Training as a professional athlete places tremendous demands on your body. The harder
and longer you train, the greater the demands. As you progress each week through this
very demanding summer program, you will find that the training and conditioning aspects
become more and more difficult. This will force your body to make further adaptations,
i.e., gains. Adhering to a sound nutritional program will enable you to maximize your
efforts at achieving these gains. For example, what you consume before and immediately
after your workouts is crucial in bringing about maximal adaptations.
The types of food to eat, when to eat, how much to eat, how much water to drink, etc., are
all factors that affect your ability to train hard and are addressed in this section of the
manual. The goal of every athlete must first and foremost be to eat a healthy, balanced
diet. Sounds easy, but most of us do not get all of our nutritional needs met. This
nutritional section of the manual will focus on eating the healthiest of foods and eating
the proper macronutrients at the critical times before and after training. Furthermore,
sound scientifically-based ideas will also be presented for those who need to either lose
bodyfat or gain muscle mass.
Determine your goals your current nutritional practices. Compare them to what is
presented in this section of the manual and act on what nutritional behaviors you must
change in order to derive the maximal benefits of this conditioning program. Periodically
monitor the effectiveness of your nutritional plan based on how you feel (energy levels),
how well you are managing the training, your bodyweight, your appearance in the mirror,
and how your clothes are fitting. And finally, enjoy the benefits of a sound nutritional
A HEALTHY DIET?
In determining what foods make up the most healthy diet and thus one that will help you
recover from your intense training, you must not only look at the combination of
macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fats), but also the composition of vitamins and
minerals within the food. Listed on the next pages are the Top 10 lists for Fruits,
Vegetables, Grains, Poultry & Meats, Cereals, and Juices in which the rankings are based
on the nutritional content of the food. See how your present intake of these six food
catagories stack up against the Top 10 in each:
(foods ranked by adding up % of daily (foods ranked by adding up % daily
value of caratenoids, fiber and 5 nutrients: value of fiber and 5 nutrients: zinc,
folate, potassium, iron, calcium, and vitamin C) vitamin B6, copper, iron, and magnesium)
1. Guava 1. Potato, with skin
2. Watermelon 2. Quinoa
3. Grapefruit 3. Macaroni or spaghetti, whole wheat
4. Kiwifruit 4. Amaranth
5. Papaya 5. Buckwheat groats
6. Cantaloupe 6. Spaghetti, spinach
7. Apricots, dried 7. Bulgar
8. Orange 8. Wild rice
9. Strawberries 9. Brown rice
10. Apricots 10. Triticale
Honorable Mention: Honorable Mention:
1. Peaches 1. Wheat berries
2. Honeydew 2. Macaroni
3. Blueberries 3. Kamut
4. Banana 4. Oats, rolled
5. Grapes 5. Spelt
VEGETABLES: MEAT & POULTRY:
(foods ranked by adding up % daily (Foods ranked from lowest to highest based on
value for carotenoids, fiber, and 5 nutrients: saturated fat and total fat grams)
vitamin C, folate, potassium, calcium, and iron)
1. Collard greens 1. Turkey breast
2. Spinach 2. Chicken breast
3. Kale 3. Turkey wing
4. Swiss chard 4. Veal leg, top round
5. Red pepper 5. Beef eye of round (Select)
6. Sweet potato 6. Chicken drumstick
7. Pumkin 7. Beef top round (Select)
8. Carrots 8. Pork tenderloin
9. Broccoli 9. Pork sirloin, boneless
10. Okra 10. Chicken breast, with skin
Honorable Mention: Honorable Mention:
1. Lettuce, cos or romaine, raw 1. Veal shoulder, arm
2. Potato, baked, with skin 2. Chicken wing, no skin
3. Squash, raw 3. Veal sirloin
4. Green pepper 4. Lamb shank
5. Mixed vegetables, frozen 5. Beef top sirloin (Select)
(Cereals are ranked from most to least fiber. Look for the first flour listed in the ingredients of the cereal to
contain a whole grain or bran)
1. Kellogg’s All-Bran w/Extra Fiber 6. Nabisco 100% Bran
2. General Mills Fiber One 7. Post Raisin Bran
3. Kellogg’s Bran Buds 8. Quaker Shredded Wheat *
4. Kellogg’s All-Bran * 9. Healthy Valley 100% Natural Bran *
5. Nabisco Shredded Wheat’n Bran * 10. Quaker Oat Bran
1. Kellogg’s Raisin Bran
2. Post Bran Flakes *
3. New Morning Raisin Bran *
4. Nabisco Shredded Wheat *
5. Post Grape Nuts *
*denotes the cereal to have a whole grain or bran listed as the first flour or grain in their
If oranges or other great fruit choices are not your “cup of tea” in the morning, make sure
to consume the best juice, i.e., one containing the highest amount of vitamin C and other
nutrients such as calcium and vitamin E. Note that orange juice is better than grapefruit
juice, which is better than pineapple juice, which is better than prune juice, which is
better than apple juice, which, finally, is better than grape juice. Listed below are the
most nutritious juices made from 100% juice and ranked from most to least vitamin C.
