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1960S

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 39

									       1960S

JFK, LBJ, CIVIL RIGHTS,
       VIETNAM
        JOHN F. KENNEDY
• Years served
  – 1960-1963
• Vice President
  – Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ)
• Interesting Facts
  – 1st Catholic president
  – Youngest president
                     JFK
• Election of 1960
  – Opponent: Richard Nixon
  – Role of Debates: media focused more strongly
    on appearance of candidates, JFK appeared
    younger and more glamorous
                        JFK
• NASA
  – National Aeronautics and Space Administration-
    moon expedition goal- put man on moon by the end
    of the decade- build up space exploration
• Bay of Pigs Invasion:
  – Eisenhower authorized the CIA to train and arm
    Cuban exiles known as La Brigada to invade Cuba-
    JFK approved the plan- April 17, 1961 Cuban exiles
    landed at the Bay of Pigs- La Brigada’s boats ran
    aground, Kennedy cancelled air support- disaster, US
    looked weak
                         JFK
• Berlin Wall Crisis:
  – Khrushcev wanted US, Great Britain, and France to
    pull out of Berlin- JFK refused so Khrushcev
    retaliated by building a wall through Berlin- shot at
    those attempting to escape- visible symbol of Cold
    War
• Cuban Missile Crisis:
  – Soviets had placed medium-range missiles in Cuba-
    JFK ordered a naval blockade to stop Soviets and
    warned US would respond fully against Soviets- US
    and USSR made a deal- Soviets would remove
    missiles if US didn’t invade and removed our missiles
    from Turkey
                      JFK
• Alliance for Progress:
  – A series of cooperative aid projects with Latin
    American gov’t- free and prosperous Latin
    America in order to prevent communism
• Peace Corps:
  – Helping less developed nations fight poverty-
    sent young Americans to perform
    humanitarian services
                         JFK
• Flexible response:
  – Would allow the U.S. to fight a limited style of
    warfare- buildup of conventional troops and weapons
    (opposite of massive retaliation)- special forces, green
    berets
• Limited Test Ban Treaty:
  – 1963 the US and Soviet Union agreed to a treaty to
    ban the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere-
    the first step toward mutual arms reduction since the
    beginning of the Cold War
                        JFK
• Hot line:
  – Direct communications link set up during Kennedy’s
    presidency between Moscow and Washington, D.C.
• New Frontier:
  – Legislative agenda- increase aid to education, provide
    health insurance, create Dept. of Urban Affairs, help
    migrant workers- criticized for being too big and too
    costly
• Keynesian Economics:
  – Supply-side economics- deficit spending to boost
    economy- tax cuts for middle class
           ASSASSINATION
• Facts:
  – Nov. 22, 1963
  – Traveled with wife and LBJ to Texas
  – Shot twice- throat and head
  – Lee Harvey Oswald
• Warren Commission:
  – National commission to investigate
    assassination- Oswald was lone gunman-
    although conspiracies have persisted
                      LBJ
• Years served
  – 1963-1968
• Vice President
  – Hubert Humphrey
• Interesting Facts
  – 26 years of congressional experience
  – teacher
                    LBJ
• Relevant elections
  – 1964: Johnson v. Goldwater
  – 1968: Nixon v. Humphrey
                        LBJ
• The Great Society Programs:
  – Johnson’s vision of the more perfect and equitable
    society- 60 programs passed- Medicare and Medicaid-
    also supported education with the Elementary and
    Secondary Act, created Head Start- lack of funds hurt
    the programs- some are still around
• Immigration:
  – Immigration Reform Act of 1965- maintained a strict
    limit on the number of immigrants admitted to the US
    each year- opened the door wider than in the 1920s
                       LBJ
• Civil Rights:
  – Civil Rights Act of 1964- barred
    discrimination of many kinds (we’ll study it
    more later)
• Vietnam:
  – (we’ll study it later, after Civil Rights)
        JUDICIAL BRANCH
• Chief Justice:
  – Earl Warren
• General effect:
  – Activist
                  COURT CASES
• Baker v. Carr:
   – Est. that federal courts can hear lawsuits seeking to force state
     authorities to redraw electoral districts
• Mapp v. Ohio:
   – Unlawfully seized evidence is inadmissible at trial
• Miranda v. Arizona:
   – Police must inform suspects of their rights during the arrest
     process
• Gideon v. Wainwright:
   – Suspects are entitled to court appointed attorney if unable to
     afford one
• Escobedo v. Illinois:
   – Accused has the right to an attorney during police questioning
             GREAT SOCIETY
• WAR ON POVERTY- INTRODUCED MEASURES TO TRAIN THE
  JOBLESS, EDUCATE THE UNEDUCATED, AND PROVIDE
  HEALTHCARE FOR THOSE IN NEED
• JOB CORPS- TRAIN YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN BTW THE AGES OF
  16 AND 21 IN THE WORK SKILLS THEY NEEDED TO ACQUIRE
  BETTER JOBS AND MOVE OUT OF POVERTY
• VISTA- VOLUNTEERS IN SERVICE TO AMERICA, PATTERNED AFTER
  KENNEDY’S PEACE CORPS, WHICH SENT AMERICAN VOLUNTEERS
  INTO POVERTY-STRICKEN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES IN AN EFFORT
