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Essential Nutrients


  • pg 1
  Miss Hopkins
• Name 3 things that can
  influence your food choices
 – What? When? Where?
Do you usually eat because you are
 hungry or because you have an

Hunger is the natural physical drive
 that protects you from starvation.

Appetite is a psychological desire
 rather than a need to eat.
With the person sitting next to you,
 list 5 emotions that sometimes
 cause people to eat.

What is “mindless” eating?
  Give an example.

Are these reactions hunger or
 Food & Your Environment
• Family & Culture

• Friends

• Time & Money

• Advertising

With the person sitting next to you come
 up with 2 ways that each of these
 influence your eating behaviors.
Nutrition is the process where the
body takes in and uses food.
Calories (Kcal = Kilocalories) are
units of heat that measure the energy
used by the body and the energy that
foods supply to the body.
Good Nutrition =
           Healthy Body =
                         Lifelong Health
Reduces Risks of:
Stroke     Cardiovascular Disease
Osteoporosis   Cancers      Diabetes
Nutrients are the
 substances in food that
 your body needs to
 grow, repair itself and
 supply you with energy.
The 6 Essential Nutrients fulfill
 3 main functions for the body
• Provide energy
• Build and repair body tissue
• Regulate body processes
The 6 Essential Nutrients are
• The major source of energy for the
Fiber –indigestible complex carbohydrates.
        Helps reduce the risk of heart
        disease, cancer, and diabetes

• Most carbohydrates come from plants
• Starches and sugars found in foods
  are the main source of carbohydrates
  in the body.

2 Types
 Simple carbohydrates are sugars.
 Complex carbohydrates are starches.
Proteins help build and maintain body cells
 and tissues.

Proteins can be found in animal
products and plants.

As Americans, we eat too many proteins.

Made up of amino acids.
Fats are a type of lipid, a fatty substance
 that does not dissolve in water.

Fats are the most concentrated form of
 food energy.

Fats are the most efficient way for the
 body to store energy.
Fats add texture and flavor to food.

Fats are necessary for growth and
 healthy skin.

In excess, fats can lead to heart
  disease and cancer.
Polysaturated fat is a healthier fat to
 consume. It lowers blood cholesterol

Monosaturated fat has no effect on the
 blood cholesterol level.
Saturated fat is found in animal products,
 elevates blood cholesterol levels.

Cholesterol is a fatty compound in the
 blood that is also found in deposits on
 the walls of arteries.

    High cholesterol levels can lead to
    clogged arteries, heart disease and
Vitamins are compounds that
 help regulate many vital body
 processes including the
 digestion, absorption, and
 metabolism of other nutrients.
      2 Types of Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
• Transported and stored by the
  body’s fat cells and liver
• Stored in the body for longer
  periods of time, sometimes
• Examples Vitamin A, D, E, & K
       2 Types of Vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins
• Dissolve in water and pass easily
  into the blood

• Body does not store these so a
  person need to replenish regularly

• Examples are Vitamin C & B-
Minerals are substances that the
 body cannot manufacture but that
 are needed for forming healthy
 bones and teeth and for
 regulating many vital body
The body’s most abundant
 mineral is calcium. Not
 enough calcium in the body
 can lead to osteoporosis.

Examples: Calcium,
 Phosphorus, Sodium, Iron
Water serves as transportation for other

It helps rid the body of wastes and controls body

          Dehydration is when your body
          lacks enough water to function

Without water your body will NOT function.
Set of recommendations for
 healthful eating and active

Grouped into 3 areas known as
 the ABC’s of good health
Following the guidelines can help
 lower your risk of the following
   Heart disease         Diabetes
   High cholesterol      Obesity
   High blood pressure
  A from ABC’s deals with fitness

In order to improve or maintain
   Aim for a healthy weight.
   Be physically active each day.
B from ABC’s deals with building a
        healthy eating plan.
Make your food choices carefully.
Choose a variety of grain products,
  especially whole grains.
Choose a variety of fruit and vegetables
Keep food safe to eat.
   C from ABC’s involves making
        sensible food choices.
Choose a diet that:
    Is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and
          moderate in total fat.

    Includes beverages and foods that do not
         contain a lot of sugar.

    Consists of food that has less salt.
Food Guide Pyramid is an outline of what to
 eat each day to maintain a healthy,
 balanced diet.