1. Minute Maid Premium with Extra Vitamins C and E Plus Zinc
2. Tropicana Pure Premium Orange with Vitamin E and Double Vitamin C
3. Tropicana Season’s Best Orange with Double Vitamin C
4. Tropicana Pure Premium Orange with Calcium and Vitamin C
5. Florida’s Natural Orange with Calcium and Vitamin C
6. Tropicana Pure Premium Ruby Red Grapefruit with Calcium
7. Florida’s Natural Ruby Red Grapefruit with Calcium and Vitamin C
8. Orange juice, unfortified, any brand, canned, chilled, or frozen
9. Naked Smoothie Strawberry Banana
10. Grapefruit juice, unfortified , any brand, canned, chilled, or frozen
POOR JUICE CHOICES:
1. Five Alive (only 42% juice, no vitamin C)
2. Hi-C (only 10% juice, 100% daily value of vitamin C)
3. Fruitopia (5% juice, 100% daily value of vitamin C)
4. Hawaiian Punch (5% juice, 100% daily value of vitamin C)
5. Sunny Delight (5% juice, 75% daily value of vitamin C)
(Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat)
Over the years, many diets and fads have come and gone. However, it appears as though
popular diets resurface after a number of years in hibernation. The one thing that all these
diets seem to disagree on is the relationship between the percent intake of macronutrients.
Recommendations from the American Heart Association:
Dr. Atkins diet recommendations:
Dean Ornish diet recommendations:
The Zone diet recommendations:
Donna Gurchiek’s experience in working with 100’s of clients, including professional
athletes, have led us to conclude that every individual’s metabolism is different and thus
may require different modifications to their percentage of macronutrient intake. Some
players can eat just about anything, including caloric- dense and ultra high-fat choices,
and not gain or lose a pound. On the other hand, some other players think that if they just
look at a hot dog or a plate of refined pasta they will gain 5lbs of fat. What composition
of macronutrients then, is going to be best for you?
First of all, don’t be fooled by diets that encourage you to eat unhealthy food choices such
as high-fat, artery-clogging animal protein sources like bacon, T-bone steaks, etc. (Atkins
Diet). Secondly, don’t be fooled into thinking that carbohydrates are going to make you
fat (Zone Diet). The amount of calories you’re taking in and the amount of training you
are doing are the critical issues when it comes to gaining or losing bodyfat. Many refined
sources of carbohydrate, such as white pasta and white bread, have very little nutritional
value and, as a result, are not necessarily recommended. What is most important is that
your carbohydrate sources are from the most nutritionally-abundant sources as listed
above. See Question 4 of the Chalk Talk section of the manual for a more detailed
debate on the topic of diets and macronutrient intake. Our recommendations regarding
the intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are as follows:
1. Note the amount and type of foods you are eating now. If you are maintaining
bodyweight while training, you are probably taking in the correct total amount of
2. Refer to the Top 10 lists previously outlined in this section of the manual. Be sure to
include many of the foods that appear at the top of each list to ensure a healthy well-
3. Do not count calories or total grams of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Just refer to
recommendation #1 as noted above and to the suggestions under the headings:
carbohydrate, protein and fat as listed below.
