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									Canadian History S. Exam Review Notes, January, 2009




Canadian History, Unit 1, First Nations                World" (see DENE NATION). Among the
      & New France (to 1763)                           Fourth World peoples, for example, are
                                                       the Aborigines of Australia, the Maori of
               First Nations                           New Zealand, the Ainu of Japan, the
                                                       Saami of Scandinavian countries and the
First Nations is the name used by
                                                       Indian peoples of Central and South
Canada's Aboriginal or indigenous peoples,
                                                       America. Fourth World indigenous
which refers to INDIAN peoples and may
                                                       minorities define themselves as powerless,
sometimes include the MÉTIS and INUIT.
                                                       exploited and often colonized populations
Terminology referring to Aboriginal or
                                                       living within First, Second and Third World
NATIVE PEOPLE is complex and is not
                                                       countries; that is, the industrialized,
always what Aboriginal persons would call
                                                       capitalist, democratic, socialist and
themselves. The term "Indian" is defined
                                                       communist, developing and emerging
as either a member of any of the
                                                       nation-states of the world.
Aboriginal peoples of the Western
Hemisphere (but excluding the Inuit and                             Native People
the Métis), or in the legal sense of the
INDIAN ACT. The term "Inuit," replacing                The Native peoples of Canada are
the term " ESKIMO" during the 1970s,                   considered under 6 general articles.
identifies the people of northern Canada,              Native People: ARCTIC; EASTERN
Alaska, Greenland and eastern Siberia.                 WOODLANDS; NORTHWEST COAST;
The Métis are Aboriginal people of mixed               PLAINS; PLATEAU and SUBARCTIC.
ancestry, Indian and French, English or
Scottish background. Some Métis regard
themselves as the only true Aboriginal or                       Native People: Arctic
"original" peoples, since they alone
                                                       The INUIT have enjoyed almost exclusive
emerged as a new group in North
                                                       occupation of the Canadian Arctic, those
America.
                                                       inland and coastal areas north of the
Native people worldwide often prefer the               TREELINE. In areas close to the treeline,
broader term "aboriginal." This avoids the             Inuit and Indians have traditionally
distinction between "natives" and "non-                occupied similar environments (though
natives," important from the point of view             rarely at the same time) and have hunted
of the Métis. The term Aboriginal is also              and fished similar game species. The
used in section 35 of the Constitution Act             arctic regions are characterized by long
of 1982 and refers to the Indian, Inuit and            daylight hours in summer with moderate
Métis peoples of Canada.                               temperatures. Winters are long and cold,
                                                       and at more northerly locations there is a
Aboriginal people may also consider                    midwinter period when the sun is entirely
themselves minority indigenous peoples                 absent. Plant cover may be continuous,
and, in Canada until the 1980s, as peoples             especially in well-watered locations,
of the "Fourth World." The Dene                        although rocky outcrops and barren dry
Declaration of 1975 included the phrase                areas are common. Trees are entirely
"We the Dene are part of the Fourth                    lacking in the Arctic, though low shrubby


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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



plants occur, including several varieties of           relationships established at birthing
edible berries. Landforms are variable,                ceremonies, and naming practices. The
from lake-studded lowlands to glacier-                 family was an important economic unit,
strewn alpine areas.                                   relying on a decided division of
                                                       responsibilities among all household
                                                       members, including children and elderly
                                                       relatives.
            Traditional Culture
                                                       Most Inuit groups based their economy on
        Inuit tribal groups in traditional
                                                       sea-mammal hunting, particularly for
times contained 500-1000 members. The
                                                       seals. In summer and fall many groups
most important social and political unit
                                                       hunted caribou or moved to favoured
was the regional BAND, several of which
                                                       coastal locations to hunt and fish a variety
together constituted the larger tribal
                                                       of game species. Fishing and food
group within which marriages occurred
                                                       gathering (for bird eggs, shellfish and
and all members spoke a similar dialect.
                                                       berries) were important seasonal
Regional bands would customarily
                                                       activities, as were hunts for polar bear
congregate for short periods during the
                                                       and whale. Though high value was placed
winter months, when people would gather
                                                       on fresh food, quantities were also stored
in sealing camps.
                                                       for future use. Drying, and caching in cool
During the rest of the year, they lived in             areas, were common techniques, although
smaller bands, often composed of 2 to 5                several special techniques (such as storing
families. Each household generally                     in oil) were also used.
consisted of a married couple and their
                                                       The traditional technology was based on
children, though elderly and unmarried
                                                       locally available materials, principally
relatives might also be present. Many
                                                       bone, horn, antler, ivory, stone and
economic and social activities involved
                                                       animal skins. In some areas grass or
interhousehold co-operation, and
                                                       baleen was used for basketry, wood
widespread sharing was, and still is, a
                                                       substituted for bone, native copper for
predominant characteristic of Inuit social
                                                       antler or bone, and bird or fish skins for
life. Most families who chose to live
                                                       animal skins. Use was made of special
together were closely related, with
                                                       parts of animals, eg, sinew, intestine and
leadership of the group generally assumed
                                                       bladders. The improvising abilities of Inuit
by the oldest active member.
                                                       are well known today, and many Inuit
Marriage was nearly universal among Inuit              inventions are considered technological
and customarily took place in early                    masterpieces. The domed snowhouse
adulthood; it was usual for the young                  (igluvigak, or IGLOO in English), the
couple to reside close to the parents of               toggling harpoon head and the KAYAK are
one or the other spouse. Many households               noteworthy examples.
included adopted children, an indication of
                                                       There was an understandable relationship
the high value accorded children. Children
                                                       between location of settlements and
were an important means of establishing
                                                       seasonably available food resources. The
valued interfamily relationships through
                                                       composition of settlements might change
adoption, betrothal, adult-child
                                                       periodically in response to social needs

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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



and desires to interact with kinsmen                   less elaborate snowhouses are still
residing elsewhere. Many hunting                       commonly used during winter travelling.
methods became more effective when                     In the western Arctic, where driftwood
several hunters worked co-operatively, eg,             logs occur, permanent dwellings were
during winter seal hunting.                            constructed for winter use. Windows in
                                                       this case were made from translucent
Sleds and skin-covered boats were                      animal-skin parchment.
universally used by Inuit, though regional
variations in both design and use were                 Inuit skilfully manufactured footwear and
common. Dogs historically served as                    clothing from locally obtained and
hunting animals and were used to locate                prepared animal skins. Even though
seals under the sea ice or to hold bears or            parkas, gloves and boots followed a
muskoxen at bay. They were also used as                similar basic design, regional variations in
pack animals in the summer. Men used                   pattern and technique persisted. For most
single-seat kayaks for hunting sea                     Inuit groups, footwear was made from the
mammals and for hunting caribou in rivers              skin of 2 different species of seal, either
and lakes. In Alaska, large skin-covered               haired (for winter use) or hairless (for
UMIAKS were used for whale hunting,                    spring and summer use); the latter were
although in the Canadian Arctic (and                   entirely waterproof. In some areas caribou
Greenland) such boats were more usually                skin replaced sealskin, especially for
used by women to transport households                  winter boots.
from place to place.
                                                       The parka traditionally consisted of an
The skin tent, often with a short ridgepole,           inner and outer jacket, usually of caribou
was generally made from dehaired                       fur. Among some groups, sealskin parkas
sealskins and weighted down along the                  were commonly worn in spring through
ground with rocks. Among the Caribou                   autumn, and caribou fur was preferred for
Inuit, the tent was often conical in shape             winter clothing. Women's clothing was
and constructed from dehaired caribou                  often more elaborate than men's, with a
skins. Tents were used when suitable                   voluminous hood on the tailed and
snow was not available for snowhouses, or              aproned parka. Infants were carried in a
when away from the sites of sod and                    pouch against the woman's back, not in
stone-walled houses.                                   the hood. There was little bodily
                                                       adornment, though women's facial
Snowhouse design was variable. At winter               tattooing was practised.
settlements the main living chamber could
be quite large, perhaps 4 m in diameter                Birth was associated with several socially
and almost 3 m high. In addition, there                significant rituals. Among some groups, in
were chambers for storage and an                       addition to an attending midwife, there
entrance passage, and often extra living               was another adult who served as the
chambers attached to the side. In some                 child's ritual sponsor, assuming
regions it was customary to line the walls             responsibilities for the child's moral
with caribou skins for insulation. Most                upbringing. Throughout life, special terms
snowhouses had a snow sleeping platform                of address were used, and in the case of a
and a window (made from clear lake ice)                boy, his first killed game animals, and in
set into the roof (see HOUSE). Smaller,                the case of a girl, her first sewn items,

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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



were presented to this adult. Naming                   elders and to attain social competence
occurred at birth and had special                      were strong incentives for young people to
significance, as Inuit names included part             join adult society. Many of the values and
of the identity and character of the name              beliefs of the society were demonstrated
bearer.                                                implicitly in behaviour; eg, the constant
                                                       sharing of food and other commodities
Betrothal of children could occur at any               was a manifestation of the value of
time, even before birth. Young people                  generosity and co-operation and a
promised to each other used a special                  negation of stinginess, greediness and
form of address, and their families related            selfishness. Reinforcements of these
in ways appropriate to the future                      lessons were contained in stories that the
relationship. There were many rituals                  elders enjoyed telling, especially to
associated with hunting, although these                children
are becoming less common. Animal bones
or ceremonial bundles and ceremonies                   The traditional musical instrument was the
involving self-induced trance were used to             drum, up to 1 m in diameter, made by
foretell future events. Marriage, an                   stretching a skin membrane across a
exceptionally stable institution among                 wooden hoop. Among Western Arctic
Inuit, was customarily preceded by a                   Inuit, several sitting drummers usually
period of trial marriage. Polygamy, and                accompanied one or several dancers,
more rarely polyandry, also occurred, but              whereas elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic
were not common practices.                             drumming was an individual performance
                                                       at which the drummer stood and chanted,
In the 20th century, Inuit have universally            swaying rhythmically with the drum beat.
embraced CHRISTIANITY, and a large                     Following contact with outsiders,
number of communities are now served by                instruments such as concertinas,
ordained Inuit clergy or trained catechists.           accordions, violins, harmonicas and, more
Prior to missionary activity, Inuit religious          recently, guitars became widespread.
leaders were shamans who often                         Square dancing, often in extended and
underwent lengthy and arduous training.                intricate performances without a caller,
Shamans were intermediaries between the                was very popular. "Throat singing"
Inuit and the various spiritual forces that            occurred among some groups, usually
influenced human affairs. Inuit life in pre-           performed by 2 women producing a wide
Christian days required strict adherence to            range of sounds from deep in the throat
various prohibitions and rules of conduct,             and chest.
so the role of the SHAMAN was usually to
determine transgressors and to prescribe               Decorative arts were associated with skin
appropriate atonement. Early missionary                sewing, or were inscribed on utensils.
activity was similarly constituted, with               Recent innovations in INUIT ART, eg,
many new rules and prohibitions                        soapstone carving, printmaking and wall
introduced and penitence demanded after                hangings, stem from traditional skills,
sinning.                                               sometimes using new materials or
                                                       techniques. Skills in creating string figures
Young Inuit were expected to learn by                  and other games that develop memory,
example, through close association with
adults. Desire to be praised by respected

