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					Student Achievement Toolkit 2006
  th
8 Grade – Social Studies: Long-Term Plan
We have provided the following template to support you in creating standards-based long-term plans for your region.

The Standards will from here on out be referred to by their designated number according to the secondary social studies
standards outlined by New York City. You will learn how to incorporate these standards into your lessons as well as what
a long term plan with outlined units can look like.
     Standard 1: US History/New York History
     Standard 2: World History
     Standard 3: Geography
     Standard 4: Economics
     Standard 5: Civics, Government, and Political Participation

A message from Katherine Kavouras (NYC, ’05):

“It comes highly recommended from the Department of Education that 8th graders complete an exit project. In most
schools completion of both the science and social studies exit projects are requirements for graduation, although it is only
as of yet strongly recommended from the DOE.

There are a number of projects outlined within the 8th grade unit plans. Many of them qualify as an enrichment of the
standards and as such it might not be possible, because of behavioral and academic issues and time constraints, to teach
these projects within the unit as a first year teacher. It is an option to introduce these projects at the end of the year as
possible exit project options for your students. That being said, allowing your students to complete their exit projects on a
wide variety of topics often times creates extra work for the teacher, thus knowing the stress that comes along with first
year teaching I would recommend having your students complete their final project of the year (Unit Five) in which they
are researching and teaching a lesson about a key event in the Civil Rights Movement and grading that as their exit
projects. This way you have given all of your students’ ample opportunity, lessons, skills training, and time to learn about
the subject, so that they and you are in the best position to complete and do well on their exit projects. The choice is
yours. Additionally included within this CD is a description of possible exit project topics and options selected by the
DOE.”
                                                                                                                Unit Length: 6-9 Weeks
Unit 1: The Industrial Revolution or “We built this
                                                                                           Skills to Incorporate: Compare and Contrast;
city...on the backs of immigrants…built this city…”
                                                                                                     Cause and Effect; DBQs and DBEs
                                    Standard 1: What are the migratory patterns from the farms to the cities? For what reasons did people migrate
                                    to the cities? What leisure activities became available as technology enabled less time to be spent on work? What
                                    are muckrakers? What famous muckrakers worked to address societal ills? What did they accomplish?
                                    Standard 2: Why did immigrants leave their native lands? From what countries did the first wave of immigrants
                                    (1840s – 1890s) come from? From what countries did the second wave of immigrants (1890s – 1920s)? What
                                    different cultural and religious patterns did these groups exhibit?
                                    Standard 3: How did industrialization effect the environment? How did the growth of cities effect the
                                    environment? Where did immigrants come from?
                                    Standard 4: What is scarcity, supply and demand, markets, resources and economic growth? How did
                                    industrialization lead to significant changes in the economic patterns for producing, distributing and consuming
                                    goods and services? How did societies and nations attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants by utilizing
                                    scarce capital, natural, and human resources? What are the causes and effects of scarcity? How did the U.S.
                                    develop as an industrial power? What were the changes in the methods of production and distribution? How did
Standards to be Assessed            the development of new forms of transportation effect economic development? What is a corporation? How were
(or other state performance         corporations created in oil, railroads, and steel? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a corporation?
indicator)                          What is a monopoly? How did industrialization influence and change the labor force? What response did labor
                                    have to industrialization? How did the roles of women, children and minorities change? What is a consumer
                                    society? How did America develop as a consumer society? What economic opportunities motivated migration
                                    into the cities? How was labor reformed? Who were the labor leaders of the Progressive Era and what did they
                                    accomplish?
                                    Standard 5: What problems existed in American politics? How were these problems, namely corruption and
                                    scandal, exemplified by Boss Tweed and the Tammany Ring in New York City? What government regulations
                                    emerged in response to corporations? What is laissez-faire? What is the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
                                    How did modern labor unions form? How did industrialization create the need for reform? What is the legal
                                    basis for citizenship in the United States? What are the responsibilities of a citizen? What should a citizen know
                                    about government? How should a citizen participate in the political process? What should a citizen know about
                                    the laws? What social, economic, and political problems needed reform in the late 19 th century? How did the
                                    federal government help the reform movement through amendments and legislation? What efforts were made to
                                    reform government and politics? Who were the major Progressive Era leaders and what were their
                                    accomplishments? How did women’s suffrage come about?