4. If you need to lose bodyfat or gain muscle mass, adjust your caloric intake based on
your baseline macronutrient intake as noted above in recommendation #1. Also, see
below for specific guidelines to lose bodyfat or gain muscle mass.
5. Concentrate your carbohydrate intake, such as what, when and how much to eat,
around your workouts. For example, you need to eat a certain type of carbohydrate
before you workout and a different type of carbohydrate immediately after training.
See the following section of the manual discussing carbohydrates.
6. Do not fall into the trap of thinking you need copious amounts of protein. Excessive
amounts of protein can have damaging effects on your kidneys and liver especially if
you are genetically predisposed to having problems with these organs. See below for
the recommended amount of protein needed this off-season.
7. On days that you don’t train, reduce the portion size of your meals. If you want to cut
back on your carbohydrate intake, do so on your days off from intense training. This
will help in reducing unwanted bodyfat.
8. The bulk of your calories should be taken in around your training schedule. Dinner
should be your last larger portion meal of the day. Eat a light snack a couple hours
after dinner (see the list of safe snacks below) but at least 2 hours before you get to
sleep. Going to bed on a full stomach will impair the release of growth hormones that
are important for recovery in addition to reducing your appetite for a big breakfast the
9. High fat and caloric-dence foods such as donuts, chocolate, cheesecake, peanuts, and
butter should be consumed in moderation. Don’t let a significant portion of your
“snack” calories be derived from these poor food choices.
10. Plan once a week to allow yourself to cheat on your diet and eat a poor food choice
such as pizza, fast-food burger, fried chicken, etc. It would be best to eat these types
of foods on the last day of your training week, such as a Friday or Saturday. While
throughout the week should be reserved for smaller portion, lower caloric intake
High quality sources of protein are essential in the repair of damaged muscle tissue
associated with heavy weight lifting. Listed below are some general recommendations
regarding the intake of this all important macronutrient.
1. Recommended protein consumption for athletes is 1.2 – 2.0g/kg bodyweight or 0.6 –
0.9g/lb bodyweight. If you are 21 years and under, you may need to weigh your
protein consumption on the higher side of this range. For example, a 200lb player
would need between 110g and 180g of protein. Listed below are the food portions
and associated grams of protein:
a) Chicken (6oz): 52g
b) Roast Beef (6oz): 48g
c) Sirloin Steak (6oz): 52g
d) Milk (8oz): 8g
e) Cheese (1oz): 7g
2. Eat a variey of protein sources in your diet: red meat, chicken, fish, eggs, and low-fat
milk. Eating a variety of protein will ensure that you obtain the proper vitamins and
minerals. For example, the calcium derived from milk sources is the type that is best
absorbed in the body in comparison to the calcium obtained from vegetables. Red
meat sources, such as liver and beef, also contain the best absorbed quantities of iron,
a mineral extremely important for sustaining aerobic exercise.
3. You do not need to take in protein amounts over and above what is recommended.
As mentioned earlier, excessive amounts of protein can lead to kidney or liver
damage expecially if family history predisposes you to problems in these vital organs.
Furthermore, very high intakes of protein that are derived primarily from high
saturated fat animal sources can lead to health problems later on in life.
4. The amount of protein consumed immediately after a workout is very important. A
ratio of 1:4 protein to carbohydrate should be consumed at this time. This is best
obtained from the supplement, Endurox R4. See Question 3 in the Chalk Talk section
of the manual for a more indepth discussion of this well-researched product.
When you exercise, you use energy stored as carbohydrate in your muscles (glycogen).
During a two-hour workout, you can deplete a large percentage of your stored energy. It
is important that you replenish the glycogen in your muscles for the next day's training by
eating enough foods high in carbohydrate. A high carbohydrate diet (55-65%) will ensure
your muscle glycogen stores to be kept relatively high, thus enhancing the opportunity to
train hard for the next few workouts. Unless you are insulin-resistant, you should have no
problem in eating a high-carbohydrate diet. It is important that you are aware of the types
of carbohydrate to eat and when to eat them.
1) Carbohydrate Foods
The foods highest in carbohydrate are:
1) Grains, pasta, starches:
-baked potatoes, beans, spaghetti, rice, lentils
2) Fruits & Vegetables:
-apples, bananas, carrots, corn, sweet potatos
-bagel, pancakes, muffins, etc.