  TO SOLVE THE COUNTRY’S PRESSING ECONOMIC, EDUCATIONAL,
  AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS
• HEAD START- FUNDS WERE PROVIDED FOR PLAY GROUPS, DAY
  CARE, AND ACTIVITIES DESGINED TO HELP UNDERPRIVILEGED
  CHILDREN GET READY FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (STILL
  AROUND)
         GREAT SOCIETY
• GREAT SOCIETY- “AN END TO POVERTY AND
  RACIAL INJUSTICE” AND OPPORTUNITY FOR
  EVERY CHILD
• MEDICARE- PROVIDED BASIC HOSPITAL
  INSURANCE FOR AMERICANS IN THE SOCIAL
  SECURITY SYSTEM WHO WERE OVER THE AGE
  OF 65
• MEDICAID- PROVIDED BASIC MEDICAL
  SERVICES TO POOR AND DISABLED
  AMERICANS WHO WERE NOT PART OF THE
  SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM
          GREAT SOCIETY
• EDUCATION- ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY
  EDUCATION ACT WAS DESIGNED TO AID SCHOOLS IN
  POORER COMMUNITES; PROVIDED FEDERAL FUNDS
  TO IMPROVE SCHOOL LIBRARIES, LEARNING CENTERS,
  LANGUAGE LABS AND SERVICES IN IMPOVERISHED
  SCHOOL DISTRICTS
• WATER QUALITY/CLEAN WATER RESTORATION ACT-
  AIMED AT IMPROVING WATER AND AIR STANDARDS IN
  THE COUNTRY
• NATIONAL TRAFFIC AND MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
  ACT- EST. SAFETY STANDARDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE
  VEHICLES
           GREAT SOCIETY
• IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT- ALTERED
  AMERICA’S QUOTA SYSTEM; NEARLY 170,000
  IMMIGRANTS FROM THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE WERE
  ALLOWED INTO THE COUNTRY; 120,000 IMMIGRANTS
  FROM THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
• LEGACY-IMPROVE LIVES OF MILLIONS OF INDIVIDUAL
  AMERICANS; POVERTY AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES
  DECLINED; VISION OF A NATION IN WHICH THE
  FEDERAL GOV’T WOULD ENSURE EVERYONE A
  CHANCE TO SHARE IN THE WEALTH AND PROMISE OF
  AMERICAN LIFE.
     CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
1.       Rosa Parks
     •     1955 Montgomery reserved seats in the front for
           whites- Rosa took a seat just behind the white
           section- white man needed a seat- Rosa did not give
           up her seat- police took her into custody- A.A. in
           Montgomery organized a boycott of the bus system
2. Brown v. Board
     •     1954- Supreme Court ruled unanimously that
           segregation in public schools was unconstitutional
           and violated the equal protection clause of 14th
           amendment- separate but equal are inherently
           unequal- threatened the entire system of
           segregation- schools were to “proceed with all
           deliberate speed” in integrating schools
  CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
3. Montgomery Bus Boycott
  •   Montgomery Improvement Association ran the
      boycott and negotiated with city leaders for an end
      to segregation- MLK was to lead them- protest had
      to be peaceful- continued for over a year- car pools
      or walked- Supreme Court ruled that Montgomery
      City laws of segregation were unconstitutional
4. SCLC
  •   Southern Christian Leadership Conference- 1957-
      eliminate segregation and encourage A.A. to register
      to vote- MLK first president
     CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
5.       Little Rock Crisis
     •      1957- Little Rock won a court order to admit 9 A.A. students to Central High-
            gov. Faubus ordered troops from Arkansas Guard to prevent the 9 from
            entering the school- first challenge since Civil War- angry whites beat at least
            two A.A. reporters- Eisenhower ordered U.S. Army to send troops to escort
            the students to class for the rest of the year
6.       Civil Rights Act of 1957
     •      Est. Civil Rights Commission- gave Attorney General greater power to protect
            voting rights
7.       Sit-in movement
     •      4 college students (NC A&T) went to Woolworth’s in Greensboro, sat at
            counter and placed ordered-were denied service-sat at counter until closing-
            the “sit-in” movement rapidly spread across the nation- led to “read ins” and
            “wade ins”
8.       SNCC
     •      Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee- Ella Baker organized student
            leaders at Shaw Univ.- urged students to create a grass roots movement that
            involved all classes of A.A.-many whites joined- send volunteers into rural
            areas to register A.A. to vote
      CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
9. Freedom Riders
      •     Bus travel remained segregated in much of South- CORE asked teams
            of A.A. and whites to travel into South to draw attention to South’s
            refusal to integrate bus terminals- one bus was firebombed and one
            was attacked by an angry white mob- JFK worked a deal to provide
            police and state troopers to protect the riders- got the gov’t to act
10.       James Meredith
      •     Applied for a transfer to Univ. Of Mississippi- gov. of Mississippi
            blocked him- JFK dispatched 500 federal marshals to escort
            Meredith to campus- angry white mob attacked the campus- 160
