Equal Opportunities in Education and Research

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					Equal Opportunities in Education and Research
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Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)
Equal Opportunities in Education and Research Division                                                   EUROPÄISCHE UNION
53170 Bonn

From the publisher in writing
Postfach 30 02 35
53182 Bonn
or by                                                                                      With images from the book
Tel.: +49 (0)1805 262 302                                                                  by Bettina Flitner „Frauen die
Fax: +49 (0)1805 262 303 (0.14 euros/minute from German landlines)                         forschen“ Text: Dr. Jeanne Rubner
E-mail: books@bmbf.bund.de                                                                 Publisher: Collection Rolf Heyne
Internet: http://www.bmbf.de
Journalistic editing
Dr. Karin Hollricher

                                                                                           With images from the report
ziller design, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany
                                                                                           „FiF-Report: Erfolgreiche
                                                                                           Wissenschaftlerinnen in der
                                                                                           EU-Forschung“ Publisher: EU-
Richard Thierbach Buch- und Offset-Druckerei,
                                                                                           Büro des BMBF - Konatktstelle:
Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany
                                                                                           FiF - Frauen in die EU-Forschung

Picture credits
Title page: photo collage by Bettina Flitner, istock and Andreas Ziller. Photo mosaics
on inside front cover, pages 8 and 9, and inside back cover: www.bettinaflitner.de,
Girls' Day, Inmit pamphlet, istock, FiF report. Pages 2, 3, 4, 13, 15: www.bettinaflit-    With images from the pamphlet
ner.de. Page 6, pictures in the graphic (from left to right): TU Cottbus (2), istock (1,   „Erfolgreich die eigene Chefin“
3, 4), www.bettinaflitner.de (5). Page 10: with kind permission of Prof. Dr. Karin         Publisher: Inmit – Institut für
Römisch. Page 14: with kind permission of Dr. Angela Merkel and Prof. Dr. Beatrice         Mittelstandsökonomie
Weder di Mauro. Page 15: with kind permission of Prof. Dr. Rita Süssmuth. Page 18:
Girls' Day 2008, Max Planck Institute. Page 19: Inmit pamphlet. Page 20: FiF report.

Bonn, Berlin 2009
PREFACE                                                       05

               To be successful in the world of research takes
          courage, strength of will, and perseverance. Time
          and again – despite the considerable societal hurdles
          – women with these characteristics have achieved
          exceptional accomplishments in science and re-
          search. Their numerous discoveries and inventions
          prove their determination, passion for technology,
          and innovative flare.
               The great physicist Marie Curie was recognised
          for her groundbreaking scientific work with not
          only the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, but also with
          the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1911. Lise Meitner
          explained nuclear fission and was honoured with
          numerous important accolades for her important
          insights into atomic physics. Role models such as
          the German researcher Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard,
          who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in
          1995, inspire students and young female scientists by
          showing that it is possible for women to make their
          way in science and research.
               Despite these shining examples, successful
          career paths for women are all too rare even today,
          particularly in the natural sciences. Promoting their
          different abilities and, in particular, giving more
          women real opportunities in the fields of natural
          science and technology, is not just a matter of equali-
          ty. The capabilities of the people of our country are
          the keys that will unlock the answers to the pressing
          questions of our time. Without equal opportunities,
          ensuring our competitiveness on the world stage
          and the future viability of our country will not be
          possible. We cannot afford to ignore the impetus
          and ideas that women can provide.
               Through the introduction of the German National
          Pact for more Women in Mathematics, Informatics,
          Natural Science and Technology (MINT) Professions
          and other initiatives we have already put in place
          some important driving forces. Nonetheless, further
          targeted measures and structural changes are still
          required. This pamphlet provides an overview of the
          programmes and projects developed at the Federal
          Ministry of Education and Research. We believe that
          equal opportunities is an essential part of forward-
          looking education and research policy.

          Prof. Dr. Annette Schavan, MdB
          Federal Minister of Education and Research
CONTENTS                                                                               1

Equal Opportunities in Education and Research                                      2

Status Assessment – Women in the Ascendant                                         5

Policy Actions                                                                    8

The "Women Professors Programme" – A Major Step Towards Equality                  10

        Women in the Science System                                               11

More Women at the Top                                                             14

Women and MINT – A Promising Combination                                          16

        Girls’ Day: Girls get a Taste of their Futures                            17

Power for Women Entrepreneurs: The Dynamic Way to Becoming your own Boss          19

Promoting Women in Research: FiF – the Contact Point for Women into EU Research   20

Bibliography                                                                      21

Your Notes                                                                        22

Prof. Dr. Helga Rübsamen-Schaeff,
CEO AiCuris GmbH & Co KG,
Bayer Pharmazentrum
2                                                              EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

Equal Opportunities in Education and Research
Making equal opportunities a reality is one of the mandates of the German constitution. It is a
necessary social aspect of education, research, and employment and is one of the requirements
for science policy. Much has been achieved: women of today are superbly trained, their labour
force participation rate is increasing, and they are establishing themselves increasingly at ma-
nagement level in science and industry. The German federal government has put in place deci-
sive measures to facilitate these policies and will work to advance their development in future.

     In the past, the focus of attention was on raising        German federal government policy is working
the standard of education received by girls and wo-       to improve not only the underlying structural frame-
men. This goal has been achieved. Today, female           works for education and professional careers, but
school pupils, female apprentices, and female stu-        also to offer equal opportunities in higher education
dents demonstrate levels of attainment that are ma-       institutions, research establishments, and commer-
ny times higher and mainly achieve better educatio-       cial organisations. In this way, the policy fulfils the
nal qualifications than schoolboys and young men.         requirements necessary to allow professional oppor-
With a first-rate formal education, women are also        tunities to correspond to the talents and qualifica-
in a position to significantly increase their share of    tions of women and men and their individual life
positions at management level in the scientific and       plans. Today's girls and young women are part of a
industrial fields.                                        generation that is rightly growing up with an expec-
                                                          tation of satisfaction at work, that seeks professional
     Never before were the level of education and         challenges, and that also wants this to fit in with the
the labour force participation rate of women as high      lives of their partners and family.
as they are today. As such, they are a crucial factor
in maintaining Germany's position as a location for           The Federal Ministry of Education and Research
science and industry; having well educated and            (BMBF) has therefore established schemes and initia-
highly qualified women and men is the key to in-          tives to increase equal opportunities, thus removing
creased innovation, growth, and progress.

