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Composite
Profiles
Contact Details:



                          Fibreforce Composites Ltd
                                                          Fairoak Lane
                                                          Whitehouse
                                                            Runcorn
                                                            Cheshire
                                                           WA7 3DU

                                                Tel: + 44 1928 701515
                                                Fax: +44 1928 713572
                                            E – mail: sales@fibreforce.co.uk




                          Fibreforce Composites Ltd
                                                       Brunel Road
                                                  Gorse Lane Ind. Estate
                                                    Clacton - on - Sea
                                                          Essex
                                                        CO15 4LU

                                               Tel: + 44 1255 220569
                                               Fax: +44 1255 431002
                                        E – mail: nick@fibreforceclacton.co.uk

                                                   Website address
                                                  www.fibreforce.co.uk




Copyright Fibreforce Composites Ltd, UK. All rights are reserved.

This document contains proprietary information that shall not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form
or by any means to a third party, without the prior written permission by or on behalf of Fibreforce Composites Ltd, UK.


The information contained within this document is given in good faith, but without warranty and Fibreforce Composites Ltd, UK and
/or its associated companies disclaim liability for any direct, indirect, consequential or incidental damages that may result from the
use of the information or data.



                                                                                              Section i - Contact Details
                          Introduction




Composite
Profiles
                            Edited Version

Edited by: J.R. Hartley
Issue 1
November 2002


Fibreforce Composites Ltd
Fairoak Lane
Whitehouse
Runcorn
Cheshire
WA7 3DU

Tel: +44 1928 701515
Fax: +44 1928 713572




                                             Section 1 - Introduction
                         Introduction
Contents:

i. Contact details



1. Introduction
1.1. Advantages of Composites
1.2. Advantages of Pultrusions

2. The Pultrusion process
2.1. Typical pultrusion machine
2.2. Reinforcements
2.3. Resins
2.4. Pullwinding

3. Company profile
3.1. Company overview

4. Material comparison
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Performance comparison: Pultrusion vs. Steel
4.3. Performance comparison: Pultrusions vs. Aluminium
4.4. Performance comparison: Pultrusions vs. other materials
4.5. Performance comparison: General comparative data

5. Custom Pultrusions
5.1. Introduction

6. Force 800 – Mechanical properties
6.1. Flexural members – Beams
6.2. Force 800 – Beam load tables
6.3. Compression members - Struts (Full version only)
6.4. Force 800 – Column load tables (Full version only)
6.5. Force 800 – Stocked profile list
6.6. Force 800 – Section properties

7. Corrosion guide
7.1. Corrosion tables

8. Fabrication (Full Version only)
8.1. Fabrication – Adhesion
8.2. Fabrication – Mechanical
8.3. Fabrication – Machining
8.4. Fabrication – Joint design



                                                          Section 1 - Introduction
                            Introduction
9. Painting

10. Anti- Static applications

11. Standard profile list

12. Composite Profile Standard tolerances

13. Fire Standards

14. Relevant Industry standards

15. SI Units & Conversion factors (Full version only)

16. Case Histories (Full Version only)

17. References




                                                        Section 1 - Introduction
                              Introduction
Composite materials have become a regular feature of our daily lives over the last thirty years. As
experience and confidence in composite materials has grown, their use has extended from decorative
and functional applications to structural ones,

Some of the major composite markets include:

• Motor vehicles for aesthetics (shape, aerodynamics) and
  function (part integration, weight savings)
• Rail transport for function (weight savings)
• Aerospace for function (part integration, weight savings,
  high performance)
• Wind turbine blades for both aesthetic (shape,
  aerodynamics) and performance (mass reduction)
• Sports goods such as fishing rods, ski poles and tennis
  rackets for function (stiffness and durability)
• Storing and transporting corrosive liquids, for function
  (corrosion resistance)
• Boats for aesthetics and function (resistance to sea water)


                                  Advantages of Composites

The properties that attract the attention of designers to composite materials are:

                             Low density                              High strength
                             High stiffness                           Corrosion resistance
                             Wear resistance                          Low heat transmission
                             Good electromagnetic transmission        Low sound transmission

                             There are many production methods available to the designer who is
                             considering the use of a composite material including:

                             Contract moulding                        Hand lay up
                             Filament winding                         Resin transfer moulding
                             Pultrusion                               Injection moulding
                             Press and prepreg moulding               Centrifugal moulding

The aerospace industry has been a major user of composite material for structural applications for
many years now. More recently civil engineers and the construction industry have started to recognise
the potential of these materials in providing solutions to the many problems associated with the
deterioration and corrosion of infrastructures.




                                                                           Section 1 - Introduction
      Advantages of Pultrusions
Pultruded composite profiles are composed of
high performance fibres (glass, carbon, or
aramid) individually or in combination, embedded
in a polymer matrix (polyester, vinylester, epoxy
or phenolic).

Pultruded fibre reinforced composites are
considered to be one of the highest performing
composite materials. These materials have been
recognised as the materials for the future and
their use is expected to grow throughout industry.

               Why Pultrusion
                                                                                       Typical pultruded profiles
The   pultrusion    process   is   a    proven
manufacturing method for obtaining high quality
FRP profiles with consistently repeatable                      The Pultrusion Process
mechanical properties.
                                                     The process starts by pulling continuous
Some of the features of the pultrusion process       reinforcements through a resin bath to wet out
are:                                                 the fibres. The process is controlled to ensure full
                                                     wetting out of the fibre reinforcement.
•   Complex shape and length capabilities
•   Precise positioning of reinforcements            Excess resin is then removed to expel any
•   Low scrap rates                                  trapped air and to compact the fibres. The
•   Wide choice of reinforcements and resins         impregnated reinforcement is passed through
                                                     preforming guides to align the reinforcement
Pultrusion successfully combines a number of         before entering the heated die.
elements which can provide a wide variety and
combination of properties and characteristics        The temperature of the die is carefully controlled
required by the final application of the product.    to ensure that the composite is fully cured.

Pultrusion is a method of manufacturing either       Pulling is achieved using either a moving
discrete or continuous lengths of fibre reinforced   carriage with adjustable clamps or a caterpillar
composites by pulling resin impregnated fibres       puller system. The fully cured section can be cut
through a series of forming guides.                  to length after the puller system, or if size and
                                                     shape permit, be wound onto a drum as a
They then pass through a heated die to cure the      continuous length.
resin system, thus producing a rigid cured
composite as it exits the die. The shape and         The only limitations on length for cut sections are
dimensions of the end product are determined by      storage and transportation.
the die cross section.

                                                                       Pullwinding
Pultrusion is an ideal process for the production
of either solid or hollow constant cross section     Pullwinding combines the two techniques of
profiles.                                            pultrusion and continuous filament winding
                                                     resulting in a profile with excellent hoop strength,
                                                     longitudinal strength and modulus, with a smooth
                                                     surface finish. (See section 2.4 for further
                                                     details).




                                                                         Section 1.2 - Advantages
      Advantages of Pultrusions
                                                                                   Weight
The combination of reinforcement and resin              9
needs to be selected in order to provide a range        8
of properties to fit the design requirements.           7
                                                        6
                                                        5
Some properties are determined primarily by the         4
                                                                                                                    Density
resin and others by the reinforcement. These            3
                                                                                                                            3
                                                                                                                    (Mg / m )
material options are fully explained in section 2.      2
                                                        1
The benefits of pultrusions include:                    0
                                                               Pultrusion    Aluminium   Mild Steel    Stainless
                                                                                                         Steel
•   Consistent quality
•   Low weight
•   High strength                                                           Highly Corrosion Resistant
•   Good surface finish
•   Continuous length                                 Pultrusions have good corrosion resistance when
•   Excellent corrosion properties                    subjected to a wide variety of corrosive
•   Electrical and thermal insulation                 chemicals and environments.
•   Maintenance free                                  Most profiles have a synthetic surface veil, which
•   Non magnetic                                      provides a resin rich layer enhancing the already
•   Fire retardant properties                         excellent corrosion resistance of the material.
•   Excellent creep and fatigue performance
•   Transparent to radio frequencies                                            Maintenance Free
•   Pigmentability
                                                      The excellent corrosion properties of the material
                                                      have resulted in a material that requires little or
      Characteristics of Pultrusions                  no maintenance.
              Exceptional Strength
                                                                            Low Thermal Conductivity
On a weight for weight basis, pultrusions are
                                                      Pultrusions have a low thermal conductivity
stronger than steel, By varying the type and
                                                      1/250 of aluminium and 1/60 of steel - this
orientation of the reinforcements, various
                                                      characteristic makes pultrusions very effective as
mechanical properties can be obtained and
                                                      a thermal break.
tensile strengths in excess of 1000 MPa are
achievable.
                                                     Typical material properties – Force 800 systems
Considerable design freedom can be achieved
by tailoring the material properties to suit the       Glass / Polyester
application.                                                                       Units           Longitudinal    Transverse
                                                         resin system
                                                                                           2
                                                     Tensile Strength              N/mm                 207           48
                   Low Weight
                                                                                               2
                                                     Tensile Modulus               kN/mm                17.2          5.5
Weighing up to 80% less than steel and 30%           Compressive Strength          N/mm
                                                                                           2
                                                                                                        207           103
less than aluminium, pultrusions offer an                                                      2
alternative choice, where weight saving is a         Compressive Modulus           kN/mm                17.2          6.9
requirement.                                         Shear Strength                N/mm
                                                                                           2
                                                                                                         31           31
The high strength to weight ratio of pultrusions
                                                                                               2
offers the designer many advantages over             Shear Modulus                 kN/mm                2.9           2.9
conventional materials and makes pultrusions                                               2
                                                     Flexural Strength             N/mm                 207           69
the obvious choice for offshore, transport,
aerospace, building and Civil engineering            Flexural Modulus              kN/mm
                                                                                               2
                                                                                                        13.8          5.5
applications.                                                                              3
                                                     Density                       Mg/m            1.6 - 1.9

                                                      Table 1:


                                                                                    Section 1.2 - Advantages
      Advantages of Pultrusions
            Electrical Characteristics                             Temperature Performance

Glass fibre pultrusions are electrically non-          Continuous exposure to temperatures up to 65
conductive, making them ideal for electrical           Celsius is well within the capacity of Fibreforce
insulating applications.                               standard profiles.

It is possible to introduce a degree of conductivity   Custom designed profiles can withstand higher
for the purpose of static dissipation for example      temperatures (Please consult Fibreforce for
anti static gratings for offshore applications.        details.)

Pultrusions are transparent to radio waves,                                    Fire
microwaves,     and     other   electromagnetic
frequencies. This makes them suitable for use in       Pultrusions are not readily combustible, and
aerial masts and in various radome applications.       combinations of resin matrix and fibre
These properties also extend to medical                reinforcement can be formulated to meet
applications such as transparency to x-rays and        extremely rigorous fire safety demands.
non magnetic properties for use in CAT
scanners.                                              Modar® based systems offer superior fire
                                                       performance with exceptionally low smoke and
           Ease of Installation / Design               toxicity levels, whilst phenolic resins will maintain
                                                       some structural integrity at very high
The lightweight nature of pultrusions can result in    temperatures.
major cost savings. These stem from savings
associated with installation including more
economical transportation, handling and on site
positioning   and     reduction     in  structural
strengthening     and      foundation      design
requirements.


       Dimensional Stability and Accuracy

The coefficient of thermal expansion is similar to
steel and significantly less than aluminium:

                          10 -6/ oC
Pultrusion                  10
Aluminium                   22
Steel                     11 - 14                                          Fabrication
Acrylic                     70
Polycarbonate               70                         Pultrusions can be easily fabricated by
SMC                         20
                                                       Machining        Drill
A fully cured pultruded profile is resistant to                         Punch
stretching, warping or swelling over a wide range                       Saw
of temperatures and physical stresses.                                  Laser Cut
                                                                        Water Cut
Correctly designed profiles will not deform or                          Grind
acquire a permanent set under prolonged fatigue
loading, high stress or operational impact.
                                                       Jointing         Adhesive Bond
                                                                        Bolt
                                                                        Rivet
                                                                        Any combination of above

                                                                           Section 1.2 - Advantages
           The Pultrusion Process
Fibreforce pultrusions are manufactured by         A pultruded composite profile consists of:
combining a resin matrix with a fibre
reinforcement.           Continuous        fibre   • Reinforcing Materials
reinforcements in rovings or mat / roving          These provide the load bearing component
forms are drawn through a resin bath, which        and the required mechanical properties -
coats each fibre with a specially formulated       strength, modulus and impact resistance.
resin mixture that can be pigmented. A             The choice of reinforcement used is
protective veil can be added to protect            determined by the technical demands placed
against the effects of weathering.                 on the pultrusion.
The coated fibres are preformed to the             Glass fibre is the most commonly used
desired shape and then drawn through a             reinforcing material giving the pultrusion light
heated die. Cure of the thermosetting resin        weight, stiffness and durability.
is initiated by heat in the die and the catalyst
in the resin mix. The rate of reaction is          Both unidirectional fibres and multidirectional
controlled by heating and cooling zones in         mats can be combined to provide a profile
the die.                                           with the optimum mechanical properties for
The profile is cut to length downstream of         the required application.
the pulling mechanism by a circular saw.
                                                   For higher performance requirements,
One of the greatest attributes of the              carbon fibres can be used. This enables
pultrusion process is that a wide range of         even stiffer and lighter profiles to be
materials can be used to provide a broad           produced. The use of aramid fibres will
spectrum of composite properties. Given a          produce a profile with excellent toughness.
specific profile geometry, the design
engineer has a virtually unlimited supply of       • Laminating resin
material options from which to construct a         The resin matrix binds the composite
composite. The engineer must consider the          together and imparts enhanced properties
intended function of the finished product, as      such as corrosion resistance, excellent fire
well as the effects of temperature,                and smoke properties, high temperature
atmosphere, environment and time. Every            performance etc.
selection, of course, carries an economic
impact and the optimal cost / performance          • Resins Available
options can be derived only with a proper          Polyester is suitable for most industrial
understanding of the needs of the                  applications.
application and the available raw materials.       Vinylester affords improved corrosion
                                                   resistance and physical properties.
                                                   Epoxy offers superior thermal stability and
                                                   corrosion resistance.
                                                   Modar® improves fire performance and
                                                   smoke emissions.
                                                   Phenolic maximises fire performance and is
                                                   offered as an alternative to Modar®

                                                   • Surface Mats
                                                   These improve the surface finish and offer
                                                   improved performance for chemical and
                                                   weather resistance.




                                                        Section 2.0 – The pultrusion process
The Pultrusion Process




                     Section 2.1 – Pultrusion Machine
        The Pultrusion Process
There are a number of factors to consider                   Reinforcement Forms
when deciding upon the type of
reinforcements to be used. The physical         Having decided what type of fibre to use, the
properties of the final profile are dependent   next consideration is how it should be
on:                                             orientated to utilise its properties in the most
                                                effective manner.
• The type of reinforcing fibre and its
  ultimate capability.                          Various forms of fibre reinforcement may be
• The orientation and placement of the          used in the production of pultruded profiles,
  reinforcement.                                the physical properties of the final profile
• The amount of reinforcement used              being dependent upon the form, amount
  relative to the other materials.              and placement of the reinforcement used.

