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Student Achievement Toolkit 2006 th 8 Grade – Social Studies: Long-Term Plan We have provided the following template to support you in creating standards-based long-term plans for your region. The Standards will from here on out be referred to by their designated number according to the secondary social studies standards outlined by New York City. You will learn how to incorporate these standards into your lessons as well as what a long term plan with outlined units can look like. Standard 1: US History/New York History Standard 2: World History Standard 3: Geography Standard 4: Economics Standard 5: Civics, Government, and Political Participation A message from Katherine Kavouras (NYC, ’05): “It comes highly recommended from the Department of Education that 8th graders complete an exit project. In most schools completion of both the science and social studies exit projects are requirements for graduation, although it is only as of yet strongly recommended from the DOE. There are a number of projects outlined within the 8th grade unit plans. Many of them qualify as an enrichment of the standards and as such it might not be possible, because of behavioral and academic issues and time constraints, to teach these projects within the unit as a first year teacher. It is an option to introduce these projects at the end of the year as possible exit project options for your students. That being said, allowing your students to complete their exit projects on a wide variety of topics often times creates extra work for the teacher, thus knowing the stress that comes along with first year teaching I would recommend having your students complete their final project of the year (Unit Five) in which they are researching and teaching a lesson about a key event in the Civil Rights Movement and grading that as their exit projects. This way you have given all of your students’ ample opportunity, lessons, skills training, and time to learn about the subject, so that they and you are in the best position to complete and do well on their exit projects. The choice is yours. Additionally included within this CD is a description of possible exit project topics and options selected by the DOE.” Unit Length: 6-9 Weeks Unit 1: The Industrial Revolution or “We built this Skills to Incorporate: Compare and Contrast; city...on the backs of immigrants…built this city…” Cause and Effect; DBQs and DBEs Standard 1: What are the migratory patterns from the farms to the cities? For what reasons did people migrate to the cities? What leisure activities became available as technology enabled less time to be spent on work? What are muckrakers? What famous muckrakers worked to address societal ills? What did they accomplish? Standard 2: Why did immigrants leave their native lands? From what countries did the first wave of immigrants (1840s – 1890s) come from? From what countries did the second wave of immigrants (1890s – 1920s)? What different cultural and religious patterns did these groups exhibit? Standard 3: How did industrialization effect the environment? How did the growth of cities effect the environment? Where did immigrants come from? Standard 4: What is scarcity, supply and demand, markets, resources and economic growth? How did industrialization lead to significant changes in the economic patterns for producing, distributing and consuming goods and services? How did societies and nations attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants by utilizing scarce capital, natural, and human resources? What are the causes and effects of scarcity? How did the U.S. develop as an industrial power? What were the changes in the methods of production and distribution? How did Standards to be Assessed the development of new forms of transportation effect economic development? What is a corporation? How were (or other state performance corporations created in oil, railroads, and steel? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a corporation? indicator) What is a monopoly? How did industrialization influence and change the labor force? What response did labor have to industrialization? How did the roles of women, children and minorities change? What is a consumer society? How did America develop as a consumer society? What economic opportunities motivated migration into the cities? How was labor reformed? Who were the labor leaders of the Progressive Era and what did they accomplish? Standard 5: What problems existed in American politics? How were these problems, namely corruption and scandal, exemplified by Boss Tweed and the Tammany Ring in New York City? What government regulations emerged in response to corporations? What is laissez-faire? What is the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act? How did modern labor unions form? How did industrialization create the need for reform? What is the legal basis for citizenship in the United States? What are the responsibilities of a citizen? What should a citizen know about government? How should a citizen participate in the political process? What should a citizen know about the laws? What social, economic, and political problems needed reform in the late 19 th century? How did the federal government help the reform movement through amendments and legislation? What efforts were made to reform government and politics? Who were the major Progressive Era leaders and what were their accomplishments? How did women’s suffrage come about? Before this unit begins, at the beginning of the year it might be best to teach the first week and a half of lessons form 7th Grade Unit One. These lessons provide a background for those studying history. These lessons deal Remedial Standards with: identifying and analyzing primary and secondary source, the five branches of social studies, and identifying (content and skills that students and examining bias and perspective. must have an understanding of in order to master the above In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit students must be able to standards) read a map, create a