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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



manual dexterity and patience, continue                unimportant elsewhere on the Plains.
to be practised.                                       Animal-skin disguises were used to get
                                                       close enough to the game for the effective
Author MILTON M.R. FREEMAN                             use of bows and arrows. Buffalo herds
                                                       were driven into pounds or corrals and
                                                       killed, or were stampeded over steep cliffs
          Native People: Plains                        While acquisition of the horse greatly
                                                       facilitated buffalo hunting, muzzle-loading
The Plains Indian culture area extended                guns proved inferior to bow and arrows,
from southern Manitoba and the                         which were given up only after shorter
Mississippi River westward to the Rocky                breechloaders were introduced by the
Mountains, and from the North                          1860s.
Saskatchewan River south into Texas. This
is a region with a continental climate - hot           When men hunted, women were busy
and dry summers and very cold winters.                 processing the results of this activity,
High grass covers the rolling prairies in              particularly in preserving (through drying)
the east; short grasses, sage and cacti the            foods. Some meat was cooked and eaten
arid high plains to the west. Flat land and            immediately, but most was sliced and
rolling hills extend in all directions.                sun-dried for the winter, or ground and
Flowing eastward, rivers have cut deeply               mixed with fat and berries to make
into the land, and provide practically all             PEMMICAN. Buffalo hides were used for
the scarce available water. Tree growth on             robes, tent covers, MOCCASINS and
the high plains is restricted to these                 shields; tools and utensils were made of
valleys, becoming rapidly more noticeable              the bison's horns, hooves, hair, tail, bones
toward the margins of the area.                        and sinew; buffalo dung was used as a
                                                       fuel on the treeless plains. Skins of
Plains Indian culture was based primarily              antelope and elk were preferred in the
on the immense herds of BISON or buffalo               manufacture of clothing: breechcloth,
which roamed over and fed upon these                   leggings and shirts for men, long dresses
grasslands until the early 1880s. Bison                and leggings for women.
herds shared these resources with
pronghorn, elk, mule deer, jack rabbits,               The family property was transported on a
prairie dogs and a range of small                      TRAVOIS (a triangular frame of poles)
herbivores, grouse, geese, ducks and                   dragged along by dogs. Travois also
cranes. This wildlife was preyed upon by               provided the framework of the conical
wolves, coyotes, grizzly bear, cougar,                 dwelling called TIPI, which was covered
eagles, other BIRDS OF PREY and man.                   with buffalo skins sewn together. After the
                                                       introduction of the horse, larger travois
            Traditional Culture                        and tipi were constructed. SNOWSHOES
                                                       were used during the winter by some
       Women gathered edible roots and
                                                       tribes on the northern Plains.
berries whenever they were available but
the main source of food came from                      Many utilitarian articles manifested the
hunting by the men, especially buffalo                 rich yet tribally distinct artistic
hunting. The Plains Cree and Plains Ojibwa             temperament of the Plains Indians. They
added fish to the diet, but fish was                   ranged from skin tattoos, clothing painted

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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



or embroidered with dyed porcupine quills,             cohesion. After the performance of the
paintings on tipi covers, shields and                  SUN DANCE and possibly a tribal buffalo
rawhide containers, carvings on wooden                 drive, the bands separated again; in the
bowls, horn spoons and stone pipes, the                fall they moved to well-protected
extensive use of feathers in ceremonial                campsites in river valleys, foothills and
regalia, to large boulder monuments laid               parklands, where they spent the winter.
out on the ground (see NATIVE ART).
Certain individuals were known and                     Religious ideas and practices permeated
approached for their exceptional ability in            all aspects of daily life. Fundamental to
a specific craft, but, even for them, craft            Plains Indian religion was the belief that
production was not an exclusive                        animals and other natural phenomena
occupation. Most of the colourfully                    possessed spiritual power that could,
decorated Plains Indian artifacts seen in              under proper circumstances, be
museums were made by women. Men                        manipulated to personal advantage. The
produced equipment for the hunt, war and               individual seeking such power went to a
ceremonies.                                            lonely spot where he fasted and prayed
                                                       until a spiritual guardian appeared to him
The adjustment of the native way of life to            in a dream (vision quest). The difference
the natural environment, and in particular             between ordinary men and ritual leaders
to the movements of the buffalo herds,                 was a gradually developing one, primarily
was reflected in their social organization.            based upon the amount of spiritual power
Most tribes consisted of loosely organized             acquired either by personal visions or by
and independent bands. Band chiefs had                 ritualized purchase from other individuals.
the respect and support of their followers             Mystical experiences gave rise to cults
as long as they were successful in the                 that either disappeared when the initiator
quest for food and in defence against                  died, or became increasingly popular. All
enemy attacks. Chiefs were advisers                    tribal rituals had their origins in such
rather than rulers; their decisions were               cults.
based on unanimous approval reached in
the council of elders. Public shame and                       Aboriginal-French Relations
ridicule were the principal means of social
                                                       Breton and Norman fishermen came into
discipline. Most of the year the bands
                                                       contact with the Algonquians of the
moved around independently of each
                                                       northeast at the beginning of the 16th
other. In lean periods even the band
                                                       century, if not earlier, as they put into
might have to split up into smaller groups
                                                       natural harbours and bays to seek shelter
that would have a better chance of finding
                                                       from storms and to replenish water and
sufficient food.
                                                       food supplies. There is some indication
Only in midsummer, when the buffalo                    that these first contacts with native
were concentrated in large herds, would                inhabitants were not always friendly. A
the bands come together for a few weeks                few individuals were kidnapped and taken
in one large tribal encampment. Then the               to France to be paraded at the court and
people joined in the celebrations of their             in public on state and religious occasions.
ceremonial and military societies, which               Also, precautions seem to have been
were the principal means of tribal                     taken to hide the women inland when


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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



parties landed from ships engaged in cod               Aboriginal peoples on their ancestral lands
fishing or walrus hunting.                             continued to be fully independent,
                                                       following their traditional lifestyle and
On the other hand, there were mutually                 customs. Royal instructions to Governor
satisfactory encounters as trade took                  Courcelles in 1665 emphasized that "the
place. The Algonkian brought furs, hides               officers, soldiers and all His Majesty's
and fish in exchange for beads, mirrors                adult subjects treat the Indians with
and other European goods of aesthetic                  kindness, justice and equity, without ever
and perhaps spiritual value. Both sides                causing them any hurt or violence."
seemed content with this growing                       Furthermore, it was ordered that no one
exchange. Soon the Algonkian exacted                   was to "take the lands on which they are
goods of more materialistic value, such as             living under pretext that it would be better
needles, knives, kettles or woven cloth,               and more suitable if they were French."
while the French displayed an insatiable
desire for well-worn beaver cloaks.

In the 16th century, the French, like their                            New France
western European neighbours, proceeded
to lay claim to lands "not possessed by                New France was the name given to all the
any other Christian prince" based on the               territory in North America held by France
European legal theory of Terra Nullius.                from the 1520s to 1763. For almost 250
This theory argued that since these lands              years, the French were leaders in the
were uninhabited, or at least uncultivated,            European exploration of North America.
they needed to be brought under Christian              Their travellers, traders, and settlers left a
dominion. The royal commission to                      permanent mark on much of Canada, as
ROBERVAL for the St Lawrence region,                   well as on large parts of the United States
dated 15 January 1541, and La Roche's                  and the Caribbean.
commission for SABLE ISLAND in 1598
                                                              Champlain, the Founder of New
enjoined acquisition either by voluntary
                                                                          France
cession or conquest.
                                                                Around 1600, French fur traders
By the early 17th century, as the FUR
                                                       made several attempts to establish
TRADE expanded and Catholic missionary
                                                       trading posts in Canada. The man who
work was seriously contemplated, a policy
                                                       succeeded was Samuel de Champlain. In
of pacification emerged. The fact that the
                                                       1608, after four years in Acadia, he came
French chose to colonize along the Bay of
                                                       to Quebec with a few men to build his
Fundy marshlands and the St Lawrence
                                                       Habitation as the beginning of a
Valley, from which the original Iroquoians
                                                       settlement. Quebec's survival depended
had disappeared by 1580, meant that no
                                                       on the good will of Champlain's native
Aboriginal peoples were displaced to make
                                                       allies, such as the Montagnais and Huron.
way for colonists. This peaceful
                                                       They permitted the settlement to be
cohabitation remained characteristic of
                                                       founded and supplied it with furs. In
Aboriginal-French relations up to the fall
                                                       exchange, Champlain helped them in their
of ACADIA (1710) and of NEW FRANCE
                                                       wars against the Iroquois, who thus
(1760). Beyond the Acadian farmlands
                                                       became bitter enemies of the French.
and the Laurentian seigneurial tract, the

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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