           Reinforcement Types                  Shown below are the main forms of
                                                reinforcement used on a routine basis by
Glass fibres due to their low cost and ready    Fibreforce in the production of profiles:
availability are the most widely used.
                                                             Unidirectional Fibre
Electrical grade E-glass fibres are the most
common and exhibit a tensile strength of        Used in the form of continuous glass fibre
approx. 3450 MPa and a tensile modulus of       rovings or continuous carbon fibre tows this
70 GPa.                                         is the simplest form of reinforcement
                                                available. These materials are incorporated
A higher tensile strength of 4600 MPa and       into the profile in such a fashion that the
tensile modulus of 85 GPa can be achieved       fibres lie parallel to the longitudinal axis of
with S-glass fibres, developed for high         the profile.
performance applications.
                                                Advantages
Greater stiffness can be achieved by the
use of carbon fibres. The fibres can exhibit    With all of the fibres lying parallel, this form
tensile strengths from 2050 - 5500 MPa and      of reinforcement imparts a large measure of
tensile moduli from 210 - 830 GPa. If high      tensile strength and stiffness along the
tensile strength is required, then a lower      longitudinal axis of the profile.
tensile modulus will be achieved. Carbon
fibres offer additional properties including    Disadvantages
electrical conductivity, slightly negative
thermal coefficient of expansion, and low       There is little or no contribution to the
specific gravity.                               transverse strength and stiffness of the
                                                profile.

                                                Unidirectional fibres are usually used in
                                                conjunction    with    other   forms   of
                                                reinforcement. One exception is tension
                                                member profiles where the requirement is
                                                for a high degree of longitudinal tensile
                                                strength.




                                                           Section 2.2 – Reinforcements
        The Pultrusion Process
Random Glass Mat (Continuous Filament            Advantages
Mat)
                                                 Significant improvements in transverse
To overcome the anisotropic nature of            properties can be achieved using woven
unidirectional rovings, reinforcing fibres       fabrics.
aligned in a non axial direction can be used.
Random glass mat is the most commonly            Disadvantages
used.
                                                 Woven materials have a relatively high cost.
This material consists of continuous             There may be a slight tendency for the cloth
filaments of glass fibre layed in a random       to skew during the production of complex
fashion to form a web of glass fibre which is    shapes. Strength is reduced by damage
held together during processing by a light       caused in the weaving process.
coating of binder. This material is used in
conjunction with unidirectional glass fibre                    Stitched Fabric
rovings.
                                                 This material consist of a number of layers
Advantages                                       of unidirectional fibre reinforcement, the
                                                 fibres in each layer running in a single
Since the filaments are laid in a random         direction but with the fibre direction
manner this material provides contributions      changing from layer to layer.
to both longitudinal and transverse
properties.                                      In order to form a cloth the layers are
                                                 locked together by means of locking
Disadvantages                                    stitches passing through the cloth.
                                                 Stitched cloth is commonly produced using
Due to the random nature of the fibre            either glass fibre rovings or carbon fibre
placement the directional properties of          tows and is available in two layer (biaxial),
continuous filament mat are less well            three layer (triaxial) or four layer
defined than for other forms of                  (quadraxial) forms.
reinforcement.                                   If the fibres running along the length of the
Also the material is inherently more bulky       cloth are considered to be running in the 0
due to its random nature thus limiting the       degree direction then biaxial cloth is
fibre volume fraction that can be achieved.      produced as 0/90 degree cloth, triaxial
                                                 cloth is normally produced as 45/90/45
                Woven Fabric                     degree cloth or 0/+45/-45 degree cloth and
                                                 quadraxial cloth is normally produced as
Consisting of unidirectional fibres woven to     0/90/+45/-45 degree cloth. As with woven
form a cloth, this material is available in      cloth some adjustment of the relative
glass fibre, carbon fibre, glass fibre/carbon    weights of reinforcement in each of the
fibre hybrid and glass fibre/aramid fibre        layers is possible in order to influence the
hybrid forms. Woven cloth may be produced        final profile properties.
as an unbiased material, having an equal
weight of reinforcement in both warp and
weft directions, or in the form of a biased
cloth,    where     different   weights     of
reinforcement are used in the warp and weft
directions.



                                                            Section 2.2 – Reinforcements
        The Pultrusion Process
Advantages                                    Advantages

Since the reinforcing fibres run in well-     Improved    resistance     to    corrosive
defined directions, the use of this type of   environments,      improved        surface
material allows for the final profile         appearance imparted to finished profile.
properties to be well defined in a number
of directions.                                Disadvantages

Disadvantages                                 Higher cost than standard random glass
                                              mat.
The costs of this material are higher than
for unidirectional fibres or random fibre                   Polyester Veil
mat. There may be a slight tendency for
the cloth to skew during the production of    Although not strictly a reinforcing material
complex shapes. Less fibre is present         this material is normally incorporated into
producing less strength when compared to      the surface layer of the profile. Polyester
unidirectional constructions.                 veil is used as a surface layer in order to
                                              provide a resin rich surface which
                                              improves the appearance of the profile, by
             Combination Mat                  reducing the print-through of the
                                              underlying materials, but more importantly
Available in glass fibre this material        the resin rich layer serves to protect the
consists of a layer of random glass mat       underlying reinforcement in a hostile
stitched to one surface of a woven cloth or   environment.
a standard stitched cloth (biaxial or
triaxial).
                                                         Carbon Fibre Tissue
Advantages
                                              Whilst not a reinforcing material carbon
The advantages of the combination mat         fibre tissue can be applied to the surface
are similar to those as woven or stitched     of carbon fibre/epoxy profiles to improve
cloth but with improved dimensional           the surface appearance.
stability.

Disadvantages                                               Peelply Fabric
The directional reinforcement properties
                                              This material may be applied as a
are less well defined than with woven or
                                              surfacing layer during the production of
stitched cloth due to the presence of
                                              pultruded profiles. It is used to provide a
random glass mat.
                                              clean, textured surface suitable for
                                              adhesive bonding. The peelply is left in
                                              place after production and is removed
         Glass Surfacing Cloths               immediately prior to bonding, thus
                                              reducing    the     amount     of   surface
Similar in form to random glass mat, but      preparation required to obtain a good
generally having a finer surface texture,     adhesive bond.
these materials are produced using glass
with improved resistance to certain
Chemical environments


                                                        Section 2.2 – Reinforcements
        The Pultrusion Process
Although the fibre type, form and style        Isophthalic polyester resins may be
determines the ultimate strength potential,    formulated to give a good surface
the resin matrix determines the actual         appearance to the finished profile (low
level of properties achieved.                  shrinkage during cure) and will usually
                                               contain a UV inhibiting additive to reduce
At the present time Fibreforce uses five       the effect of UV degradation on the
main types of resin matrix to produce          finished profile.
thermoset pultruded profiles, these being
polyester, vinylester, epoxy, Modar® and       Polyesters will support combustion without
phenolic resins.                               modification. Fire retardant additives may
                                               be incorporated to ensure that finished
             Polyester Resins                  profiles will meet fire performance criteria.

Three main types of unsaturated polyester      Di-BromoNeopentylGlycol Polyester Resin
resin are used on a regular basis, these
being orthophthalic polyester, isophthalic     This form of polyester resin is formulated
polyester and di-bromoneopentylglycol          by the resin manufacturer to be fire
polyester.                                     retardant by reacting fire retardant agents
                                               into the resin backbone during production.
Orthophthalic Polyester Resin                  Although more expensive than isophthalic
                                               polyester resins they offer improved light
This offers the lowest cost approach in the    stability when compared to isophthalic
manufacture of pultruded profiles but has      polyesters incorporating fire retardant
the lowest level of chemical resistance and    additives.
in general will give the lowest level of
surface finish to the finished profile. This                 Vinylester Resin
resin matrix is not generally recommended
but can be used when requested.                Vinylester resins generally exhibit a higher
                                               resistance to corrosive environments than
Isophthalic Polyester Resin                    polyester resins.
                                               They offer excellent physical strength,
This offers a cost-effective approach for      and, in general, a better impact strength
the production of general-purpose profiles.    than polyester resins.
These resins are used for moderate
corrosion resistance applications up to        While standard vinylester resins are
65oC. At temperatures not exceeding            limited to 100oC - 125oC in most
65oC, they generally exhibit excellent         applications, other versions are available
resistance to water, weak acids and            that will withstand higher temperatures.
alkalis, and good resistance to solvents       These resins exhibit excellent resistance
and petroleum products.                        to acids, alkalis and many solvents.
                                               As with polyester resins additives may be
                                               included to improve the UV stability and
                                               fire performance of vinylester resins.




                                                                       Section 2.3 – Resins
        The Pultrusion Process
                Epoxy Resin                                   Phenolic Resin

Epoxy resins are generally recognised as        The principle reason for the selection of
providing a higher level of performance         phenolic resins for composite materials is
than either polyester or vinylester resins,     their outstanding heat and fire resistance.
in terms of elevated temperature
properties.                                     Phenolic composite materials also exhibit
                                                low smoke and moderate toxicity
Epoxy resins processed by Fibreforce are        emissions when subjected to fire.
usually restricted to the production of high
performance composites for speciality           Phenolic composites can be expected to
markets, e.g. Aerospace applications.           attain the requirements of the building
                                                regulations, for ‘Class 0’ fire performance.

               Modar® Resin                     Their lack of combustibility, makes
                                                phenolic composites suitable for the most
Modar® resin is the trade name of a range       extreme fire scenarios, such as offshore
of methacrylate based resins which are          grid flooring.
mainly used to produce profiles with
enhanced fire performance properties and                Temperature Performance
a lower level of smoke emission than can
generally be realised with a polyester or       Polyester resins have typical glass
vinylester based resin matrix.                  transition temperatures ranging from 60 -
                                                120oC. Exceeding this temperature
Resin systems can be formulated using           threshold is accompanied by a reduction in
Modar® resin to meet the most stringent         mechanical properties.
fire and smoke performance requirements.
                                                The actual continuous use temperature
Modar® offers fast cure, and its low            must be defined in the context of the
viscosity allows the incorporation of high      desired performance characteristics. For
filler levels of non toxic aluminium            example in an electrical application,
trihydrate fire retardant additive to produce   pultrusions based on a polyester resin can
halogen-free, low smoke fire retardant          be approved for continuous use at 150,
composites, which on burning produce            180 and 200oC, while retaining a high
very low levels of carbon monoxide.             percentage of their electrical insulation
                                                properties    (This   high    temperature
Modar® in combination with aluminium            exposure is not suitable for structural
trihydrate, can be expected to attain the       applications)
requirements of the building regulations,
for ‘Class 0’ fire performance.                 Chemical decomposition of polyester will
                                                begin to occur at temperatures above
                                                250oC.




                                                                        Section 2.3 – Resins
           The Pultrusion Process
Resin Characteristics - Summary
Table 2:

      Resin                      Characteristics
      Polyester                  • Very versatile - can be fine tuned to particular specifications
                                 • Low cost
                                 • Good physical / mechanical properties
                                 • Good electrical properties
                                 • Excellent pigmentability
                                 • Good chemical resistance
      Vinylester                 • Excellent corrosion resistance
                                 • Very good physical / mechanical properties
                                 • Good temperature performance
      Epoxy                      • High thermal stability
                                 • High chemical resistance
                                 • Tough
                                 • Low shrinkage
                                 • Excellent electrical insulation properties
      Modar®                     • Low smoke
                                 • Enhanced fire performance
                                 • Excellent electrical insulation properties
                                 • Very good physical / mechanical properties
      Phenolic                   • Excellent fire performance
                                 • Excellent temperature performance
                                 • Very Low smoke
                                 • Good physical / mechanical properties

Fire Performance:

All the above are available in a number of different grades ranging from non fire retardant to Class
“0” The Fibreforce flammability class designations relate to BS476 Part 7:1987 “Method of
classification of the surface spread of flame of products”. (See appendix 14 for further details) In
this test a specimen 900mm long is mounted in front of a radiant panel in such a way that it is
subjected to a specific heat intensity gradient. Six specimens are tested and the flame spread
classification is based on at least five of the specimens meeting the requirements set out in the
table below.

Table 3:

                     Spread of flame at 1.5 min                   Final spread of flame
    Classification    Limit (mm)     Limit for one          Limit (mm)         Limit for one
                                     specimen in                               specimen in
                                    sample (mm)                               sample (mm)
    Class 0          Class 1 & Part 6   Class 1 & Part 6   Class 1 & Part 6     Class 1 & Part 6
    Class 1              165            165±25                  165               165±25
    Class 2              215            215±25                  455               455±45
    Class 3              265            265±25                  710               710±75
    Class 4          exceeding the limits for Class 3



                                                                                Section 2.3 – Resins
             The Pultrusion Process
                                                         Pullwinding


Fibreforce have the capability to produce high volumes of thin wall high strength composite tubes
via Pullwinding. Pullwinding combines the two processes of pultrusion and filament winding,
resulting in a tube with excellent hoop strength, longitudinal strength and modulus.

Our pullwinding machines are uniquely flexible in
allowing a range of tube constructions. From
simple 3 layer 00 / +wrap / 00 for very thin wall,
high hoop strength tubes, to 9 Layers of
construction:

Veil/mat/00/+wrap/00/-wrap/00/mat/veil with various
combinations between.

For full details, on the profiles available please
refer to Section 11.




Pw 200-2-8 Pullwinding machine interfaced to the Pultrusion machine.   200 mm dia Pullwound tube being produced.




                                 Typical Installation with Pultrusion Machine




                                                                                    Section 2.4 – Pullwinding
                                Fibreforce
              Company Profile

Established in 1984 and operating from
two UK sites, one at Runcorn, Cheshire
and the second at Clacton on Sea, Essex,
Fibreforce is the largest UK pultruder and
has many years experience within the
industry.
Our parent company Pacific Composites is
the largest pultruder in Australia and their
location enables the group to supply
composite materials world wide.
                                                        Research and Development
Fibreforce has been involved in many
prestigious contracts (a full list is available   Fibreforce’s research and development
on request), the company played a major           programme investigates new materials,
role in the design process of the Channel         develops new products and assists our
Tunnel, which resulted in pultrusions being       customers with unusually demanding or
specified as the chosen material for the          difficult application problems.
cable trays.
                                                  Fibreforce has a comprehensive in-house
                                                  design capability, which includes a
                                                  sophisticated CAD system and a fully
                                                  equipped laboratory, so that customer
                                                  requirements can usually be met whatever
                                                  the application.




Fibreforce also supplied both custom and
standard profiles to the Troll oilfield
development as well as producing
carbonfibre profiles for the ailerons used in
the Airbus 300 series.

             Quality Assurance

A quality assurance system that conforms
to the ISO 9000 series of international
standards     operates  throughout    the
company with BS EN ISO 9002
certification being maintained at both
Runcorn and Clacton sites.
Fibreforce is an approved supplier to
British Aerospace, Shorts, Saab, Patria
Finavicomp, British Gas, Pirelli Cables,
The M.O.D. and RailTrack.