     Prof. Dr. Hannah Monyer,
       Head of Department of
         Clinical Neurobiology
      at Heidelberg University
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                      3

                                                                                       Dr. Tanja Clees,
                                                                                       Work Group Leader at the
                                                                                       Fraunhofer Institute for
                                                                                       Algorithms and Scientific

the barriers women have previously faced that made             The continual increase in the proportion of
it difficult for them to gain access to careers with a    women in the various sectors illustrates the success
future and attain leadership positions. “For a long       of the measures initiated by the BMBF to date. Now
time now, there have been women who are success-          is the time to cement and strengthen the progress
ful as IT specialists, mathematicians, electronic engi-   made.
neers, and mechanical engineers”, says mathemati-
cian Dr. Tanja Clees. This notwithstanding, the fede-         Various lines of policy have been developed by
ral government still wants to attract more girls and      the BMBF focussing on key strategic areas:
young women to this type of subject, and, in parti-
cular, to embrace promising and future-oriented           >   Women Professors Programme
careers in the technical and scientific sectors. These        Joint programme of the German federal and state
fields of work offer both interesting development             governments to build structures that improve the
opportunities and attractive rates of pay. With their         amount of participation by women in the science
aptitude for technical design and scientific develop-         system at all levels of qualification
ment, women are especially well placed to make an
important contribution to innovative capabilities.        >   Funding announcement: “More Women at the Top”
                                                              Research into gender related issues and develop-
    The BMBF has access to budget resources for this          ment of new concepts for action for the purpose of
work. Taking up-to-date analyses of the need for ac-          implementing improved equality of opportunity in
tion as a basis, strategic measures are developed that        the industrial, scientific, and research sectors
allow structural modifications to be made to improve
the general framework for women. Leading figures
from the scientific, research, and industrial commu-
nities participate in these activities.
4                                                                 EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

                                                                                           Prof. Dr. Eva Grebel,
                                                                                           Director of the Astronomisches
                                                                                           Rechen-Institut (Astronomical
                                                                                           Calculation Institute) in Heidel-

>   National Pact for Women in Mathematics, Infor-           For further information, please contact:
    matics, Natural Science and Technology (MINT)            gender@dlr.de
    Joint national campaigns and projects by partners        Project Management Agency of the
    drawn from the scientific, research, industrial, poli-   German Aerospace Center (PT-DLR)
    tical, and media sectors, with the goal of raising the
    proportion of women in the fields of mathematics,        The Project Management Agency is responsible for the
    informatics, natural sciences and technology             functional implementation of BMBF funding mea-
                                                             sures relating to the subject of Equal Opportunities in
>   Funding announcement: "Power for Women                   Education and Research. The Agency is responsible
    Entrepreneurs"                                           for controlling and general management tasks.
    Projects that analyse the structure and potential
    of start-ups by women, as well as projects that en-      Deutsches Zentrum für
    courage exemplary and innovative measures for            Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)
    mobilising the potential for start-ups by women          Projektträger im DLR
                                                             Chancengleichheit / Genderforschung
>   FiF – National Contact Point for Women in EU             Heinrich-Konen-Str. 1
    Research                                                 D-53227 Bonn
    Targeted information aimed at mobilising more            Germany
    female researchers to participate in EU funded
    research projects                                        www.pt-dlr.de
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                      5

Status Assessment – Women in the Ascendant
Women develop wind farms and win football                         Physics managed 22 percent, with industrial
world cups. They become heads of govern-                    engineering sciences seeing a 23 percent share of
                                                            female first year students. In sharp contrast is the
ment and Nobel Prize winners, climb Mount
                                                            shining example of mathematics: 56 percent of first
Everest, and fly into space. In other words,                year students enrolling were female, placing mathe-
women want to rise high and are conquering                  matics in sixth place amongst the most popular
the last corners of a supposedly male-domi-                 courses for women starting their student life (Desta-
                                                            tis, 2008e).
nated world. Female sports presenters and
astronauts may currently still be the excep-                    The need for skilled people trained in technolo-
tion, but women are becoming increasingly                   gy and science is already high today. Career pros-
well represented in the higher echelons of                  pects are set to improve still further from 2010, at the
                                                            latest, due to demographic changes that will mean
science, research, and industry.
                                                            more workers are entering retirement than there
                                                            are young people coming through to replace them.
Expanding career options
                                                            Modern lifestyle choices
     Women in particular have benefited from the
expansion of education during the last century,                   When they finish school, young people must
which began in the 1960s. The woman of today is             make an important decision about their career choi-
better educated than she has ever been. In 2007, the        ces, taking into account not only their preferences
proportion of women amongst school leavers with             and talents, but also how they envisage their future
higher education entrance qualifications was 53             lives – factors such as what importance is attributed
percent (Destatis, 2008a). Young women also made            to work in their lives and whether or not they want
up 42 percent of those successfully completing cour-        children and family. When choosing their careers,
ses of dual vocational training during 2007 (BIBB,          young people, be they boys or girls, women or men,
2008; Destatis, 2008b) and, with a proportion of 69         tend to follow paths defined by tradition, role mo-
percent in the 2006/2007 school year, represented           dels, and social values. Societal change has had a
the majority of those enrolled at vocational colleges.      major influence on the careers people choose, parti-
This high proportion of women can be largely attri-         cularly women, as a result of marriage and family
buted to gender-specific career choices. The main           losing their importance as the basic welfare unit at
subjects taught at vocational schools are related to        the same time as opportunities for shaping the way
healthcare, the care sector, and education, which           we live have increased. The way the upcoming gene-
are professions mainly practiced by women; one in           ration of women has been raised has given it diffe-
eleven young women sees their future in a caring            rent characteristics to those of even their mothers'
profession (Destatis, 2008c). 70 percent of all female      generation. A survey of 1000 women aged between
trainees choose one of just 20 different vocational         17 and 19 and between 27 and 29 showed that these
professions (Destatis, 2008d). None of these qualifi-       young women of today are confident in demanding
cations leads to work in the scientific, engineering,       a harmonious three-way balance between their
or information technology fields, despite the fact          careers, their partners, and their families and chil-
that it is precisely these careers that offer some of the   dren (WZB, 2008). To them and many young men,
best prospects for the future in terms of income, job       these three factors all have equal importance. As
availability, and career development. Looking at de-        such, more young people than ever are looking for a
gree subject choices paints a similar picture: in 2007      steady work-life balance between career and private
the proportion of women starting higher education           life, as well as seeking a type of work that suits their
courses in mechanical engineering was 10 percent,           lifestyle.
in informatics 13 percent.
6                                                                                 EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