                                    Before this unit begins, at the beginning of the year it might be best to teach the first week and a half of lessons
                                    form 7th Grade Unit One. These lessons provide a background for those studying history. These lessons deal
Remedial Standards
                                    with: identifying and analyzing primary and secondary source, the five branches of social studies, and identifying
(content and skills that students
                                    and examining bias and perspective.
must have an understanding of
in order to master the above
                                    In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit students must be able to
standards)
                                    read a map, create a timeline in chronological, understand cause and effect by creating a Cause and Effect
                                    Organizer, analyze primary sources by answering document based questions (DBQs).
                                    The assessment for the first mini-unit about Industry requires students to create their own monopoly game. The
                                    project is meant to assess student’s understanding of a monopoly and how that relates to industry at the turn of
                                    the century; who the main industrialists are and what are the industries they dominate; how monopolies affect
Enrichment Standards
                                    products and labor; and understanding of key vocabulary terms. However this is a very complex assignment and
(Higher order tasks and critical
                                    requires students to have a good understanding of the mini-unit and be behaviorally mature enough to listen to
thinking skills to build upon
                                    the directions, and work with a partner to complete and present the finished product. Seeing that this is the first
the above standards)
                                    unit this may not be possible. If you are unable due to difficulty of the content, behavioral or time constraints
                                    unable to do this project I would supplement with a DBQ test about industry to assess student knowledge, and
                                    prepare them for future DBQ/DBE tests (document based questions and document based essay).
                                            Click here for a sample “Industrial Revolution” unit plan.
Unit 2: Imperialism and World War I or “They                                                Unit Length: 4-6 Weeks
grow up and dominate so fast…the U.S. as a                                  Skills to Incorporate: DBQs and DBEs;
world power.”                                                                              Reading Primary Sources
                                Standard 1: How does manifest destiny relate to imperialism? How did developments in
                                transportation and communication affect American expansion? What is yellow journalism and
                                what was its influence in U.S. involvement in the Spanish American War? How did victory in
                                the Spanish American War lead to the government doing what was necessary to protect
                                American interests including an Open Door Policy with Asia? What were U.S. policies in Latin
                                America? What is the basis for the U.S. policy on noninvolvement in European political affairs?
                                In what way had the U.S. been involved in European affairs pre-World War I? What trends and
                                events led to U.S. involvement in World War I? In what ways did Americans protest World War
                                I? Why did Americans protest World War I? How did the U.S. government use propaganda to
                                gain support for the war?
Standards to be Assessed        Standard 2: What were the causes and effects of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs? What
(or other state                 were the foreign issues at this time? What other countries participated in imperialism? How
performance indicator)          did imperialism affect the nations, land, and people being colonized? What are the causes of the
                                Spanish American War? Why did the U.S. become involved in the Spanish American War? What
                                trends and events led to World War I? What countries were involved in World War I? How was
                                World War I fought? How did the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia affect World War I and
                                introduce the threat of communism?
                                Standard 4: What is imperialism? What factors led to an increasing interest in imperialism?
                                How does foreign trade relate to imperialism?
                                Standard 5: How and by whom was the Treaty of Versailles created? What did the Treaty
                                dictate? What were Wilson’s 14 Points? Why did the 14 Points fail? What are the Espionage
                                Act and the Sedition Act? What do these acts convey about the U.S. government’s view on
                                protesting World War I?
Remedial Standards
(content and skills that        In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit
students must have an           students must be able to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, understand cause and
understanding of in order       effect by creating a Cause and Effect Organizer, analyze primary sources by answering
to master the above             document based questions (DBQs), and use the DBQs to write a DBE (document based essay).
standards)
                                In terms of enriching this unit I would spend more time on the reasons why people protested
                                World War I, and why and how these protests were silenced. I have left time at the end of the
                                unit, 2 ½ weeks, during which the class can read Johnny Got His Gun as a whole class novel.