                                                        Section 3.1 - Company Overview
                               Fibreforce
The range of products available from Fibreforce can be classified as follows:

•   Structural Profiles - FORCE 800
•   Standard Profiles
•   Custom Profiles
•   Pullwinding

                                Structural Profiles - FORCE 800

FORCE 800 represents Fibreforce’s standard structural product range, all manufactured in
accordance with BS EN ISO 9002. It is a range of specially selected Engineering Structural
Elements that are designed to perform well under adverse chemical or corrosion conditions.

Full data on FORCE 800 is contained in Section 6.




The range includes I-Beams, channels, angles, tubes and box sections. All profiles are
stocked and can be delivered within three working days.

                                        General Profiles

There are a wide range of profiles available from Fibreforce - these are not necessarily held
in stock at all times. Full details are contained in Section 11. Please check the latest price list
for stocked items.

                                         Custom Profiles

Fibreforce specialises in matching the mechanical, thermal, corrosion and other
requirements of your application to our products. Where a standard product is not entirely
suitable, we offer a custom designed product manufactured to an individual specification.
This follows careful selection of fibre reinforcement and resin matrix, formulated in our fully
equipped test laboratory, and backed by our in-house CAD system.




                                                            Section 3.1 - Company Overview
            Material Comparison
                                         Introduction

There are a number of differences between designing with pultrusions and designing with
conventional materials. The designer, whilst following the guidelines in the pultrusion guide
should remain aware of the following:

Anisotropic

Pultrusions are not homogeneous or isotropic. The mechanical properties are directional and
it is important to consider both the transverse and longitudinal cases.

Modulus of Elasticity

Pultrusions tend to have a high strength to stiffness ratio. Whilst the strength is comparable,
the modulus of elasticity of pultrusions is approximately one-tenth that of steel. As a result
deflection may be the controlling design factor.

Shear Modulus

The shear modulus of pultrusions is relatively low compared to metals.

Temperature

Pultrusions do not perform as well as metals at elevated temperatures, as they are
susceptible to property degradation. Resins need to be carefully selected for continuous
operation at elevated temperatures. However in cold temperatures the mechanical properties
of pultrusions improve.

Comparative Performance of Pultruded and Steel Sections

The following table attempts to illustrate some of the above points. The material property
data which has been used is typical of the Force 800 structural range of profiles.

It can be seen that the tensile strength of the pultrusion is higher in this case than the steel,
but that the tensile modulus of steel is much higher than the pultrusion.

The strength performance is compared by considering the bending moment at which it will
fail. It can be seen that the pultruded sections can sustain much higher loads than the steel
sections. The steel sections are much stiffer than the pultrusions and deflection may be the
controlling design factor.

When the specific properties (performance per weight) are considered, the pultrusions have
excellent tensile and flexural strengths and the specific stiffness are of the same order as the
steel sections. If necessary the designer has the option to increase the overall dimensions
whilst maintaining the cross sectional area thus increasing dramatically the stiffness of the
pultruded section and achieving a considerable weight saving over a steel section of
comparable stiffness.




                                                 Section 4.1 – Material Comparison, Introduction
                     Pultrusions vs. Other
                           Materials
           Comparative Performance of Custom Pultruded Sections and Steel Sections3

           Table 4

                                   Units               Steel Box      GRP Box         GRP Box      Steel Angle    GRP Angle
                                                      50 x 50 x 3   50 x 50 x 5.57   50 x 50 x 4   50 x 50 x 6   50 x 50 x 5.75


Tensile                            N/mm
                                           2             265             300            300           265             300
Strength


Flexural Strength
(bending moment at failure)                              2.4             4.8            3.5            1.0            1.1
                                   kN.m

Tensile                           kN/mm
                                              2          210             19              19           210             19
Modulus


Flexural                           kN.m
                                          2               44             6.6            5.6            28              3
Rigidity


Density                            kg/m
                                          3             7800            1650           1650           7800           1650


Specific Tensile Strength           2
                               N/mm / (Mg/m )
                                                  3       34             180            180            34             180


Specific Flexural Strength     kN.m / (Mg/m )
                                                  3      0.31            2.9            2.1           0.13           3.67


Specific Tensile Modulus            2
                              kN/mm / (Mg/m )
                                                  3       27             12              12            27             12


Specific Flexural Rigidity         2
                               kN.m / (Mg/m )
                                                  3      5.6              4             3.4            3.6            1.8


Weight                             kg/m                  4.4             1.7            1.2            4.7           0.95




                                                                     Section 4.2 – Pultrusions v Steel
                       Pultrusions vs. other
                             materials
                          Comparison of Pultrusions to Aluminium Extrusions
          Table 5

Benefit                              Pultrusions                                   Aluminium Extrusions

Weight              Approximately 25% the density of steel.            Approximately 35% the density of steel.


                    Ultimate flexural strength is 200 N/mm2 in the
                    lengthwise direction of the profile. The values
Strength            in the transverse direction are 30% of the         Flexural strength is 240 N/mm2
                    lengthwise property.                               It is a homogeneous material.
                    Tensile strength is greater than aluminium in
                    the lengthwise direction.


                    Laminate design permits distribution of impact
Impact              load limiting surface damage at normal and         Easily and permanently deforms under
                    sub     zero     temperatures.     Permanent       impact.
                    deformation under impact is rare, unless the
                    impact is severe.


Corrosion           Has superior resistance to a wide range of         Corrosion resistance can be enhanced by
Resistance          chemicals.                                         processes such as anodising. Being a metal
                                                                       it can assist in galvanic corrosion.


                    Are excellent insulators with a low thermal        Are an excellent conductor of heat with a
Thermal             conductivity of 22.7 W/moK                         high coefficient of thermal conductivity of
Conductivity        The coefficient of thermal expansion is very       852 W/moK
                    low 10 x 10-6/oK                                   Also have a high coefficient of thermal
                                                                       expansion of 20 - 24 x 10-6/oK


Electrical          Non conductive, good insulator – Generally.        Good conductor of electricity. Poor insulator.
Conductivity        Additives can be added to achieve
                    conductivity.

EMI / RFI           Are transparent to radio waves and EMI/RFI         Reflects radio      waves     and     EMI/RFI
Transparency        transmission.                                      transmissions.


Colour              Profiles can be self-coloured throughout the       Is silver in colour. Can be coloured by
                    profile by adding pigments to the resin            anodising or painting.
                    mixture. Profiles can be painted if required.


                    Fabricated with simple wood working tools.         Easily fabricated. Can be welded, brazed,
Fabrication         pultrusion are light to handle and can be          soldered and mechanically jointed.
                    assembled by mechanical and / or adhesive
                    bolts. The material can not be welded.

                                                                      Section 4.3 - Pultrusions v Aluminium
             Pultrusions vs. other
                   materials
Frequently a designer has to make a decision whether to use a pultruded section as an
alternative to traditional materials such as steel, aluminium or wood. Selected relative
properties are listed in Table 6 and displayed in the following charts - Section 4.5.


Material Property Comparisons
Table 6:

                                Tensile Strength           Rigidity        Flexural Strength
                                    N/mm2                  kN/mm2               N/mm2


 FRP Pultrusions
 • 50% Mat and Rovings                 207                    17                   207
 • 70% Rovings                         690                    21                   550


 Wood
 • Maple                               100                   12.4                   55
 • Pine                                 60                   12.1                   35


 Metals
 • Aluminium                           280                    70                   280
 • Steel                               690                   210                   690


 Thermoplastics
 • Reinforced (typical)                 55                   3.4                    55
 • Glass Reinforced                    100                   6.9                   140
   (typical)



It is important to remember that the mechanical properties of pultrusions can be modified by
the use of different fibres (glass, carbon or aramid) and by substituting longitudinal fibres for
random mats. As so many options exist it is difficult to provide an all inclusive list of
properties.

The designer must learn to exploit the specific fibre characteristics to achieve the desired
performance characteristics whilst using the orientation opportunities available from the
different reinforcement types.




                                                      Section 4.4 - Pultrusions v Other materials
                Pultrusions vs. other
                      materials
    Table 6. compared various materials in terms of absolute strength or stiffness, it is
    often desirable to determine the thickness of the pultrusion necessary to achieve the
    strength or rigidity equivalent to that of other materials. Such an analysis is shown in
    Table 7.

    This highlights that, for example, a standard FORCE 800 construction would need to
    be 1.16 times as thick as the aluminium section to achieve the same “flexural”
    strength.

    Equivalent performance factor of FRP pultrusions to conventional
    structural materials:

    Table 7:
                                    Steel                            Aluminium                         Wood

           Specific    Tensile      Rigidity   Flexural    Tensile    Rigidity   Flexural   Tensile    Rigidity   Flexural
           Gravity     Strength                Strength                          Strength   Strength              Strength



FORCE       1.85         2.5         2.15        1.82       1.0        1.49       1.16       0.25       0.79       0.45
 800


 70%        2.00         1.0         1.71        1.12       0.4        1.19       0.71       0.10       0.63       0.27
Rovings


    (Note: A factor of 1.0 indicates equal performance.)



    When the application does not require equivalency the product thickness can be
    reduced accordingly to yield savings in material and processing costs.




                                                                  Section 4.4 - Pultrusions v Other materials
                                Pultrusions vs. other
                                      materials
                  Density (Mg/m3)                                               Specific Flexural Modulus (kN/mm2 / (Mg/m3)


Pultrusions                                                     Pultrusions

     Wood                                                            Wood

      Steel                                                           Steel

Aluminium                                                       Aluminium

      PVC                                                             PVC

              0             2         4         6         8                     0           50         100        150         200

                  Tensile Strength (N/mm2)                                      Thermal Conductivity (W/m ºK)



Pultrusions                                                     Pultrusions

     Wood                                                            Wood

      Steel                                                           Steel

Aluminium                                                       Aluminium

      PVC                                                             PVC
              0        100      200       300       400   500                   0                25          50         75               100



                  Flexural Modulus (kN/mm2)                                     Thermal Expansion (x10-6 / ºK)



Pultrusions                                                   Pultrusions

     Wood                                                          Wood

      Steel                                                         Steel

Aluminium                                                     Aluminium
      PVC                                                            PVC
              0        50       100       150       200   250
                                                                            0          10    20       30     40    50    60         70     80




                                                                                    Section 4.5 – General comparative data.
          Custom Pultrusions
             Introduction                                     Shape

There will be occasions when it is not        Virtually any shape with a constant
possible to use a standard shape and          cross sectional area longitudinally, can
it will be necessary to design a new          be pultruded.
profile which exactly meets the needs         Some curved shapes may be possible,
of your particular application.               but the equipment required for these
                                              shapes      differs   from     standard
Pultrusion allows for a great deal of         pultrusion machines.
design flexibility when considering the
design of a new profile. The large            Any length can be produced that can
selection of reinforcements and resins        be transported (small diameter rods
available, coupled with the flexibility       can be coiled up to 5km+)
possible when designing the shape of
the product means that compared to            A full design service is available from
other moulding processes, there is            Fibreforce.
little that cannot be achieved.
                                                           Resin Matrix
Within the physical limits imposed by
the size and pulling power of the             Typical resins available include
pultrusion machine there are an               polyesters, vinylesters, Modar®, epoxy
enormous number of options open to            and phenolic. Each resin system can
the designer and a wide variety of            be modified or special resin used to
shapes and sizes can be produced.             address      individual    requirements
The format is almost limitless - flat         including fire specifications, elevated
strips, sheets, channels, angles, tubes,      temperatures and particular chemical
solid rods, T sections, I beams, solid        or corrosive environments. (See
sections, hollow sections are all             section 7)
possible.

Compared with tooling for other types
of composite processing, a pultrusion
                                                         Reinforcements
die is relatively inexpensive. Dies for
the production of larger shapes are
more expensive and their costs                The reinforcements used can be
increase with complexity.                     customised to improve strength,
                                              stiffness     and     other     physical
One of the attractions of custom -            characteristics. It is possible to alter
designed pultrusions is the ability to        the type, form placement and quantity
economise on the amount of material           of reinforcements. (See section ref
and weight required to perform a given        2.2)
task.

Pultrusions can be customised in one
or more of the following ways:




                                           Section 5.1 – Custom pultrusions introduction
           Custom Pultrusions
            Profile Design3                                   Profile Detail

There are several points that require            Another     important       area      for
consideration during the design                  consideration is the profile detail. This
process and by considering each one,             is an area that can have a major
the design process will lead to a shape          impact on the performance of the
that is optimised for both material and          product, not only within its designed
production efficiency.                           function but as a manufactured
                                                 product.
One of the critical areas of any product
is wall thickness. Whether designed to
carry a specific load, designed to fit or        • Radii
purely cosmetic, it is vital that this area
is controlled. To assist in this, the            Radius       in    pultruded     sections
following points may be considered:              represents the curved connection of
                                                 two     intersecting    sections.   With
• Minimum Wall Thickness                         pultrusions, the best practice is to
                                                 maintain uniformity of cross section
A minimum thickness of 2.3mm is                  through the radius. All radii should be
recommended whenever possible.                   kept as large as design will allow. The
This thickness is the minimum at                 reinforcement does not form readily
which the balance between ensuring               and it tends to concentrate on the
sufficient reinforcement and providing           inner radius, which will result in resin
the best performance in all directions           rich areas on the outside of the radius,
can be achieved.                                 which may crack or flake off.
                                                 By the same principle, sharp corners
• Maximum Thickness                              should be avoided whenever possible.
                                                 These create areas of increased risk
Whilst in theory there is no limit to the
                                                 to tooling damage and are often areas
thickness of a section, processing
                                                 of concern when fine details are
constraints often restrict the design
                                                 required.
within set processing parameters.
                                                 In addition generous radii aid in
Factors such as cure rate and
                                                 processing. They also help to
machine capacity may need to be
                                                 distribute stress in corners resulting in
considered and if in any doubt,
                                                 a stronger profile.
Fibreforce are able to advise on any
specific requirements.
                                                                With       a       normal
• Uniform Wall Thickness                                        mat/roving construction,
                                                                too sharp a radius can
To assist in maintaining dimensional                            lead to resin richness on
stability and an even cure throughout,                          the corners.
wall thickness should be held constant
whenever possible. Other benefits                               This can be minimised
gained from doing so include improved            by making the outer radius = inner
profile continuity at corners where the          radius + wall thickness.
section thickness is constant. The               If a sharp radius is unavoidable for
range of wall thicknesses produced is                             some reason it may be
impressive from 1 mm to 50 mm. Solid                              possible to pack the
rod has been produced from 0.86 mm                                outer mat into the
up to 75 mm diameter.                                             corner using a roving
                                                                  infill.