Meanwhile, a few families of settlers came             Yet life was hard for the habitants. On
to Quebec, and the trading post slowly                 most farms, the whole family worked
grew into a colony.                                    together to grow wheat, oats, corn, and
                                                       other crops, and to raise cattle, sheep,
  Rural Life: The Seigneurial System                   and pigs. The habitants produced their
                                                       own food, made most of their own clothes,
        The land of New France belonged
                                                       and built their own homes and barns.
to the king, who granted it to seigneurs
                                                       They bought very little; and since they did
(lords, or landlords) on condition that they
                                                       not sell much, they earned little money.
find settlers (habitants) to occupy and
develop it. A seigneur did not have to be a            The seigneur's share of his habitants'
noble, but the two often went together.                income, therefore, did not amount to
Aristocratic families and the Roman                    much money. So, although the seigneurial
Catholic Church owned most of the                      system was meant to support the
seigneuries in New France.                             seigneurs as well as help the habitants,
                                                       seigneurs rarely lived a life of ease on
The seigneur might keep some of the land
                                                       their estates. Many lived in the towns.
for himself, but most of it was rented out
                                                       Aside from collecting their rents, they left
to habitants. Most people, therefore did
                                                       the habitants alone.
not own the land they lived on, even if
their family had farmed it for generations.
The land belonged to the seigneur, and
the habitants had to pay him rent and a                          Conquest and Legacy
share of their crops. Often, they also had
to do work to improve the seigneury. In                       When New France fell, British
exchange, the seigneur was supposed to                 governors and troops replaced the French
provide a mill for the community and to                ones. British merchants arrived, and
serve as its leader.                                   English-speaking settlers gradually
                                                       hemmed in the French population of the
In many ways, the seigneurial system                   St Lawrence Valley. But while the English
served New France well. The seigneuries                moved into the towns and the positions of
were laid out along the river, and inside              power, the French population remained
each seigneury, long narrow farm lots ran              particularly strong in the countryside. The
in neat rows so that nearly everyone had               seigneurial system lasted until 1854;
some frontage on the river (or, later, on a            French legal codes remained the basis of
road farther back). Most settlers were too             Quebec's law; and French-Canadian clergy
poor to buy land, but anyone could get a               continued to serve their people.
farm lot from a seigneur, and the
seigneury provided the few community                   Today, the greatest legacy of New France
services the habitants needed. As long as              is its people. The 70 000 who stayed on
the habitants lived on the land and paid               after the Conquest have become the
their rent, they could not be turned out;              ancestors of today's 6 350 000
and they could pass on the family farm to              francophone Canadians. They created half
their heirs, or even sell it.                          of the English-French character that has
                                                       been a basic part of Canada for more than
                                                       200 years. All the riches of French society


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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



in Canada today are New France's legacy                Canadian History, Unit 2, British North
to the present.                                               America (1763-1867)

                                                       linguistic and religious minorities, recent
                                                       immigrants not fully integrated into
                  Loyalists                            American society, blacks and Indians.
                                                       Sympathy for the Crown was a dangerous
Loyalists, American colonists of varied
                                                       sentiment: those who defied the
ethnic backgrounds who supported the
                                                       revolutionary forces could find themselves
British cause during the AMERICAN
                                                       without civil rights, subject to mob
REVOLUTION (1775-83). In 1789 Lord
                                                       violence or flung into prison. All the states
Dorchester (see CARLETON), governor-in-
                                                       finally taxed or confiscated Loyalist
chief of BRITISH NORTH AMERICA,
                                                       property.
proclaimed that the Loyalists and their
children should be allowed to append "UE"              During the Revolution over 19 000
to their names, "alluding to their great               Loyalists served Britain in specially
principle, the Unity of Empire"; hence the             created provincial corps, accompanied by
phrase "United Empire Loyalist," or UEL.               several thousand Indians. Others spent
(The term applied initially in the Canadian            the war in such strongholds as New York
colonies alone; it was officially recognized           City or in refugee camps such as those at
in the Maritimes only in the 20th century.)            Sorel and Machiche, Qué. Between 80 000
                                                       and 100 000 eventually fled, about half of
In determining who was eligible for
                                                       them to Canada. The vast majority were
compensation for war losses, Britain used
                                                       neither well-to-do nor particularly high in
a fairly precise definition: Loyalists were
                                                       social rank; most were farmers.
those born or living in the American
                                                       Ethnically, they were quite mixed, and
colonies at the outbreak of the Revolution
                                                       many were recent immigrants. White
who rendered substantial service to the
                                                       Loyalists brought sizable contingents of
royal cause during the war, and who left
                                                       slaves with them. Free blacks and escaped
the US by the end of the war or soon
                                                       slaves who had fought in the Loyalist
after. Those who left substantially later,
                                                       corps and as many as 2000 Indian allies,
mainly to gain land and to escape growing
                                                       mainly Six Nations Iroquois from NY,
intolerance of minorities, are often called
                                                       settled in Canada.
"late" Loyalists.
                                                       The main waves of Loyalists came to what
The Loyalists supported Britain for highly
                                                       is now Canada in 1783 and 1784. The
diverse reasons. Many evinced a personal
                                                       MARITIME PROVINCES became home for
loyalty to the Crown or a fear that
                                                       upwards of 30 000; most of coastal NS
revolution could bring chaos to America.
                                                       received Loyalist settlers, as did Cape
Many agreed with the rebels that America
                                                       Breton and St John's Island [PEI]. The 2
had suffered wrongs at the hands of
                                                       chief settlements were in the Saint John
Britain, but believed the solution could be
                                                       River valley and temporarily at
worked out within the empire.
                                                       SHELBURNE, NS. The Loyalists swamped
Others, seeing themselves as weak or                   the previous population of 20 000
threatened within American society and in              Americans and French, and in 1784 New
need of an outside defender, included

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Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



Brunswick and Cape Breton were created                 war ended in stalemate. The Treaty of
to deal with the influx.                               GHENT, signed 24 Dec 1814, solved
                                                       nothing, since the reasons for the war -
Of about 2000 who moved to present-day                 British high-handedness on the high seas,
Québec, some settled in the Gaspé on                   including searching American ships during
Chaleur Bay and others in the seigneury of             the Napoleonic blockade and impressment
Sorel at the mouth of the Richelieu River.             - had been rendered academic by France's
About 7500 moved into what would                       defeat. Yet Canada owes its present shape
become Ontario, most settling along the                to negotiations that grew out of the peace,
St Lawrence River to the Bay of Quinte.                while the war itself - or the myths created
There were also substantial settlements in             by the war - gave Canadians their first
the Niagara Peninsula and on the Detroit               sense of community.
River, with subsidiary and later
settlements along the Thames River and                 The British and Canadians were badly
at Long Point. The Grand River was the                 outnumbered by the Americans but better
main focus of Loyalist Iroquois settlement.            prepared for war, thanks to the prescience
The Loyalist influx gave the region its first          of Maj-Gen Isaac BROCK, administrator of
substantial population and led to the                  UPPER CANADA. If the enemy could move
creation of a separate province, UPPER                 up the traditional Champlain-Richelieu
CANADA, in 1791. Loyalists were                        invasion route, seize Montréal and cut the
instrumental in establishing educational,              lifeline between Upper and Lower Canada,
religious, social and governmental                     the war would be as good as over. Brock
institutions.                                          thought this impossible because his Indian
                                                       allies, under the Shawnee war chief
Though greatly outnumbered by later                    TECUMSEH, had the American NW frontier
immigrants, Loyalists and their                        in a ferment. The Americans would thus
descendants, such as Egerton RYERSON,                  first try to secure their left flank. The
exerted a strong and lasting influence.                bloodless British capture of a key US post
Modern Canada has inherited much from                  at Michilimackinac I in Lk Huron, on July
the Loyalists, including a certain                     17, and of Detroit, Aug 16, frustrated that
conservatism, a preference for "evolution"             strategy and gave the British control of
rather than "revolution" in matters of                 Michigan territory and the Upper
government, and tendencies towards a                   Mississippi.
pluralistic and heterogeneous society. .
                                                       At this point Thomas Jefferson's remark
                                                       that the capture of Canada was "a mere
                                                       matter of marching" returned to haunt
                War of 1812
                                                       Washington. Having lost one army at
On 18 June 1812, at the height of the                  Detroit, the Americans lost another at
Napoleonic conflict (see NAPOLEONIC                    Queenston Heights (see QUEENSTON
WARS), the US declared war on Great                    HEIGHTS, BATTLE OF), Oct 13, after their
Britain and struck at the only British                 militia stood on its constitutional
possession on the continent: Canada.                   guarantee and refused to cross into
Most of the battles that followed took                 Canada. But Brock was killed - an
place along the international border. The              irreparable loss. A new American army


                                                                                                10
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



under William Henry Harrison struggled up              the American command evacuated Ft
from Kentucky to try to retake Detroit.                George on Dec 10 and quit Canada. On
One wing was so badly mauled at                        leaving, the militia burned the town of
Frenchtown, 22 Jan 1813, by a force of                 Newark [ NIAGARA-ON-THE-LAKE ], an
British, Canadians and Indians under Lt-               act that drove the British to brutal
Col Henry PROCTOR, that further attempts               retaliation at Buffalo. These incendiary
at invasion that winter were abandoned.                reprisals continued until Washington itself
The only Americans in Canada were                      was burned the following Aug.
prisoners of war.
                                                       Meanwhile, the US was mounting a 2-
British strategy was to act defensively and            pronged attack designed to take Montréal,
allow the invaders to make mistakes. Gov               but this was so halfhearted that it was
Sir George PREVOST husbanded his thin                  foredoomed to failure. On the
forces carefully, a sensible precaution                Châteauguay R on Oct 26, a handful of
given the US's overwhelming numerical                  French Canadian VOLTIGEURS under Lt-
superiority. As the campaign of 1813                   Col Charles de SALABERRY drove an
opened, the invaders determined to seize               American army of 4000 back across the
Kingston to cut the link between the                   border (see CHATEAUGUAY, BATTLE OF).
Canadas. But a weakness of resolve                     At CRYSLER'S FARM (near Morrisburg,
diverted the attack to the lesser prize of             Ont) on Nov 11, Lt-Col Joseph Wanton
York [Toronto]. The Americans briefly                  Morrison's regulars won a resounding
occupied the town, burning the public                  victory over James Wilkinson's superior
buildings and seizing valuable naval                   force, which also quit Canada. Thus the
supplies destined for Lk Erie; but the                 1813 campaign ended with the Americans
British, by burning their half-completed               in possession of Ft AMHERSTBURG on the
warship, frustrated the enemy's plan to                Detroit R, and the British holding the 2
appropriate it and change the balance of               American forts, Niagara and
naval power on Lk Ontario. Neither side                Michilimackinac.
totally controlled that lake for the balance
of the war.                                            The following year the Americans again
                                                       crossed the Niagara, seized Ft Erie on July
The Americans abandoned York and on 27                 3, and defeated the British at Chippawa
May 1813 their fleet seized FT GEORGE at               on July 5, but failed to retake Ft George.
the mouth of the Niagara R. The British                The bitter battle of LUNDY'S LANE
army escaped, however, repulsing the                   followed on July 25 within earshot of the
advance of the enemy up the Niagara                    Niagara cataract. Fought in the pitch dark
peninsula by winning the battles at Stoney             of a sultry night by exhausted troops who
Creek and Beaver Dams (see BEAVER                      could not tell friend from foe, it ended in
DAMS, BATTLE OF; STONEY CREEK,                         stalemate. The Americans withdrew to Ft
BATTLE OF), and driving the Americans                  Erie. Here they badly mauled the forces of
back into the enclave of the fort. For all of          the new British commander, Lt-Gen
that season the Niagara peninsula was a                Gordon Drummond, when he attempted a
no-man's-land of marauding parties.                    night attack (Aug 14-15). With both sides
Finally, worn down by sickness, desertion,             exhausted a 3-month standoff followed.
and the departure of short-term soldiers,              Finally, on Nov 5, the Americans again