Enrichment Standards            The book describes the horrors of war and is a testament to the trials of the poor fighting a war
(Higher order tasks and         for the benefit of the rich. Coupling the reading of this novel with a more in depth examination
critical thinking skills to     of the Espionage Act, Schenck v. the United State, Debs v. the United States, and W.E.B. Du
build upon the above            Bois’ article “The African Roots of War” in May 1915’s Atlantic Monthly should provide for a
standards)                      debate and accompanying essay about the unjust causes of World War I and the unjust and un-
                                American way in which protesters were silenced. Time permitting a comparison should be
                                made between present day protests of the war in Iraq. This project will also provide a sound
                                basis for enrichment in Unit Four: World War II.
                              Click here for a sample “Imperialism and World War I” unit plan.
Unit 3: Roaring 20s and the Great Depression                                                     Unit Length: 5 Weeks
or “What goes up must come down…”                                               Skills to Incorporate: DBQs and DBEs
                                  Standard 1: What leisure activities developed in the United States in response to the prevalence
                                  of new technology? How did foreign immigration and black migration change the culture of
                                  cities? How was the NAACP created? What is the Harlem Renaissance? Who were the key
                                  figures? What effects did the Harlem Renaissance have on African American culture? What
                                  effects did the Harlem Renaissance have on America as a whole? How does the Harlem
                                  Renaissance resonate today? What were the negative responses to the Harlem Renaissance?
                                  How did the Great Depression effect work, family, and communities? What are Hoovervilles?
                                  How did the arts and entertainment represent the culture of the Great Depression? What is the
                                  Dust Bowl and what were its causes?
                                  Standard 2: What was the U.S. policy towards world politics after World War I? What effects
                                  did the Great Depression have on industrialized Europe?
                                  Standard 4: What factors led to economic growth in the 1920s? What were the economic effects
                                  of prohibition? How did a rising standard of living result in the growth of a consumer
                                  economy? How did the consumer economy contribute to the creation of the middle class? What
                                  changes occurred in the workplace? What problems persisted despite unprecedented
                                  prosperity? What is the stock market? What are shares? Why did the stock market crash? What
Standards to be Assessed          were the effects of the stock market crash? What were the economic impacts of the Great
(or other state                   Depression on the United States? What economic changes took place during the 1930s? How
performance indicator)            do nations attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants by utilizing scarce capital, natural, and
                                  human resources? How does scarcity require people and nations to make choices that involve
                                  costs and future considerations? What factors, including but not exclusively the stock market
                                  crash, led to the Great Depression?
                                  Standard 5: What were the political and social changes of the 1920s? How did the role of
                                  government change from the 1920s to the 1930s? How was Prohibition an outgrowth of the
                                  earlier temperance movement? How did Prohibition and the 18 th Amendment lead to the end of
                                  the reform era and a rise in organized crime? What were the political and social effects of
                                  prohibition? What is laissez-faire? How did the U.S. government’s laissez-faire policy affect
                                  American businesses? What were the political and social impacts of the Great Depression on
                                  the United States? What political and social changes took place during the 1930s? How did
                                  Hoover respond or attempt to address the problems of the Great Depression? How did FDR’s
                                  fireside chats psychologically improve conditions during the Great Depression? How did the
                                  New Deal address the problems of the Great Depression? What institutions and programs were
                                  created by the New Deal? What functions and purposes did these organizations serve? Who
                                  protested the New Deal and on what grounds? How did the Great Depression lead to a rise in
                                  totalitarianism in Europe?