                                              Section 5.1 – Custom pultrusions introduction
          Custom Pultrusions
              This option is only             Tooling Split Lines
              feasible if the design of
              the infeed is such that         In order to make a pultrusion die,
              accurate placement of           generally, the die has to be split to
              the roving infill is            allow the surface to be chrome plated.
              possible.                       When the two halves of the die are
                                              joined together they may create small
              • Returns                       visible split lines on the profile.
              Whilst    returns    are        On structural sections these split lines
              possible, in contrast to        are not important as they can be
              many other moulding             incorporated into ends or corners
              processes,                      where they can be well disguised.
              consideration must be           For a custom profile, where surface
              given to the placement          finish is important, please advise
              of any returns with             Fibreforce so that the tooling can be
              regard to tool design.          designed to minimise any split lines.
              Returns must take into
              account the placement           • Shorts
              of tool split lines,
              allowing the tool to be         There are opportunities when it is
              opened.                         possible to purchase “shorts” instead
                                              of a standard length - please ask for
• Part Shrinkage                              details if you can utilise different
                                              lengths.
Pultrusions generally experience a 2 -
3 % shrinkage during manufacture.
                                              • Undercuts
The incorporation of a uniform wall
thickness will limit any warpage to the
                                              Unlike most moulding processes,
final profile, as consistent shrinkage
                                              undercuts are feasible and often
will be experienced throughout the
                                              practical on pultruded profiles. Shapes
profile.
                                              are pultrudable, which would not be
Accurate die design will allow for any
                                              possible by other moulding processes.
shrinkage. However the shrinkage is
caused by the resins used and any
subsequent change in the type of resin        • Tolerances
or resin content could result in a
different shrinkage figure.                   Standard tolerances have been
                                              developed by the industry in
• Surface Appearance                          conjunction with American & European
                                              standards agencies.
Pultrusions tend to have a glass-rich         See section 12 for details.
surface, therefore in order to improve
the finish, most profiles are produced        With a new custom profile, workable
with a surface veil. This veil creates a      tolerances are developed which are
resin-rich surface without detracting         acceptable    to    both    parties.
from the performance of the profile. It
coats the profile in a base resin and
eliminates the need for any secondary
sealing operations except for cut ends
and fabricated holes. The veil will
improve corrosion resistance, u.v.
resistance and weatherability.


                                           Section 5.1 – Custom pultrusions introduction
Structural Data

 FORCE 800




       Section 6.0 - Force 800 Mechanical Properties
      Mechanical Properties
The mechanical properties of pultruded profiles depend on a number of factors
including quantity and type of reinforcement, resin type, resin formulation and profile
geometry. For the profiles in the FORCE 800 range every effort has been made to
standardise the construction in order to give the best balance of properties for the
majority of structural applications. However, because of differences in profile
geometry and because the range includes different resin grades, the mechanical
properties of one particular profile type can differ from those of another.
Consequently, Fibreforce has made the decision to adopt a set of standardised
values which the design engineer can use with confidence for all the profiles in the
range. The values chosen are the characteristic material properties for pultrusions
as defined in Structural Design of Polymer Composites - EUROCOMP Design Code
and Handbook1. These values were chosen because they form part of a unified
design code for structural composite materials which is readily accessible to all
design engineers. Testing of FORCE 800 profiles has shown that the EUROCOMP
values may be treated as minimum guaranteed properties. In cases where actual
strengths and stiffnesses greater than those specified would have design
implications, Fibreforce can supply specific test data for individual profiles.

                      EUROCOMP Design Code - Table 8 (Ref 1)
    Characteristic Material Properties - Pultrusion (1:1 Mat/Roving Construction)
Property                                        Symbol        Characteristic Value
Tensile Strength (longitudinal)                 σx,t,k             207 N/mm2
Tensile Strength (transverse)                   σy,t,k               48 N/mm2
Tensile Modulus (longitudinal)                  Ex,t,k             17.2 kN/mm2
Tensile Modulus (transverse)                    Ey,t,k              5.5 kN/mm2
Compressive Strength (longitudinal)             σx,c,k             207 N/mm2
Compressive Strength (transverse)               σy,c,k             103 N/mm2
Compressive Modulus (longitudinal)              Ex,c,k             17.2 kN/mm2
Compressive Modulus (transverse)                Ey,c,k              6.9 kN/mm2
Shear Strength (in plane)                       τxy,k                31 N/mm2
Shear Modulus (in plane)                        Gxy,k               2.9 kN/mm2
Flexural Strength (longitudinal)                σx,b,k             207 N/mm2
Flexural Strength (transverse)                  σy,b,k               69 N/mm2
Flexural Modulus (longitudinal)                 Ex,b,k             13.8 kN/mm2
Flexural Modulus (transverse)                   Ey,b,k              5.5 kN/mm2
Poisson's Ratio (longitudinal)                  νxy                0.33
Poisson's Ratio (transverse)                    νyx                0.11




                                          Section 6.0 - Force 800 Mechanical Properties
         Mechanical Properties
Fibreforce strongly recommend that structures utilising Force 800 profiles are
designed by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel using the methods
and principles outlined in Structural Design of Polymer Composites - EUROCOMP
Design Code and Handbook1.

                                  Flexural Members (Beams)

For flexural members (beams) the most common limit states to be considered are
deflection under load (serviceability limit state), strength (ultimate limit state) and
stability or resistance to buckling (ultimate limit state). Under normal loading
conditions at ambient temperature and in a non-aggressive environment material
coefficients of γm=3 for strength and γm=1.3 for stiffness may be assumed. For other
conditions, please seek advice from Fibreforce.

Deflection
The deflection under load of a Force 800 flexural member is the sum of the deflection
due to bending and the deflection due to shear and is given by:

         FvL3      FL
δ = k1        + k2 v
         (EI)     A v Gxy

where:

δ        =        Total deflection
Fv       =        Total vertical load on the beam
L        =        span
EI       =        appropriate flexural rigidity of the full section
Av       =        shear area of the web(s)
Gxy      =        in-plane shear modulus of the web(s)
k1, k2   =        factors depending on the type of loading and the end conditions.

Selected values for k1 and k2 are given in the table below:

Table 9:

                  End conditions             Loading type          k1       k2
             Simply supported at ends     Point load at centre    1/48     1/4
             Simply supported at ends     Uniformly distributed   5/384    1/8
                  Fixed at ends           Uniformly distributed   1/384    1/24
                    Cantilever             Point load at end       1/3      1
                    Cantilever            Uniformly distributed    1/8     1/2

Note that for beams with a span/depth ratio of 25 or greater the deflection due to
shear is small compared to the deflection due to bending and the shear term in the
above equation may be ignored.


                                                       Section 6.1 - Flexural members - Beams
         Mechanical Properties
Strength
The flexural stress in a beam is given by:

          M
σ x,b =
          Wyy


where:

σx,b      =     flexural stress at a given cross section
M         =     bending moment at that cross section
Wyy       =     section modulus of the beam in the direction of loading


The flexural stress in the beam should not exceed the design flexural strength of the
material.

                                     σ x,b,k 207
(For Force 800 profiles σ x,b,d =           =    = 69 N/mm2 under normal loading
                                      γm      3
conditions).

The shear stress in a beam is given by:

          Fv
τ xy =
          Av
where:

τxy       =     shear stress at a given cross section
Fv        =     shear force at that cross section
Av        =     area of the web(s)


The shear stress in the beam should not exceed the design shear strength of the
material.
                                         τ xy,k       31
(For Force 800 profiles       τ xy,d =            =      = 10.3 N/mm2 under normal loading
                                          γm          3
conditions).




                                                            Section 6.1 - Flexural members - Beams
      Mechanical Properties
Stability
There are a number of possible buckling modes to be considered in the selection of a
Force 800 beam. A full discussion of the resistance to buckling of flexural members
is beyond the scope of this guide (the designer is referred to Structural Design of
Polymer Composites - EUROCOMP Design Code and Handbook1 for more
information). The following equations may be used to determine limit state values for
stress in the beam under various buckling modes.




The plate stiffness parameters Dx, Dy and D ′ defined below and are taken from
                                            xy

Eurocomp Table 4.1)


                          E x,d t 3
                                  w
                  Dx =
                       12(1 − υ xy υ yx )

                                E y,d t 3
                                        w
                  Dy =
                         12(1− υ xy υ yx )

                          Gxy,d t 3
                                  f
                  D′ =
                   xy
                                12


Web buckling stress due to flexure:


                                kπ 2D x
                  σ x.cr,bw =                         (Eurocomp Eq.4.26)
                                 d2 t w
                                  w


where             k = 20


Web buckling stress due to shear:


                                4k(D xD3 )0.25
                                       y
                  τ x,cr,bw =                         (Eurocomp Eq.4.29)
                                      d2 t w
                                       w


where             k=8




                                                   Section 6.1 - Flexural members - Beams
        Mechanical Properties
Local buckling of compression flange
At points of concentrated load and at supports, it may be necessary to insert stiffeners
between the flanges of open structural shapes to prevent local buckling of the compression
flange.

For I beams, channels and angles:


                                       b  2 12D′ xy
                                   π D x   +
                                      2
                                                                  (Eurocomp Eq.4.38)
                                       a       π 
                                                   2
                                                       
                     σ x,cr,bf   =              2
                                            tfb

where                a = length of beam
For box sections:

                                            H0 + D xD y
                     σ x,cr,bf = 2π 2                              (Eurocomp Eq.4.9)
                                                   t f b2

                                 υ xyD y + υ yxD x
where                H0 =                               + 2D′
                                                            xy
                                          2
Lateral torsional buckling
A beam which is not restrained laterally may deflect and/or twist out of the plane of the load at
considerably less load than an equivalent beam which is laterally supported. It is strongly
recommended that only Force 800 beams with geometrical symmetry in the plane of the load
be used in a laterally unsupported condition. A discussion of effective lateral bracing systems
is beyond the scope of this guide (the designer is referred to the ASCE Structural Plastics
Design Manual2 for further information) but generally, if the compression flange of a beam is
attached at frequent points along its length to a roof or floor system then it may be considered
to be laterally supported.

Critical buckling moment (for laterally unsupported I beams only):

                                               Iw Gxy J
                     Mb = C1Pey K                 +                (Eurocomp Eq.4.39)
                                               Izz Pey

where                K = 1 and C1 = 1.13

                                 π 2E z,dIzz
                     Pey =                                         (Eurocomp Eq.4.40)
                                   (kL) 2

                          If ( d w + t f )
                                               2

                     Iw =                                          (Eurocomp Eq.4.41)
                                  2

                         b3 t f
and                  If = f
                          12

                                                                 Section 6.1 - Flexural members - Beams
      Mechanical Properties
                                      Load Tables

The following load tables have been calculated for the Force 800 profiles in the
orientations shown and give the maximum recommended uniformly distributed loads
(in Newtons per mm of beam length) for a simply supported beam over a single span
under the various limit states quoted. The tables are based on the profiles being
used at ambient temperature and in a non-aggressive environment so material
coefficients of γm=3 for strength and γm=1.3 for stiffness have been assumed. If the
profiles are likely to be used at elevated temperatures or in aggressive environments
then further safety factors should be applied. The tables have been generated using
the above equations.




Note: Please check against the latest Force 800 price list for details.




                                                      Section 6.1 - Flexural members - Beams
FORCE 800


Box Sections




       Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables S
                  Force 820 - 100 x 100 x 4 Box




                     Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
   Span                                Laterally supported
   (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
           limit state                             deflection)
                         L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
   1000      11.10         -      10.12     8.09       6.74      5.77      5.05
   1250      7.09          -       5.48      4.37      3.64      3.12      2.72
   1500      4.92        4.36     3.26      2.60       2.17      1.85      1.62
   1750      3.61        2.79     2.09      1.66       1.38      1.18      1.03
   2000      2.75        1.89     1.41      1.12       0.93      0.79      0.69
   2250      2.17        1.33     0.99      0.79       0.65      0.55      0.48
   2500      1.75        0.97     0.72      0.57       0.47      0.40      0.35
   2750      1.44        0.72     0.54      0.42       0.35      0.30      0.25
   3000      1.21        0.55     0.41      0.32       0.26      0.22      0.19
   3250      1.03        0.43     0.32      0.25       0.20      0.17      0.14
   3500      0.88        0.34     0.25      0.19       0.16      0.13      0.11
   3750      0.76        0.27     0.20      0.15       0.12      0.10      0.09
   4000      0.67        0.22     0.16      0.12       0.10      0.08      0.07
   4250      0.59        0.18     0.13      0.10       0.08      0.06      0.05
   4500      0.52        0.15     0.10      0.08       0.06      0.05      0.04
   4750      0.47        0.12     0.08      0.06       0.05      0.04      0.03
   5000      0.42        0.10     0.07      0.05       0.04      0.03      0.02


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
                   Force 822 - 51 x 51 x 3.2 Box




                     Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
   Span                                Laterally supported
   (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
           limit state                             deflection)
                         L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
   500       11.73       10.40    7.80      6.23       5.19      4.45      3.89
   600       9.77        6.31     4.73      3.78       3.15      2.70      2.36
   700       8.37        4.09     3.07      2.45       2.04      1.75      1.53
   800       7.33        2.79     2.09      1.67       1.39      1.19      1.04
   900       6.08        1.99     1.49      1.19       0.99      0.85      0.74
   1000      4.92        1.46     1.09      0.87       0.73      0.62      0.54
   1100      4.07        1.10     0.83      0.66       0.55      0.47      0.41
   1200      3.42        0.85     0.64      0.51       0.42      0.36      0.31
   1300      2.91        0.67     0.50      0.40       0.33      0.28      0.25
   1400      2.51        0.54     0.40      0.32       0.26      0.22      0.20
   1500      2.18        0.44     0.32      0.26       0.21      0.18      0.16
   1600      1.92        0.36     0.27      0.21       0.17      0.15      0.13
   1700      1.70        0.30     0.22      0.17       0.14      0.12      0.11
   1800      1.51        0.25     0.19      0.15       0.12      0.10      0.09
   1900      1.36        0.21     0.16      0.12       0.10      0.08      0.07
   2000      1.22        0.18     0.13      0.10       0.09      0.07      0.06
   2100      1.11        0.15     0.11      0.09       0.07      0.06      0.05
   2200      1.01        0.13     0.10      0.08       0.06      0.05      0.04
   2300      0.92        0.12     0.08      0.07       0.05      0.04      0.04
   2400      0.85        0.10     0.07      0.06       0.05      0.04      0.03
   2500      0.78        0.09     0.06      0.05       0.04      0.03      0.03

This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.


                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
                     Force 823 - 44 x 44 x 6 Box




                     Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
   Span                                Laterally supported
   (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
           limit state                             deflection)
                         L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
   500       11.73       10.40    7.80      6.23       5.19      4.45      3.89
   600       9.77        6.31     4.73      3.78       3.15      2.70      2.36
   700       8.37        4.09     3.07      2.45       2.04      1.75      1.53
   800       7.33        2.79     2.09      1.67       1.39      1.19      1.04
   900       6.08        1.99     1.49      1.19       0.99      0.85      0.74
   1000      4.92        1.46     1.09      0.87       0.73      0.62      0.54
   1100      4.07        1.10     0.83      0.66       0.55      0.47      0.41
   1200      3.42        0.85     0.64      0.51       0.42      0.36      0.31
   1300      2.91        0.67     0.50      0.40       0.33      0.28      0.25
   1400      2.51        0.54     0.40      0.32       0.26      0.22      0.20
   1500      2.18        0.44     0.32      0.26       0.21      0.18      0.16
   1600      1.92        0.36     0.27      0.21       0.17      0.15      0.13
   1700      1.70        0.30     0.22      0.17       0.14      0.12      0.11
   1800      1.51        0.25     0.19      0.15       0.12      0.10      0.09
   1900      1.36        0.21     0.16      0.12       0.10      0.08      0.07
   2000      1.22        0.18     0.13      0.10       0.09      0.07      0.06
   2100      1.11        0.15     0.11      0.09       0.07      0.06      0.05
   2200      1.01        0.13     0.10      0.08       0.06      0.05      0.04
   2300      0.92        0.12     0.08      0.07       0.05      0.04      0.04
   2400      0.85        0.10     0.07      0.06       0.05      0.04      0.03
   2500      0.78        0.09     0.06      0.05       0.04      0.03      0.03

This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.