4) Breakfast cereals:
-cold and hot cereals
-juices, milk, sodas, etc.
6) Deserts and snacks:
-cookies, cake, frozen yogurt, maple syrup, etc.
As mentioned previously, it is recommended that the bulk of your carbohydrates come
from nutrient/vitamin rich sources (see the Top 10 lists above) that are unrefined. From
the 6 examples above, these would include vegetables, fruits, pastas, fortified cereals, and
fruit juices. Limit your consumption of refined carbs such as white breads and pastas,
cookies, cakes, etc. However, the timing of carbohydrate ingestion is also of concern.
This has to due with a carbohydrate's effect on blood sugar or it's glycemic index.
2) Glycemic Index (Quick and Slow Carbs)
Some carbohydrates trigger a "sugar high" followed by a "sugar low". These
carbohydrates enter the bloodstream very quickly, thus elevating blood sugar and
triggering elevated insulin levels. Carbohydrates that quickly enter the bloodstream have
a high glycemic index. Some studies suggest that ingesting high-glycemic-index
carbohydrates prior to workouts or competition may hamper performance when compared
with the ingestion of low-glycemic-index carbohydrates. As a result, you should
consume low-glycemic-index carbohydrates prior to working out this summer and high-
glycemic-index carbohydrates after your workouts to quickly replenish glycogen stores.
Remember, you can slow down the insulin response of carbs by adding fat to the food.
For example, adding peanut butter to a bagel will slow the carb down.
GLYCEMIC INDEX TABLE
High GI Low GI
Glucose 100 Apple 36
Gatorade 91 Pear 36
Potato, baked 85 PowerBar 35
Corn flakes 84 Chocolate milk 34
Watermelon 72 Fruit yogurt 33
Bagel 72 Milk, skim 32
Bread, wheat 69 Green beans 30
Mars Bar 68 Banana, underripe 30
Ice cream 61 Grapefruit 25
3) What to Eat Before Workouts:
Eat 0.5 grams of low-glycemic-carbohydrate/lb bodyweight one hour before your
Examples: 1) Powerbar and glass of lowfat chocolate milk
2) Lowfat fruit yogurt and pear or apple w/peanut butter
If you have a long time between your pre-workout meal and training, then eat 2 grams of
carbohydrate/lb of bodyweight approximately 4 hours before training. Therefore, for the
200lb hockey player, you should eat 400g (1600 calories) of carbs. Have a light, low-
glycemic-carbohydrate food 2-3 hours later. If training in the morning, follow the sample
breakfasts that have been provided later on in this section. Cut back on the total carb
calories if the training session is very light.
Example: 1) Large sub sandwich with lean meat, bowl of soup (clear broth),
Juice & Frozen Yogurt
4) What to Eat After Workouts:
The timing of carbohydrate ingestion has a profound affect on recovery from your
workouts. In a recent study, it was found that ingesting 1 gram of carbohydrate/kg of
bodyweight immediately following a weight training workout resulted in accelerated
protein synthesis (muscle building). This possibly could have a major impact on your
ability to put on muscle mass! After your first carbohydrate feeding, you should consume
another feeding of carbohydrate an hour or two later. In order to recover more quickly:
1) Eat 0.5 grams of carbohydrate/lb bodyweight within 15 minutes of the
completion of your workout.
2) Eat the same amount of carbohydrates 1-2 hours later. Example: chicken
breast, baked potato (easy on the butter, sour cream, etc.), vegetable or salad, 1 – 2
rolls (easy on the butter), and water.
3) For your first carbohydrate feeding, load up on high-glycemic-index foods.
4) Do not drink or eat anything that is fructose-based immediately following your
workouts (e.g. orange juice). Instead eat bagels, potatoes, and gatorade.
5) The supplement Endurox R4 is an ideal product to ingest immediately after an
exhaustive workout. See Question 3 in Chalk Talk section.
6) Be sure to consume sodium-laden foods such as soups and sauces or salt your
food in an effort to replace the sodium lost through profuse sweating.