          53.3 %                      49.8 %                       51.4 %                  42.2 %                 24.3 %
       entrance                                             End of first degree           Doctorate           Post-doctorate

Figure 1: Proportion of women at the various stages of a career in science
Source: German Federal Statistical Office (Destatis, 2008e and 2009).

Women in leadership positions                                                percent (GWK, 2008). Moreover, women now hold
                                                                             over 31 percent of junior professorships; positions
     Changes in attitude are leading to a reduction in                       where a professorship is awarded to an outstanding
the importance of the traditional roles of men and                           researcher directly following their doctorate.
women. This transition is taking place not only in
people's private lives, but also in the workplace. More                      Making opportunities equal
and more women are taking their place in the top
jobs in industry, science, and politics. Their share of                           Even though there are positive developments
leadership positions has been increasing continually                         in equal opportunities, it still remains a fact that
for many years now. In 2007, women held 15 percent                           women have not attained to high-ranking roles and
of management positions in companies, a figure 50                            top jobs to the extent that would be expected based
percent higher than just five years earlier (Hoppen-                         on their level of formal education. Achieving equal
stedt, 2007). Women in research have also been able                          opportunities can only happen if it is perceived as an
to achieve similar increases, with the result that in                        interdisciplinary task and a key responsibility. Mea-
2007 women held 16.2 percent of all professorships                           sures that promote equality must be universal and
in higher-education institutions and 8.4 percent of                          consistent in all their forms, with their role in hu-
all leadership positions in non-academic research                            man resources development being particularly
establishments (Destatis, 2008f; GWK, 2008).                                 carefully considered, for example: coaching and
                                                                             mentoring programmes, transparent design of ap-
      “For me, research is just such unbelievable fun.                       pointment procedures, and dual-career program-
It is so exciting to discover new things”, enthuses                          mes. Childcare and a family-friendly organisation at
Dr. Eva Grebel, professor at the University of Heidel-                       work also play an integral role. The success of mea-
berg. Increasing numbers of women are coming to                              sures implemented to date in the scientific sector is
recognise that science also offers interesting areas of                      demonstrated by the latest statistics from the Joint
work for women: 42.2 percent of all doctorates were                          Science Conference (GWK – Gemeinsame Wissen-
awarded to female scientists in 2007, in the years                           schaftskonferenz) of the German federal and state
1992–1996 this figure was a full ten percent lower                           governments: the twelfth update to the data on
(GWK, 2008) – visible proof that many women are                              women in academia and non-academic research
actively involved in shaping science and research.                           establishments records that the proportion of wo-
Although even more women are studying and gain-                              men at all levels, from students through to profes-
ing doctorates, historically there has always been a                         sors, continues to rise. The GWK and its predeces-
discontinuity in their career paths between docto-                           sor, the Bund-Länder Commission for Educational
rate and post-doctorate level. It is therefore particu-                      Planning and Research Promotion (BLK), have
larly pleasing to note the marked increase in female                         collected and regularly published data on the pro-
post-doctoral students in recent years. Between 1992                         portion of women in leadership positions in acade-
and 1996, the proportion of women at post-doctoral                           mia and non-academic research establishments in
level was 13 percent, by 2007 it was already up to 24                        Germany since 1997 (http://www.gwk-bonn.de/).
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                                            7

   4.2 %                               8.7 %                              50.8 %                                  15.9 %

                                                                                                                Industrial engineering
 Electronic engineer                Mechanical engineer                 Mathematician

 Fig. 2: Proportion of women in vocational training and higher education
 Source: Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB, 2008); Federal Statistical Office (Destatis, 2008e).

The future shape of science                                                        vailing ways of working. This applies as well to cars
                                                                                   and medicines as it does to telecommunications
     The next generation of researchers can look for-                              and medical technology. Mixed teams are therefore
ward to the future with optimism, and for several                                  particularly successful at research and development.
reasons too. Firstly, equal opportunities have been in-                            The Women Matter study shows that this also ap-
corporated into the political higher-education agen-                               plies for commercial organisations. Companies that
da. Secondly, due to the generation shift that will                                employ three or more women at the highest level of
take place during the next five years, one third of                                decision-making achieve better commercial results
professorships will become vacant as the previous                                  than those whose top management positions are
incumbents enter retirement. Finally, new positions                                held purely by men (McKinsey, 2007).
have been and will be created within the framework
of the Initiative for Excellence, the Pact for Research                            In short:
and Innovation, and the Higher Education Pact                                      The future belongs to equal opportunities
2020. The Initiative for Excellence provides targeted
funding for top-class research at German universi-                                       Equal opportunities are a necessary prerequisite
ties, the Pact for Research and Innovation supports                                for excellence and innovation. Making it a reality is
and strengthens the major science and research or-                                 an aspiration of the future. “Change is coming, even if
ganisations jointly funded by the German federal                                   it is taking longer than we would wish. I place great
and state governments, while the Higher Education                                  value on the changes to the underlying framework
Pact 2020 has been conceived to allow higher edu-                                  – aspects such as childcare and support for couples –
cation institutions to adapt to the rising number of                               and the judicious design of appointment procedu-
students.                                                                          res. […] It is satisfying and a source of pleasure to
                                                                                   take on responsibility and to be a part of shaping
Gender issues as a factor in innovation                                            the things you hold important”, explains Prof. Dr.
                                                                                   Margret Wintermantel, President of the German
     The various measures and initiatives will have a                              Rectors' Conference (HRK – Hochschulrektoren-
positive effect on the competitiveness and innova-                                 konferenz).
tive capabilities of Germany as a research location. A
diversified way of thinking that takes gender issues                                    Women can and will take on responsibility in
into account gives a new stimulus to research and                                  their professional lives and they are working actively
innovation. Women look at developments and pro-                                    to define the paths that their careers will follow.
jects from a different perspective. They make diffe-                               What women need now is cooperation – from the
rent demands of products and technologies, thus                                    scientific community, from industry, and from poli-
they introduce totally fresh approaches to the pre-                                ticians. Ideas and new solutions will be needed in
                                                                                   the future too.