                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
                    Force 824 - 38 x 38 x 3 Box




                     Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
   Span                                Laterally supported
   (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
           limit state                             deflection)
                         L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
   400       9.91        7.73     5.79      4.63       3.86      3.31      2.89
   500       7.93        4.16     3.11      2.49       2.07      1.78      1.55
   600       6.61        2.47     1.85      1.48       1.23      1.05      0.92
   700       5.00        1.58     1.18      0.95       0.79      0.67      0.59
   800       3.83        1.07     0.80      0.64       0.53      0.45      0.40
   900       3.02        0.75     0.56      0.45       0.37      0.32      0.28
   1000      2.45        0.55     0.41      0.33       0.27      0.23      0.20
   1100      2.02        0.41     0.31      0.25       0.20      0.17      0.15
   1200      1.70        0.32     0.24      0.19       0.16      0.13      0.12
   1300      1.45        0.25     0.19      0.15       0.12      0.10      0.09
   1400      1.25        0.20     0.15      0.12       0.10      0.08      0.07
   1500      1.08        0.16     0.12      0.09       0.08      0.06      0.06
   1600      0.95        0.13     0.10      0.08       0.06      0.05      0.04
   1700      0.84        0.11     0.08      0.06       0.05      0.04      0.04
   1800      0.75        0.09     0.07      0.05       0.04      0.03      0.03
   1900      0.67        0.08     0.06      0.04       0.03      0.03      0.02
   2000      0.61        0.06     0.05      0.04       0.03      0.02      0.02


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
  FORCE 800


Channel Sections




         Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
              Force 807 - 200 x 50 x 10 Channel




                   Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
 Span                               Laterally supported
 (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
         limit state                             deflection)
                       L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
 2000     13.12        10.42    7.80      6.23       5.18      4.44      3.88
 2250     10.35        7.46     5.58      4.45       3.70      3.17      2.77
 2500     8.38         5.51     4.12      3.28       2.73      2.33      2.03
 2750     6.91         4.17     3.12      2.48       2.06      1.76      1.53
 3000     5.80         3.23     2.41      1.92       1.59      1.36      1.18
 3250     4.94         2.55     1.90      1.51       1.25      1.06      0.92
 3500     4.25         2.04     1.52      1.21       1.00      0.85      0.73
 3750     3.70         1.66     1.23      0.98       0.80      0.68      0.59
 4000     3.24         1.36     1.01      0.80       0.66      0.56      0.48
 4250     2.87         1.13     0.84      0.66       0.54      0.46      0.39
 4500     2.55         0.95     0.70      0.55       0.45      0.38      0.32
 4750     2.29         0.80     0.59      0.46       0.38      0.32      0.27
 5000     2.06         0.68     0.50      0.39       0.32      0.26      0.22
 5250     1.86         0.58     0.42      0.33       0.27      0.22      0.19
 5500     1.69         0.50     0.36      0.28       0.23      0.19      0.16
 5750     1.54         0.43     0.31      0.24       0.19      0.16      0.13
 6000     1.41         0.38     0.27      0.21       0.16      0.13      0.11


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
                 Force 808 - 100x40x5 Channel




                     Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
   Span                                Laterally supported
   (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
           limit state                             deflection)
                         L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
   500       18.59         -         -         -         -       17.41     15.24
   750       12.15         -      11.44     9.15       7.62      6.53      5.71
   1000       6.79         -       5.32      4.25      3.54      3.03      2.65
   1250      4.33        3.81     2.85      2.28       1.90      1.62      1.42
   1500      2.99        2.26     1.69      1.35       1.12      0.96      0.84
   1750      2.19        1.44     1.08      0.86       0.71      0.61      0.53
   2000      1.68        0.97     0.73      0.58       0.48      0.41      0.36
   2250      1.32        0.68     0.51      0.40       0.33      0.28      0.25
   2500      1.07        0.50     0.37      0.29       0.24      0.20      0.18
   2750      0.88        0.37     0.27      0.22       0.18      0.15      0.13
   3000      0.74        0.28     0.21      0.16       0.13      0.11      0.10
   3250      0.62        0.22     0.16      0.13       0.10      0.09      0.07
   3500      0.54        0.17     0.13      0.10       0.08      0.07      0.06
   3750      0.47        0.14     0.10      0.08       0.06      0.05      0.04
   4000      0.41        0.11     0.08      0.06       0.05      0.04      0.03


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
                 Force 819 - 73 x 25 x 5 Channel




                   Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
 Span                               Laterally supported
 (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
         limit state                             deflection)
                       L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
 500      13.01          -      12.87     10.29      8.57      7.35      6.43
 750      8.67         5.82     4.36      3.49       2.90      2.49      2.18
 1000     6.20         2.58     1.93      1.54       1.28      1.10      0.96
 1250     3.97         1.35     1.01      0.81       0.67      0.57      0.50
 1500     2.75         0.79     0.59      0.47       0.39      0.33      0.29
 1750     2.02         0.50     0.37      0.29       0.24      0.21      0.18
 2000     1.54         0.33     0.25      0.19       0.16      0.14      0.12
 2250     1.22         0.23     0.17      0.13       0.11      0.09      0.08
 2500     0.98         0.17     0.12      0.09       0.08      0.06      0.06
 2750     0.81         0.12     0.09      0.07       0.06      0.05      0.04
 3000     0.68         0.09     0.07      0.05       0.04      0.03      0.03
 3250     0.58         0.07     0.05      0.04       0.03      0.02      0.02
 3500     0.50         0.05     0.04      0.03       0.02      0.02      0.01
 3750     0.43         0.04     0.03      0.02       0.02      0.01      0.01
 4000     0.38         0.03     0.02      0.01       0.01      0.01      0.01


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
               Force 831 - 200 x 60 x 8 Channel




                     Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
   Span                               Laterally supported
   (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
           limit state                             deflection)
                         L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
   2000      7.20          -       6.94      5.54      4.61      3.95      3.45
   2250      5.68          -       4.97      3.97      3.30      2.83      2.47
   2500      4.59          -       3.68      2.93      2.44      2.08      1.82
   2750      3.79        3.73     2.79      2.22       1.84      1.58      1.37
   3000      3.18        2.89     2.16      1.72       1.43      1.22      1.06
   3250      2.70        2.28     1.70      1.35       1.12      0.96      0.83
   3500      2.32        1.83     1.36      1.08       0.90      0.76      0.66
   3750      2.02        1.49     1.11      0.88       0.72      0.61      0.53
   4000      1.77        1.22     0.91      0.72       0.59      0.50      0.43
   4250      1.56        1.02     0.75      0.59       0.49      0.41      0.36
   4500      1.39        0.85     0.63      0.50       0.41      0.34      0.30
   4750      1.24        0.72     0.53      0.42       0.34      0.29      0.25
   5000      1.12        0.61     0.45      0.35       0.29      0.24      0.21
   5250      1.01        0.53     0.38      0.30       0.24      0.20      0.17
   5500      0.92        0.45     0.33      0.26       0.21      0.17      0.14
   5750      0.84        0.39     0.28      0.22       0.18      0.15      0.12
   6000      0.76        0.34     0.25      0.19       0.15      0.12      0.10


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
FORCE 800


Angle Sections




        Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
                   Force 813 - 75 x 50 x 8 Angle




                   Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
 Span                               Laterally supported
 (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
         limit state                             deflection)
                       L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
 500      19.72          -      16.86     13.48      11.23     9.63      8.42
 750      8.52         7.38     5.53      4.42       3.68      3.15      2.76
 1000     4.74         3.23     2.42      1.93       1.60      1.37      1.20
 1250     3.01         1.67     1.25      1.00       0.83      0.71      0.62
 1500     2.08         0.97     0.73      0.58       0.48      0.41      0.35
 1750     1.52         0.61     0.45      0.36       0.30      0.25      0.22
 2000     1.16         0.41     0.30      0.24       0.19      0.16      0.14
 2250     0.91         0.28     0.21      0.16       0.13      0.11      0.10
 2500     0.74         0.20     0.15      0.11       0.09      0.08      0.07
 2750     0.61         0.15     0.11      0.08       0.07      0.05      0.05
 3000     0.51         0.11     0.08      0.06       0.05      0.04      0.03
 3250     0.43         0.08     0.06      0.04       0.03      0.03      0.02
 3500     0.37         0.06     0.04      0.03       0.02      0.02      0.01



This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
                   Force 814 - 50 x 50 x 6 Angle




                   Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
 Span                               Laterally supported
 (mm)     Ultimate      Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
         limit state                             deflection)
                       L/150    L/200     L/250      L/300     L/350     L/400
 500       3.88          -         -      3.69       3.07      2.63      2.30
 600       2.65          -         -      2.20       1.83      1.57      1.37
 700       1.93          -       1.76     1.41       1.17      1.00      0.88
 800       1.46          -       1.19     0.95       0.79      0.68      0.59
 900       1.15        1.12     0.84      0.67       0.56      0.48      0.42
 1000      0.93        0.82     0.61      0.49       0.41      0.35      0.30
 1100      0.76        0.62     0.46      0.37       0.30      0.26      0.23
 1200      0.64        0.48     0.35      0.28       0.23      0.20      0.17
 1300      0.54        0.37     0.28      0.22       0.18      0.15      0.13
 1400      0.47        0.30     0.22      0.17       0.14      0.12      0.11
 1500      0.40        0.24     0.18      0.14       0.12      0.10      0.08
 1600      0.35        0.20     0.14      0.11       0.09      0.08      0.07
 1700      0.31        0.16     0.12      0.09       0.08      0.06      0.05
 1800      0.28        0.14     0.10      0.08       0.06      0.05      0.04
 1900      0.25        0.11     0.08      0.06       0.05      0.04      0.04
 2000      0.22        0.10     0.07      0.05       0.04      0.04      0.03


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                  Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
 FORCE 800


I Beam Sections




        Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
              Force 816 - 200 x 200 x 10 I Beam




                         Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
 Span      Laterally                            Laterally supported
         unsupported


 (mm)     Ultimate Ultimate         Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
         limit state limit state                             deflection)
                                   L/150    L/200      L/250     L/300     L/350     L/400
 2000      18.50       18.50         -         -       15.81     13.16     11.26     9.84
 2250      14.71       14.71         -      14.63      11.68     9.72      8.32      7.27
 2500      11.88       11.88         -      11.08      8.84      7.35      6.29      5.49
 2750      9.79        9.79          -       8.56      6.83      5.67      4.85      4.23
 3000      8.20        8.20          -       6.73      5.37      4.46      3.81      3.32
 3250      6.97        6.97          -       5.38      4.28      3.55      3.03      2.64
 3500      5.99        5.99        5.84     4.35       3.46      2.87      2.45      2.13
 3750      5.20        5.20        4.79     3.57       2.83      2.35      2.00      1.74
 4000      4.56        4.56        3.97     2.95       2.34      1.94      1.65      1.43
 4250      4.02        4.02        3.32     2.47       1.96      1.61      1.37      1.19
 4500      3.58        3.58        2.81     2.08       1.65      1.35      1.15      0.99
 4750      3.20        3.20        2.39     1.77       1.39      1.15      0.97      0.83
 5000      2.88        2.88        2.04     1.51       1.19      0.97      0.82      0.71
 5250      2.60        2.60        1.76     1.30       1.02      0.83      0.70      0.60
 5500      2.26        2.36        1.53     1.12       0.88      0.71      0.60      0.51
 5750      1.92        2.15        1.33     0.97       0.76      0.62      0.51      0.44
 6000      1.65        1.97        1.16     0.85       0.66      0.53      0.44      0.37


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.



                                                    Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
              Force 817 - 150 x 150 x 10 I Beam




                         Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
 Span      Laterally                            Laterally supported
         unsupported


 (mm)     Ultimate Ultimate         Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
         limit state limit state                             deflection)
                                   L/150    L/200      L/250     L/300     L/350     L/400
 2000      13.36       13.36       11.94    8.94       7.14      5.94      5.08      4.43
 2250      11.87       11.87       8.65     6.47       5.16      4.29      3.67      3.20
 2500      10.67       10.67       6.44     4.82       3.84      3.19      2.72      2.37
 2750      9.36        9.36        4.92     3.67       2.92      2.42      2.07      1.80
 3000      7.85        7.85        3.82     2.85       2.27      1.88      1.60      1.39
 3250      6.14        6.67        3.03     2.25       1.79      1.48      1.26      1.09
 3500      4.74        5.74        2.43     1.81       1.43      1.18      1.00      0.87
 3750      3.74        4.99        1.98     1.47       1.16      0.95      0.81      0.70
 4000      2.99        4.38        1.63     1.20       0.95      0.78      0.66      0.57
 4250      2.43        3.87        1.35     1.00       0.78      0.64      0.54      0.46
 4500      2.00        3.44        1.13     0.83       0.65      0.53      0.44      0.38
 4750      1.66        3.08        0.96     0.70       0.55      0.44      0.37      0.31
 5000      1.39        2.77        0.81     0.59       0.46      0.37      0.31      0.26
 5250      1.18        2.51        0.69     0.50       0.39      0.31      0.26      0.22
 5500      1.01        2.28        0.60     0.43       0.33      0.26      0.21      0.18
 5750      0.86        2.08        0.51     0.37       0.28      0.22      0.18      0.15
 6000      0.74        1.90        0.44     0.32       0.24      0.19      0.15      0.12


This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                    Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
             Force 818 - 101 x 51 x 6.35 I Beam




                         Maximum allowable uniform loads (N/mm)
 Span      Laterally                            Laterally supported
         unsupported


 (mm)     Ultimate     Ultimate     Serviceability limit state (based on maximum allowable
                                                             deflection)
         limit state limit state   L/150    L/200      L/250     L/300     L/350     L/400
 1000      11.52        11.64      10.49    7.86       6.29      5.23      4.48      3.92
 1200      6.16         9.70       6.37     4.77       3.81      3.17      2.72      2.37
 1400      3.67         8.31       4.13     3.09       2.47      2.05      1.76      1.53
 1600      2.36         7.27       2.82     2.11       1.68      1.40      1.19      1.04
 1800      1.61         6.15       2.00     1.49       1.19      0.99      0.84      0.74
 2000      1.14         4.98       1.47     1.09       0.87      0.72      0.62      0.54
 2200      0.84         4.11       1.11     0.82       0.65      0.54      0.46      0.40
 2400      0.63         3.45       0.85     0.63       0.50      0.41      0.35      0.31
 2600      0.49         2.94       0.67     0.50       0.39      0.32      0.27      0.24
 2800      0.38         2.53       0.53     0.39       0.31      0.26      0.22      0.19
 3000      0.31         2.20       0.43     0.32       0.25      0.20      0.17      0.15
 3200      0.25         1.93       0.35     0.26       0.20      0.16      0.14      0.12
 3400      0.20         1.71       0.29     0.21       0.17      0.13      0.11      0.10
 3600      0.16         1.52       0.24     0.18       0.14      0.11      0.09      0.08
 3800      0.14         1.36       0.20     0.15       0.11      0.09      0.07      0.06
 4000      0.11         1.23       0.17     0.12       0.09      0.07      0.06      0.05



This table should be read in conjunction with the explanatory notes provided in
Section 6.1 of Fibreforce’s Pultrusion File.




