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					An overview of the Jeffersonian,
common school, and progressive
             eras
     Fundamental Dimensions of
        Classical Liberalism
From Feudal Ideology            To Classical Liberal Id.

State control of               Capitalism
economy
State religion                 Separation of church
                                and state
Divine right of king           Republican
                                (representative)
                                government

                   Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4               2
    Classical Liberal Ideology:
      Fundamental Tenets

•   Faith in Reason
•   Natural Law
•   Republican Virtue
•   Progress
•   Nationalism
•   Freedom

             Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4   3
       Political Economy in the
           Jeffersonian Era
•   Agrarian society
•   Few urban centers
•   Homogeneous communities
•   Family as unit of production
•   Slavery
•   Revolutionary society
•   Limited republicanism
•   Power of the bourgeoisie
•   Separation of church and state

                 Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4   4
Ideology in the Jeffersonian Era
•   Classical liberalism
•   Patriarchy
•   Progress via revolution
•   Reason
•   Republican virtue
•   Natural aristocracy
•   Capitalism / freedom
•   Laissez-faire
•   Faculty psychology

                   Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4   5
    Schooling in the Jeffersonian Era
•   Schools but no school "system"
•   Regional differences in schooling
•   Local financing and local control
•   Schooling primarily for white males
•   Religious and democratic purposes of schooling
•   Curriculum: rote learning of the three Rs
•   Failure to create state-funded school system


                   Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4         6
Comparison between Thomas Jefferson & Benjamin Rush



 Issue                 Benjamin Rush                  Thomas Jefferson
 Control of schools    Centralized control            State supported
                                                      Local control
                                                      District or wards (5-6 sq.
                                                      miles)
 Religion in schools   Religious education            The Wall of Separation


 School organization   Strict discipline              Democratic organization,
 & curriculum          (authoritarian                 moral development,
                       organization),                 intellectual development
                       patriotism, shaping
                       moral character,
                       obedience to the state

                          Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4                                7
    Political Economy in the Early
         Common School Era
•   Urbanizing society
•   Beginning industrialization
•   Irish immigration
•   Westward migration
•   Social reform movements
•   Jacksonian democracy
•   Growth of commerce

                 Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4   8
  Ideology in the Early common
            school era
• Classical liberalism
• Whig paternalism versus democratic
  localism
• Religious humanitarianism
• Faculty psychology
• Abolitionism
• Protestant work ethic

              Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4   9
    Schooling in the Early Common
              School Era
•   Common schools
•   State financing and state control
•   State normal schools
•   Feminization of teaching
•   Social-order purposes of schooling
•   Punishment versus pedagogy of love
•   Curriculum: five Rs, health, music

                Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4   10
Comparison between Horace Mann
    and Thomas Jefferson
 Issue                 Horace Mann                    Thomas Jefferson
 Control of schools    State supported                State supported
                       State control                  Local control
                       State Board of                 District or wards (5-6 sq.
                       Education                      miles)
                       State approved texts
 Religion in schools   State-mandated                 The Wall of Separation
                                                      Local choice?

 Teacher training      State normal schools           From among the best
                       Females                        grammar school
                                                      graduates
                                                      Males


                          Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4                                11
  Comparison between Horace Mann and Orestes Brownson
Issue                      Horace Mann                    Orestes Brownson
Control of schools         State                          Parents in local district
Religion in schools        State-mandated                 Local choice


Texts                      From state-approved            Local choice
                           list
Teacher training           State normal schools           Colleges and
                                                          academies
Teacher certification      State                          Local school boards
Purpose of certification   Moral, political, and          Moral and political
                           economic
Agency to determine       State Board of                  Local school boards
principles for schools to Education
impart
Political affiliation      Whig                           Democrat
                              Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4                         12
         Political Economy in the
             Progressive Era
•   Urbanization
•   Industrialization
•   “New” immigration
•   Worker responses to industrial management
•   Monopoly capitalism
•   Taylorization
•   Centralization in government
•   Bureaucratization

                   Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4    13
Ideology in the Progressive Era
•   Modern or “new” liberalism
•   Darwin’s influence on natural law
•   Progress via expert planning
•   From virtue to rational ethics
•   Increased nationalism
•   “New” psychology
•   Scientific racism and eugenics
•   “Positive” versus “negative” freedom
                  Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4   14
  Schooling in the Progressive Era
• Compulsory schooling
• Centralized control of school boards
• Progressive schooling for “social efficiency” versus
  progressive education for developmental democracy
• Curriculum: from classical to differentiated
• Learning by doing
• Vocational education
• Extracurricular activities
• Schooling for social stability and employable skills
• Schooling for equal opportunity and for meritocracy
• Standardized testing
                     Review_Chapters 2, 3, & 4           15

				
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posted:8/7/2011
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