    Policy Actions

The ”Women Professors Programme“ –
A Major Step Towards Equality
        Women in the Science System

More Women at the Top

Women and MINT – A Promising Combination
        Girls’ Day: Girls get a Taste of their Futures

Power for Women Entrepreneurs:
The Dynamic Way to Becoming your own Boss

Promoting Women in Research:
FiF – the Contact Point for Women into EU Research
10                                                                       EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

The ”Women Professor Programme“ –
A Major Step Towards Equality
The alma mater is becoming more female:                                  The programme aims not only for quantitative
the proportion of women holding a profes-                           improvements, however, but also focuses on the
                                                                    qualitative aspect of improving structures to better
sorship has been rising consistently for twen-
                                                                    support equal opportunities. Only universities with
ty years. The federal and state governments                         consistent and binding equal opportunities policies
are accelerating this trend with the “Pro-                          can expect to receive a grant. An independent panel
gramme for Women Professors”. Equal oppor-                          comprising outstanding figures from the fields of
                                                                    science, research, and higher education manage-
tunities have high priority at German higher
                                                                    ment will adjudicate on the equal opportunities po-
education institutions and are being made a                         licies proposed. In cases where a positive evaluation
key responsibility.                                                 is received, a higher education institution can apply
                                                                    for up to three new professorships, thereby opening
     Over the last two decades, the situation for wo-               up long term pros-pects to highly-qualified women
men at higher education institutions in Germany has                 researchers.
seen continual improvement. This trend is borne out
by the latest figures, which show around 20 percent                      In the first call for proposals for the “Women
of applications for vacant professorships come from                 Professors Programme”, 79 higher education institu-
women. The proportion of women who then pro-                        tions made successful applications. These institu-
gress to be short-listed or receive a call to a chair is            tions, which all consistently pursue equal opportuni-
higher still. Moreover, one in every four W3 (top                   ties as part of their internal quality management
level) positions is awarded to a woman (GWK, 2008).                 systems, are now entitled to receive initial funding
It was against this background that the "Women                      if the professorships are awarded to women.
Professor Programme" was initiated by Prof. Dr. An-
nette Schavan, MdB, Federal Minister of Education                       Within the framework of the funding, a distinc-
and Research and enacted by the German federal                      tion is made between early appointments to profes-
government and all of the states during 2007. With a
budget of 150 million euros, over the next five years
the federal and state governments will jointly fund at
least 200 professorships for women at higher-educa-
tion institutions who have outstanding ideas on the
subject of equality. “With the 'Women Professors
Programme' we are bringing even more excellent
fe-male researchers to the top. This will create role
models for young women and motivate them in
their scientific careers – female talent in positions
of influence gives research and development a new
impetus”, explains the Federal Minister of Education
and Research, Prof. Dr. Annette Schavan.

                                        Prof. Dr. Karin Römisch,
                    Chair of Microbiology at Saarland University,
                                         Saarbrücken, Germany
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                                         11

 40               42.2 % 43.5 %
 30                                                             36.8 %
                                                                                29.9 %
 10                                                                                                            16.2 %
                                                                                                                             10.8 %
 0                   Doctoral graduates                                Scientific staff                                Professors

                   Academia               Non-academic research establishments

Figure 3: Proportion of women in the science system
Source: Joint Science Conference (GWK, 2008); German Federal Statistical Office (Destatis, 2008f); own calculations.

sorships and regular professorships. An early ap-                               publication of the funding guidelines, with the first
pointment to a professorship is a professorship that                            call for proposals ending in May 2008 and the first
has been created in addition to a currently occupied                            funds being made available during the same year.
chair that is due to become vacant in the foreseeable                           Saarland University was the first institution to bene-
future. A regular professorship refers to the occu-                             fit from the “Programme for Women Professors”
pancy of a position that is to be filled in accordance                          through the appointment of Prof. Dr. Karin Römisch.
with the institution's existing budget. The special                             A renowned microbiologist who carried out research
aspect of funding for a regular professorship is that                           over the course of 17 years in England, the USA and
the funds already allocated by the institution in its                           Italy, she has now returned to Germany to join
budget for the professorship (which will be freed up                            Saarland University. This regular professorship and
by the additional federal funding), as well as any                              additional positions within the team will be jointly
additional means, must be invested in measures                                  funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and
that promote equality.                                                          Research (BMBF) and the federal state of Saarland.