                                                    Section 6.2 – Force 800, Beam load tables
              Force 800 – Stocked Profiles
                     Force 800 – Stocked Profile
  Colour          Grey to Ral 7001 (other colours may also be available)

  Lengths         Stocked lengths are 6 m - shorter lengths may be available

  Tolerances      Manufactured to tolerances specified in ASTM D3917 - 84

  Quality         Manufactured in accordance with ISO 9002

  Resin           Isophthalic Polyester - NFR (Fire retardant formulations may also be
                  available.)

  Force 800 is a must for any design application which requires any combination of:

          •    High strength to weight ratio
          •    Excellent corrosion and U.V. resistance
          •    Electrical and thermal insulation
          •    Self - colour
          •    Excellent creep and fatigue performance
          •    Electromagnetic transparency
          •    Dimensional stability
          •    Minimal maintenance
                           Comparative Properties
  Table 10

                                Unit        Force    Aluminium     Mild         Stainless
                                             800       T 651       Steel       Steel - 316
Density                       Mg / m3        1.8        2.7         7.8            7.9
Tensile Strength (L/T)         N/mm2        207/48       310        414           552
Tensile Modulus (L/T)         kN/mm2         17/5        69         207           193
Flexural Strength (L/T)        N/mm2        207/69       310        414           552
Flexural Modulus (L/C)        kN/mm2         14/5        69         207           193
                                     -6
Coefficient Of Thermal        X 10    /°K    10          24          13            17
Expansion (L)
Thermal Conductivity           W/m°K         0.6         170       35 - 60      15 - 25


  Designing with Force 800 is similar to designing with conventional materials. The
  designer should however consider the following:

  • High Strength - Force 800 is stronger than steel on a weight per weight basis and
    can be used to form considerable weight bearing structures.

  • Modulus of Elasticity - Force 800 has a lower modulus of elasticity than steel.
    Deflection can be a limiting design factor.


                                                         Section 6.5 – Force 800, Stocked Profiles
        Force 800 – Stocked Profiles
• Shear Modulus - Force 800 has a lower shear modulus than steel and aluminium.

• Lightweight - Force 800 weighs approximately 30% less than aluminium and 80%
  less than steel, resulting in structures which can easily be transported, handled
  and lifted into place.

• Temperature - Force 800 becomes stronger in cold temperatures, but may suffer
  from slight degradation at high temperatures.

When specific properties (performance per weight) are considered, pultrusions have
excellent tensile and flexural strengths. The designer has the option of increasing the
stiffness of the pultruded section by increasing the overall dimensions whilst
maintaining cross sectional area.




                                                      Section 6.5 – Force 800, Stocked Profiles
                                       Force 800 – Section Properties
      Section            Profile         Area      Weight         Iyy          Izz            Wyy             Wzz           iyy      izz          J
                                         mm2        g/m          mm4          mm4             mm3             mm3          mm       mm          mm4
      Angle        25 x 25 x 3            141       257       8.19 x 103   8.19 x 103         464             464          7.62     7.62        423
      Angle        50 x 50 x 6            547      1018       126 x 103    126 x 103       3.60 x 103      3.60 x 103      15.2     15.2     7.06 x 103
      Angle        75 x 50 x 8            908      1618       504 x 103    180 x 103       10.3 x 103      4.90 x 103      23.6     14.1     20.0 x 103
      Angle        75 x 75 x 4            571      1012       318 x 103    318 x 103       5.85 x 103      5.85 x 103      23.6     23.6     3.12 x 103
      Channel      73 x 25 x 5            574      1092       411 x 103    29.2 x 103      11.3 x 103      1.63 x 103      26.8     7.13     4.71 x 103
      Channel      100 x 40 x 5           850      1503       1.21x 106    119 x 103       24.2 x 103      4.07 x 103      37.7     11.8     7.08 x 103
      Channel      200 x 60 x 8          2360      4050       12.3 x 106   671 x 103       123 x 103       14.8 x 103      72.2     16.9     51.9 x 103
      I-Beam       102 x 51 x 6.35       1210      2262       1.84 x 106    141x 103       36.2 x 103      5.55 x 103      39.0     10.8     16.3 x 103
      I-Beam       150 x 150 x 10        4382      7335       16.8 x 106   5.61 x 106      224 x 103       74.8 x 103      61.9     35.8      143 x 103
      I-Beam       200 x 200 x 10        5882      9935       41.6 x 106   13.3 x 106      416 x 103       133 x 103       84.1     47.6     193 x 10 3
      Box          38 x 38 x 3            416       748       84.5x 103    84.5x 103       4.45 x 103      4.45 x 103      14.3     14.3      129 x 103
      Box          44 x 44 x 6            912      1704       225 x 103    225 x 103       10.2 x 103      10.2 x 103      15.7     15.7      329 x 103
      Box          51 x 51 x 3.2          602      1051       227 x 103    227 x 103       8.94 x 103      8.94 x 103      19.4     19.4      345 x 103
      Box          100 x 100 x 4         1536      2729       2.36 x 106   2.36 x 106      47.3 x 103      47.3 x 103      39.2     39.2     3.54 x 106
      Tube         Ø 38 x Ø 33            298       508       47.0 x 103   47.0 x 103      2.47 x 103      2.47 x 103      12.6     12.6     93.4 x 103
      Box          51 x 51 x Ø 38        1432      2597       446 x 103    446 x 103       17.6 x 103      17.6 x 103      17.7     17.7
      Rung         Ø 34 x Ø 25            343       614       37.4 x 103   37.4 x 103      2.17 x 103      2.17 x 103      10.4     10.4
      Kerb         38 x 25 x 6.35         673      1229

NOMENCLATURE
Location of centroid for angle, channel and I Beam sections

                                                                       Iyy - Second moment of area (Y-Y axis) iyy - Radius Of Gyration (Y-Y axis)
                                                                       Izz - Second Moment Of Area (Z-Z axis) izz - Radius of Gyration (Z-Z axis)
                                                                       Wyy - Section Modulus (Y-Y axis)        Wzz - Section Modulus (Z-Z axis)
                                                                                                     J - Torsional Constant




                                                                                                             Section 6.6 – Force 800 – Section properties
Corrosion Guide




          Section 7 – Corrosion Guide
                Corrosion Guide
Not all the resins offered by Fibreforce will respond in the same way to different
environments. It is important to be fully aware of the degree and type of exposure to
any chemicals when designing the pultrusion.

The chemical and corrosion resistance properties of pultrusions are predominately
attributed to the resin matrix used, because it protects the fibres. The fibres
themselves may have different corrosion resistance properties.

When considering a particular resin system for an intended environment, the degree
of exposure, the concentration of the corrosive element and the temperature of the
environment must be known. The areas of suitability for polyester, vinyl ester and
epoxy resins are described in “Section 2.3 - Resins”. Resin companies, supplying the
corrosion markets publish a list of chemical environments tested at various
concentrations and temperatures, as well as recommendations for the use of resins.
Based upon these guidelines and in-house laboratory testing (ASTM C581),
Fibreforce has produced the Corrosion Guide - Section 7.1.

                           Chemical and Corrosion Attack

Chemical and corrosion attack can occur on the product surface or end. The
presence of a resin rich barrier layer on the surface will enhance the degree of
corrosion resistance and is achieved by the use of a surface mat or veil.

The cut ends or machined holes of the profile are particularly vulnerable to chemical /
corrosion attack because the fibres are exposed to the environment. Any matrix
crazing or resin rich debonding could result in wicking of the chemical along the fibre
surface. Fibreforce thus recommends that all cut ends and fabricated holes are
sealed to protect them from corrosion attack.

If this is not done the corrosion resistance of the fibre itself becomes an important
consideration because the resin does not effectively protect the fibre from attack
along the fibre - resin interface.


                                   Corrosion Guide

The results of the Corrosion Guide have been obtained either from practical industrial
use or from recommendations from our resin suppliers. The tests have been
conducted on profiles with surface mats and all cut ends and holes were sealed prior
to any chemical exposure.

In areas where there is only a short term exposure or the type of contact is limited to
spillages and vapours (gratings, handrails, flooring and structural supports) it may be
possible to use pultrusions in the Not Recommended category and at higher
temperatures than suggested. Please contact Fibreforce.




                                                        Section 7.0 – Corrosion guide
               Corrosion Guide
                               MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE OC
CHEMICAL                          POLYESTER         VINYLESTER
ACETALDEHYDE                          NR                NR
ACETIC ACID - 25%                     25                95
ACETIC ACID - 75%                     NR                65
ACETIC ACID - 100%                    NR                NR
ACETIC ANHYDRIDE                      NR                NR
ACETONE - 10%                         NR                NR
ACRYLONITRILE                         NR                NR
ALCOHOL, BUTYL                        25                50
ALCOHOL, ETHYL - 10%                  NR                65
ALCOHOL, ETHYL - 100%                 NR                30
ALCOHOL, ISOPROPYL - 10%              NR                65
ALCOHOL, ISOPROPYL - 100%             NR                25
ALCOHOL, METHYL - 10%                 NR                65
ALCOHOL, METHYL - 100%                NR                NR
ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE                    60                95
ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE - 5%              25                50
ALUMINIUM NITRATE                     30                70
ALUMINIUM POTASSIUM SULPHATE          40                70
AMMONIA AQ - 10%                      NR                35
AMMONIA GAS                           NR                35
AMMONIUM BICARBONATE - 10%            25                50
AMMONIUM BISULPHITE                   NR                50
AMMOMIUM CARBONATE                    NR                50
AMMONIUM CITRATE                      35                50
AMMONIUM FLUORIDE                     NR                50
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE - 5%               25                50
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE - 10%              25                50
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE - 20%              NR                50
AMMONIUM NITRATE - 20%                35                70
AMMONIUM PERSULPHATE                  NR                50
AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE                    NR                50
AMMONIUM SULPHATE                     70                95
BARIUM ACETATE                        NR                80
BARIUM CHLORIDE                       50                95
BARIUM HYDROXIDE                      NR                50
BENZENE                               NR                NR
BENZENE SULPHONIC ACID - 50%          25                60
BENZOIC ACID                          25                95
BENZYL ALCOHOL                        NR                25
BENZYL CHLORIDE                       NR                NR
BUTYL ACETATE                         NR                NR
BUTYRIC ACID - 0 - 50%                25                95
BUTYLENE GLYCOL                       25                70
CADIUM CHLORIDE                       25                80
CALCIUM CHLORATE                      50                80
CALCIUM CHLORIDE                      50                80
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE                      -                50
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE                  25                50
CALCIUM NITRATE                       40                95
CARBON DIOXIDE                        95                95
CARBON DISULPHIDE                     NR                NR
                                        Section 7.1 – Corrosion tables
                Corrosion Guide
                                 MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE OC
CHEMICAL                            POLYESTER          VINYLESTER
CARBON MONOXIDE                         95                 95
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE                    NR                 40
CASTOR OIL                              25                 70
CHLORINE / DRY GAS                      NR                 70
CHLORINE / WET GAS                      NR                 70
CHLORINE, LIQUID                        NR                 NR
CHLORINE, WATER                         NR                 70
CHLOROBENZENE                           NR                 NR
CHROMIC ACID - 20%                      NR                 50
CHROMIC ACID - 30%                      NR                 NR
CHROMIUM SULPHATE                       70                 70
CITRIC ACID                             70                 70
COPPER SULPHATE                         70                 70
CORN OIL                                25                 80
CRUDE OIL                               25                 70
CYCLOHEXANE                             25                 50
DIBROMO PHENOL                          NR                 NR
DIBUTY ETHER                            NR                 50
DICHLORO BENZENE                        NR                 NR
DICHLORO ETHYLENE                       NR                 NR
DIESEL FUEL                             40                 80
DIETHYLENE GLYCOL                       60                 80
DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL                      60                 80
ESTERS - FATTY ACIDS                    70                 70
ETHYL ACETATE                           NR                 NR
ETHYL BENZENE                           NR                 25
ETHYL ETHER                             NR                 NR
ETHYLENE GLYCOL                         25                 95
ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE                     NR                 NR
FATTY ACIDS                             25                 95
FERRIC CHLORIDE                         50                 95
FERRIC NITRATE                          50                 95
FERRIC SULPHATE                         50                 95
FERROUS CHLORIDE                        50                 95
FERROUS NITRATE                         50                 95
FERROUS SULPHATE                        50                 95
FERTILISER - UREA                       NR                 50
            - AMMONIUM NITRATE           -                  -
FORMIC ACID - 10%                       25                 70
FUEL OIL                                25                 70
GASOLINE                                25                 50
GLUCOSE                                 70                 70
GLYCERINE                               50                 70
GYLCOLIC ACID                           25                 80
HEPTANE                                 25                 70
HEXANE                                  25                 70
HYDRAULIC FLUID                         25                 70
HYDROCHLORIC ACID - 10%                 25                 80
HYDROCHLORIC ACID - 37%                 NR                 65
HYDROFLUORIC ACID - 10%                 NR                 65
HYDROFLUORIC ACID - 20%                 NR                 35
HYDROGEN BROMIDE, WET GAS               NR                 70
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, DRY GAS              NR           DISC WITH FFCL
                                          Section 7.1 – Corrosion tables
              Corrosion Guide
                             MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE OC
CHEMICAL                        POLYESTER         VINYLESTER
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, WET GAS          NR                80
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - 30%             NR                50
HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, AQUEOUS          25                60
ISOPROPYL AMINE                     NR                40
KEROSENE                            25                80
LACTIC ACID                         25                95
LAURYL CHLORIDE                     NR                70
LEAD ACETATE                        60                90
LINSEED OIL                         50                90
MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE                  50                90
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE                 NR                60
MAGNESIUM SULPHATE                  50                90
MALEIC ACID                         70                90
METHYLENE CHLORIDE                  NR                NR
METHYL ETHYL KETONE                 NR                NR
METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE              NR                NR
METHYL STYRENE                      NR                NR
MINERAL OILS                        70                90
MOTOR OILS                          70                90
NAPTHA                              25                90
NICKEL CHLORIDE                     50                90
NICKEL NITRATE                      50                90
NICKEL SULPHATE                     50                90
NITRIC ACID - 5%                    35                70
NITRIC ACID - 20%                   NR                50
NITRIC ACID FUMES                   NR                60
OIL, SOUR CRUDE                     50                90
OIL, SWEET CRUDE                    50                90
OLEUM                               NR                NR
OLIVE OIL                           60                90
OXALIC ACID                         60                90
PHENOL                              NR                NR
PHENOL, SULPHONIC ACID              NR                NR
PHOSPHORIC ACID - 50%               25                90
PHOPHOROUS TRICHLORIDE              NR                NR
POLYVINYL ALCHOL                    30                40
POTASSIUM BICARBONATE               25                60
POTASSIUM CARBONATE - 10%           25                60
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE                  40                90
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE - 10%           NR                65
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE              25                70
POTASSIUM SULPHATE                  25                70
PROPRIONIC ACID - 50%               NR                50
PROPRIONIC ACID - 100%              NR                NR
PROPYLENE GLYCOL                    50                90
PYRIDINE                            NR                NR
SILVER NITRATE                      25                70
SOAPS                               25                60
SODIUM ACETATE                      50                70
SODIUM BICARBONATE                  40                80
SODIUM BIFLUORIDE                   40                50
SODIUM BISULPHATE                   60                95
SODIUM BISULPHITE                   60                95
                                      Section 7.1 – Corrosion tables
                   Corrosion Guide
                                                 MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE OC
CHEMICAL                                            POLYESTER         VINYLESTER
SODIUM BROMIDE                                          60                95
SODIUM CARBONATE - 10%                                  NR                70
SODIUM CHLORATE - 10%                                   25                70
SODIUM CHLORIDE                                         40                70
SODIUM CYANIDE                                          25                60
SODIUM DICHROMATE                                       25                70
SODIUM FERRICYANIDE                                     40                70
SODIUM FLUOROSILICATE                                   NR                40
SODIUM HYDROXIDE - 5%                                   NR                70
SODIUM HYDROXIDE - 25%                                  NR                65
SODIUM HYDROXIDE - 50%                                  NR                60
SODIUM HYPOCHLORIDE - 10%                               25                55
SODIUM LAURYL SULPHATE                                  60                70
SODIUM MONO PHOSPHATE                                   60                95
SODIUM NITRATE                                          25                95
SODIUM SULPHATE                                         25                95
SODIUM SULPHIDE                                         25                95
SODIUM SULPHITE                                         25                95
SODIUM THIOCYANATE                                      NR                70
SODIUM THIOSULPHATE                                     30                70
SOYA OIL                                                60                95
STANNIC CHLORIDE                                        50                95
STEARIC ACID                                            25                95
STYRENE                                                 NR                NR
SUGAR LIQUOR                                            25                70
SUL[HUR DIOXIDE, DRY OR WET                             NR                70
SULPHURIC ACID - 30%                                    25                70
SULPHURIC ACID - 50%                                    NR                50
SULPHURIC ACID - 70%                                    NR                40
TANNIC ACID                                             30                65
TOLUENE                                                 NR                25
TRANSFORMER OILS - MINERAL                              60                90
TRANSFORMER OILS - CHLORO PHENYL TYPES                  NR                NR
TRICHLOROACETIC ACID - 50%                              25                90
TRICHLOROETHYLENE                                       NR                NR
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE                                     25                70
TURPENTINE                                              NR                40
UREA - 50%                                              NR                40
VEGETABLE OILS                                          40                70
VINYL ACETATE                                           NR                NR
WATER - DEMINERALISED                                   50                80
XYLENE                                                  NR                NR
ZINC NITRATE                                            60                90
ZINC SULPHATE                                           50                90