7) Do not drink beer or any other alcoholic and caffinated beverages after a
workout. Alcohol acts as a diuretic, thus enhancing water loss.
Post-Workout Shake: a) 3-4 scoops of Endurox R4, water and ice
b) 1-1.5 tablespoons of flaxseed oil
a) 100g of maltodextrin carbohydrate powder
b) 40g of whey protein powder
c) 1-1.5 tablespoons of flaxseed oil
Note: On the days that you are not training or training very lightly, cut back on the
amount of refined carbohydrates (pastas, breads, rice, etc.) you consume, especially if you
are trying to trim bodyfat.
Each player should know that fat calories are more than twice as dence as protein or
carbohydrate calories (9 calories/fat gram vs. 4 calories/protein or carb gram) and as a
result can add significantly to your total caloric intake. Saturated fats have been directly
correlated with heart disease, especially for those who have a family history of heart
attacks. However, the goal of each player should not be to avoid eating fats altogether.
In fact, many foods contain fats that are good to have in your diet. Refer to the
recommendations below regarding fat intake:
1. Limit your amounts of artery-clogging sources of saturated fat and trans fat found in
highly marbled red meats, fried foods, and pastries/desserts.
2. Watch out for the high, caloric-dence, fat salad dressings at restaurants.
3. Ingest foods that are high in unsaturated fat as opposed to saturated fat.
4. Nuts and seeds, specifically almonds, hazelnuts, brazil nuts, and cashews, contain
good sources of fat, protein, and more importantly, magnesium, selenium, and zinc.
However, these should be eaten in moderation because they are very caloric-dence.
5. Supplement your diet with 3 tablespoons of flaxseed oil per day. See Question 3 in
Chalk Talk section.
HIGH FAT RESTAURANT FOODS:
(Ranked from most to least artery-clogging fat*: Saturated and Trans Fat combined)
Food: Calories Total Fat Fat*
1. Cheese Fries (4 cups & ranch dressing) 3,010 217 91
2. Bloomin’ Onion (and dipping sauce) 2,130 163 57
3. Prime Rib (untrimmed, 16oz precooked weight) 1,280 94 52
4. Stuffed Potato Skins (8 skins & sour cream) 1,260 95 48
5. Fudge Brownie Sundae (10 oz) 1,130 57 30
6. Mozzarella Sticks (9 sticks) 830 51 28
7. Patty Melt (9 oz) 770 50 25
8. Onion Rings (11 rings) 900 64 23
9. KFC Original Recipe Chicken Dinner 1,160 52 19
10. Cinnabon (8 oz) 670 34 14
11. Burger King French Fries (King Size) 540 24 13
12. McDonald’s French Fries (large) 470 19 8
LOW FAT RESTAURANT FOODS:
(Ranked from least to most saturated fat*)
Applebee’s (Low-Fat and Fabulous) Calories Total Fat Fat*
1. Bikini Banana Low-Fat Strawberry Shortcake 250 2 0
2. Low-Fat & Fabulous Brownie Sundae 420 2 0
3. Low-Fat Veggie Quesadilla 340 8 0
4. Low-Fat Marble Cheesecake 260 2 1
5. Low-Fat Chicken Fajita Quesadillas 520 11 1
Olive Garden (Garden Fare)
1. Minestrone 100 1 0
2. Breadstick, plain (1) 140 2 0
3. Linguine alla Marinara 530 9 1
4. Chicken Giardino 550 11 4
5. Shrimp Primavera 730 12 5
T.G.I. Friday’s (More Good Stuff)
1. Salad and Baked Potato 280 0 0
2. Fresh Vegetable Medley with baked potato 470 7 0
3. Fresh Vegetable Medley with rice pilaf 410 8 0
4. Pacific Coast Chicken 420 8 0
5. Friday’s Gardenburger w/pea and corn salsa 650 11 0
Chili’s (Guiltless Grill)
1. Chicken Salad with dressing 270 5 1
2. Chicken Sandwich w/black beans and vegies 530 8 2
3. Chicken Platter (chicken, rice, corn, & vegies) 560 9 3
4. Pasta Primavera 680 13 4
5. Chicken Pasta Primavera 790 15 5
For Comparison with Other Restaurant Foods:
1. McDonald’s Grilled Chicken Deluxe Sandwich 440 20 3
2. Spaghetti with marinara sauce 850 17 4
3. Chicken Caesar salad with dressing 660 46 11
4. Bacon & cheese grilled chicken sand. w/fries 1230 61 24
5. The Cheesecake Factory Original Cheesecake 710 49 31
1. Fat-Free Baked Pretzels 7. Healthy Valley Fat-Free C Chip Cookies
2. Fudgesicle (fat free) 8. Nabisco Reduced Fat Triscuits