    In addition to coaching schemes and dual career                             Further information on the agreement and
programmes, consideration will also be given to, for                            the announcement of the programme can be
example, measures that improve the compatibility                                obtained at www.bmbf.de/de/494.php or
of work and family. These all form part of a frame-                             by e-mailing gender@dlr.de.
work that will have a sustained positive effect on
those institutional structures that facilitate equal
opportunities.                                                                  Women in the Science System

     In addition to underpinning equal opportuni-                                   Today more women than ever before are en-
ties activities at the individual educational institu-                          rolled at German higher education institutions and
tions and increasing the proportion of women in                                 women are also at the fore when it comes to gra-
top-level positions in the German research establish-                           duation from those institutions.
ment, the Programme for Women Professors has a
further effect. Experience shows that when more                                      Ever more female academics are forging a career
women sit on decision-making committees, more                                   in science. Women research in laboratories, teach
women are appointed to leadership positions.                                    in lecture theatres – and they do it with passion and
                                                                                success. These women, who travel their paths with
    The programme is being implemented with                                     skill, enthusiasm, and resolve are part of the every-
enthusiasm and commitment. March 2008 saw the                                   day life of the institution and serve as visible role
12                                                               EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

models for the next generation of female talent. They      >   Max Planck Society (MPG)
encourage young women not to abandon the world             >   Leibniz Association (WGL)
of science after their studies, but rather to contribute   >   Fraunhofer Society (FhG)
their ideas to research, providing new impetus. Role       >   Helmholtz Association of German
models alone are not enough though; the necessary              Research Centres (HGF)
underlying framework to support scientific careers
for women must also be present.                                 These groups are working towards improving
                                                           equal opportunities through a wide range of diffe-
     It is in this area that the BMBF is taking a lead.    rent measures. For example, the MPG has committed
For example, since 2000 the Center of Excellence           itself to increasing the proportion of women in lea-
Women and Science (CEWS) has been funded as a              dership positions by one percentage point each year.
project of the BMBF. Alongside other tasks, the centre     The WGL has established a programme with the title
collects and documents information on doctoral             “Frauen in wissenschaftlichen Leitungspositionen”
programmes and equality issues. It also acts as an im-     (“Women in Leadership Positions in Science”). In ad-
portant expert contact point for equal opportunities       dition to specific measures, all the research establish-
in research and teaching. In 2005, CEWS was incor-         ments offer special mentoring programmes or
porated into the German Social Science Infrastruc-         mentoring networks. These numerous activities are
ture Services Association (GESIS) of the Leibniz Asso-     showing the first signs of success. Around a fifth of all
ciation (WGL), since which time it has received joint      vacant positions with a leadership role in the scienti-
funding from the German federal government and             fic sector are currently filled by women (GWK, 2008).
each of the states.                                        The figure for the overall proportion of women in
                                                           leadership positions, including administrative lea-
    In order to attract more creative women to the         dership positions, at research institutions in 2007
sciences on a permanent basis, various leading orga-       was 18 percent, with the WGL being the clear front
nisations apart from the federal and state govern-         runner with approximately 31 percent of positions
ments have initiated specific measures to provide          held by women (GWK, 2008).
funding to women in science and research. In 2006
the German Rectors' Conference (HRK) published             For further information, please contact:
their recommendation “Frauen fördern” (“Promo-             info@cews.org
ting Women”). In the same year, the various parties
involved jointly approved the “Offensive Chancen-
                                                           Center of Excellence Women and Science (CEWS)
gleichheit von Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissen-
schaftlern” (“Equal Opportunities for Researchers          The CEWS positions itself as a science and research
Campaign”) of the German Science Council (WR -             based establishment providing gender-led services
Wissenschaftsrat). In 2008, the German Research            to women scientists, higher education institutions,
Foundation (DFG - Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)         research establishments, scientific organisations,
produced the “Forschungsorientierte Gleichstel-            and political bodies.
lungsstandards” (“Research-led Equal Opportunities
Standards”) to provide the decisive criteria for approv-   GESIS Bonn - Abteilung Fachinformation
ing proposals in central funding areas (DFG, 2008).        Kompetenzzentrum Frauen in Wissenschaft
                                                           und Forschung (CEWS)
     Measures to increase the proportion of women          Dreizehnmorgenweg 40-42
in science and research also have important signi-         D-53175 Bonn
ficance in the joint federal and state Initiative for      Germany
Excellence, in the Higher Education Pact 2020, and
in the Pact for Research and Innovation.                   http://www.cews.org

    The Pact for Research and Innovation (PFI)
agreed in 2005 with the non-academic science, re-
search, and research funding organisations saw the
participation of four non-academic research organi-
sations, namely:
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                      13

                                                Researcher Prof. Dr. Gisela Schütz
                                                at the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research,
                                                Stuttgart, Germany
14                                                              EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

More Women at the Top
Women today occupy leadership roles in the
fields of science, industry, and politics. Female
researchers are making groundbreaking
discoveries and women inventors are deve-                                                            Dr. Angela Merkel
loping innovative new products. The young                                                            Federal Chancellor
                                                                                                     of Germany
research discipline of gender research is re-
vealing important new topics of research.

     Physicist Dr. Angela Merkel is the Federal Chan-
cellor of Germany. Member of German Parliament
Dr. Rita Süssmuth, Professor of Pedagogy, was presi-
dent of the German Bundestag for ten years. In 1995,
developmental biologist Prof. Dr. Christiane Nüss-
lein-Volhard became the first female scientist from
Germany to receive the Nobel Prize for Medicine for
her discoveries in the field of genetics. In her capa-          Companies that have recognised these leader-
city as one of Germany's top economic experts,             ship qualities in women appoint women to the
Beatrice Weder di Mauro (PhD), Professor of Econo-         management board more frequently (Institut für
mics at the University of Mainz, is a member of the        Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) 2007). In 2007, 15 per-
German federal government's most important eco-            cent of managers in commercial companies were
nomic advisory council. Women succeed at the top           women, with women represented in high-level posi-
in science, industry, and politics.                        tions more often in medium-sized enterprises than in
                                                           large corporations (Hoppenstedt, 2007). In the same
   Women are a great asset to any employer: they           year, over 18 percent of scientific and administrative
have a solution-oriented approach, keep a cool head        leadership roles at non-academic research institu-
even in a crisis, possess keen social skills and bring a   tions were held by women, while over 16 percent of
high level of design capability to the table.              professors at higher education institutions were fe-
                                                           male (GWK, 2008; Destatis, 2008f). Comparing this
                                                           to the figures for the preceding years, it is apparent
                                                           that science and industry are starting to approach
                                                           the kind of equality of opportunity in the develop-
                                                           ment of careers for men and women that is strived
   Prof. Dr. Beatrice                                      for politically, albeit not yet to the desired degree
   Weder di Mauro,                                         (proportions of the two sexes between 40 and 60
 Chair of Economics
    at the Johannes                                        percent are considered to be balanced). The reasons
Gutenberg University                                       behind this are currently only imperfectly under-
   Mainz, Germany                                          stood. To gain new understanding that can be used
                                                           to develop new concepts for action, the Federal Mi-
                                                           nistry of Education and Research (BMBF) is financing
                                                           scientific investigations in four thematic fields with-
                                                           in the framework of the “More Women at the Top”
                                                           funding announcement. The four fields are as follows:

