PLYMOUTH STATE UNIVERSITY
of the University System of New Hampshire
College of Graduate Studies
FOUNDATIONS OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY
SY 6010 Leo R. Sandy, Ed.D., NCSP
SUM 09, R 104 38 Mountain Vista Drive
Tel. 535-2287 (W), Fax. 535-2879 New Hampton, NH 03256
Email: email@example.com Tel. 279-4271 (H)
Office Hours: By appointment.
In addition to producing students who are culturally literate, intellectually reflective, and
committed to lifelong learning, high quality education should teach young people to interact in
socially skilled and respectful ways; to practice positive, safe, and healthy behaviors; to
contribute ethically and responsibly to their peer group, family, school, and community; and to
possess basic competencies, work habits, and values as a foundation for meaningful employment
and engaged citizenship/ Greenberg et al, 2003
Merrill, K.W., Ervin, R.A., & Gimpel, G.A. (2006) School psychology for the 21st century.
New York: The Guilford Press
WebFolio software license
RESOURCES APA Style: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
My Web Page: http://oz.plymouth.edu/%7Elsandy/links.html
* Class Participation (includes punctuality and attendance) 20%
* Outline of Evolution of School Psychology due 7-13 5%
* Paper on Record Keeping Laws due 7-13 5%
* Matrix of Laws Governing Education due 7-15 5%
* Paper on Prevention and Pre-referral Problem Solving due 7-15 5%
* School Psychology Review Article due 7-20 5%
* Descriptive/Collaborative Article Review due 7-22 5%
* Flow Chart of School Organization due 7-27 5%
* Portfolio Presentation (all 8 standards) 7-27 20%
* Interview/Pre-Practicum Paper due 11-16 25%
PARTICIPATION/ATTENDANCE GRADING POLICY
Number of Absences Level of Participation Grade
0 HIGH A/A-
0 AVERAGE B+/B
0 LOW B-/C+
1 HIGH B
1 AVERAGE B-
1 LOW C+
For 2 unexcused absences, the course grade will be no higher than C+. For 2 excused absences
(or 1 excused and 1 unexcused), an incomplete grade can be given and the classes missed made
up the next time the course is given. For 3 or more absences (excused or unexcused), the course
will need to be retaken.
This survey course will introduce students to the areas of assessment, treatment and prevention
of learning, behavior and emotional problems in school age children. Students will become
familiar with a variety of psychological issues within a school environment. Students will
become familiar with testing inventories as well as alternative ways of assessing children with
difficulties. Ethical topics and procedures will be discussed. Students will be required to
demonstrate professionalism, academic and personal integrity and become familiar with the
diverse role and responsibilities of school psychologists. The course will also determine the
suitability of students to enter the profession. There is a 25 hour field pre-practicum component
to the course that will completed in the fall for Summer term students.
Emotional and Behavior Disorders
Students with Special Needs and Differentiated Instruction
Consultation and Collaboration Models
Mental Health Assessment and Counseling
Impact of Culture and Community
Personal, Social and Emotional development
Cognitive development, Language Learning Abilities and Learning Problems
Motivation, Behavior Management and Teaching
Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Disorders
Assessment: Intellectual, Diagnostic/Achievement, Behavioral and Social/Emotional
o What is school psychology?
o How has school psychology evolved?
o How does being a “guest” in the school affect the role of the school psychologist?
o What are the roles and functions of a school psychologist?
o What kinds of tools and procedures do school psychologists use to assess children?
o How are school psychologists prepared and assessed?
o What are the ethical standards that inform the work of school psychologists?
o What are critical issues in the practice of school psychology?
o How do school psychologists advocate for children?
o What is the future of school psychology?
* Outline of Evolution of School Psychology: This is an outline of major steps in the
evolution of school psychology from its inception to the present. This meets the standard 1 e 1
History and foundations of school psychology
* School Law, Ethics, Technology and Record Keeping: This paper involves a summary
of the law/ethics that governs record keeping specifically with the use of technology. It meets
standard 5 b Ability to record and organize clear and useful records in a confidential manner, in
keeping with state and federal law
* Matrix of Laws Governing Education: This is a listing of the major laws that have
affected education. It meets standard 1 b 4 Education law
* Article Reviews: The first paper relates to The Descriptive-Collaborative Approach to
Psychological Report Writing and focuses on the necessity of involving parents in the
interpretation of test results because the child’s responses are better understood in context, and
parents usually know their children better than anyone. This also meets standard 2. 6.