            marshals had been wounded- Meredith attended classes under
            federal guard the rest of the year
11.       March on Washington
      •     June 1963 Kennedy felt compelled to take action on civil rights- sent
            Congress a civil rights legislation- to pressure Congress to pass the
            new bill supporters planned a march on Washington- Aug. 28 1963
            more than 200,000 demonstrated showed up- peaceful and festive-
            MLK Jr. spoke- I Have a Dream
      CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
12.       Civil Rights Act of 1964
      •      Faced opposition in Congress- passed both House and Senate-
             Johnson signed into law in July 1964- banned segregation in public
             accommodations and gave the federal gov’t the ability to compel state
             and local school boards to desegregate their schools- outlawed
             discrimination in employment on account of race, color, sex, or nat’l
             origin
13.       Selma March
      •      1965- MLK JR. and SCLC organized march to pressure the federal
             gov’t to enact voting rights legislation- confrontation “Bloody
             Sunday”-state troopers attacked the marchers- TV covered the
             violence and outraged the nation- Johnson called for a strong federal
             voting rights law
14.       Voting Rights Act of 1965
      •      Act banned the literacy tests and empowered the federal gov’t to
             oversee voting registration and elections in states- 24th amendment
             banned the poll tax
  CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
15. Malcolm X
  •   Radical- broke away from Nation of Islam- willing
      to consider limited acceptance of whites- “black
      power” blacks should use their economic and
      political muscle to gain equality (Not Violent)
16. Black Panthers
  •   Young militant A.A. who moved away from
      nonviolence-style appealed to many young A.A.
      (Afros)- started using the word “black”- violent
      group
    CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
       Other important Civil Rights events
•   Jim Crow laws- enforced segregation
•   De facto segregation- customs and
    traditions
•   Churches used as forum for movement
•   Letter from a Birmingham Jail- written by
    MLK
•   1964 A.A. churches destroyed in South
               VIETNAM
• Late 1800s until WWII, France ruled Vietnam,
  Laos, Cambodia- French Indochina
• Ho Chi Minh- Vietminh- Communists- fought
  against French rule
• We support France b/c we don’t want Vietnam
  to be communists (duh)
• 1954- French withdraw from Indochina- Geneva
  Accords divide Vietnam into North and South
• We support Ngo Dinh Diem in South
                       VIETNAM
1.       JFK sends advisors
     •     1961 JFK sent Special Forces troops to South
           Vietnam to advise the Army of the Republic- by
           1963 11,300 “advisers” were fighting in Vietnam-
           this fails- Diem was overthrown- South Vietnam
           became weak
2. Domino Theory
     •     If Vietnam fell to communism, so too would other
           nations in southeast Asia- new Cold War policy
3. SEATO
     •     Southeast Asia Treaty Organization- contain the
           spread of communism in Southeast Asia- provided
           economic and military aid to South Vietnam
                   VIETNAM
4. VietCong
  •   Communists rebel group in South Vietnam
      committed themselves to undermining the Diem
      gov’t and uniting Vietnam under communism-
      blended in with the general population in the cities-
      North Vietnam provided arms, advisers, and
      leadership
5. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-
  •   North Vietnamese fired on American destroyer-
      Johnson asked Congress to authorize the use of
      force to defend American troops- Gulf of Tonkin
      gave president “all necessary measures to repel any
      armed attack against the forces of US and prevent
      aggression”- troops on ground
                             VIETNAM
6.     General Westmoreland
     •      “we are winning”- led Americans to believe we were winning the war- led to
            credibility gap- hard to believe LBJ when contradicting reports were less
            optimistic- media accounts showed a different story- first “television war”
7.     Hawks v. Doves
     •      Hawks- mostly conservative supported Johnson’s war policy- accepted rising
            troop levels
     •      Doves- broke with Johnson’s war policy
8.     SDS
     •      Students for a Democratic Society- 1960- campus “teach-ins” and
            demonstrations against the war and encouraged draft-age males to sign “we
            won’t go” petitions
9.     Tet Offensive
     •      Massive guerilla attacks in South Vietnam- show US weakness *turning point*
     •      Tet- Vietnamese New Year- Americans were shocked that an enemy
            supposedly on the verge of defeat could launch such a large scale attack-
            president’s approval rating plummeted
     •      Protest at home begin!!! Hawks v. Doves
                      VIETNAM
10. Election of 1968
   •   Humphrey v. Nixon; violent Democratic convention; Nixon
       promised to listen to the “silent majority”; Nixon wins!
