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					Research, Integration, and
Becoming a Psychologist

PSY 340: Section 4
          Section Overview

 Research in psychology
 Multicultural counseling and diversity
 Psychotherapy integration
 Theoretical orientation
 Common factors
 Becoming a psychologist
               Section 4: Goals
   Understand role of research in counseling
    – Foster interest and research ideas
 Understand integration and common factors
 Understand important focus on diversity in
  psychology and proposed models
    – Increases knowledge of the self as a multicultural
 Begin to think of “yourself” and theoretical
 Gain a clearer picture on how to become a
  psychologist and help to formalize own plan
             Research Activity

 Learn by involvement
 Think of your experiences as we go through
    – In class experience
    – Psy 102 experience
 What steps were taken? What was your role?
 What kind of research?
 What are the next steps in the research?
          The Research Process
 Idea/ hypothesis
 Review the literature reformulate research
 Design method
    – How collect, from whom, with what?
   Data collection
    – Approval human subjects
    – Informed consent
 Analyze/evaluate findings and write-up
 Publish/ share knowledge
 Subsequent studies
          The Role of Research
   Scientist-Practitioner, Boulder Model
    – Science informs practice & vice-versa
    – Collaboration needed
   One of the major aspects/ roles of the
    – Counselor, teacher, researcher, etc.
   Next steps
    – Share knowledge by publishing
    – Stimulate further research
             Need for Research

   Need to study empirically to be scientifically
    – Therapists experiences of success insufficient
   Creation of knowledge
    – Test theories and constructs
    – Understanding of human behavior
    – Knowledge to prevent, cure, and understand
   Era of managed care and accountability
            Types of Research

   Quantitative and Qualitative
    – Each with own methodology and research
   Quantitative
    – Experimental designs
    – Surveys
    – Scale construction
    – Descriptive statistics
       Types of Research (cont)

   Qualitative
    – Focus on the description
   Analogue designs
    – Scale down to a few testable variables
   Meta-Analysis
    – Analyzes results of several studies on a
    – Effect size is created
              Research Basics

   Experimental designs
    – Establish a relationship exists
   Control groups
    – Comparison group
   Problems with control groups
    – Ethical concern of non-treatment group
    – Difficulty in matching groups
    – Is the control really untreated?
Qualitative Research Methods
   Grounded Theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990, 1999)
    – One of several methods
    – Theory and relationships “emerges”
   Data collection strategies
    – Focus groups, interviews, Critical incident, etc.
    – Triangulation
   Basic Procedure
    –   Data collection and creating units
    –   Sorting units and labeling
    –   Emergence of theory or themes
    –   Auditing
    Process and Outcome Research
   Process
    – What about therapy makes it work
   Outcome
    – Effectiveness of psychotherapy
   Joining process and outcome research
    – Relate the different aspects of therapy and how
      reach relates to the outcome of therapy
 Measuring therapeutic process
 Measuring outcomes
             Difficulties in
          Counseling Research
   Defining change
   Ethical concerns of control groups
   Isolating the active ingredient
   Real world vs. laboratory control
   Complexity of process and outcome research
   Debate if it is necessary to understand why
    therapy works versus that it just does
            What is Change?

   Change in presenting problem?
    – Who says it changes?
   Symptom removal?
    – What if there are multiple symptoms?
   Depends on your theoretical orientation
               Measuring Change
 Personality test before and after therapy
 Therapy tracking tests (e.g, OQ45)
 Sources of measurement
    –   Clients perspective
    –   Psychologist perspective
    –   Important others perspective
    –   Structured interview w/ neutral therapist
         • Rate on several scales
    – Assessment of specific behavior change
   Importance of variety of sources and info!!!
    Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