Communicate effectively, in written and oral form, findings and recommendations to parents,
classroom teachers, and other educational personnel. The second paper involves a choice of a
scholarly, peer reviewed article published in the School Psychology Review. This is intended to
familiarize students with the diverse scientific research that is being conducted in the field of
* Flow Chart of School Organization: This is a one page chart depicting lines of authority
in a school district. It meets standard 1 b 3 Organization and operation of schools
* Paper on Prevention and Pre-Referral Problem Solving. This paper focuses on the role
of the school psychologist prior to a formal referral to special education. It emphasizes the
importance of prevention and those activities that can assist teachers to develop strategies that
address problems before they reach the level of special education referral and placement.
Response to Intervention (RTI) is an example of preventive intervention. This meets standard 5.
a. 2. Prevention, including pre-referral problem solving.
* Portfolio Presentation: Students will present all 9 standards for the course on-line using
the four part format: Narrative, A Description of the Artifact, How the Artifact Enhanced
Knowledge of the Standard, and the Artifact.
* Interview/Pre-Practicum Paper: This paper combines a 25 hour field experience with an
interview of the supervising school psychologist so that students can get a sense of the roles and
functions of a school psychologist, the ethical dilemmas that they face in that role, areas of
advocacy, and an advocacy action. This paper addresses standard 1 e. 2 & 4 Legal and ethical
issues; and Roles and functions of the school psychologist. This paper should use the APA format
and make explicit connections to the text material. For summer students, this will be done in
the fall in which case incomplete grades will be given. This assignment must be turned in
by November 16.
The paper will use the following headings:
-include a brief description of the school setting and school psychologists’ academic and
professional experience, work setting, clientele, etc. with anonymity)
-a summary of observations made about the duties and roles of the school psychologist
-a summary of key points of the interview, the inclusion of an ethical
dilemma that is ongoing or has been resolved, and an area of potential advocacy
-provide specific and explicit allusions to the reading throughout the discussion
-your own personal thoughts and feelings about the pre-practicum experience and interview
discussion about your own decision to pursue school psychology as a field and how the
pre-practicum experience and interview influenced this decision
-a statement about your own personal qualities that are suited to the role of school
-concerns and issues that may have arisen in the pre-practicum experience and interview
that suggest potential challenges as well as tentative plans to address them, e.g., how
would you have dealt with some issues you observed?
- a description of areas of need identified in the pre-practicum experinece and interview
that may provide the opportunity for advocacy through political and social activism
IV. ADVOCACY ACTION
-a specific action by way of a written letter and stamped and addressed envelope to a
newspaper, magazine, senator or congressman, or to any local, state, or national
policy maker relative to a policy or program that would benefit children and/or
families. It can be in support of a bill or program or against the elimination of a
service (I will read the letter and mail it).
-other with approval by instructor (see advocacy competencies)
*Discuss problem-solving approaches to the assessment, diagnosis,treatment and
prevention of learning, behavior and emotional disorders in children and
adolescents who live in a culturally diverse society (Knowledge)
*Discuss empirically supported procedures and methods in the
assessment, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of learning, behavior
and emotional problems in children and adolescents (Experience)
*Discuss psychological science as it applies to the education and socialization
of children and adolescents who live within a culturally diverse society (Holism)
*Identify ethical principles and professional standards associated
with the delivery of psychological services to children, youth and families.
*Demonstrate effective understanding of the use of consultation
methods with teachers, school administrators and parents (Collaboration)
*Discuss current psychological research as applied to school psychology practice
Incomplete grades are strongly discouraged and should only be requested for emergency
situations. If an IC grade is given, students will have one full semester to complete the course
requirements. After that, the registrar will record an F grade that will stand, and the course will
have to be retaken if it is a requirement.
Drafts of papers are accepted no later than two weeks prior to the due date. Late and redone
assignments/papers will receive a significantly reduced grade.
Note: The assignments are designed to not only show learning of the course content but also to
provide artifacts for state certification. Thus, it is not sufficient just to “cover” material but to
provide specific assignments that show evidence of knowledge of the standards. Reading and
discussing these topics do not provide verification of learning.
Each meeting will involve a discussion of readings and lecture-discussion. There will also be
guest speakers, panels, videos, demonstrations, simulations, and activities that highlight the role
of school psychologists. Students will do test critiques, review articles and conduct observations
and interviews of school psychologists and report their findings in class.