                                                                                                11
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



withdrew. Meanwhile, NS Lt-Gov Sir John                Simon MCTAVISH, Isaac Todd and James
SHERBROOKE led a force from Halifax into               MCGILL, and several experienced
Maine, capturing Castine on Sept 3. By                 winterers in the Indian country. A 1780
mid-month British forces held much of                  reorganization joined McTavish, the
Maine, which was returned to the US only               Frobisher brothers, the McGills and the
with the signing of the peace treaty.                  Ellices, with Peter POND as their agent in
                                                       the Athabasca country.
Washington had expected the largely
American population of Upper Canada to                 Pond's inland encounter with opposition
throw off the British yoke as soon as its              trader Jean-Étienne Waddens and the
army crossed the border. This did not                  latter's murder in Mar 1782, along with
happen. Lured northwards by free land                  increased American and HBC competition,
and low taxes, the settlers wanted to be               clarified the need for a more unified,
left alone. Nor was it wise after such a               formal and permanent organization. In the
bitter war to advocate American political              winter of 1783-84, the NWC therefore
ideals, such as democracy and                          became an enduring multiple partnership
republicanism. Thus the British and                    controlled by the Frobishers and Simon
LOYALIST elite were able to set Canadians              McTavish, with annual trade valued at
on a different course from that of their               about £100 000.
former enemy. And the growing belief that
they, the civilian soldiers, and not the               A powerful rival remained, however.
Indians and British regulars, had won the              Gregory, McLeod and Co backed John
war - more mythic than real - helped to                Ross and other traders not included in the
germinate the seeds of nationalism in the              NWC, and intense rivalry ensued 1784-87.
Canadas.                                               Pond was again linked with murder - that
                                                       of Ross in Athabasca. Coalition was again
Author PIERRE BERTON                                   the answer, and in mid-1787 the
                                                       NOR'WESTERS and Gregory, McLeod
          North West Company                           amalgamated. Dominated by the Montréal
                                                       firm of McTavish, Frobisher, and Co,
North West Company, a major force in the
                                                       dynamic entrepreneurs thus came
FUR TRADE from the 1780s to 1821.
                                                       together - men such as the McGillivrays
Managed primarily by Highland SCOTS
                                                       and, from the ranks of their former rivals,
who migrated to Montréal after 1760, or
                                                       Roderick McKenzie and Alexander
came as LOYALISTS escaping the
                                                       MACKENZIE.
American Revolution, it also drew heavily
on Canadien labour and experience. The                 While McTavish and Frobisher handled
name first described Montréal traders who              Montréal affairs, Alexander Mackenzie led
in 1776 pooled resources to reduce                     inland expansion. The Athabasca trade
competition among themselves and to                    was reorganized with a new base, Fort
resist inland advances of the HUDSON'S                 Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca. A far-flung
BAY COMPANY.                                           system of canoe brigades, provisioned by
                                                       PEMMICAN from the plains, furnished
In 1779 a new temporary organization
                                                       transport and brought out up to 20 000
took the name. Its 16 shares were held by
                                                       MADE BEAVER annually. It also gave
9 partnerships including business leaders


                                                                                                12
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



Mackenzie the support needed to explore                and a liaison with the EAST INDIA CO bore
the Mackenzie River to its mouth in 1789.              little fruit.

During 1790-91, McTavish attempted                     In 1821 a parliamentary Act granted
unsuccessfully to have Britain end the                 exclusive trade to the HBC and to William
HBC monopoly. Later efforts to lease                   and Simon McGillivray and Edward ELLICE
transit rights from the HBC through its                of the NWC, in an effort to placate all
depots on Hudson Bay were rebuffed as                  parties by devising coalition, not
well. The only remaining option was to                 amalgamation. A Deed Poll designated 53
intensify direct rivalry with the "English,"           field officers, 32 NWC and 21 HBC, as
who were extending their own network of                shareholding chief factors and chief
inland posts. Through the 1790s the                    traders, under the charge of HBC
Nor'Westers prevailed. Their control of                governors William Williams and George
over two-thirds of the Canadian fur trade              SIMPSON, the latter a newcomer. The
by 1795 was complemented by                            name, charter and privileges of the old
Mackenzie's reaching the Pacific overland              HBC provided a foundation for the new
in July 1793. Potential rivals in Montréal             firm, while the Nor'Westers' skills and
were muted by a 1792 agreement to co-                  experience contributed a scope and
operate.                                               dynamism that served the company well.

Meanwhile, NWC-HBC confrontations                      Author JENNIFER S.H. BROWN
increased. NWC acquisition of Québec's
KING'S POSTS extended the company's
activities as far as Lake Mistassini, inland
                                                                  Thompson, David
from Hudson Bay. During 1803 to 1806,
the Nor'Westers maintained a base on                   David Thompson, fur trader, explorer,
James Bay, and although this enterprise                surveyor, mapmaker (b at London, Eng 30
proved unprofitable, rivalry intensified               Apr 1770; d at Longueuil, Canada E 10
elsewhere. In EXPLORATION, the NWC                     Feb 1857). Apprenticed to the HUDSON'S
kept the upper hand, with Duncan                       BAY CO in 1784, Thompson devoted most
McGillivray, David THOMPSON and Simon                  of his life to the study of geography and
FRASER crossing the Rocky Mountains and                the practice of mapmaking. The maps,
the latter 2 reaching the Pacific.                     based primarily on his own explorations
                                                       and observations, were the first to provide
When Thompson reached the Columbia
                                                       a comprehensive view of the vast western
River mouth in July 1811, he encountered
                                                       territories that became part of Canada in
a new post which had been erected by the
                                                       1870.
American John Jacob Astor's PACIFIC FUR
COMPANY. Isolated from its source of                   As an apprentice to the HBC, Thompson
support by the WAR OF 1812, Astoria was                rapidly acquired the knowledge needed to
sold to the Nor'Westers in October 1813.               be a successful trader. While recovering
It was returned to the Americans by the                from a broken leg in 1790, he studied
Treaty of GHENT. Two new NWC western                   surveying and mapmaking with Philip
trade districts proved profitable for some             Turnor, the HBC's official surveyor. His
years, but hopes to develop a China trade              new skills were recognized in 1792 when
                                                       he was assigned to seek a more direct

                                                                                                13
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



route from Hudson Bay to Lk Athabasca.                 In 1812 Thompson retired to Canada with
Frustrated by faltering support for his                his wife and family. After settling at
surveys, he left to join the NORTH WEST                Williamstown, UC, Thompson pursued his
CO in 1797 to locate and map their posts               career as a surveyor and mapmaker, his
and the waterways connecting them.                     most notable achievement being the
Within 2 years he had completed most of                completion of maps of his western
this assignment, including the first                   explorations and the charting of the
accurate delineation of those parts of the             official boundary between the US and
West most affected by the expansion of                 Canada from the St Lawrence R to Lake of
American authority under the terms of                  the Woods. Business failures left him
JAY'S TREATY - the upper Red River                     penniless, and in later life he turned to
valley, the Mandan villages on the                     writing the narrative of his explorations in
Missouri R, the sources of the Mississippi             western Canada, regarded by many as his
R, and the Fond du Lac and Rainy R                     greatest legacy.
regions W of Lk Superior. In 1799
Thompson was given additional duty as a                Author JOHN S. NICKS
trader and for the next 7 years he pursued
                                                                     Confederation
his surveys whenever his other
responsibilities permitted, as he rose from            Confederation, the union of the British
clerk to partner. During these years he                North American colonies of New
completed mapping the fur-trading                      Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Canada
territories E of the Rocky Mts.                        (Canada being an earlier 1841 union of
                                                       Lower Canada and Upper Canada), was
In 1806 Thompson set out to open a trade
                                                       achieved 1 July 1867 under the new
with the Indians W of the Rockies. Over
                                                       name, Dominion of Canada. It was soon
the next 5 years he explored the passes W
                                                       expanded with the addition of Manitoba
from the Saskatchewan and Athabasca
                                                       and the North-West Territory (15 July
rivers, building posts and mapping the
                                                       1870), British Columbia (20 July 1871),
hitherto uncharted COLUMBIA R basin
                                                       Prince Edward Island (1 July 1873), and
from its source to the Pacific, which he
                                                       ultimately Newfoundland (31 March
reached on 15 July 1811, a few weeks
                                                       1949). The Confederation movement
after the American PACIFIC FUR CO
                                                       followed Newton's first law of motion: all
arrived there. His failure to reach the
                                                       bodies continue in a state of rest or of
mouth of the river before the Americans
                                                       uniform motion unless compelled by some
could establish a claim to it has resulted in
                                                       force to change their state.
some debate among historians about his
instructions. Most now agree that                      In the 1860s political union of BRITISH
Thompson was not aware that an                         NORTH AMERICA was an idea, the subject
agreement between the NWC and Jacob                    of occasional dinner speeches when wine
Astor to support jointly the proposed                  raised a man's sights, softened political
voyage to the mouth of the Columbia had                asperities, and broadened his horizons.
fallen through, and that he had not been               But only in 1864 did it become a serious
ordered to reach the mouth first in order              question in the PROVINCE OF CANADA,
to forestall them.                                     and in the Atlantic colonies a great deal of
                                                       pressure would be necessary to convert