What is on the food pyramid?
  serving sizes
  pictures of foods
  types of foods

A serving size is a measurement of food.
The New Pyramid
1 serving =
  1 ounce of ready to eat cereal
  ½ cup of cooked cereal, rice or
  1 slice of bread
Carbohydrates         Vitamins
Proteins              Minerals

          Food Examples
Bagel       Rice        Cheerios
Spaghetti   Bread       Crackers

   Make ½ of your grains whole.
   Carbohydrates         Vitamins
   Water                 Minerals
              Food Examples
   Carrots             Broccoli
   Pumpkin             Lettuce

Vary your veggies. Mix different types each
1 serving =
  1 cup of raw leafy vegetables
  ¾ cup of vegetable juice
  ½ cup of cooked or raw
   Vitamins                   Minerals
                Food Examples
   Apples                Oranges
   Bananas               Grapes

Eat a variety of fresh fruits. Fresh fruit high
       in fiber is better than fruit juice.
1 serving =
  1 medium apple, banana, orange
   or pear
  ¾ cup of fruit juice
  ½ cup of cooked, canned or
   chopped fruit
  Vitamins                  Minerals
             Food Examples
  American Cheese     Glass of Milk
  Blueberry Yogurt

Eat Calcium rich foods. Teens should drink
        2 cups a day of lowfat milk.
1 serving =
  1 ½ ounces of natural cheese
  2 ounces of processed cheese
  1 cup of yogurt
  1 cup of milk
             Meat, Poultry, Fish
  Vitamins                    Minerals
  Protein                     Fats

               Food Examples
  Steak          Beans       Turkey
  Salmon         Peas        Nuts

Go lean with protein. Grill, bake or broil…
              DO NOT FRY!
     Meat, Poultry, Fish
1 serving =
  2-3 ounces of meat, poultry or
  1 ounce = 1 egg
    ½ cup of cooked dry beans
    2 tablespoons of peanut butter
    1/3 cups of nuts
Limit foods that are high in fat – especially
  saturated fats and trans fats.

Limit foods with salt and added sugars.

It’s ok to enjoy a snack from this category
  every once in a while. Make sure you are
  burning those calories with physical activity.
      Dietary Guidelines
Get most out of what you eat by eating nutrient
 dense foods.
Nutrient-dense: foods that have a high ratio of
 nutrients to calories.
Ex. Carrot vs. Potato Chip

Even if you are eating right you can still become

       Don’t forget to AIM FOR FITNESS.
            Hints for…
   Eating right when eating out.
• Pay attention to your portion size.
  – Split meals or take home leftovers.

• How are the foods prepared.
  – Fried = high in fat!
  – Grilled, baked or broiled is good.

• Add fresh fruits or veggies.
  – Use the salad bar or order a salad or extra
    veggies with your meal.
         More Hints for…
   Eating right when eating out.
• Go easy on TOPPINGS!
 – Avoid high fat sauces, mayonnaise, butter
   and sour cream.
 – Ask for toppings on the side or use ones
   that are lower in fat like ketchup and

 – Choose water instead.
Besides excessive weight and eating
 disorders, what other health problems are
 associated with food?

We get essential information from food
 labels. Do you ever look at food labels?
 What do you look for?
             Poor Alex…
Alex is allergic to nuts. If he eats anything
 that contains nuts, his face swells up and
 he has to be taken to the hospital. He’s
 learned to read food labels carefully to
 make sure nothing he eats has nuts in it.
 His friend Lauren has invited him to her
 house for dinner with her family. He’d like
 to say yes, but he knows that if anything
 they serve has nuts in it, he could be in
 serious trouble.
How can Alex protect his safety & his
 friend’s feelings at the same time?

Why can’t Alex just avoid any nuts he
 might find in the foods, rather than
 make such a big deal?
• The name of the food product.
• The amount of food in the package.
• The name and address of the company
  that makes, packages, or distributes the
• The ingredients in the food.
• The nutritional facts panel.
  BMI (Body Mass Index)
BMI is a measure of your body in
 relation to your height.
BMI Formula
(first convert height to inches and weight to lbs)

  W (lbs)/ H (inch)
                    X 703
       H (inch)
                         First Find Your BMR
                       (Basil Metabolic Rate)
BMR = 655+ (4.35 x weight in lbs) + (4.7 x
 height) – (4.7 x age)

BMR = 655+ (6.23 x weight in lbs) + (12.7 x
 height) – (6.8 x age)
                               Multiply BMR by your
                              Activity Level. Choose
                                     one from below.
If you are Sedentary (little or no exercise)
    = BMR x 1.2
If you are lightly active or sports 1-3 days/week)
    = BMR x 1.375
If you are moderatetely active exercise/sports 3-5
    days/week)= BMR x 1.55
If you are very active (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days
    a week) = BMR x 1.725
To Remain the same weight. Eat the amount of
     calories from your formula and maintain that level
     of exercise.
It is safe to lose or gain weight by only one lb per
     week. One lb is = 3500 kcal
How many calories a day is that?
500 calories a day!
How many calories less a day should you eat to lose
     1 lb/ week? How many to gain
Reasons why fast food
 restaurants are popular.
Problems with eating too many fast
 food meals.

•   Expensive
•   Do not provide energy
•   High in fat, calories, sodium
•   Can cause obesity and disease
Diet Related Health

    Heart Disease
 High Blood Pressure
RDA = Recommended Daily

This is the amount of nutrients
 needed each day by most
 healthy people.
Percent Daily Values are percentages
 that are based on the RDA.

Percent Daily Values are based on a
 2000 calories per day diet.

Each day a person should consume;
 Less than 65 grams of fat
 Less than 2400 mg of sodium
 Less than 300 mg of cholesterol

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