The Corrosion Guide is intended as a guide only and the contents used as a guideline to the
chemical resistance of Fibreforce’s profiles. It is recommended that any particular chemical
environment is discussed with Fibreforce prior to installation.




                                                              Section 7.1 – Corrosion tables
                                    Painting
For the majority of applications the ability to                 Paint Systems
pultrude in virtually any colour eliminates the
need for secondary coating operations.
                                                  A number of different types of paint system
There are however occasions when paints
                                                  may be applied to suitably prepared
are used to improve the appearance or the
                                                  pultruded profiles, selection of the
weatherability of the material. It may also be
                                                  appropriate system being determined by the
desirable to apply decorative coatings to
                                                  expected service conditions to be
ensure that the pultrusions are the same
                                                  experienced by the finished products.
colour as adjoining materials.
                                                  1. Moderate Environments
            Surface Preparation
                                                  For example internal use or external use in
In order to promote good adhesion of the
                                                  non-aggressive environments:
paint system to the surface of pultruded
profile it is necessary to obtain a clean
surface, thus providing a measure of              • Cellulose based primer or cellulose
mechanical keying for the paint system.             based primer/filler overcoated with
                                                    cellulose based finish coat.
• Solvent wiping is the easiest form of           • Cellulose based primer or cellulose
  surface preparation.                              based primer/filler overcoated with
                                                    modified alkyd finish coat.
• Abrasion of the surface over small areas
  may be carried out by hand using
                                                  2. Aggressive Environments
  standard wet-or-dry abrasive papers.
• For the preparation of larger areas an
                                                  For example industrial environments:
  orbital sander or sand blasting equipment
  may be used, but care should be taken to
                                                  • Two pack epoxy primer overcoated with
  ensure that only limited penetration of the
                                                    two pack epoxy finish coat.
  surface is achieved so that the
  underlying layers of reinforcement are          • Two pack epoxy primer overcoated with
  not damaged.                                      two pack polyurethane finish coat.
• After abrasion the surface of the profile
                                                  3. Marine Environments
  should be solvent washed to remove any
  remaining traces of grease or dirt. The
                                                  Two pack polyurethane primer overcoated
  abraded surface may be washed with a
                                                  with two pack polyurethane finish coat.
  moderately fast drying solvent such
  methyl ethyl ketone or methyl isobutyl
                                                  For specific information advice should be
  ketone or, alternatively, paint thinners
                                                  sought from a paint manufacturer.
  appropriate to the paint system to be
  applied.
• After washing, sufficient time should be
  allowed for evaporation of the solvent
  from the surface before application of the
  paint system.
• Note that when the surface of the
  pultrusion is broken, minor imperfections
  within the pultrusion will be exposed and
  may be highlighted upon the application
  of the paint. A sand and fill primer can be
  applied.

                                                                         Section 9 - Painting
           Antistatic applications
                                               Profiles with carbon fibre veil exhibit
Standard Fibreforce pultruded profiles         resistivity values in the range of 102 to 103
manufactured with the normal range of          ohms.
thermoset resins and glass fibre
reinforcement are very good insulators,        At the other end of the spectrum, profiles
both electrically and thermally.               manufactured with carbon fibre as the
                                               main reinforcement are very conductive.
Numerous fabricated installations rely on      Carbon fibre typically exhibits only about
these inherent properties of Force 800         1/50 of the conductivity of copper but
profiles to ensure a safer working             carbon fibre profiles must be handled with
environment. There are some hazardous          great care and every effort taken to
situations, however, where a degree of         prevent the profiles from touching any
conductivity is a distinct advantage such      source of electrical power. Consideration
as in petroleum refining plant or in a         must also be given to the design of
coalmine. Incorporating a resin additive,      structures, which contain both metal
such as carbon black, or a conductive          components, and carbon fibre profiles
surface veil will prevent a dangerous          since galvanic reaction can occur between
electrostatic build up on the surface          them to the eventual detriment of the
thereby preventing potential explosions.       metal components.
Any static will dissipate from the surface;
the effect will be enhanced by moisture on     The following table gives an indication of
the profile surface and in the atmosphere.     bands       for    material     resistivity
A structure can be connected to earth as       characterisation:
an additional measure.
                                               Insulator               > 1012 ohms
Incorporating an additive into the resin
system has the added advantage over a          Anti-static             104 to 108 ohms
veil, or secondary coating, of imparting the
anti-static properties through the whole       Conductor               < 102 ohms
profile. This method also affords greater
protection in the advent of any accidental     For additional information please refer to
surface damage to a profile and especially     the following British standards:
so where a coating is painted on.
                                               BS2050 - Specification for Electrical
Fibreforce profiles using the anti-static      Resistance of Conducting and Anti-static
additive approach have typical surface         Products made from Flexible Polymeric
resistivity values in the range 3x104 to       Material.
5x107 ohms.
                                               BS5958 - Code of Practice for Control of
Conductive veils are made of carbon fibre,     Undesirable static Electricity Part1: 1991 –
nickel coated carbon or glass fibre, or fine   General Considerations.
metal such as nickel or copper. These
latter veils are designed more for Electro-    BS7506   Part  2  –    Methods   for
magnetic interference (EMI) and radio          Measurement in Electrostatics - Test
interference shielding applications rather     Methods.
than for static discharge.




                                                       Section 10 - Antistatic applications
               Standard Profiles


     Box Sections                   Angles                              Channels




Dim A Dim B Dim C        Dim A     Dim B     Dim C       Dim A     Dim B     Dim C     Dim D
  25.40 25.40     3.20       25.00     25.00      3.00       38.00     24.00      3.00      3.00
  30.00 30.00     2.00       40.00     40.00      5.00       40.00     18.00      3.00      3.00
  31.80 19.00     3.20       40.00     40.00      8.00       43.00     23.00      2.50      2.50
  31.80 31.80     3.20       50.00     50.00      6.00       45.00     25.00      3.50      3.50
  35.00 20.00     2.50       75.00     75.00      4.00       45.00     35.00      3.00      3.00
  38.10 38.10     3.20       75.00     50.00      8.00       50.80     25.40      3.20      3.20
  40.00 20.00     4.00       76.00     76.00      9.53       73.00     25.00      5.00      5.00
  42.00 10.00     2.50       83.00     44.00      5.00       84.00     30.00      3.00      4.50
  42.00 23.00     2.50                                      100.00     30.00      4.00      4.00
  42.00 30.00     2.50                                      100.00     40.00      5.00      5.00
  44.00 44.00     3.00                                      100.00     43.00      5.00      5.00
  44.00 44.00     6.00                                      100.00     50.00      4.00      4.00
  51.00 51.00     3.20                                      200.00     30.00      4.00      4.00
  51.00 51.00     6.35                                      200.00     50.00      4.00      4.00
  51.00 51.00 Diam. 38                                      200.00     60.00      8.00      8.00
  80.00 20.00     5.00                                      300.00     30.00      4.00      4.00
  80.00 30.00     2.50                                      300.00     50.00      4.00      4.00
 100.00 100.00    4.00                                      400.00     60.00      6.00      6.00
                                                            500.00     60.00      7.00      7.00
Pullwound Box Sections

Dim A Dim B Dim C
  20.00 10.00  1.40
  20.00 10.00  2.00
  38.10 38.10  2.30




                                                              Section 11 – Standard Profiles List
       Standard Profiles


Solid Block/Bars               T-Sections                       Solid Rods




Dim A     Dim B       Dim A     Dim B     Dim C                 Diameters Available
     6.40      6.40       25.40     25.40      3.00      0.86        5.00     12.70   25.80
    10.00     10.00       38.10     38.10      3.00      1.00        5.50     14.00   27.40
    15.00      6.00       80.00     80.00      4.00      1.50        6.00     15.00   28.00
    16.00      3.50       80.00    200.00      4.00      2.00        6.35     15.88   30.00
    20.00     10.00       96.00     94.00      5.00      2.50        7.00     16.00   30.60
    30.00     15.00                                      3.00        8.00     19.05   31.00
    30.00     30.00                                      3.20        9.53     20.00   31.80
    30.50     16.00                                      3.35       10.00     20.80   34.00
    31.80     19.00                                      3.80       10.40     22.00   36.80
    31.80     31.80                                      4.00       11.50     25.00   38.10
    38.10     38.10                                      4.76       12.00     25.40
    40.50     16.00
    50.00     30.00




                                                      Section 11 – Standard Profiles List
           Standard Profiles


     Pultruded Tubes                         Pullwound Tubes




   Outer Diameters Available               Outer Diameters Available
 4.00     12.70     27.40       48.30    6.35     14.00     25.80      41.20
 5.00     14.00     28.00       50.80    7.00     15.00     27.40      42.20
 5.50     15.00     30.00       52.70    8.00     15.88     28.00      46.50
 6.00     15.88     30.20       55.50    9.53     16.00     30.00      48.30
 6.35     16.00     30.60       76.20   10.00     19.05     30.60      50.80
 7.00     19.05     31.00       82.20   10.40     20.00     31.00      52.70
 8.00     20.00     31.80       97.00   11.50     20.80     31.80      55.50
 9.53     20.80     34.00      108.00   12.00     22.00     34.00      76.20
10.00     22.00     36.80      152.00   12.70     25.00     36.80      82.20
10.40     25.00     38.10      161.00   13.00     25.40     38.10
11.50     25.40     42.20      167.00
12.00     25.80     16.50      200.00

   Inner Diameters Available               Inner Diameters Available
 1.50      8.20     25.40       76.20    3.00     10.00     21.00      33.90
 3.00      9.50     28.60       89.00    3.50     10.10     21.70      34.00
 3.20     10.00     32.70      100.00    4.00     10.30     22.00      35.00
 3.50     11.00     38.20      144.00    4.50     10.70     22.40      36.50
 4.00     16.00      39.7      155.00    5.00     11.00     24.00      37.60
 4.70     18.50     42.00      161.00    5.60     12.00     25.00      38.20
 5.00     19.00     44.50      194.50    6.00     12.20     25.40      38.50
 6.10     21.00     47.60                6.10     12.70     25.70      39.70
 6.35     23.40     66.00                6.35     13.00     26.00      40.00
 8.00     25.00     68.00                6.50     13.50     27.00      41.70
                                         7.00     14.00     28.20      42.00
                                         7.80     15.00     28.60      42.50
                                         8.00     15.90     29.00      46.00
                                         8.10     16.00     30.00      46.80
                                         8.18     16.50     31.70      47.00
                                         8.38     17.00     32.00      47.60
                                         8.60     18.00     32.50      50.80
                                         9.00     19.00     32.70      68.00
                                         9.50     19.40     33.20      70.60
                                         9.70     20.00     33.50      72.00




                                                               Section 11 – Standard Profiles List
 Standard Profiles


Strut Profile                                    Special T Profile




                    8 or 10 Spline Ladder Rung




    Scaffold Pole                                Special V Section




                                                         Section 11 – Standard Profiles List
            Standard Tolerances

                    STANDARD TOLERANCES
                            FOR
                     PULTRUDED PROFILES




INTRODUCTION

In order to assist with purchasing and specifying Fibreforce pultruded profiles, we have
published a guide to our standard tolerances to which designers may refer.

These tolerances are based on the recommendations of the CEN committee currently
drawing up a European standard for Pultrusions (TC249/SC2/WG6). This standard is to be
implemented throughout the industry as a benchmark and is therefore our basis for
tolerances.

APPROACH TO QUALITY

Fibreforce is committed to meeting its customers needs first time, every time and, whenever
possible, exceeding them. This philosophy shows in our approach to manufacturing. We
shall aim to not only meet these tolerances but to better them and, in the process, we shall
ensure you receive a Quality product every time.

INSPECTION

Fibreforce has held ISO9002 accreditation since 1987 and all products are manufactured
with full traceability. The Fibreforce Quality System requires that all operators perform
continuous inspection of their product as it is manufactured, with quality inspectors ensuring
that the inspection standards are maintained.


TRACEABILITY

Each length of product will be marked with the product number, or ‘PD No’, the date of
manufacture and the operator number. These details allow full traceability to be provided.




                                                                  Section 12 – Standard Tolerances
            Standard Tolerances
TOLERANCES

In the absence of a customer-supplied specification, Fibreforce shall automatically apply
standard tolerances. In the event that the tolerances are unsuitable for your application,
please contact Fibreforce and any specific requirements can be discussed.