                                                           >   Career orientation processes
                                                           >   Professional and career development
                                                           >   Organisational structures in the fields of industry,
                                                               science and research
                                                           >   Gender-specific issues in scientific/technical research
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                               15

     The results of this research are expected to serve
as the basis for changes that will be required in the
four areas mentioned.

    Within the field of “Career orientation proces-
ses”, the criteria that have a decisive influence on
the career choices of young women are being inves-
tigated. Particular attention must be given to the
question of whether the procedures and instru-
ments used for providing careers advice take suffi-
cient account of gender-based issues and of how the                                                      Prof. Dr. Rita
choices offered that specifically consider these issues                                                  Süssmuth,
can be further developed.                                                                                President of the
                                                                                                         German Adult
     Scientists researching the topic area “Professio-                                                   Association
nal and career development” are examining which
criteria can be used to evaluate job and career per-
formance. The discussion relating to women and                        The effects that new models and structures of
their careers often centres on children and their                 working, the evaluation of performance and suc-
care. However, it is neither the case that women al-              cess, and the legal frameworks have on the careers
ways want to leave their good jobs in the 'rush hour              of women in scientific and industrial organisations
of life', nor that a woman's career break can be sim-             are being analysed within the scope of the third to-
ply reduced to a question of children-family-partner.             pic area covered by the call for proposals. Efforts are
We must also ask: Which organisational, personal,                 focussed on the following research questions: What
and social factors influence the professional deve-               are the prospects for and obstacles to development
lopment of women and men specifically? Or what                    on the way to the top? How are measures aimed at
opportunities are there for improving the professio-              equality of competitiveness reflected in success at
nal development of dual-career couples, that is, how              attracting the best minds?
can couples manage to both be successful in their
careers at the same time?                                              Under the remit of the topic area “Gender-spe-
                                                                  cific issues in scientific/technical research”, re-
                                                                  searchers are looking more deeply into how gender
                                                                  issues are systematically embedded into different
                                                                  areas of research. New research shows that diversity
                                                                  has a major influence on innovative strength. Stu-
                                                                  dies prove that a company works more innovatively
                                                                  and successfully if its culture is permeated by a sensi-
                                                                  tivity to how people differ (Catalyst 2004; McKinsey
                                                                  2007). For this reason, gender-specific issues and
                                                                  questions of diversity are positioned at the centre of
                                                                  the research.

                                                                  For further information, please contact:

Prof. Dr. Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard,
Director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology,
16                                                             EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

Women and MINT –
A Promising Combination
Careers in mathematics, informatics, natural sciences, and technology (MINT) offer interesting
jobs and attractive remuneration. The National Pact for Women in MINT Careers combines tho-
se activities of the partners to the pact that serve to inspire more girls and women to embrace
these types of highly-qualified professions and the prospects that they offer for the future.

    To be able to choose where they work, to have         sectors of nanotechnology and biotechnology are
exciting work to do, and to earn good money at the        particularly sought after.
same time is something that many young people
dream of.                                                       It is this type of outlook that should motivate
                                                          women and men to take their natural propensity
     There are very few sectors where the areas of        and talent for science and technology and turn this
work are so varied and full of potential as the profes-   into a career. There are early signs that more women
sions of mathematics, informatics, natural sciences,      are starting to see their future in the MINT Careers.
and technology. Following a course of academic stu-       For example, in the winter semester of 2007/2008,
dy is a particularly attractive option: graduates with    around 13 percent more female students chose an
MINT degrees enjoy a labour force participation rate      engineering course than in the previous year (Desta-
of between 90 and 97 percent (HIS, 2008).                 tis, 2008e).

    Nationally in Germany there is a chronic labour           In order to attract still more girls and young
shortage in the MINT Careers, one that will only          women to training courses and academic studies in
intensify in future: by 2013 there will be a shortfall    the MINT subjects, the Federal Ministry of Education
of around 85,000 engineers and 70,000 scientists          and Research (BMBF) has developed the National
(BMBF, 2009). Skilled professionals in the growth         Pact for Women in MINT Careers. Numerous cam-
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                                        17

Launch event for the "National Pact for Women in MINT Careers" on 17 June 2008 in Berlin, Germany