timeline in chronological, understand cause and effect by creating a Cause and Effect Organizer, analyze primary sources by answering document based questions (DBQs). The assessment for the first mini-unit about Industry requires students to create their own monopoly game. The project is meant to assess student’s understanding of a monopoly and how that relates to industry at the turn of the century; who the main industrialists are and what are the industries they dominate; how monopolies affect Enrichment Standards products and labor; and understanding of key vocabulary terms. However this is a very complex assignment and (Higher order tasks and critical requires students to have a good understanding of the mini-unit and be behaviorally mature enough to listen to thinking skills to build upon the directions, and work with a partner to complete and present the finished product. Seeing that this is the first the above standards) unit this may not be possible. If you are unable due to difficulty of the content, behavioral or time constraints unable to do this project I would supplement with a DBQ test about industry to assess student knowledge, and prepare them for future DBQ/DBE tests (document based questions and document based essay). Click here for a sample “Industrial Revolution” unit plan. Unit 2: Imperialism and World War I or “They Unit Length: 4-6 Weeks grow up and dominate so fast…the U.S. as a Skills to Incorporate: DBQs and DBEs; world power.” Reading Primary Sources Standard 1: How does manifest destiny relate to imperialism? How did developments in transportation and communication affect American expansion? What is yellow journalism and what was its influence in U.S. involvement in the Spanish American War? How did victory in the Spanish American War lead to the government doing what was necessary to protect American interests including an Open Door Policy with Asia? What were U.S. policies in Latin America? What is the basis for the U.S. policy on noninvolvement in European political affairs? In what way had the U.S. been involved in European affairs pre-World War I? What trends and events led to U.S. involvement in World War I? In what ways did Americans protest World War I? Why did Americans protest World War I? How did the U.S. government use propaganda to gain support for the war? Standards to be Assessed Standard 2: What were the causes and effects of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs? What (or other state were the foreign issues at this time? What other countries participated in imperialism? How performance indicator) did imperialism affect the nations, land, and people being colonized? What are the causes of the Spanish American War? Why did the U.S. become involved in the Spanish American War? What trends and events led to World War I? What countries were involved in World War I? How was World War I fought? How did the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia affect World War I and introduce the threat of communism? Standard 4: What is imperialism? What factors led to an increasing interest in imperialism? How does foreign trade relate to imperialism? Standard 5: How and by whom was the Treaty of Versailles created? What did the Treaty dictate? What were Wilson’s 14 Points? Why did the 14 Points fail? What are the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act? What do these acts convey about the U.S. government’s view on protesting World War I? Remedial Standards (content and skills that In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit students must have an students must be able to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, understand cause and understanding of in order effect by creating a Cause and Effect Organizer, analyze primary sources by answering to master the above document based questions (DBQs), and use the DBQs to write a DBE (document based essay). standards) In terms of enriching this unit I would spend more time on the reasons why people protested World War I, and why and how these protests were silenced. I have left time at the end of the unit, 2 ½ weeks, during which the class can read Johnny Got His Gun as a whole class novel. Enrichment Standards The book describes the horrors of war and is a testament to the trials of the poor fighting a war (Higher order tasks and for the benefit of the rich. Coupling the reading of this novel with a more in depth examination critical thinking skills to of the Espionage Act, Schenck v. the United State, Debs v. the United States, and W.E.B. Du build upon the above Bois’ article “The African Roots of War” in May 1915’s Atlantic Monthly should provide for a standards) debate and accompanying essay about the unjust causes of World War I and the unjust and un- American way in which protesters were silenced. Time permitting a comparison should be made between present day protests of the war in Iraq. This project will also provide a sound basis for enrichment in Unit Four: World War II. Click here for a sample “Imperialism and World War I” unit plan. Unit 3: Roaring 20s and the Great Depression Unit Length: 5 Weeks or “What goes up must come down…” Skills to Incorporate: DBQs and DBEs Standard 1: What leisure activities developed in the United States in response to the prevalence of new technology? How did foreign immigration and black migration change the culture of cities? How was the NAACP created? What is the Harlem Renaissance? Who were the key figures? What effects did the Harlem Renaissance have on African American culture? What effects did the Harlem Renaissance have on America as a whole? How does the Harlem Renaissance resonate today? What were the negative responses to the Harlem Renaissance? How did the Great Depression effect work, family, and communities? What are Hoovervilles? How did the arts and entertainment represent the culture of the Great Depression? What is the Dust Bowl and what were its causes? Standard 2: What was the U.S. policy towards world politics after World War I? What effects did the Great Depression have on industrialized Europe? Standard 4: What