3. Tropicana Orange Juice Bars 9. Entenmann’s Light Blue B. Muffin
4. Low Fat Microwave Popcorn 10. Haagen-Dazs Frozen Yogurt Bars
5. Entenmann’s Light Chocolate Cupcakes 11. Eskimo Pie Pudding Bars
6. Health Valley Fat Free Healthy Scones 12. Strawberries, honeydew, or canteloupe
LOSING BODY FAT
Some of you need to come to training camp in a more lean condition. The greatest
performance advantage to having a lean, muscular body is the possibility for greater speed
out on the ice. The less non-contracting fat a player has, the less dead weight he has to
carry around. As a result, the goal of every player should be to have the greatest
percentage of his body as muscle weight. However, starving oneself or performing
countless hours of cardiovascular work are not the answers to achieving this sought-after
goal. Reducing one’s calories beyond what the body needs to function properly during
the tough workouts this summer will only serve to lower your metabolism and thus fat-
storing capabilities. Furthermore, training endless hours to burn fat will only cause the
speed aspect of your game to be severely compromised.
As a result, a careful balance must be struck between reducing your calories to a point in
which you are creating a caloric deficit but not an energy deficit or, your training will
suffer. Again, do not fall prey to the many diet myths that are out there. Carbohydrates
do not make you fat, however, eating a lot of very caloric-dense foods, be they from fat,
carbohydrate, or protein sources will aid in putting on the pounds. Having said that,
many of you are different with respect to how you utilize certain macronutrients and as a
result, may not be able to stay lean by eating a significant amount of your calories from
refined, simple sugars. Refer to Question 4 in the Chalk Talk section of the manual for a
more thorough debate on the topic of diets and fat loss. Refer to the following nutritional
recommendations for losing bodyfat and attaining a lean physique:
1. Do not eat a significant amount of your calories from caloric-dense foods. Refer
to the Top 20 list below for a listing of these foods. Caloric density refers to the
food’s calories divided by its weight. Since fat is very calorically dense, you need to
stay away from high fat sources of food. However, low-fat foods such as low-fat
cakes, cookies, and ice cream, and refined breads, pastas, and crackers can be just as
bad for one’s physique.
2. To shed fat pounds, choose to ingest a significant portion of your carbohydrates
from low-fat, nutritious sources such as vegetables, fruits, and other high fiber
low-calorie foods. See the Top 10 lists for Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains.
3. Reduce the size of your portions. Research has taught us that when we are served
larger portions of food, we tend to eat more. North American restaurants are the most
guilty when it comes to unreal food portions in comparison to European or Asian
Countries. It is not surprising, therefore, that the more people eat out in North
America, the larger they are. Some of the new low-fat frozen meal choices on the
market are great because the portion sizes are small, yet satisfying.
4. Supplement your diet with 1 – 1.5 tablespoons of flaxseed oil taken 3 times daily.
Replacing some of your refined carbohydrate calories with this essential fat may result
in reduced bodyfat levels. In addition, the ingestion of flaxseed oil has tremendous
5. Limit your choices of higher fat foods and increase your variety of low-fat, healthy
fruits, vegetables, and lean meats. Replacing caloric-dense foods with these foods
will curb your opportunity to overeat.
6. Reduce your liquid calories. Drinking large quantities of juices, soft drinks, etc.
will add significantly to your overall caloric intake. Furthermore, you are less likely
to eat less at other times in the day in an effort to compensate for increased calories if
the added calories are from liquid rather than solid sources.