CLASS SCHEDULE AND READING ASSIGNMENTS
July 8 Introductions, Syllabus, An Overview of School Psychology, Roles of School
Psychologists, Ethics, School Psychology State Standards, The Portfolio
Format, New Hampshire State Standards, and Student Handbook
Promoting Parent Involvement, Outcomes of Parental Involvement,
Implementing the “Senior Partner” Role of Parents at Staffings and IEP
Preparing the Webfolio: Speaker: Royce Robertson
Readings: Ch. 1 & 2, Introduction and Historical Context of School
Ethics Overview: Introduction and Professional Competency and
Professional Relationships, A-C, pp.317-321
Video: A Social Mandate for Counselors
July 13 Special Education: Types and Frequencies of Children with Special Needs,
IDEA, The Child Study Team, the Referral Process, the IEP, the LRE:
The Sequence of Special Education Placements, and The Major
Readings: Ch. 3 & 4, Responding Effectively to Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
and Training and Credentialing Issues
Ethics Overview: Professional Relationships, D-F, pp. 321-322
Videos: Families of Young Children with Special Needs: Understanding
Families and Involving Families in Education
Due: Essay on Legal and Ethical Requirements of Technology-Based
Record Keeping & Outline of Evolution of School Psychology
July 15 Achievement Testing; The Theater of the Oppressed; Assessment, and
Readings: Ch. 5 & 6, Employment Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges &
Legal and Ethical Issues
Ethics Overview: Professional Practices, A-C, pp. 322-323
Video. F.A.T. City or Snapshots: Learning Disabilities
Due: Matrix on Laws Governing Education and Pre-Referral Problem
July 20 Mental Retardation, The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth
Edition: Demonstration and Overview & ADHD
Readings: Ch. 7 & 8. Facilitating Change through Problem Solving, and
Ethics Overview: Independent Practice and Professional Practices, pp. 323-327
Speaker: Assessment and Intervention of Attention Deficit Disorder: TBA
Video: Understanding ADHD
Video Clip: Snapshots: Mental Retardation
Webfolio Formatting and Preparation: Royce Robertson
Due: Article Review from School Psychology Review
July 22 The Descriptive-Collaborative Approach to Psychological Report
Writing; Supervision of School Psychologists and Functional
Behavior Assessment and Projective Tests and other Social/Emotional
Readings: Ch. 9 & 10: Prevention and Intervention: Academics, Mental Health,
and Social-Emotional Behavior
Guidelines for School Psychology Services, Intro to Guideline 1-4, pp. 327-330
Guest Speaker: Assessment and Intervention of Emotional/Behavior Disorders
Video Clip: Snapshots: Emotional/Behavior Disorders
Due: Reflection Paper on “The Descriptive-Collaborative Approach to
Psychological Report Writing”
July 27 Presentation of Portfolios
Readings: Readings: Ch. 11 & 12, Facilitating Systemic Change & Research
and Evaluation & Best Practices in Promoting a Positive School Climate
Guidelines for School Psychology Services, Guidelines 5-8, pp. 330-335
Video: The IEP Meeting: Roles and Responsibilities
Due: Flow Chart of School Organization and Portfolio 8 Standards
July 29 Course Evaluation, Course Overview, Review of Pre-Practicum/Interview
Paper Format & Presentation of Portfolios
Ch. 12 & 13, Research and Evaluation, and The Future of School
Guidelines for School Psychology Services, Guidelines 5-7, pp. 335-337
Discussion of Journal Papers
Pre-Practicum Paper due
Plymouth State University
Council of Teacher Education
Modified for Counselors and School Psychologists
We define commitment as dedication, perseverance, and individual and social responsibility. Our
candidates are committed to lifelong learning and to increasing self-knowledge. They are
committed to the beliefs that all students can learn and that education has the power to transform
individuals and the greater society. Our teacher/counselor/school psychology candidates
recognize the responsibility of those in the helping professions to take a thoughtful and critical
stance towards themselves and their profession.
Our holism perspective involves affirming diversity and understanding the “whole child” within
the family, community and cultural context. It includes working towards an integrated
curriculum and recognizing how we as helpers are shaped by our own experiences and culture.
This holistic perspective shapes our larger vision.
Experience allows us to put theory into practice. We provide opportunities for experiential
learning that serves communities and schools so that our candidates can do the same for their
students. Experience also involves constantly renewing skills and knowledge within one’s
Collaboration involves working with students, families and colleagues effectively within the
helping context toward shared goals, demonstrating respect and openness towards diverse
perspectives, and confronting and resolving conflicts effectively and respectfully. Collaboration
enhances teaching, counseling, school psychology and learning, and is an essential part of
developing the capacity to lead.