                                                                                                 14
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



romantic ideas of a nation a mari usque                partners, but their alliance meant that
ad mare into political reality.                        Confederation proceeded with support
                                                       from British North America's most
In the spring of 1864 all 3 legislatures               populous province.
passed pious resolutions declaring a
certain lukewarm interest in having a                  In Canada East, although Confederation
conference on the subject. But nothing                 was opposed by A.A. DORION's PARTI
was done; it was only when the Province                ROUGE, it was supported by the dominant
of Canada positively announced its                     political group, the Conservatives under
interest in being asked to attend such a               George-Étienne CARTIER, Hector
conference that the Maritime governments               LANGEVIN and Alexander T. GALT. By
woke up. If the Province of Canada was                 1867 they had the necessary support of
going to attend, then there had to be a                the Catholic Church. Confederation was
conference for them to come to. The                    justified by the arguments that French
governor of Nova Scotia got busy;                      Canadians would get back their provincial
Charlottetown was appointed as the place               identity - the capital of their province
- Prince Edward Island would not attend                would once more be Québec; the
otherwise - and 1 September 1864 the                   anglophone domination of Ottawa feared
time.                                                  by French Canadians would be mitigated
                                                       by the presence of strong French
As the Province of Canada grew larger and              Canadian representation in the federal
more prosperous and developed                          Cabinet; and Confederation was the least
politically, socially and industrially, so             undesirable of the changes proposed.
grew its internal rivalries and difficulties.
Whereas the Conservative party believed                So the "Canadians" sailed from Québec
the 1841 constitution had by no means                  City on 29 August 1864, aboard the
outlived its usefulness, the Reform party              Canadian government steamer Queen
insisted that change was essential.                    Victoria for the CHARLOTTETOWN
Canada West [Ontario], wanting divorce                 CONFERENCE. They were soon invited to
more than Canada East [Québec], could                  join the conference, and open up their
make difficult all ministries that did not             proposals, Maritime union not making very
conform to its belief in "representation by            much headway. The "Canadian" ideas for
population." In 1864, after 4 short-lived              a federal union of all the British North
ministries had fought to stay in power, a              American provinces swept the board, and
coalition was formed, promising                        the glittering idea of a union a mari usque
Confederation.                                         ad mare took over. The QUÉBEC
                                                       CONFERENCE, called a month later, made
The province's problems were to be solved              explicit, in the form of 72 Resolutions,
by division of its 2 sections and the union            fundamental decisions already taken at
of all BNA. With support from 3 of the                 Charlottetown.
province's 4 major political groups, the
coalition gave Confederation a driving                 The colonies were also joined in Québec
force that it never lost. Canada West's 2              by Newfoundland. The Atlantic colonies of
major political groups were united on the              Newfoundland, PEI, NS and NB each had
issue; their leaders, John A. MACDONALD                aspirations, but none was as dissatisfied
and George BROWN, were peculiar                        with the status quo as was Canada West.

                                                                                                 15
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



With the exception of Newfoundland, they               Nova Scotians opposed Confederation (see
felt comfortable as they were, and the                 REPEAL MOVEMENT).
bulk of the population, especially in NS
and PEI, saw no reason to change their                 NB supported Confederation only slightly
constitution just because Canada was                   more than any other Atlantic province. In
finding it had outgrown its own.                       February 1865 the anti-Confederate
                                                       government of A.J. SMITH was elected.
Even Newfoundland, after economic                      Confederation could go nowhere until the
difficulties in the 1860s had made it                  Smith government collapsed, as it did in
susceptible to mainland blandishments,                 1866 and a new pro-Confederate
postponed decision in 1865, and in the                 government was brought in, helped by the
1869 Newfoundland general election                     FENIAN invasions of April and June 1866,
decisively rejected Confederation. The                 which badly weakened anti-Confederate
more prosperous PEI resisted almost from               positions.
the start. A small, dedicated group of
Confederationists made little headway                  External forces such as the American Civil
until, early in the 1870s, the railway                 War and the truculence of American
adventures of successive Island                        foreign policy (symbolized in the 1866
governments forced PEI to have its                     abrogation of the RECIPROCITY Treaty
railway, and its debt, taken over by the               and 1867 Alaska purchase) made the
new Dominion. NS was more complicated.                 separate colonies of BNA uneasy about
                                                       their future. Duty would compel Britain to
Along the axis of the railway that already             respond to any military aggression against
ran from Halifax to Truro and was to                   BNA, as the TRENT AFFAIR showed; but
continue to Québec, there was real                     Britain had no taste for it. The best British
support for Confederation. The                         defence against the US was a BNA
manufacturing and coal-producing areas,                federation. Confederation thus had
Pictou County and to some extent Cape                  powerful support from London, especially
Breton, were also interested. But along                from Colonial Secretary Edward Cardwell.
the south shore and in the Annapolis
Valley - the prosperous world of shipping,             The British North America Act was passed
shipbuilding, potatoes and apples -                    as of 1867 (now called CONSTITUTION
Confederation appeared unattractive or                 ACT, 1867) which passed through
even dangerous.                                        Parliament, the British House of Commons
                                                       and House of Lords, and was signed by
Conservative Premier Charles TUPPER,                   the Queen on 29 March 1867. It was
ambitious, aggressive and confident, went              proclaimed into law 1 July 1867.
ahead with Confederation, convinced that
in the long run it would be best for NS,               British policy favouring the union of all of
and perhaps also for himself. Fortunately              British North America continued under
for Confederation, Tupper did not test his             Cardwell's successors. The Hudson's Bay
electorate: elected in 1863, his                       Co sold RUPERT'S LAND to Canada in
government did not need to go to the                   1870, and BC was brought into
polls until 1867, after Confederation.                 Confederation in 1871. The only defeat
Then, too late, it was clear that 65% of               British policy sustained was in
                                                       Newfoundland in 1869; but 80 years later

                                                                                                 16
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



it finally made its contribution to                    and legal category, more or less narrowly
Confederation.                                         defined. (For example, Alberta's Métis
                                                       Betterment Act of 1938 defined Métis as
Although the form of Confederation was                 persons "of mixed white and INDIAN blood
the product of 3 conferences and                       having not less than one-quarter Indian
                                                       blood,"not including those people already
delegates from both sides of politics from
                                                       defined under Canada's INDIAN ACT as
5 colonies, the practical ideas of how it
                                                       treaty or nontreaty Indians.)
might actually be achieved came from
John A. Macdonald, with help on the                               The Western Métis
financial side from A.T. Galt, and with G.-
E. Cartier's insistence on a certain                   From 1821 to 1870 Red River's
essential minimum of provincial rights.                overwhelmingly mixed-descent population
Confederation had not been originally                  continued to reflect its dual origins:
Macdonald's idea; but he was finally the               Montréal, the Great Lakes and Prairies,
                                                       and the NWC; and Britain, the Orkney
one who took hold of it and made the
                                                       Islands (a major HBC recruiting ground)
running. Thus, it is to Macdonald and his              and Rupert's Land. The extent to which
ideas that Canadians should look to                    these subgroups were allied is debated.
understand the character of that 1867                  Some argue for their solidarity on the
union.                                                 basis of their numerous intermarriages,
                                                       business ties, and shared involvements in
                                                       the BUFFALO HUNT, the HBC transport
                                                       brigades, and Louis RIEL's provisional
Author P.B. WAITE                                      government of 1869-70. A contrary view
                                                       emphasizes the split between the Roman
  Canadian History S, Unit 3. A New                    Catholic francophones and the Protestant
               Nation                                  anglophone "country-born," as they were
                                                       sometimes known. The debate reflects in
Métis is one of several historically variable          part the complexity of the evidence and
terms (michif, bois brûlé, chicot,                     the fact that many individuals, such as
halfbreed, country-born, mixed blood)                  members of the Alexander ROSS family,
used in Canada and some parts of the                   suffered ambivalence about their Indian
northern US to describe people of mixed                heritage and about Métis political activism.
North American Indian-European descent.
                                                       Red River Provisional Government
Definition
It is important to define specific meanings            Events from the mid-1800s onwards
for the term as used in this discussion,               offered few outlets for the qualities that
while cautioning that writers past and                 Wilson perceived. The 1840s and 1850s
present have not achieved consensus on                 saw Métis challenges to the HBC trade and
the matter. Written with a small m, métis              administrative monopoly in Red River: the
is an old French word meaning "mixed,"                 trial and freeing of trader Pierre-Guillaume
and it is used here in a general sense for             SAYER in 1849, and the anti-HBC lobbying
people of dual Indian-white ancestry.                  efforts in London by Alexander ISBISTER.
Capitalized, Métis is often used but not               Other events soon overshadowed the HBC
universally accepted as a generic term for             question: the intensifying eastern interest
all persons of this biracial descent. It may           in developing the West (heightened by
variously refer to a distinctive socio                 Henry Y. HIND'S glowing report of its
cultural heritage, a means of ethnic self-             agricultural potential), Confederation and
identification, and sometimes a political              the 1870 transfer of Rupert's Land to the