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES




           Nominal Dimension                B                    D
           Up to 49.9mm                ± 0.20mm             ± 0.20mm
           50 - 99.9mm                 ± 0.30mm             ± 0.30mm
           100 - 299.9mm               ± 0.35mm             ± 0.35mm
           300mm +                     ± 0.45mm             ± 0.45mm

           Nominal Thickness                T                   Tc
           Up to 4.99mm                 ± 0.20mm            ± 0.35mm
           5 - 9.99mm                  ± 0.35mm             ± 0.45mm
           10mm +                      ± 0.45mm             ± 0.50mm

Tc is a thickness dimension that is governed not by die cavity but by mandrel position, i.e. a
closed profile thickness.

Where possible, dimensions shall be measured in such a way as to reduce any angle effect
present.

On occasion, the same tooling may be used to manufacture product in a range of different
resin types. When this occurs, whilst the nominal values may change, the above tolerances
will still apply to those nominal values.




                                                                     Section 12 – Standard Tolerances
             Standard Tolerances
PHYSICAL TOLERANCES


                                                                          D=1mm/m
Bow (straightness)                                                    See note below for
                                                                        longer lengths




Twist                                                                 A - 1°/m cumulative




Flatness                                                              D = 0.008 x B (mm)




Angularity                                                                  A ±1.5°




Cut Squareness                                                               A ±2°




Cut Tolerances
                                       Up to 7m                           -0, +25mm
                                         7m +                             -0, +50mm



Note: Bow or Straightness is measured with the profile on its side, not under its own weight.
The formula to be used for calculating the bow for different length profile is: D(mm) = L(m)2 .
For example, the maximum bow allowed on a 2.5metre length is 1x2.52 or 6.25mm. Similarly,
for a 6metre length it is 1x62 or 36mm. A tighter tolerance can be negotiated if the application
demands it.
                                                                   Section 12 – Standard Tolerances
                               Fire Standards

Test No        Specification                         Test                     Classification         Ind / Full
 109745        MIX REF: MX 122B            Surface spread of Flame             BS476 – Part 7         Indicative

 50655     MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B        Surface spread of Flame             BS476 – Part 7            Full

 114566     MIX REF: MX 122, MX122B   Toxic fumes ‘r’ index – Rolling stock    BS6853 – 1999             Full

 L10312    MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B    3m3 emission test – Rolling stock       BS6853 – 1987             Full

 50656     MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B            Fire Propagation                BS476 – Part 6            Full

 109408   MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B           Fire Propagation test             BS476 – Part 6            Full



 L17692             Phenolic          Smoke density & Gas Components          EN2825 & EN2826            Full

 102913        MIX REF: MX 222A             Optical Smoke Density              ASTM E662-79           Indicative

 102914        MIX REF: MX 204B             Optical Smoke Density              ASTM E662-79           Indicative

 R11817         MIX REF: MX 308               Vertical Burning test               UL94V0                 Full

 R13110         MIX REF: MX 308               Vertical Burning test               UL94V0                 Full

 71079     MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B        Surface spread of Flame              BS476 Part 7             Full

 71082         MIX REF: MX 204B            Surface spread of Flame              BS476 Part 7             Full

 71080         MIX REF: MX 222A            Surface spread of Flame              BS476 Part 7             Full




                                                                                                Section 14 – Fire Standards
                              Fire Standards

                               Prefecture De Police – Laboratoire Central

Test No:         Specification                      Classification                         Test          Ind / Full
  71080          MIX REF: MX 222A                 Surface spread of Flame               BS476 Part 7         Full
  940/90      MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B       l’opacite des fumes (Smoke density)       Afnor X 10-702        Full
  941/90      MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B   Combustion et de pyrolyse ( Smoke Toxicity)   Afnor X 70-100        Full
 190645       MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B               I Classification (I0)             Afnor F 16101         Full
 190645       MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B                    I Classification   (F0)      Afnor F 16101         Full
 190645       MIX REF: MX 122, MX 122B                  Oxygen Index                   Afnor T 51071         Full
J 86175 / 1      MIX REF: MX 122A                       Toxicity Index                 NES 713 – 1985        Full




                                                                                                  Section 14 – Fire Standards
Composite Industry Standards
      ISO Standard Environmental Test Methods for Plastics/Composites5
    NUMBER                                         TITLE                                         PURPOSE
     ISO 62                    Plastics - Determination of water absorption.                 Moisture absorption
     ISO 75         Plastics - Determination of temperature of deflection under load.              HDT
    ISO 175            Plastics - Determination of the effects of liquid chemicals,          Chemical resistance
                                              including water.
    ISO 291          Plastics - Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing.        Atmospheric conditioning
   prEN 2743
    ISO 483           Plastics - Small enclosures for conditioning and testing using          Relative humidity
                    aqueous solutions to maintain relative humidity at constant value.
    ISO 554              Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing -             Standard atmospheres
                                               specification.
    ISO 846         Determination of behavior under the action of fungi and bacteria -      Biological degradation
                     Evaluation by visual examination or measurement of change in
                                       mass or physical properties.
    ISO 877              Plastics - Methods of exposure to direct weathering, to                 Weathering
                        weathering using glass-filtered daylight, and to intensified
                               weathering by daylight using Fresnel mirrors.
   prEN 2378         Fibre reinforced plastics - Determination of water absorption by         Water absorption
                                    immersion in demineralised water.
   prEN 2489          Fibre reinforced plastics - Determination of the action of liquid      Chemical resistance
                                                   chemicals.
    ISO 2578              Plastics - Determination of time-temperature limits after         Elevated temperature
                                         prolonged exposure to heat.
   prEN 2823        Fibre reinforced plastics - Determination of the effect of exposure     Moisture degradation
                    to humid atmosphere on physical and mechanical characteristics.
    ISO 3025                            Preferred test temperatures.                       Preferred temperatures
    ISO 4582          Plastics - Determination of changes in colour and variations in        Photodegradation
                         properties after exposure to daylight under glass, natural-
                                         weathering or artificial light.
    ISO 4589          Plastics - Determination of resistance to environmental stress      Environmental degradation
                                     cracking (ESC) - Bent strip method.
    ISO 4600          Determination of environmental stress cracking (ESC) - Bali or      Environmental degradation
                                           pin impression method.
    ISO 4611         Plastics - Determination of the effects of exposure to damp heat,    Environmental conditioning
                       water spray and salt mist (on optical and colour properties).
    ISO 4892            Plastics - Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources:           Photodegradation
    ISO 6252        Plastics - Determination of environmental stress cracking (ESC) -     Environmental degradation
                                       Constant tensile-stress method.
    ISO 6914            Determination of ageing characteristics by measurement of                  Ageing
                                        stress at a given elongation.
 ISO 9370 (draft)       Guide for instrumental determination of radiant exposure in              Weathering
                                               weathering tests.
 ISO TR 9673 S        Solar radiation and its measurements for determining outdoor            Photodegradation
                                              weather exposures.
   ISO 11,248       Plastics - Thermosetting moulding materials - Evaluation of short-           Heat Ageing
                                term performance at elevated temperatures.
 ISO CD 11,359-2           Plastics - Thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Part 2:                Thermal Analysis
                     Determination of linear thermal expansion coefficient and glass
                                            transition temperature.
 ISO CD 11,359-3           Plastics - Thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Part 3:                Thermal Analysis
                                  Determination of softening temperature.

                                                                         Section 14 – Composite Industry Standards
Composite Industry Standards
 BSI Standard Test Methods for Environmental Testing of Plastics/Composites

   NUMBER                                 TITLE                           PURPOSE
   BS 2011         Environmental testing procedures and              Environmental testing
                   seventies of tests designed to assess the
                   durability of electrotechnical products under
                   conditions of use, transport and storage.
BS 2782: Part 5:   Plastics - Determination of the effects of             Salt spray
 Method 551A       exposure to damp heat, water spray and salt
                   mist.
    BS 4618        Recommendations for the presentation of           Environmental testing
                   plastics design data. Part 4 Environmental and
                   chemical effects.
    BS 4994        Design of construction vessels and tanks in        Design allowables
                   reinforced plastics.
 BS 5480: Part 2   Specification for glass reinforced plastics            Sewerage
                   (GRP) pipes and fittings for use for water
                   supply and sewerage. Part 2: Design and
                   performance requirements.
    BS 5691        Thermal endurance properties of electrical         Thermal - dry heat
                   insulating materials.
  BS EN 60068      Environmental testing – Tests A. Cold / Test B.   Environmental Testing
                   Dry Heat.




                                                      Section 14 – Composite Industry Standards
Composite Industry Standards
ASTM Standard Test Methods for Environmental Testing of Plastics/Composites

  NUMBER                                 TITLE                                   PURPOSE
ASTM B 117    Salt spray (fog) testing                                     Salt spray
ASTM C 272    Standard test method for water absorption of materials       Moisture absorption
              for structural sandwich constructions.
ASTM C 481    Standard test method for laboratory aging of sandwich        Accelerated ageing
              constructions.
ASTM C 581    Standard practice for determining chemical resistance        Chemical resistance
              of thermosetting resins in glass fibre reinforced
              structures intended for liquid service.
ASTM D 543    Standard practice for evaluating the resistance of           Chemical resistance
              plastics to chemical reagents.
ASTM D 570    Standard test method for water absorption of plastics        Moisture absorption
ASTM D 618    Standard practice for conditioning plastics and electrical   Environmental
              insulating materials for testing.                            conditioning
ASTM D 756    Standard practice for determination of weight and shape      Accelerated ageing.
              changes of plastics under accelerated service
              conditions.
ASTM D 1042   Standard test method for linear dimensional changes of       Dimensional stability
              plastics under accelerated service conditions.
ASTM D 1435   Standard practice for outdoor weathering of plastics.        Weathering
ASTM D 1499   Standard practice for operating light and water exposure     Equipment -
              apparatus (carbon arc type) for exposure of plastics.        operation
ASTM D 1870   Standard practice for elevated temperature aging using       Heat ageing
              a tubular oven.
ASTM D 1975   Standard test method for environmental stress crack          Environmental
              resistance of plastic injection moulded open head pails.     resistance
ASTM D 2288   Standard test method for weight loss of plasticisers on      Heat ageing
              heating.
ASTM D 3045   Standard practice for heat ageing of plastics without        Heat ageing
              load.
ASTM D 3681   Standard test method for chemical resistance of              Chemical resistance
              fibreglass (glass fibre reinforced thermosetting resin)
              pipe in a deflected condition.
ASTM D 3753   Standard specification for glass fibre reinforced            Chemical resistance
              polyester manholes.




                                                      Section 14 – Composite Industry Standards
Composite Industry Standards
  NUMBER                                TITLE                                  PURPOSE
 ASTM D 3826 Standard practice for determining degradation end point           Degradation
             in degradable polyethylene and polypropylene using
             tensile tests.
 ASTM D 4019 Standard test method for moisture in plastics by               Moisture absorption
             coulometric regeneration of phosphorus pentoxide.
 ASTM D 4097 Standard specification for contact - moulded glass-fibre       Chemical resistance
             reinforced thermoset resin corrosion - resistant tanks.
 ASTM D 4102 Standard test method for thermal oxidative resistance of        Thermal oxidation
             carbon fibres.
 ASTM D 4329 Standard practice for operating light and water                   UV radiation
             apparatus (fluorescent UV and condensation type) for
             exposure of plastics.
 ASTM D 4364 Standard practices for performing accelerated outdoor             Accelerated
             weathering of plastics using concentrated natural                 weathering
             sunlight;
 ASTM D 4398 Standard test method for determining the chemical              Chemical resistance
             resistance of fibreglass reinforced thermosetting resins
             by one side panel exposure.
 ASTM D 4459 Standard practices for operating an accelerated                 Photodegradation
             lightfastness Xenon arc type light exposure apparatus
             for the exposure of plastics for indoor applications.
 ASTM D 4508 Standard test method for chip impact strength of                 Environmental
             plastics.                                                         degradation
 ASTM D 4585 Standard practice for testing water resistance of               Water resistance
             coatings under controlled condensation.
 ASTM D 4674 Standard test method for accelerated testing for colour        Accelerated ageing
             stability of plastics exposed to indoor fluorescent lighting
             and window filtered daylight.
 ASTM D 4762 Guide for testing of automotive/industrial composite             Automotive test
             materials.                                                          methods
 ASTM D 5071 Standard practices for operating Xenon arc type                 Photodegradation
             exposure apparatus with water for the exposure of
             photodegradable plastics.
 ASTM D 5208 Standard practice for operating fluorescent ultraviolet           UV radiation
             and condensation apparatus for exposure of
             photodegradable plastics.
 ASTM D 5229 Standard test method for moisture absorption and               Moisture absorption
             equilibrium conditioning of polymer matrix composite
             materials.




                                                        Section 14 – Composite Industry Standards
Composite Industry Standards
   NUMBER                             TITLE                               PURPOSE
 ASTM D 5272 Standard practice for outdoor exposure testing of            Weathering
             photodegradable plastics.
 ASTM D 5419 Standard practice for environmental stress cracking        Environmental
             (ESCR) of threaded plastic closures.                        degradation
 ASTM D 5437 Standard practice for weathering plastics under marine    Weathering/marine
             floating exposure.
 ASTM D 5510 Standard practice for heat ageing of oxidatively             Heat ageing
             degradable plastics.
 ASTM E 698 Standard test method for Arrhenius kinetic constants for   Activation energies
             thermally unstable materials.                                   (DMA)
 ASTM F 1164 Standard test method for evaluation of transparent            Accelerated
             plastics exposed to accelerated weathering combined           weathering
             with biaxial stress.
  ASTM G 90 Standard practice for performing accelerated outdoor       Photodegradation
             weathering of non-metallic materials using concentrated
             natural sunlight.




                                                    Section 14 – Composite Industry Standards
                                    References
References

1. Structural Design of Polymer Composites - EUROCOMP Design Code and Handbook edited by John L Clarke,
   published by E & FN Spon. ISBN 0 419 19450 9.

2. Structural Plastics Design Manual – Vol 1 & 2, ASCE Manuals and reports on Engineering Practice No 63.
   Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. ISBN 0 87262 391 2

3. Design Manual – Engineered Composite Profiles, Fibreforce Composites Ltd. Edited by J.A. Quinn.

4. Users Guide to Adhesives, Ciba Polymers Publication ref: A17I, 1996.

5. Review of Test methods and standards for assessing long – term performance of polymer matrix composites.
   Centre for materials measurement and technology, NPL Report CMMT(A) 94, W.R. Broughton, M.J.
   Londeiro, S. Maudgal and G.D. Sims.




Acknowledgements:


The contributions, valuable comments and assistance by colleagues, past and present, is duly
acknowledged.



Copyright Statement:

The images in this guide have been reproduced with permission and are solely the property of their
respective owners.



Disclaimer:


The information contained within this document is given in good faith, but without warranty and Fibreforce
Composites Ltd, UK and /or its associated companies disclaim liability for any direct, indirect, consequential or
incidental damages that may result from the use of the information or data.




Copyright Fibreforce Composites Ltd, UK. All rights are reserved.


                                                                                      Section 17 – References

				
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Description: Composite materials have become a regular feature of our daily lives over the last thirty years. As experience and confidence in composite materials has grown, their use has extended from decorative and functional applications to structural ones,