Knowledge refers to understanding the theory, content, methods, and materials and technologies
of one’s field, as well as understanding child, and adolescent development, learning processes,
and student motivation within the familial, community, and cultural contexts in which children
grow and learn. Helping that addresses all learners combines a knowledge of students and one’s
subjects within the cultural, social and institutional context.
Diversity Framework for Teacher Education at Plymouth State University
Modified for Counselors and School Psychologists
Each counselor/school psychologist candidate at Plymouth State University, by the conclusion of
her or his program, will be able to:
Critically examine her or his own identity, and accept that our background and
experiences shape our view of the world
Learn from and about students, families and communities
Identify and empathize with and accept students from diverse backgrounds
Become a multicultural person by exploring and learning to understand the experiences
and values of others
Confront racism and other biases in her/himself, her/his classroom, and in schools and
other institutions in society
Demonstrate commitment and skills to act as a change agent
Implement culturally responsive teaching, counseling and assessment practices
Multicultural Education A comprehensive approach to education that identifies, challenges and
rejects all forms of discrimination in schools and society and accepts and affirms the pluralism
(ethnic, racial, linguistic, religious, economic, gender, age, etc.) that students, their communities
and teachers reflect. Multicultural education is not an add-on program, but is fundamental to
every aspect of the education process: curriculum, pedagogy, policy, and interactions among
students, teachers, school personnel, families and community members. Multicultural education
promotes democratic principles of social justice and thoughtful transformation of schools and
Culture The values, traditions, social and political relationships, worldviews and ways of living
created, shared, and transformed by a group of people bound together by a community or
commonalities. This commonality can be self-defined or imposed by others. Culture is socially
constructed, learned implicitly and explicitly, dynamic and contextual, and multi-faceted. It
influences development, learning, beliefs, identity, values, and interactions.
Linguistic Diversity Language is fundamental to identity and to learning. Language embodies
culture and provides a vital connection to family and community. One’s native language is a
foundation for future learning. The ways in which teachers, counselors, school psychologists and
schools respond to students’ language and dialect has profound influence on their learning.
Language differences must not be viewed as deficits.
Dynamics of Power and Privilege Most definitions of racism and discrimination obscure their
institutional nature. Discrimination is not simply an individual bias; it is above all an institutional
practice. The major difference between individual and institutional discrimination is the wielding
of power, because it is primarily through the power of the people who control institutions such as
schools that discriminatory policies and practices are reinforced and legitimated. Prejudice and
discrimination, then, are not just personality traits or psychological phenomena; they are also a
manifestation of economic, political, and social power. (Nieto, 2000, p. 37). Policies and
practices rooted in discrimination have a harmful effect on groups that share a particular identity,
be it racial, ethnic, gender, socioeconomic status, or other (Nieto, 2000, p. 35).
Student Achievement All students have talents and strengths, and are capable of high levels of
learning. School characteristics that have been found to make a positive impact on student
achievement include an enriched and more demanding curriculum, respect for students’
languages and cultures, high expectations for all students, and encouragement of parental
involvement (Nieto, 2000, p. 245). Educators, counselors and school psychologists have the
responsibility to implement comprehensive and collaborative opportunities for family
involvement because family involvement has been shown to enhance student achievement.
This course meets the following School Psychology Standards:
Std. 1.b Foundations of Education
3. Organization and Operation of Schools
To meet this standard, students will develop a flow chart to show the organizational structure of
4. Educational Law
To meet this standard, students will prepare a matrix of the major laws governing education
Std. 1.e Professional School Psychology
1. History and foundations of School Psychology
To meet this standard, students will prepare an outline depicting the evolution of school
psychology as a profession
2. Legal and Ethical Issues
To meet this standard, students will include in an interview paper with a school psychologist on a
legal/ethical issue and prepare a matrix on the major laws related to school psychology
3. Professional Issues and Standards
To meet this standard, students will students will interview a practicing school psychologist on
the topic of professional issues and standards. The paper on technology and record keeping also
addresses this standard
4. Roles and Functions of the School Psychologist
To meet this standard students will write a paper combining an interview with a school
psychologist and a reflection on their 25 hour pre-practicum experience
Std. 2. 6. Communicating Effectively, in written and oral form, findings and recommendations
to parents, classroom teachers, and other educational personnel
To meet this standard students will write a reaction paper to “The Descriptive-Collaborative
Approach to Psychological Report Writing”
Std. 5.b. Ability to record and organize clear, and useful records, in keeping with state and
federal law .