paigns have been developed and implemented
                                                                             The National Pact for Women in MINT Careers
in collaboration with partners from the worlds of
science, research, industry, politics, and media. The                        The National Pact for Women in MINT Careers is
pact covers projects as diverse as laboratories for fe-                      part of the “Advancement Through Education”
male school pupils, information days in companies,                           qualification initiative. The Contact Point is respon-
and special information pages on the Internet. Ad-                           sible for coordination of the pact. It serves as an
vice on entering higher education, contact with role                         interface to the other pact partners and organises
models, taster courses, and special tests to identify                        the Internet presence and overlapping public rela-
individual abilities in the MINT fields are all part of                      tions tasks. All activities offered are published on
the package to demonstrate to girls and young wo-                            an interactive project map.
men that they have both the interest and ability for
a career in MINT. Today, these professions demand                            Geschäftsstelle Nationaler Pakt
more than just technical know-how. At least as im-                           für Frauen in MINT-Berufen
portant are an aptitude for systematic, joined-up                            Kompetenzzentrum Technik
thinking and the ability to communicate well and                             Diversity-Chancengleichheit e.V.
work in a team – all natural qualities displayed by                          Wilhelm-Bertelsmann-Straße 10
women.                                                                       D - 33602 Bielefeld
     The National Pact for Women in MINT Careers is
not purely focussed on girls and young women them-                           info@komm-mach-mint.de
selves, but rather aims to also mobilise employers to                        http://www.komm-mach-mint.de
secure female employees, professional women in
particular, through measures such as family-friendly
work structures. Last, but by no means least, the acti-                     Girls' Day: Girls get a Taste of their Futures
vities of the pact are also addressed to parents and
disseminators such as teachers, whose influence on                               School's finished – now what? What shall I become,
the career choices of the young generation must                             what career might I enjoy? This is something that
never be underestimated.                                                    more than just a few young people ask themselves at
                                                                            the end of their schooldays. One opportunity for girls
For further information, please contact:                                    to learn more about the professions and the training
info@komm-mach-mint.de                                                      routes available is to be found in the form of Girls' Day.
18                                                                                      EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

                                                                                       It is not just the girls that benefit from Girls' Day,
                                                                                  however, but also the organisations that open their
                                                                                  doors to the girls. Girls’ Day has become a successful
                                                                                  tool for the companies in the recruitment of person-

                                                                                      Organisations with something to offer have
                                                                                  the chance every year to register their proposals at
                                                                                  www.girls-day.de. Here you can also find informa-
                                                                                  tion on the following:
Girls’ Day 2008 at the Max-Planck-Institut in Stuttgart: flash freezing flowers
                                                                                  >   Careers
                                                                                  >   Work placement and apprenticeship exchanges
     “Milling, experimenting, and programming?                                    >   Projects to get girls excited about technology
It's more interesting than I thought”. This is the sort                           >   Success stories from female scientists and engineers
of thing girls say after taking part in a Girls' Day at a                         >   Reports from young women who chose their edu-
company or going to look around a university or                                       cational path as a result of Girls' Day
college. Since 2001 when the event was first held,
over 800,000 female school pupils in classes 5 to 10                                   The Coordination Unit is funded by the Federal
have had a taste of the world of technology and                                   Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the
science through more than 40,000 events. Thanks to                                Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens,
this success, Girls' Day has developed into a highly                              Women and Youth (BMFSFJ), and the European So-
recognized programme.                                                             cial Fund (ESF) and is supported by a broad range of
                                                                                  actions delivered by an alliance of umbrella organi-
     So why is there a Girls' Day at all? If one looks at                         sations, partners from the social sector, industrial
the range of career choices made by teenagers and                                 partners, and schools.
young adults, it is readily apparent that many careers
are dominated by either men or women. Technolo-                                   For further information, please contact:
gy, information technology, natural science, and the                              info@girls-day.de
trades are the preferred professions of teenage boys
and men. Historically, girls and women have tended
                                                                                  Girls’ Day
to concentrate on the service industry, jobs in the art
and design sectors, the social and caring professions,                            Details of all activities and additional information
and the healthcare sector. Today, however, technical                              about Girls' Day are available on the website
and scientific careers are the ones that offer particu-                           http://www.girls-day.de. This includes work place-
larly good prospects in the job market, better oppor-                             ments, reports about careers and projects, and in-
tunities for progression, and attractive rates of pay.                            formation for organisations, schools and parents.
This is something that women have seldom benefited                                All Girls' Day activities can be found on an interac-
from in the past due to their career choices. It was                              tive map.
against this background that Girls' Day was conceived.
                                                                                  Bundesweite Koordinierungsstelle
     Every year, on the fourth Thursday in April,                                 Girls' Day –Mädchen-Zukunftstag
organisations and companies with technical de-                                    Kompetenzzentrum Technik-
partments and vocational training areas, higher                                   Diversity-Chancengleichheit e.V.
education institutions, and research establishments                               Wilhelm-Bertelsmann-Str. 10
all invite female school pupils to come and learn                                 D-33602 Bielefeld
about professions that are not considered “typical”                               Germany
for women. A visit to a plumber, a conversation with
a woman software engineer, or a tour of a manufac-                                http://www.girls-day.de
turing plant can play a decisive role in making girls
aware of their own capabilities and interests. This is
an important step in the process of choosing a career.
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                   19

    Hiltrud Zock,                      Rotraud Diwan,                     Angelika Fittkau,
    Founder, Agenturhaus GmbH          Founder, c-drei                    Founder, competitiononline GmbH

Power for Women Entrepreneurs:
The Dynamic Way to Becoming your own Boss
Going it alone is a demanding and exciting               regionally in every state and provides interested
challenge. The "Power for Women Entrepre-                women with well-researched information and con-
                                                         sultancy services covering a wide range of sectors,
neurs“ action plan is aimed at developing and
                                                         with particular focus on every phase of starting up,
trialling innovative approaches to increasing            expanding, and moving on from a business.
the motivation and qualifications that women
need to start their own businesses.                          The National Agency for Women Start-ups is
                                                         funded by the Federal Ministries of Education and
                                                         Research (BMBF), of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens,
     Many women have already travelled the path to       Women and Youth (BMFSFJ), and of Economics and
becoming their own boss. Between 2001 and 2006 the       Technology (BMWi), as well as the European Social
proportion of women among the self-employed climb-       Fund (ESF).
ed by three percentage points to 31 percent (German
Federal Government, 2008). Germany still needs more      For further information, please contact:
start-up companies to reinforce its competitiveness.     bga@gruenderinnenagentur.de
The number of women who could potentially start new
companies is very high. Within the framework of the      National Agency for Women Start-ups (bga)
“Power for Women Entrepreneurs” action plan, the
Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is     The bga serves as a contact point for business,
funding around 20 projects in four different thematic    science, politics, women start-ups, and women en-
fields:                                                  trepreneurs.The bga website provides a repository
                                                         for information about experts of both genders,
>     Technology- and knowledge-based start-ups          studies, advice services, and networks throughout
>     Non-academic target groups                         Germany. A telephone hotline (+49 (0)1805 229022)
>     Raising awareness                                  offers initial advice to women start-ups and women
>     Methods, advice, qualification                     entrepreneurs on a personal basis.