Remedial Standards
(content and skills that          In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit
students must have an             students must be able to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, understand cause and
understanding of in order         effect by creating a Cause and Effect Organizer, and analyze primary sources by answering
to master the above               document based questions (DBQs).
standards)
                                  Within this unit there are three projects incorporated to allow students to creatively
                                  demonstrate their content mastery. The second project, a Great Depression photo essay, is
Enrichment Standards
                                  fairly self explanatory, however the first project – a DBQs Museum by which students instruct
(Higher order tasks and
                                  their peers about key trends of the Roaring 20s – and the third project – students write and
critical thinking skills to
                                  present their own fireside chat, modeled after Roosevelt, and describing the importance of the
build upon the above
                                  New Deal – are very student centered and represent an enrichment of the standards. If either
standards)
                                  prove too difficult or time consuming, a more teacher-directed DBQ/DBE test would be
                                  appropriate.
                              Click here for a sample “Roaring „20s and Great Depression” unit plan.
Unit 4: World War II and the U.S. assume
                                                                                             Unit Length: 6 Weeks
world wide responsibilities or “If at first you
                                                                              Skills to Incorporate: Opinion Essay
don’t succeed…”
                              Standard 1: How did World War II begin? How did a return to isolationism in the United
                              States contribute to World War II? How did the U.S. become involved in World War I? How did
                              World War I differ from World War II especially technologically and ethically? What was the
                              German blitzkrieg? How was the atomic bomb developed? What was the Nazi Holocaust?
                              How did the war affect the people in the United States? How did the war end? What are the
                              lasting effects of Hitler’s “Final Solution?” How were these crimes addressed at the
                              Nuremberg Trials?
                              Standard 2: What prewar alliances existed in Europe? What role did the United States play
                              within the European alliance system? What two sides emerge as a result of the alliance system?
Standards to be Assessed
                              Standard 3: On what two fronts was World War II fought? What were the geographic
(or other state
                              differences between the various terrains upon which World War II was fought? What were the
performance indicator)
                              physical and demographical effects on physical and geographic factors? What were the
                              geographic effects of nuclear weaponry?
                              Standard 4: How did the U.S. benefit economically from World War II?
                              Standard 5: How did the Treaty of Versailles lead to World War II? How did the Great
                              Depression lead to a rise in totalitarianism? What is totalitarianism? How did the failure of
                              the League of Nations lead to World War II? What is appeasement? How did Europe’s practice
                              of appeasement lead to World War II? What were the conditions of the Yalta Conference treaty?
                              How was the United Nations created? What are the similarities and differences between the
                              United Nations and the League of Nations?
Remedial Standards
                              In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit
(content and skills that
                              students must be able to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, form and support an
students must have an
                              opinion by creating a Reasons and Opinion Organizer, understand cause and effect by creating
understanding of in order
                              a Cause and Effect Organizer, and analyze primary sources by answering document based
to master the above
                              questions (DBQs).
standards)
                              The end of the unit essay requires students to determine which is a “better” war, World War I
                              or World War II? It requires students be able to compare and contrast various factors of the
Enrichment Standards          two wars. It also requires students to have an understanding of what makes a war a just war.
(Higher order tasks and       Then, based on the compare and contrast and their understanding of a modified, paraphrased
critical thinking skills to   version of the Just War Theory students will create an Reasons and Opinion organizer forming
build upon the above          and supporting their opinion about which is a better war, World War I or World War II. Based
standards)                    on the organizer students will write an essay reflecting and supporting their opinions. This
                              assignment is a clear enriching of the required standards and if it proves too difficult or time
                              consuming I would supplement with a DBQ/DBE essay.
                                    Click here for a sample “ World War II” unit plan.
                                                                                                                 Unit Length: 9+ Weeks
Unit 5: America in the latter half of the 20th Century or
                                                                                                  Skills to Incorporate: Research Paper/
“Crashing the Soviet Bloc Party”
                                                                                                                           Presentations
                                    Standard 1: What factors characterized the postwar prosperity in the United States? What changes did
                                    families and communities undergo after World War II? What are the lasting effects of the baby boom
                                    throughout the latter half of the 20th century and beyond? What is the Civil Rights Movement? How was
                                    America’s self confidence and faith in government eroded by the assassination of Kennedy and King, the
                                    Vietnam War, violence, the resignation of Nixon, the oil crisis, and skyrocketing inflation? How have rapid
                                    technological changes influence the everyday life of Americans?