To meet this standard students will write a paper involving a summary of the law/ethics that
governs record keeping
Std.5 a 2 Prevention, including pre-referral problem solving.
To meet this standard, students will write a paper on the role of school psychologists in
prevention and pre-referral problem solving
All of the above standards will also be included in a portfolio to be presented prior to, during
and at the end of the internship.
Graduate Education Mission
Commitment to providing outreach and services to students, businesses, industries and
schools across the state
Commitment to strive to be responsive to the various needs of the state and the region
Promotion of the abilities to assume the responsibilities of citizenship, to appreciate the
power of the cultural arts
Offer high quality professional degree programs
I. Goals of all graduate programs
1. Provide real world relevance
2. Offer practical application of information
3. Promote research and best practices
4. Offer opportunities for students to reach personal and professional goals
5. Promote personal and professional reflection
II. Hallmarks of graduate programs
1. Leadership and Advocacy
2. Scholarship, Action and Application
3. Reflection and Innovation
4. Professionalism and Service
5. Global Awareness and Social Responsibility
The curriculum of graduate programs is viewed as national standards-based, integrated, and
culturally responsive. The curriculum is designed to develop professional competence in ethics,
research and communication.
III. Dispositions / Perspectives (as adapted from Harvard Business Review, Nov.
Graduate students need to possess five perspectives - Ability to manage:
1. self: the reflective mind-set
2. organizations: the analytic mind-set
3. context: the worldly mind-set
4. relationships: the collaborative mind-set
5. change: the action mind-set (Goslig & Mintzberg, 2003)
IV. Core Propositions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
These standards are incorporated and promoted in the certification courses and activities of the
professional teacher education programs:
1. Teachers are committed to students and their learning.
2. Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to
3. Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning.
4. Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from
5. Teachers are members of learning communities.
The following proposal made by UNESCO, the United Nations General Assembly
in 1998 (resolution A/52/13) defined the Culture of Peace as consisting of
values, attitudes and behaviours that reject violence and endeavour to prevent
conflicts by addressing their root causes with a view to solving problems
through dialogue and negotiation among individuals, groups and nations. The 1999
United Nations Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace (resolution
A/53/243) called for everyone – governments, civil society, the media, parents,
teachers,politicians, scientists, artists, NGOs and the entire United Nations system – to assume
responsibility in this respect. It staked out eight action areas for actors at national,regional and
Culture of peace: eight action areas . . . . . peace in our hands
1. Fostering a culture of peace through education by promoting education for all,
focusing especially on girls; revising curricula to promote the qualitative values, attitudes
and behavior inherent in a culture of peace; training for conflict prevention and
resolution, dialogue, consensus-building and active non-violence . . .
2. Promoting sustainable economic and social development by targeting the eradication
of poverty; focusing on the special needs of children and women; working towards
environmental sustainability; fostering national and international co-operation to reduce
economic and social inequalities . . .
3. Promoting respect for all human rights by distributing the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights at all levels and fully implementing international instruments on human
rights . . .
4. Ensuring equality between women and men by integrating a gender perspective and
promoting equality in economic, social and political decision-making; eliminating all
forms of discrimination and violence against women; supporting and aiding women in
crisis situations resulting from war and all other forms of violence . . .
5. Fostering democratic participation by educating responsible citizens; reinforcing
actions to promote democratic principles and practices; establishing and strengthening
institutions and processes that promote and sustain democracy . . .
6. Advancing understanding, tolerance and solidarity by promoting a dialogue among
civilizations; actions in favour of vulnerable groups, migrants, refugees and displaced
persons, indigenous people and traditional groups; respect for difference and cultural
diversity . . .
7. Supporting participatory communication and the free flow of information and
knowledge by means of such actions as support for independent media in the promotion
of a culture of peace; effective use of media and mass communications; measures to
address the issue of violence in the media; knowledge and information sharing through
new technologies . . .
8. Promoting international peace and security through action such as the promotion of
general and complete disarmament; greater involvement of women in prevention and
resolution of conflicts and in promoting a culture of peace in post-conflict situations;
initiatives in conflict situations; encouraging confidence-building measures and efforts
for negotiating peaceful settlements .