11. Vietnamization
   •   1968: Nixon elected on “Vietnamization” to withdrawal U.S.
       troops and let South Vietnam fight war (descalation)- June 8,
       1969 Nixon announced the withdrawal of 25,000 soldiers-
       increased air strikes against North Vietnam
12. Ho Chi Minh Trail
   •   Supply line from North Vietnam- trail wound through the
       countries of Cambodia and Laos- Cambodia was neutral- LBJ
       refused to allow a full scale attack on the trail- Nixon begins
       bombing secretly
                   VIETNAM
13. Bombing Cambodia
  •   US bombs and invades Cambodia (escalation)-
      protests begin
  •   April 1970- American troops wanted to destroy
      VietCong military bases
14. Kent State
  •   To protest the invasion of Cambodia students
      burned down ROTC dorm, 2 buildings, turning over
      cars in protest of the war- National Guard sent in, 4
      students killed, 9 wounded
                 VIETNAM
15. My Lai
  •   March 16, 1968 American troops searching
      for enemy troops came upon My Lai- opened
      fire on the village- shocked Americans and
      added fuel to antiwar fire
16. Bombing Hanoi
  •   To force North Vietnam to resume
      negotiations, Nixon began the most
      destructive air raids of the entire war-
      “christmas bombings”- 11 straight days
                   VIETNAM
17. January 1973
  •   North Vietnam and South Vietnam signed an
      agreement “ending the war and restoring the peace
      in Vietnam”- US promised to withdraw rest of its
      troops and both sides agreed to an exchange of
      POWs
18. Fall of Saigon
  •   Neither North nor South Vietnam honored the
      cease-fire or worked toward a diplomatic
      settlement- in the spring North Vietnam launched
      an offensive against the South- communists had
      taken Saigon- Vietnam was unified under
      communist flag
                VIETNAM
• Legacy of Vietnam
  – Americans suspicious of gov’t- credibility gap
  – 58,000 Americans died
  – War Powers Act- president must inform
    Congress of any commitment of troops
  – 1968: Worst year- MLK assassinated and
    Robert Kennedy assassinated
  – 26th amendment- voting age lowered to 18 in
    1971
  – 19- average age of soldier in Vietnam
               COUNTERCULTURE
                                        LATINOS
•   What are they against?
     – Prejudice and limited access to adequate education housing and employment
•   What are they for?
     –   Job training programs and greater access to financial institutions; bilingualism
     –   Better salaries
     –   Protected voting rights
     –   Respect for their heritage
•   Key people
     –   Cesar Chavez-migrant farm workers
     –   UFW
     –   Dolores Huerta
     –   Chicano movement
•   Tactics they used
     – Walk out of classrooms
     – Nonviolent protests, boycotts
          COUNTERCULTURE
                 NATIVE AMERICANS
• What are they against?
   – Discrimination from limited education and training
• What are they for?
   – Called for policies to create greater eco. Opportunity on
     reservations
   – Greater independence from mainstream
• Key people
   – AIM- militant group
• Tactics they used
   – Organizing, Declaration of Indian Purpose
   – Wounded Knee sit-in movement
   – Court cases for treaty rights
             COUNTERCULTURE
                                  WOMEN
•   What are they against?
     – The exclusion of women from certain professions
     – The practice of paying women less than men
•   What are they for?
     – Feminism- the belief that women and men should be equal politically,
        economically, and socially
     – Greater educational opportunities
     – Equality in workplace
•   Key people
     – Betty Freidan- Feminine Mystique
     – Shirley Chisholm
     – NOW
     – Gloria Steinem
•   Tactics they used
     – Protests
     – Organizing
     – Roe v. Wade
     – Title IX- banned discrimination based on gender in education
              COUNTERCULTURE
                                     HIPPIES
•   What are they against?
     – Western civilization, rationality, order and the traditional values of
        middle class
•   What are they for?
     – The ideal of a society that was freer, closer to nature, and full of love,
        empathy, tolerance, and cooperation
•   Key people
     – Haight Ashbury (most popular hippie destinations became San
        Francisco)
     – Beatles
     – Bob Dylan
     – Jimi Hendrix
     – Woodstock
•   Tactics they used
     – Drop out of society to live in communes
     – New religious movements- Moonies, Hare Krishna
     – Dress, music, sex, drugs

								
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