                                                                                                17
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



Canadian government. The consequent                    20-50 000 by about 1640; several
efforts of government surveyors to map                 thousand European and Canadian fur
Red River without regard for local                     traders followed by several hundred
residents' holdings touched off Louis Riel's           British immigrants, between 1640 and
move to establish a provisional                        1840, created dozens of small outposts
government in November of1869. The                     and a few European-style settlements, the
Canadian bargaining with Riel led to                   largest being the RED RIVER COLONY; the
passage of the MANITOBA ACT, securing                  third wave, 1840s-90s, consisted chiefly
the admittance of a small portion of the               of Canadians of British heritage; the
present province to Canada with provincial             fourth and by far the largest was drawn
status and, most important for the Métis,              from many nations and occurred 1897-
stating that 1 400 000 acres (566 580                  1929, with a hiatus 1914-22 associated
ha)would be allotted for "the children of              with WWI; and the fifth, drawn from other
the halfbreeds."                                       Canadian provinces and from around the
                                                       world, commenced in the late 1940s and
The promised land base was lost in the                 has continued with fluctuations to the
next decade, however. The settlers and                 present. Throughout the last century, the
                                                       region has also steadily lost residents, as
troops who arrived in the new province
                                                       a result of migration to other parts of
from 1870 on were hostile to the Métis,                Canada and the world.
many of whom were "beaten and outraged
by a small but noisy section" of the                   The first immigrants moved between
newcomers, according to a report by the                resource zones according to the dictates
new governor, Adams Archibald. Métis                   of the season, the fortunes of the hunt,
landholders were harassed, while new                   and diplomatic relations with neighbouring
laws and amendments to the Manitoba Act                groups. In the 18th century they utilized
                                                       European trade goods such as axes and
undermined Métis power to fend off
                                                       knives, and were affected by some
speculators and new settlers. Of the                   European innovations, particularly the gun
approximately 10 000 persons of mixed                  and the horse, but they remained in
descent in Manitoba in 1870, two-thirds or             control of their domestic economies and
more are estimated to have departed in                 diplomatic alliances.
the next several years. While some went
north and some south to the US, most                   Native autonomy was lost in the 19th
headed west to the Catholic mission                    century, partly through population
                                                       pressure from eastern North America and
settlements around Fort Edmonton (Lac
                                                       partly because of the destruction of the
Ste Anne, St Albert and Lac La Biche) and              single, crucial element in the plains
to the South Saskatchewan River, where                 economy - the buffalo. Seven INDIAN
they founded or joined St Laurent,                     TREATIES were negotiated in the 1870s
BATOCHE andDUCK LAKE.                                  between the Canadian government and
                                                       the natives of the western interior,
                                                       exchanging native sovereignty over the
                                                       land for government promises of economic
Prairie West, the "western interior" of                assistance, education and the creation of
Canada, is bounded roughly by Lake                     reserves for native people. Thus, in a few
Superior and the Rocky Mountains, the                  short decades, prairie natives became
49th parallel of latitude and the low Arctic.          wards of the state.
It was peopled in 5 great eras: the
migration from Asia, probably 20-40 ,000               From the European perspective, the early
years ago, produced a native population of             history of the western interior was the

                                                                                                18
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



story of FUR-TRADE competition. The                    for 2 generations. Crucial decisions on
English HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY,                          tariff policy and the CANADIAN PACIFIC
founded 1670, traded from posts on                     RAILWAY followed, 1879-80. The region
Hudson Bay until competition forced it to              was to become an agricultural hinterland,
establish inland houses in the 1770s. The              built upon international IMMIGRATION and
French and later the NORTH WEST                        the family farm, and integrated with a
COMPANY, with Montréal as headquarters,                growing manufacturing sector in central
created an extensive network of posts that             Canada.
was pushed into the Prairie West by the
LA VÉRENDRYES in the 1730s, and                        New forces at work in the Prairie West
extended by Peter POND in the 1770s and                around 1900 made complacency
Alexander MACKENZIE, 1789-93. Deadly                   inappropriate. Social leaders were
competition finally forced the merger of               troubled by the arrival of hundreds of
the HBC and the NWC in 1821. The                       thousands of non-British immigrants who
restructured HBC ruled the fur trade and               placed great strains upon prairie
the region for another 5 decades.                      institutions during the next few decades.
                                                       The newcomers, on the other hand,
                                                       relinquished much of their traditional
                                                       culture as they helped to build the new
Some traders established liaisons with                 West.
native women. Their offspring, whether
French-speaking (Métis) or English-                    Scandinavians and Germans assimilated
speaking ("mixed bloods" or country                    quickly; MENNONITES, JEWS and
born), were sufficiently numerous by the               UKRAINIANS sought to retain more of
early 19th century to constitute the                   their cultural heritage, and eventually
largest group in the Red River Colony and              helped to create a multicultural definition
an important component of fur-company                  of Canada; HUTTERITES remained isolated
operations. They led the defence of local              from the larger community; and some
interests against incoming speculators                 other religious groups - notably a few
when outside interest in the region                    DOUKHOBORS and Mennonites - preferred
quickened in the 1840s-60s. Canada                     to leave the region rather than
eventually secured sovereignty over                    accommodate to its norms. By the 1950s
RUPERT'S LAND, but only after the 1869-                the Prairies were far closer to a British
70 RED RIVER REBELLION led by Louis                    Canadian model than to that of any other
RIEL resulted in significant revisions to the          culture.
terms allowing the region's entry into
CONFEDERATION.                                         World War I

The Prairie West                                       Political institutions, too, underwent
                                                       severe testing in the early 20th century. A
Because of the federal government's great              wide gap between the wealthy and the
powers and because of PM J.A.                          poor produced real tension. In cities such
Macdonald's decision to retain control of              as Winnipeg and Calgary, luxurious homes
western lands, the policy framework for                in segregated residential areas, exclusive
development was created in Ottawa.                     clubs, colleges and social events, and the
Decisions taken between 1870 and 1874                  concentration of political and economic
on the dispatch of the North-West                      power in the hands of a few were signs
Mounted Police, the square survey the                  that a ruling class was evolving. By
policy on HOMESTEADING and                             contrast, the squalor of slum areas such
immigration recruitment activities                     as Winnipeg's North End, some frontier
remained cornerstones of prairie history               construction camps, and resource towns

                                                                                                19
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



such as Lovettville and Cadomin, Alberta,              Arthur CURRIE, who followed Byng's
suggested that a class struggle was in the             methods and improved on them. Instead
making. The intensity of labour-                       of attacking Lens in the summer of 1917,
management conflicts, especially in                    Currie captured the nearby HILL 70 and
Winnipeg and the Alberta coal towns,                   used artillery to destroy wave after wave
should be seen in this context.                        of German counterattacks. As an
                                                       increasingly independent subordinate,
On 4 August 1914 Britain's ultimatum to                Currie questioned orders, but he could not
Germany to withdraw from Belgium                       refuse them. When ordered to finish the
expired. The British Empire, including                 disastrous British offensive at
Canada, was at war, allied with Serbia,                PASSCHENDAELE in October 1917, Currie
Russia, and France against the German                  warned that it would cost 16 000 of his 20
and Austro-Hungarian empires. Prewar                   000 men. Though he insisted on time to
Canada had a regular army of only 3000,                prepare, the Canadian victory on the
but 60 000 militia had trained in 1913;                dismal, water-logged battlefield left a toll
most provinces, including Québec, insisted             of 15 654 dead and wounded.
on military training in their schools, and
defence spending had risen sixfold since               A battle-hardened Canadian Corps was a
1897.                                                  major instrument in this war of attrition.
                                                       Its skill and training were tested on Easter
At the second Battle of YPRES, April 1915,             weekend, 1917, when all 4 divisions were
a raw 1st Canadian Division suffered 6036              sent forward to capture a seemingly
casualties, and the Princess Patricia's                impregnable VIMY RIDGE. Weeks of
Canadian Light Infantry a further 678. The             rehearsals, stockpiling, and bombardment
troops also shed their defective Ross                  paid off. In 5 days the ridge was taken.
rifles. At the St Eloi craters in 1916, the
2nd Division suffered a painful setback                Canadians and Australians attacked near
because its senior commanders failed to                Amiens on 8 August 1918 Shock tactics,
locate their men. In June the 3rd Division             using airplanes, tanks, and infantry,
was shattered at MONT SORREL though                    shattered the German line. When
the position was recovered by the now                  resistance thickened, Currie was among
battle-hardened 1st Division. The test of              those who advised switching to new lines
battle eliminated inept officers and                   of attack. In September and early October
showed survivors that careful staff work,              the Canadians attacked again and again,
preparation, and discipline were vital.                suffering heavy casualties but making
                                                       advances thought unimaginable. The
                                                       Germans fought with skill and courage all
Canadians were spared the early battles of
                                                       the way to Mons, the little Belgian town
the SOMME in summer 1916, though a
                                                       where fighting ended for the Canadians at
separate Newfoundland force, 1st
                                                       11 AM (Greenwich time), 11 November
Newfoundland Regiment, was annihilated
                                                       1918. More officially, the war ended with
at Beaumont Hamel on the disastrous first
                                                       the Treaty of VERSAILLES, signed 28 June
day, July 1. When Canadians entered the
                                                       1919.
battle on August 30, their experience
helped toward limited gains, though at
high cost. By the end of the battle the                Winnipeg General Strike
Canadian Corps had reached its full
strength of 4 divisions.                               The Winnipeg General Strike, 15 May-25
                                                       June 1919, was Canada's best-known
The able British commander of the corps,               general strike. Massive unemployment
Lt-Gen Sir Julian BYNG, was promoted;                  and inflation, the success of the Russian
his successor was a Canadian, Lt-Gen Sir               Revolution (1917), a wave of strikes