    These are aimed at creating a climate that is fa-    bundesweite gründerinnenagentur
vourable to women entrepreneurs. The BMBF publi-         Haus der Wirtschaft
shes a pamphlet discussing the objectives and pro-       Willi-Bleicher-Str. 19
jects in the action plan (http://www.bmbf.de/pub/po-     D-70174 Stuttgart
wer_fuer_gruenderinnen.pdf).                             Germany

    One important service provider in the field of bu-   http://www.gruenderinnenagentur.de
siness start-ups by women is the National Agency for
Women Start-ups (bga). The agency is represented
20                                                                 EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

Promoting Women in Research:
FiF – the Contact Point for Women into EU Research
EU research projects are the ideal platform for
building individual reputations in research.
The FiF Contact Point Service provides per-
sonal advice to women who wish to become
active at European level.

     With a budget in excess of 50 billion euros, the
7th European Union (EU) Research Framework Pro-
gramme (7th FRP, 2007-2013) is the largest research
funding instrument in the world. Alongside the
number and quality of papers published, the ability
to attract third-party funding is one of the most
important indications of research performance. A
precondition of all successful applications for third-
party funding in the form of an EU research grant is
the establishment of multinational, interdisciplinary
networks. This demands that all participants, parti-
cularly the project leaders, possess a considerable
degree of organisational flair and have excellent           Dr. Monika Krautstrunk, Coordinator
                                                            of the EU-Infrastructure project Euraser
communications skills; these are abilities that are
particularly prominent in many women. For exam-
ple, physicist PD Dr. Silke Christiansen of the Institute
of Photonic Technology in Jena coordinates the work         For further information, please contact:
of ten partners from seven countries, who are all           eub@dlr.de
involved in the “ROD-SOL: All-inorganic nano-rod
based thin-film solarcells on glass” project.               Women into EU Research (FiF)

     Women researchers can obtain support for               FiF provides:
applications for EU projects from the “Contact Point        - Advice
for Women into EU Research” (“Frauen in die EU-For-         - Know-how
schung”) or FiF for short. This institution was found-      - High-quality contacts
ed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research
(BMBF) and is the only one of its kind in Europe. The       Kontaktstelle Frauen in die
Contact Point offers a comprehensive service: from a        EU-Forschung / FiF
step-by-step guide to filing applications, through in-      EU-Büro des BMBF, PT-DLR
formation events on EU research policy, to fully per-       Heinrich-Konen-Straße 1
sonalised advice. Participation in European research        D-53227 Bonn
groups and funding bodies is the ideal launch pad           Germany
for establishing new contacts within the research           Tel.: +49 (0)228 3821 630
community and gaining an insight into and influence
over the way in which European research policies            http://www.eubuero.de/fif
are enacted.
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH                                                                   21

BIBB – Federal Institute for Vocational Education       Destatis – German Federal Statistical Office (2008f),
and Training (2008), “Neu abgeschlossene Ausbil-        Press Release No. 240 dated 07/07/2008: “Frauen-
dungsverträge, Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der BIBB-         anteil in Professorenschaft steigt weiter auf 16%”
Erhebung zum 30. September 2008”
                                                        Destatis – German Federal Statistical Office (2009),
BMBF – Federal Ministry of Education and Research       Press Release No. 104 dated 19/03/2009: “Studienjahr
(2009), “Aufstieg durch Bildung: Die Qualifizierungs-   2008: Noch nie gab es so viele Studienanfänger”
initiative der Bundesregierung”
                                                        DFG – German Research Foundation (2008),
German Federal Government (2008), “3. Bilanz            “Forschungsorientierte Gleichstellungsstandards
Chancengleichheit – Europa im Blick”                    der DFG”

Catalyst (2004), “The Bottom Line: Connecting           GWK – Joint Science Conference (2008), “Zwölfte
Corporate Performance and Gender Diversity”             Fortschreibung des Datenmaterials (2006/2007) zu
                                                        Frauen in Hochschulen und außerhochschulischen
Destatis – German Federal Statistical Office (2008a),   Forschungseinrichtungen”
Press release No.125 dated 20/03/2008:
“Zahl der Studienberechtigten steigt weiter”            HIS – Hochschulinformationssystem GmbH (2008),
                                                        Christian Kerst, Michael Schramm: “Der Absol-
Destatis – German Federal Statistical Office (2008b),   ventenjahrgang 2000/2001 fünf Jahre nach dem
Technical Volume 11, Series 2: “Bildung und Kultur,     Hochschulabschluss, Berufsverlauf und aktuelle
Berufliche Schulen, Schuljahr 2006/07”                  Situation” HIS Forum Hochschule 10, 2008.

                                                        Hoppenstedt Firmeninformationen GmbH (2007),
Destatis – German Federal Statistical Office (2008c),   “Frauen im Management 2007”
Zahl der Woche No. 027 dated 08/07/2008: “Frauen
erlernen weiterhin häufiger einen Pflegeberuf als       Institut für Mittelstandsforschung Bonn (2007),
Männer”                                                 Rosemarie Kay: “Auf dem Weg in die Chefetage –
                                                        Betriebliche Entscheidungsprozesse bei der
Destatis – German Federal Statistical Office (2008d),   Besetzung von Führungspositionen”
Technical Volume 11, Series 3: “Bildung und Kultur,
Berufliche Bildung 2007”                                McKinsey & Company (2007), ”Women Matter “

Destatis – German Federal Statistical Office (2008e),   WZB – Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozial-
Technical Volume 11, Series 4.1-4.4: “Bildung und       forschung und Sozialforschungsinstitut infas (2008),
Kultur”                                                 Jutta Allmendinger, Andreas Bliemeister: “Frauen
                                                        auf dem Sprung: Die Brigitte-Studie 2008”

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