first steamboat
built nor even the first to be operated in
scheduled service, but she was the start
of the first long-lasting and financially
successful steamboat business. She was
created by the wealthy investor and
politician Robert Livingston and inventor
and entrepreneur Robert Fulton (1765-
1815). The ship was built at Charles
Browne's shipyard in New York and
fitted with steam engines from Boulton
and Watt, Birmingham, England.
Allowed cheaper and more
rapid transport of raw
materials and finished
Created an increased
demand for iron and steel
and a skilled labor force.
Enabled people to leave the
place of their birth and
migrate easily to the cities.
Like Britain, the United States encourages industrial growth
British machinery spawns an American textile industry
Railroads help America to expand rapidly
At first war and unrest in Europe delay the growth of industry
Belgium is the first country in Europe to industrialize
Other parts of Europe begin to develop industry in the mid
1800s though progress is slow in some areas
The Industrial Revolution widens the gap between more-
developed nations and less-developed nations
Industrialized countries exploit overseas colonies for resources
Over time, standards of living rise in the industrial nations
The only successful farmers
were those with large
landholdings who could afford
The sheer number of human beings
put pressure on city resources:
Housing, water, sewers, food Didn’t have enough land to
supplies, and lighting were support themselves
completely inadequate. Were devastated by poor
harvests (e.g., the Irish
Slums grew and disease, especially Potato Famine of 1845-47)
cholera, ravaged the population. Were forced to move to the
cities to find work in the
Crime increased and became a way factories.
of life for those who could make a
living in no other way.
One of the major downsides of
the Industrial Revolution was
the amount pollution produced
by the burgeoning factories .
Streams and rivers were
flooded with sewage waste
dumped into them. The most
visible sign , however were the
dark, ominous, black plumes
that rose from the smoke stacks
into the clean sky daily. The
pollution was so extreme that in
places like London for example,
black soot caked on to once
white buildings leaving them