                                                                                                   20
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



across Canada and rising REVOLUTIONARY                 Afraid that the strike would spark
INDUSTRIAL UNIONISM all contributed to                 confrontations in other cities, the federal
postwar labour unrest. In Mar 1919 in                  government decided to intervene; soon
Calgary western labour leaders met to                  after the strike began, Senator Gideon
discuss the creation of ONE BIG UNION. In              Robertson, minister of labour, and Arthur
Winnipeg on May 15, when negotiations                  MEIGHEN, minister of the interior and
broke down between management and                      acting minister of justice, went to
labour in the building and metal trades,               Winnipeg to meet with the Citizens'
the Winnipeg Trades and Labor Council                  Committee. They refused requests from
called a general strike.                               the Central Strike Committee for a similar
                                                       hearing. On their advice, the federal
At stake were the principle of collective              government swiftly supported the
bargaining, better wages and the                       employers, and federal employees were
improvement of often dreadful working                  ordered to return to work immediately or
conditions. Within hours almost 30 000                 face dismissal. The Immigration Act was
workers had left their jobs. The almost                amended so that British-born immigrants
unanimous response by working men and                  could be deported, and the Criminal
women closed the city's factories, crippled            Code's definition of sedition was
its retail trade and stopped the trains.               broadened.
Public-sector employees such as
policemen, firemen, postal workers,                    On June 17 the government arrested 10
telephone operators and employees of                   leaders of the Central Strike Committee
waterworks and other utilities joined the              and 2 propagandists from the newly
workers of private industry in an                      formed One Big Union. Four days later, a
impressive display of working-class                    charge by Royal North-West Mounted
solidarity. The strike was co-ordinated by             Police into a crowd of strikers resulted in
the Central Strike Committee, composed                 30 casualties, including one death.
of delegates elected from each of the                  "Bloody Saturday" ended with federal
unions affiliated with the WTLC. The                   troops occupying the city's streets. Six of
committee bargained with employers on                  the labour leaders were released, but Fred
behalf of the workers and co-ordinated the             Dixon and J.S. WOODSWORTH were
provision of essential services.                       arrested. Faced with the combined forces
                                                       of the government and the employers, the
Opposition to the strike was organized by              strikers decided to return to work on June
the Citizens' Committee of 1000, created               25.
shortly after the strike began by
Winnipeg's most influential manufacturers,             The General Strike left a legacy of
bankers and politicians. Rather than giving            bitterness and controversy. In a wave of
the strikers' demands any serious                      increased unionism and militancy across
consideration, the Citizens' Committee,                Canada, sympathetic strikes erupted in
with the support of Winnipeg's leading                 centres from Amherst, NS, to Victoria, BC.
newspapers, declared the strike a                      Seven of the arrested leaders were
revolutionary conspiracy led by a small                unfairly convicted of a conspiracy to
group of "alien scum." The available                   overthrow the government and sentenced
evidence failed to support its charges that            to jail terms from 6 months to 2 years;
the strike was initiated by European                   the charges against J.S. Woodsworth were
workers and Bolsheviks, but the Citizens'              dropped. Almost 3 decades passed before
Committee used these unsubstantiated                   Canadian workers secured union
charges to block any conciliation efforts by           recognition and collective bargaining.
the workers.



                                                                                                21
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



             Canadian History

    Unit 4, 20th Century Challenges

Post WW I                                              In the years between the wars, 2
                                                       machines may have done more than the
The Great Depression of the 1930s began                Depression to alter everyday life: the
for wheat farmers in 1930 when the price               automobile and the radio. The 1920s were
of wheat dropped below $1 a bushel.                    the decade of the automobile. In 1919
Prairie farmers were the hardest hit                   there was one car in Canada for every 40
because these low prices happened to                   Canadians and 10 years later it was one
coincide with a period of drought. Drought
                                                       car for every 10. The car led to the spread
meant crop failures and a lack of feed for
                                                       of Canadian cities into suburbs. In 1930
livestock. Disaster also struck those
                                                       there were half a million radios in Canada
industrial workers who lost their jobs. It is
                                                       and over a million by 1939. Radio brought
estimated that one in five workers were
unemployed in 1933.                                    news and entertainment into most
                                                       Canadian homes. Radio also brought
Voters looked to governments to help                   concern that the broadcasting of American
solve these economic problems but most                 programs posed a threat to the Canadian
were unable. One after another                         way of life. As a result, the federal
governments were elected and replaced.                 government created the Canadian
At the federal level King's Liberals were              Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to provide
elected in 1926 and rejected in 1930. In               Canadian programs in French and English.
the provinces new parties, such as Social              In this way Canadians began to look to
Credit in Alberta and Union Nationale in               governments to help keep a Canadian way
Québec took power.                                     of life.

Governments tried to provide emergency
relief, but they too soon needed help.
Prairie farmers needed food, fuel and                  World War II
clothing, but no level of government could
help them.                                             Canada declared war on Germany on
                                                       Sept. 10, 1939. It declared war on Japan
The conflicts between business (supported              on Dec. 8, 1941, the day after Japan
by government) and workers or farmers                  attacked United States bases at Pearl
led some people such as J.S. Woodsworth                Harbor in Hawaii. The Canadian Army first
to enter politics. Woodsworth, a labour                saw action in December 1941, when it
supporter and a person concerned with In               participated in the unsuccessful attempt to
                                                       defend Hong Kong against a Japanese
In the provinces after the war, farmers'
                                                       invasion. In August 1942, the Army
parties formed governments in Ontario,
                                                       suffered heavy losses in the Allied assault
Manitoba and Alberta, and in the federal
                                                       on the French port of Dieppe.
election of 1921, won by W.L.M. King’s
Liberals, the Progressive Party won an
                                                       Canadian troops also took part in the
astonishing 65 seats. The Progressives                 Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943 and in the
campaigned on issues of concern to                     battle for Italy. The Third Canadian
farmers, such as the high freight rates                Division participated in the Allied landing
they were forced to pay by the railways.               at Normandy in France on June 6, 1944.

                                                                                                 22
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



The First Canadian Army, commanded by                  children. As the war came to an end, the
General H. D. G. Crerar, fought its way                government began a vast benefits
through the Netherlands and advanced                   program to help veterans return to civilian
into northern Germany. The Royal                       life.
Canadian Air Force aided the Allies, and
the Canadian Navy helped protect Allied                History Since 1945
ships in the Atlantic Ocean. By the end of
the war, more than a million Canadian                  In the federal election of 11 June 1945,
men and women had served in the armed                  Canadians returned the Liberals and
forces. More than 90,000 had been killed               Mackenzie King to office. The Liberals
or wounded.                                            introduced a number of social policies,
                                                       such as the family allowance, begun in
The Canadian government lent billions of               1944, and Unemployment Insurance,
dollars to the war cause. It sent the
                                                       begun in 1940.
British people large quantities of food
during the Battle of Britain. Canadian
factories built thousands of planes, ships,            The Liberals success after World War II
and weapons.                                           was largely the result of economic
                                                       prosperity. After 1954 this advantage
When World War II began, King pledged                  began to disappear. There was a sharp
to keep recruiting voluntary for overseas              economic slump in 1954 and Canadians
service. In 1942, however, the                         began to see the long-serving Liberals as
government asked Canadian voters to                    arrogant, especially during the Pipeline
release it from a pledge not to send                   Debate of 1956. On 10 June 1957 the
draftees abroad. The vast majority of                  Conservative Party was elected. The new
voters approved the request, though                    prime minister was the flamboyant John
many French Canadians opposed it.                      Diefenbaker. In 1958 Diefenbaker soundly
However, no Canadian draftees went                     defeated the Liberals under their new
overseas until November 1944.                          leader Lester Pearson. Diefenbaker won
                                                       208 of 265 seats on the strength of his
The war was especially tragic for                      stirring speeches, his "vision" of a new
Canadians of Japanese descent and for
                                                       Canada and his policy of developing the
newly arrived immigrants from Japan.
                                                       North.
Japanese Canadians came under
widespread distrust after Japan attacked
Pearl Harbor. In February 1942, the                    On the provincial level, the Liberals won
Canadian government began to place                     an important election in Québec in 1960.
about 21,000 of them in camps and                      Led by Jean Lesage the Liberals set about
isolated towns in Alberta, British                     to modernize Québec, setting off a series
Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario. Their                 of changes called the Quiet Revolution.
rights were not restored until 1949. Most              Longtime Saskatchewan Premier Tommy
of the Japanese Canadians lost their                   Douglas went to Ottawa to lead the New
homes and businesses.                                  Democratic Party, a party dedicated to
                                                       furthering the interests of workers. In
The government adopted several                         Saskatchewan the NDP introduced
important social programs during the war.              medicare (government supported health
It established the beginning of a social               care) in 1962, for the first time in North
security system by introducing                         America. Medicare proved successful and
unemployment insurance in 1940. In
                                                       soon became a popular national program.
1944, it adopted a program that assisted
families by providing financial aid for

                                                                                                  23
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



In 1967 the Conservatives replaced                     Clark defeated Trudeau, sweeping English
Diefenbaker with Nova Scotia Premier                   Canada. Although Liberals gained in
Robert Stanfield. Pearson resigned at the              Québec, Clark was only 4 seats short of a
end of 1967, to be succeeded by Pierre                 majority, but he remained personally
Trudeau. Trudeau's vigorous opposition to              unpopular. The Liberals under Trudeau
Québec nationalism and to "special status"             (who had resigned and then returned)
won support in English Canada, while his               regained their majority in an election in
promise to make the French fact                        which Ontario swung strongly behind the
important in Ottawa appealed to his fellow             Liberals, whose policies on energy pricing
Francophones.                                          they favoured and the West abhorred. The
                                                       Liberals won no seat west of Manitoba.
In 1968 Trudeau won a majority. Trudeau
reacted swiftly and harshly to terrorism in            Trudeau played an important role in
Québec during the 1970 October Crisis.                 preventing Québec Separatism in a 1980
His emphasis on Biculturalism angered                  Québec referendum. He brought the
many English Canadians. The Liberals won               Canadian Constitution home from Britain
only 109 seats in the next election, the               and passed the Canadian Charter Of
Conservatives 107. The NDP held the                    Rights and Freedoms. But the prime
balance of power with 31, their highest                minister became unpopular as the
number to that point. NDP leader David                 economy worsened. In 1984 the
Lewis backed the Liberals. Trudeau took                Conservatives led by Brian Mulroney won
his government towards the left to                     an overwhelming victory, combining
guarantee NDP support.                                 support in the West and Québec. The
                                                       Mulroney government succeeded in selling
In the 1974 election Trudeau regained the              a Free Trade agreement to the United
Liberal majority. His leadership became                States and the Canadian public but failed
indecisive and economic difficulties                   in two attempts, the Meech Lake Accord
plagued his government between 1974                    and the Charlottetown Accord, to solve the
and 1979. He surged forward in 1976-77                 constitutional problem of winning
when René Levesque Parti Quebecois                     Québec's acceptance of the Constitution.
gained power in Québec. In May 1979
                                                          Canadian History Unit 5, A Modern
                                                                       Nation
Canadian Charter of Rights &                           fabric of Canadian law ... the supreme law
Freedoms                                               of Canada." It also declared that "the
                                                       Charter is designed and adopted to guide
The Canadian Charter of Rights and                     and serve the Canadian community for a
Freedoms, the only Charter of Rights                   long time With the Constitution Act, 1982,
entrenched in the Canadian Constitution,               comes a new dimension, a new yardstick
came into force on 17 April 1982.                      of reconciliation between the individual
According to section 52 of the Constitution            and the community and their respective
Act, 1982 every law that is inconsistent               rights, a dimension which like the balance
with the Constitution is, to the extent of             of the Constitution remains to be
the inconsistency, of no force and effect.             interpreted and applied by the court."
The SUPREME COURT OF CANADA in the                     The Canadian Charter of Rights and
Skapinker case of May 1984 declared                    Freedoms was an important issue in the
unanimously that the Charter "is a part of             debate concerning the patriation of the
the Constitution of a nation ... part of the           Constitution The majority of the provinces,