   Eysenck (1952)
    – Therapy isn’t better than non-treatment
    – False finding, but stimulated research
   Smith, Miller, & Glass (1980)
    – Meta-analysis
   Seligman (1995)- Consumer Reports
    – Echoed Smith, Miller, & Glass (1980)
     Generally Accepted Findings
 On average therapy is effective
 No general differences between therapies
    – “Dodo bird”- all equally effective
    – But not equally effective for all clients and all
   Contributors to therapeutic outcome
    – 40% client effect
    – 30% therapeutic relationship
    – 15% techniques and therapy differences
   Length of therapy
    – 50% of clients improve by 8th session
    – Longer isn’t necessary better
            Common Factors

   Belief that all theories of therapy have
    common factors
    – Rational for most therapies being equal
    – Focus research on finding the common
   Frank (1982)
    – Combat demoralization; Relationship;
      healing setting; process to make sense of
      experiences; process to believe in
Common Factors (cont)
   Goldfried (1980)
    – Therapeutic relationship, expectancy of help,
      reality testing, corrective experience, external
   Bohart & Tallman (1996)
    – Client active change agent
    – Therapist provides tools and work space
   Asay & Lambert (1999)
    – 30% Therapeutic relationship
    – 40% client factors
    – 15 % expectancy; 15% Techniques
       Research and Professional
   Need to research what makes therapy work
    – Especially in the era of accountability
    – Compare results of treatments
   Treatment guidelines
    – Specify what Xments used for particular disorder
    – APA template for evaluating guidelines
    – Efficacy- Does therapy work under controlled
    – Effectiveness- Does it work in real life?
        Research and Professional
           Psychology (cont)
   Division 12 empirically “validated” treatments
    –   Effective in 2 control/ analogue studies
    –   Compared to control or other therapy
    –   Treatment must be manualized
    –   Population with same disorder
   Treatment manuals
    – Facilitate research
    – Effective in the “real world”?
    Criticisms of Division 12 List

   Almost all CBT
   Fear that list supercede clinical judgment
   Findings just justified since not “real- world”
   Concerns about therapy manuals
   Use of specific DSM diagnoses
   Limited to therapies that align with medical
      Research and Professional
         Psychology (cont)
   Informed practitioner
    – Both researchers and practitioners need to
    – Publication of research needs to be “user-
   Foster research in training programs
    – Encourage and facilitate research
    – Research training environment is vital
               Research Training
              Environment (RTE)
   Research training environment is crucial in
    graduate programs
    – Programs need to motivate students
   RTE model (Gelso, 1993)
    –   Faculty modeling (excited, ok to fail)
    –   Positive reinforcement
    –   Early, non-threatening experience
    –   Idea of “bubble hypothesis”
    –   Wedding of science and practice
Research Discussion Questions

   What forces facilitate the resurgence in
    process and outcome research?

   Does it matter if we know what aspects
    of therapy works (process) as long as
    we know that it works (outcome)?

   What are you interested in?
            The “Self” as a
           Multicultural Being
   Wider view of diversity
    – What is diversity?

   Recognize your impact
    – What is your role?
    – How are you diverse?
    Needed Emphasis on Diversity

 Changing population not matched by
  changing counselor demographics
 Need new model that focus on diversity
    – Modification is not enough
         Multi-Cultural Models

   Cross Model of nigrescence (1971, 1995)
    – Pre-encounter
    – Encounter
    – Immersion/Emersion
    – Internalization
    – Internalization/Commitment
           Multi-Cultural Models
   Addressing Individual Differences- Hayes, 1995
    –   A- age
    –   D- generational differences
    –   D- disability status
    –   R- religion
    –   E- ethnicity status
    –   S- social status
    –   S- sexual orientation
    –   I- Indigenous heritage
    –   N- nationality
    –   G- Gender
         Cultural Differences in
          Counseling (Katz, 1985)
   Western                      Impact on therapy
    – White male                  – Focus on individual
                                  – Client can master/ control
    – Independence
                                  – Emphasis on verbal
    – Competition                   communication, eye
    – Control/ action               contact
      oriented                    – Goals therapy-
                                    independence, insight
    – Time schedules              – 50 minute hour
    – Protestant work ethic       – YAVIS client
    – Future oriented
             Feminist Therapy