factors led to economic growth in the 1920s? What were the economic effects of prohibition? How did a rising standard of living result in the growth of a consumer economy? How did the consumer economy contribute to the creation of the middle class? What changes occurred in the workplace? What problems persisted despite unprecedented prosperity? What is the stock market? What are shares? Why did the stock market crash? What Standards to be Assessed were the effects of the stock market crash? What were the economic impacts of the Great (or other state Depression on the United States? What economic changes took place during the 1930s? How performance indicator) do nations attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants by utilizing scarce capital, natural, and human resources? How does scarcity require people and nations to make choices that involve costs and future considerations? What factors, including but not exclusively the stock market crash, led to the Great Depression? Standard 5: What were the political and social changes of the 1920s? How did the role of government change from the 1920s to the 1930s? How was Prohibition an outgrowth of the earlier temperance movement? How did Prohibition and the 18 th Amendment lead to the end of the reform era and a rise in organized crime? What were the political and social effects of prohibition? What is laissez-faire? How did the U.S. government’s laissez-faire policy affect American businesses? What were the political and social impacts of the Great Depression on the United States? What political and social changes took place during the 1930s? How did Hoover respond or attempt to address the problems of the Great Depression? How did FDR’s fireside chats psychologically improve conditions during the Great Depression? How did the New Deal address the problems of the Great Depression? What institutions and programs were created by the New Deal? What functions and purposes did these organizations serve? Who protested the New Deal and on what grounds? How did the Great Depression lead to a rise in totalitarianism in Europe? Remedial Standards (content and skills that In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit students must have an students must be able to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, understand cause and understanding of in order effect by creating a Cause and Effect Organizer, and analyze primary sources by answering to master the above document based questions (DBQs). standards) Within this unit there are three projects incorporated to allow students to creatively demonstrate their content mastery. The second project, a Great Depression photo essay, is Enrichment Standards fairly self explanatory, however the first project – a DBQs Museum by which students instruct (Higher order tasks and their peers about key trends of the Roaring 20s – and the third project – students write and critical thinking skills to present their own fireside chat, modeled after Roosevelt, and describing the importance of the build upon the above New Deal – are very student centered and represent an enrichment of the standards. If either standards) prove too difficult or time consuming, a more teacher-directed DBQ/DBE test would be appropriate. Click here for a sample “Roaring „20s and Great Depression” unit plan. Unit 4: World War II and the U.S. assume Unit Length: 6 Weeks world wide responsibilities or “If at first you Skills to Incorporate: Opinion Essay don’t succeed…” Standard 1: How did World War II begin? How did a return to isolationism in the United States contribute to World War II? How did the U.S. become involved in World War I? How did World War I differ from World War II especially technologically and ethically? What was the German blitzkrieg? How was the atomic bomb developed? What was the Nazi Holocaust? How did the war affect the people in the United States? How did the war end? What are the lasting effects of Hitler’s “Final Solution?” How were these crimes addressed at the Nuremberg Trials? Standard 2: What prewar alliances existed in Europe? What role did the United States play within the European alliance system? What two sides emerge as a result of the alliance system? Standards to be Assessed Standard 3: On what two fronts was World War II fought? What were the geographic (or other state differences between the various terrains upon which World War II was fought? What were the performance indicator) physical and demographical effects on physical and geographic factors? What were the geographic effects of nuclear weaponry? Standard 4: How did the U.S. benefit economically from World War II? Standard 5: How did the Treaty of Versailles lead to World War II? How did the Great Depression lead to a rise in totalitarianism? What is totalitarianism? How did the failure of the League of Nations lead to World War II? What is appeasement? How did Europe’s practice of appeasement lead to World War II? What were the conditions of the Yalta Conference treaty? How was the United Nations created? What are the similarities and differences between the United Nations and the League of Nations? Remedial Standards In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit (content and skills that students must be able to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, form and support an students must have an opinion by creating a Reasons and Opinion Organizer, understand cause and effect by creating understanding of in order a Cause and Effect Organizer, and analyze primary sources by answering document based to master the above questions (DBQs). standards) The end of the unit essay requires students to determine which is a “better” war, World War I or World War II? It requires students be able to compare and contrast various factors of the Enrichment Standards two wars. It also requires students to have an understanding of what makes a war a just war. (Higher order tasks and Then, based on the compare and contrast and their understanding of a modified, paraphrased critical thinking skills to version of the Just War Theory students will