                                                                                               24
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



while not averse to a Charter of Rights,               when the first ministers completed the
had other priorities, particularly the                 text of the MEECH LAKE ACCORD reached
enlargement of some of their powers. In                earlier in the year on the initiative of PM
                                                       Brian MULRONEY. Québec was recognized
November 1981 Prime Minister
                                                       as a "distinct society" and its legislature
P.E. TRUDEAU accepted the Alberta-                     and government was empowered to
Vancouver formula of amendment                         preserve and protect the province's
endorsed by 8 provinces, and the                       distinct identity. English-speaking
provinces accepted the Charter of Rights,              Canadians within Québec and French-
but not without imposing the exercise at               speaking Canadians outside its borders
will of a derogatory clause                            were also constitutionally acknowledged.
("notwithstanding" clause of s33) for
                                                       Collapse of the Accord
The Quebec Independence Movement
                                                       Public support for the agreement in 1987,
                                                       according to polls, was over 66%. By July
An important constitutional development
                                                       7 the House of Commons (with a vote of
in 1969 was the OFFICIAL LANGUAGES
                                                       242 for and 16 against) and all the
ACT (see OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT
                                                       provinces except Manitoba and New
(1988)), which declared English and
                                                       Brunswick had passed the Accord.
French to be Canada's "official languages,"
                                                       However, opposition grew in the media
and extended an array of government
                                                       and among certain interest groups,
services in both tongues to all citizens.
                                                       particularly those representing native
The election of the separatist PARTI
                                                       peoples, women's groups, Francophones
QUÉBÉCOIS in Québec on 15 November
                                                       outside Québec, and the territories
1976 emphasized that the threat of
                                                       (seeing the Accord as precluding them
SEPARATISM was real, but in a
                                                       ever attaining provincial status). In
referendum on 20 May 1980 Québec
                                                       October 1989 a Manitoba task force
voters rejected the provincial
                                                       challenged the distinct society clause and
government's SOVEREIGNTY-
                                                       other aspects of the Accord.
ASSOCIATION option by a margin of 60-
40%.
                                                       Meanwhile governments changed and new
                                                       premiers such as Frank MCKENNA of New
PM Pierre E. TRUDEAU supported
                                                       Brunswick voiced their opposition,
continued federalism by promising Québec
                                                       although NB gave its approval in March
constitutional renewal in the event of a
                                                       1990. Eventually opposition coalesced
negative vote. After a deadlocked federal-
                                                       around the figure of Nfld premier Clyde
provincial conference, he announced on 2
                                                       WELLS, who strongly objected to the
October 1980 that Ottawa proposed to
                                                       distinct society clause. His government
entrench unilaterally the core of a new
                                                       rescinded its approval on 6 April 1990.
Constitution embracing a domestic
amending formula and a rights charter
which would replace PM 1960 Canadian                   In desperation to save the Accord, PM
Bill of Rights. Trudeau emphasized that an             Mulroney called the premiers together in
amending formula had eluded federal-                   June. On June 9 the First Ministers
provincial negotiators since 1927.                     emerged with a signed agreement, though
                                                       Wells's approval was conditional, he said,
                                                       on the approval of the "Newfoundland
The Meech Lake Accord
                                                       people or the legislature."

Québec's acceptance of constitutional                  When procedural delays initiated by MLA
reform seemed secured in June 1987                     Elijah HARPER threatened to extend

                                                                                                 25
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



Manitoba's approval beyond the deadline,               On 15 November 1976 The new separatist
Wells refused to take a vote in the Nfld               party, “Parti Quebecois” swept to power
legislature on the grounds that the                    with 41% of the popular vote and 71
situation in Manitoba made it irrelevant.              seats. It promised to delay any move
The deadline expired and the Accord died.              toward independence until it had
The failure of the Accord left a sense of              consulted the people of Québec in a
bitterness and frustration. Many                       referendum. In the QUÉBEC REFERENDUM
Quebeckers interpreted its failure as a                campaign of 1980, the government of
rejection of Québec and support for pulling            Québec asked the people for a mandate to
out of Canada soared in that province.                 negotiate sovereignty-association with the
                                                       rest of Canada. Although this was only a
                                                       mild expression of the independence
                                                       option, it was decisively rejected on 20
                                                       May 1980 by about 60% of the Québec
                                                       electorate, including a majority of the
                                                       French-speaking population. The PQ was
                                                       subsequently re-elected in 1981 on a
                                                       program that included a promise to defer
Separatism                                             the independence question for at least
                                                       another full term of office. But its popular
Separatism refers to the advocacy of                   support began to wane, particularly after
separation or secession by a group or                  the resignation of Lévesque in 1985 and
people of a particular subunit or section              the defection of several prominent cabinet
from a larger political unit to which it               ministers over its moderate independence
belongs. In modern times, separatism has               stance. It was defeated in the provincial
frequently been identified with a desire for           election of 1985 by the Liberals under the
freedom from perceived colonial                        rejuvenated leadership of former premier
oppression. In Canada, it is a term                    Robert BOURASSA, and languished in
commonly associated with various                       opposition for the rest of the decade.
                                                       Support for full political independence
movements or parties in Québec since the
                                                       remained around 40% for most of that
1960s, most notably the PARTI
                                                       period.
QUÉBÉCOIS and the BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS.
These parties have also used the terms
                                                       In October 1995 the PQ government
"sovereignty,""sovereignty-association"
                                                       organized another referendum on
and "independence" to describe their                   sovereignty (1995). It also modified its
primary goal, although each of these                   earlier stance to allow for negotiation of a
concepts has a somewhat different                      possible economic partnership with
meaning.                                               English Canada following a majority vote
                                                       in favour of sovereignty. About halfway
The separatist movement re-emerged as a                through the campaign Premier Parizeau
political force in modern Québec in the                was forced to cede his de facto leadership
late 1950s and the 1960s, a time of great              of the "yes" side to the more popular
socioeconomic change and nationalist                   Bouchard. The sovereigntists lost very
foment in that province. Some violent                  narrowly in the October 30 referendum,
radical fringe movements committed to                  49.4% to 50.6%, but won a substantial
independence also operated during this                 majority among francophone voters.
decade, most notably the FRONT DE                      Parizeau subsequently resigned, and was
LIBÉRATION DU QUÉBEC (FLQ), which                      replaced as premier by Bouchard.
attained notoriety in the OCTOBER CRISIS
of 1970.


                                                                                                 26
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



In its initial period of the 1970s, the                On January 1, 1989, a free trade
modern form of separatism in Québec was                agreement between Canada and the
particularly popular among the new                     United States came into effect. The
middle classes, especially those linked to             agreement provides for all tariffs on trade
state structures and with aspirations in               between the two countries to be removed,
other expanding bureaucratic sectors of                some immediately, and the rest over a
society. Its principal adherents today,                period of five to ten years. Some import
both within the rank and file and the                  quotas were initially allowed on a few
leadership, continue to be liberal                     agricultural products (such as chickens,
professionals (eg, teachers, administrators            turkeys and dairy). The two countries, as
and media specialists), white-collar                   members of the new World Trade
workers and students. There is also                    Organization and in accordance with trade
considerable support from trade union                  negotiations, have replaced these quotas
members, who form the core of its more                 with tariffs.
radically nationalist and socially oriented
adherents. Since the 1980s, it has also                The Canada-US agreement was replaced
garnered some support from the business                by the North American Free Trade
sector, and from the traditional liberal               Agreement (NAFTA), which includes
professions, such as law and medicine.                 Mexico, in January 1994. This agreement
However, these latter groups continue to               applies most of the provisions of the
be more sympathetic to pan-Canadian                    earlier Canada-US agreement to trade
political appeals, which are perceived to              with Mexico. Mexico has, however, placed
be more in tune with their economic                    some limits on the sharing of its natural
interests. Moreover, a new generation of               resources with Canada and the US. The
young francophones in their 20s and early              three countries also negotiated two side
30s appear to be more open to global                   agreements on the environment and
economic concerns, are more                            labour.
individualistic and economically
conservative and do not appear to be as                NAFTA is actually much more than a free
strongly attracted to separatist appeals as            trade agreement. It also provides for each
was the previous generation. Thus far, the             of the member countries to reduce
separatist cause has had very little                   restrictions on corporations wishing to buy
success in its efforts to win votes among              or start businesses in member countries.
anglophones and allophones, who                        Each nation is to treat the other nations'
constitute slightly less than 20% of the               business firms operating within its borders
Québec population.                                     the same way it would treat businesses
                                                       owned by nationals. The three nations
Free Trade                                             have also agreed to work towards
                                                       harmonizing qualifications for professional
Free trade is trade between nations that is            people (such as architects), national
not hindered by tariffs or other obstacles.            standards for health and safety and
Tariffs are taxes that nations importing or            product standards.
buying goods from other nations place on
such goods. Other obstacles might be                   Canada and the US have also agreed to
import quotas, which limit the quantity of             share with each other their natural
a product that may come into a country,                resources if shortages arise in the future.
or export taxes, which a country selling               This is a major commitment for Canada,
goods abroad puts on those goods to raise              which exports a large proportion of its oil
their price.                                           and gas and many metals to the US.
                                                       Canada is the most important foreign
                                                       source of many raw materials for the US.

                                                                                                 27
Canadian History, Unit 2, British North America (1763-1867)



NAFTA also provides set procedures for
the settlement of trade disputes between
member nations.

Some economists had forecast that the
productivity of Canadian manufacturing
would rise to equal that of its American
counterpart. This has not happened and
Canadian manufacturing output remains
about 25% below the US level. Although
Canadian trade with the US has markedly
increased, the gains in income attributable
to free trade are probably small.




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