 Empowerment of the client
 Egalitarian relationship
 Valuing experience
    – “the person is political”
    – Recognize impact of society
 Lifting oppression
 Fostering social change
 Advocacy
Multicultural Competency Areas

 Awareness own diversity and the impact
  of such
 Knowledge of how theory is culturally
 History and manifestation of oppression/
 Sociopolitical influences on various
    Multicultural Competency
          Areas (con’t)
 Normative values and world views of
  various cultural groups
 Accurate assessment of competencies
 Properly use and modify tools &
 Be awareness of and wiling to discuss
  differences and diversity issues with
     Psychotherapy Convergence

   Pulling it all together!
    – Collaborative relationships between
      teachers, researchers, practitioners, and
      the community
    – Theories of psychotherapy
    – Collaboration with other MHPs
             Defining your
         Theoretical Orientation
 The primary theory or theories that you prefer
  to conceptualize client with
 Choice process
    – Fits values/personality
    – Based on research
    – Clinical experience/ graduate training
 Continual process of labeling what you do,
  how you see the the world/clients
 Consider the counseling approaches
    – Difficult to pick one?
    Psychotherapy Integration

 Technical eclecticism
 Theoretical
 Assimilative
 Common factors
          Technical Eclecticism
 Borrow techniques/ procedures from different
 Guided by what works, not theory
    – Choose techniques for specific clients
 Strong emphasis on research
 No unified theory
 Models of eclectic therapy
    – Lazarus- Multi-Modal Therapy
    – Prochaska, Nocross, & DiClemente- 6 Stages of
         Theoretical Integration

   Synthesizes techniques and theories
    – Use techniques and incorporates the
      underling theories into an original theory

   Assimilative Integration
    – Occurs when theories incorporate ideas of
      other theories
       • Assimilating new ideas into the theory
       • Brings theories closer
     Becoming a Psychologist
 Preparing for graduate school as an
 Applying to graduate school
 Graduate school and internship
 Post-Doc and licensure
 Starting your career in psychology
            What can I do as an
   Coursework prepares you!
    – Research methods
    – Classes in psy. fields interested in
    – History & Systems
   Volunteer activities
    – Community centers
    – Hotlines, Rape crisis centers
 Talk with graduate student & professionals
 Get involved in research
    – Personal and grad student/faculty
    Getting Involved in Research
 More than 102 or extra credit!
 Ideas come from within
    – Follow own interests, passions
 Join faculty research team
 Assist a graduate student with research
 Honor’s Thesis
 Benefits of involvement
    – Understanding of the research process
    – Facilitate formation of own interests
    – Experience needed for graduate school
     Applying to Graduate School
   Survey of program & gathering info
    – Internet sites
    – Insider’s Guide to Clinical and Counseling
    – Talk with professors
    – Always think of your needs/ goals as review in
    – Summary sheets on programs
   Consider
    – Interests and goals
    – Different degrees and applications of such
    Applying to Grad School (cont)
   Contacting schools
    – E-mail and internet requests
    – Calling programs
   Application process
    –   Practice and copy all information
    –   Mentor and peer review
    –   Letters of recommendation
    –   Follow up
   “Short list” and interviews
     Graduate School… SIU style
 Classes
 Research
    – Professors teams
    – Thesis and Dissertation
   Practicum
    – Clinical placements
   Training Assignment
    – Clinical placements
    – Teaching
    – Research
 Typically in 5-year, APA approved site, paid
 Types of sites- consider your interests
    – University Counseling Centers
    – VA hospitals
    – Consortiums
   Application process similar to grad school
    – Computer matching of applicants and sites
   Limited positions
    – Heavy competition
    – Impact of increase of professional programs
        Post-Doc and Licensure

   Post-Doc
    – Research and clinical positions
   Licensure
    – State laws vary
    – Required hours, supervision pre-post
    – Oral and written exam
        Starting your career in
 Listen to yourself, goals, dreams, etc.
 Areas of work:
    – Psychotherapy and counseling
    – Assessment
    – Teaching
    – Research and Publishing
    – Consulting
    – Administration

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