                                    Standard 2: How did the United States help European and Asian countries after World War II? What is the
                                    Marshall Plan? How did the Marshall Plan contribute to America’s position as a world leader? How did the
                                    Marshall Plan affect Europe? What is the Cold War? Who are the major players in the Cold War? How did the
                                    superpower rivalry between the U.S. and the USSR develop into the arms race and the space race? How did
                                    nuclear weapons factor into the arms race? How did shifting foreign policies help to end the Cold War? How
                                    did the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union change the role the U.S. plays in the world?
                                    How does the U.S. demonstrate its status as a superpower in the Middle East, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the
                                    Persian Gulf War, various peace keeping missions in Somalia and Bosnia? What are the causes, both long
                                    term and short term, of the War on Terror? What are the causes, both long term and short term, of the War in
                                    Iraq?
                                    Standard 4: What economic factors contributed to the prosperity of the postwar United States? What are the
                                    effects of immigration on the economy? What are the advantages and disadvantages of NAFTA? How do
                                    economic interests motivate U.S. action in the world, specifically in regards to U.S. involvement in the Middle
Standards to be Assessed            East, Latin America, Africa, Asia, and former Eastern European Block countries? How does the United States
(or other state performance         compete in a world economy? How does the reality of world wide competition affect the United States
indicator)                          economy? How does world wide competition affect labor unions and lead to the creation of multination
                                    corporations?
                                    Standard 5: What are the roles of the United Nations? What actions has the United Nations taken to
                                    promoting peace? How does the United Nations provide a new understanding of the power and benefits of the
                                    alliance system? How do NATO and the Warsaw Pact provide further understanding of the advantages and
                                    disadvantages of the alliance system? How does the United States interact and fit into the United Nations?
                                    What is communism? How did communism take shape in the USSR? How did communism take shape in
                                    China? What is NATO? What jobs are performed by NATO? What is the Truman Doctrine? In what way does
                                    the Truman Doctrine demonstrate America’s policy of containment as a response to the threat of communism?
                                    How does communist expansion lead to the United States policy of containment? How is this demonstrated in
                                    Europe (Berlin Wall)? How is this demonstrated in Asia (communist China; Korean War; Vietnam War)? How
                                    is this demonstrated in Latin America (communism in Cuba; Cuban missile crisis)? How does the civil rights
                                    movement, and the other social movements of the 60s and 70s, demonstrate the rights and responsibilities of a
                                    citizen in a democratic society? What are the key executive and judicial decisions supporting equal rights?
                                    What arguments were made and strategies used to end segregation? What were the key figures and groups in
                                    the fight for rights? What is the difference between de jure and de facto segregation? What key executive and
                                    judicial decisions and strategies are used to address de facto segregation? How did women, Native Americans
                                    and others fight for their rights? What are the key executive and judicial decisions supporting rights for women
                                    and Native Americans? What political and social programs develop to address key social issues such as health
                                    care, welfare, housing and education? How did the events of September 11 th and the USA Patriot Act expand
                                    the powers of the American government?

Remedial Standards
                                    In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit students must be able
(content and skills that
                                    to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, and analyze primary sources by answering document based
students must have an
                                    questions (DBQs). Students also must have an understanding of how to conduct research and use that research
understanding of in order to
                                    to write a paper. Lessons regarding teaching researching skills can be found at the end of 7th Grade Unit 5.
master the above standards)


                                    The project that encompasses the majority of the second part of this unit is about the Civil Rights movement.
Enrichment Standards
                                    The project is very student directed and requires your students to have a good understanding of cause and
(Higher order tasks and
                                    effect, how to conduct research, how to write a research essay, and how to relate smaller events to the larger
critical thinking skills to build
                                    whole. Taught in its entirety the project is an enrichment of what students are required to know about the Civil
upon the above standards)
                                    Rights movement. Thus if you find your students are having difficulties make the project more teacher directed.

                                     Click here for a sample “America in the Late 20th Century” unit plan.

				
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