create an Reasons and Opinion organizer forming build upon the above and supporting their opinion about which is a better war, World War I or World War II. Based standards) on the organizer students will write an essay reflecting and supporting their opinions. This assignment is a clear enriching of the required standards and if it proves too difficult or time consuming I would supplement with a DBQ/DBE essay. Click here for a sample “ World War II” unit plan. Unit Length: 9+ Weeks Unit 5: America in the latter half of the 20th Century or Skills to Incorporate: Research Paper/ “Crashing the Soviet Bloc Party” Presentations Standard 1: What factors characterized the postwar prosperity in the United States? What changes did families and communities undergo after World War II? What are the lasting effects of the baby boom throughout the latter half of the 20th century and beyond? What is the Civil Rights Movement? How was America’s self confidence and faith in government eroded by the assassination of Kennedy and King, the Vietnam War, violence, the resignation of Nixon, the oil crisis, and skyrocketing inflation? How have rapid technological changes influence the everyday life of Americans? Standard 2: How did the United States help European and Asian countries after World War II? What is the Marshall Plan? How did the Marshall Plan contribute to America’s position as a world leader? How did the Marshall Plan affect Europe? What is the Cold War? Who are the major players in the Cold War? How did the superpower rivalry between the U.S. and the USSR develop into the arms race and the space race? How did nuclear weapons factor into the arms race? How did shifting foreign policies help to end the Cold War? How did the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union change the role the U.S. plays in the world? How does the U.S. demonstrate its status as a superpower in the Middle East, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Persian Gulf War, various peace keeping missions in Somalia and Bosnia? What are the causes, both long term and short term, of the War on Terror? What are the causes, both long term and short term, of the War in Iraq? Standard 4: What economic factors contributed to the prosperity of the postwar United States? What are the effects of immigration on the economy? What are the advantages and disadvantages of NAFTA? How do economic interests motivate U.S. action in the world, specifically in regards to U.S. involvement in the Middle Standards to be Assessed East, Latin America, Africa, Asia, and former Eastern European Block countries? How does the United States (or other state performance compete in a world economy? How does the reality of world wide competition affect the United States indicator) economy? How does world wide competition affect labor unions and lead to the creation of multination corporations? Standard 5: What are the roles of the United Nations? What actions has the United Nations taken to promoting peace? How does the United Nations provide a new understanding of the power and benefits of the alliance system? How do NATO and the Warsaw Pact provide further understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of the alliance system? How does the United States interact and fit into the United Nations? What is communism? How did communism take shape in the USSR? How did communism take shape in China? What is NATO? What jobs are performed by NATO? What is the Truman Doctrine? In what way does the Truman Doctrine demonstrate America’s policy of containment as a response to the threat of communism? How does communist expansion lead to the United States policy of containment? How is this demonstrated in Europe (Berlin Wall)? How is this demonstrated in Asia (communist China; Korean War; Vietnam War)? How is this demonstrated in Latin America (communism in Cuba; Cuban missile crisis)? How does the civil rights movement, and the other social movements of the 60s and 70s, demonstrate the rights and responsibilities of a citizen in a democratic society? What are the key executive and judicial decisions supporting equal rights? What arguments were made and strategies used to end segregation? What were the key figures and groups in the fight for rights? What is the difference between de jure and de facto segregation? What key executive and judicial decisions and strategies are used to address de facto segregation? How did women, Native Americans and others fight for their rights? What are the key executive and judicial decisions supporting rights for women and Native Americans? What political and social programs develop to address key social issues such as health care, welfare, housing and education? How did the events of September 11 th and the USA Patriot Act expand the powers of the American government? Remedial Standards In order to understand the content and complete the various projects throughout the unit students must be able (content and skills that to read a map, create a timeline in chronological, and analyze primary sources by answering document based students must have an questions (DBQs). Students also must have an understanding of how to conduct research and use that research understanding of in order to to write a paper. Lessons regarding teaching researching skills can be found at the end of 7th Grade Unit 5. master the above standards) The project that encompasses the majority of the second part of this unit is about the Civil Rights movement. Enrichment Standards The project is very student directed and requires your students to have a good understanding of cause and (Higher order tasks and effect, how to conduct research, how to write a research essay, and how to relate smaller events to the larger critical thinking skills to build whole. Taught in its entirety the project is an enrichment of what students are required to know about the Civil upon the above standards) Rights movement. Thus if you find your students are having difficulties make the project more teacher directed. Click here for a sample “America in the Late 20th Century” unit plan.