7. Think healthy, not just skinny. Diet sodas, Wow chips, and artificially sweetened
candy bars may help you cut calories, but they are far from healthy. Every time you
munch down on one of these low-fat choices, you miss the opportunity to eat
something, such as watermelon or honeydew melon, whose food value will do an
infinitly better job at helping you recover from the day’s training session. Vitamins
and minerals are crucial to your training gains. The good news is that the abundance
of these are found in great-tasting, low-fat natural sources. EAT THEM!
8. Do not use the scale to measure success. If you gain lean body mass while losing
bodyfat, your bodyweight may not change significantly even though you may look
leaner. Either take bodyfat measurements or evaluate whether you are reducing
bodyfat by looking in the mirror and seeing how your clothes are fitting.
(Calorie density = the calories in a food divided by its weight. The foods are ranked from most calorie-
dense to least)
Food: Calories Calories/gram
1. Oil (1Tbs.) 120 8.8
2. Butter or margarine (1Tbs.) 100 7.2
3. Peanuts, dry roasted (1 oz.) 180 5.9
4. Hershey’s Milk Chocolate (1 bar – 1.5 oz.) 230 5.3
5. Fudge brownie sundae (10 oz.) 1,130 4.1
6. Cheese nachos (7 oz.) 810 4.0
7. Cheddar cheese (1 oz.) 110 4.0
8. Cheesecake Factory Original Cheesecake 710 3.5
9. McDonald’s French Fries, large (5 oz.) 450 3.1
10. Cheese pizza (1 slice – 3.5 oz.) 310 3.0
11. White bread (2 slices) 130 2.7
12. Haagen-Dazs Vanilla Ice Cream (1 cup) 540 2.5
13. Tuna salad sandwich (11 oz.) 720 2.3
14. Ham sandwich with mustard (9 oz.) 560 2.1
15. Sirloin steak, trimmed (8 oz.) 390 1.6
16. Grilled chicken (6 oz.) 270 1.5
17. White rice, cooked (1 cup) 210 1.3
18. Spagetti with tomato sauce (3.5 cups) 850 1.2
19. Baked potato, with skin (1) 230 1.1
20. Apple (1) 90 0.6
GAINING MUSCLE MASS
Putting on muscle mass for some athletes comes easy. However, for others, gaining lean
body mass is a painstaking, seemingly impossible chore. If you have a hard time, you are
probably one of those hard gainers or a younger player who could use more size and
strength at this stage of your career.
Some of the suggestions for gaining muscle size are the opposite of those previously
given for reducing bodyfat. However, the one nutritional constant regardless of the
training goals is to eat a healthy diet based on highly nutritious sources as listed
previously in the Top 10 lists. Refer to the following recommendations:
1. Note the amount of food you are eating to maintain your current bodyweight. If your
bodyweight is staying the same during training, you are probably taking in the right
amount of calories to sustain your bodyweight. Adjust by eating 500 calories above
and beyond what you currently eat and evaluate the program every couple weeks.
2. Eat the most nutritious foods that are packed full of vitamins and minerals to ensure a
healthy well-balanced diet; essential for recovery from the exhaustive, muscle
damaging workouts found in the Hypertrophy program.
3. Make sure you are eating 1g of carbohydrate/kg bodyweight immediately following
your workouts. Eat another high carbohydrate meal 1.5 to 2 hours later. Refer to the
previous section under “What to eat after workouts”. Use the supplement Endurox R4
to ensure muscle glycogen recovery.
4. Eat larger portions at each meal.
5. Eat more caloric-dense foods (refer to the list on the previous page). However, you
must make sure that the fat contained in these foods are primarily unsaturated. As a
result, you can snack on nuts, add extra olive/canola oil to salads or pastas, put peanut
butter on bread, crackers, or apples, or buy tuna packed in oil, not water. Stay away
from the ice cream, butter, and fast food.
6. Drink more calories in the form of juices (see the Top 10 list for the most nutritious
juice sources) or by blending up milk and fruit to make smoothies.
7. Make sure you are eating enough high quality protein at each meal. Refer to the
section on Protein consumption previously cited. Eat 1.5 – 2.0g of protein/kg
8. Evaluate success by monitoring strength improvements and how your clothes are
fitting. Increases in muscle mass and reductions in bodyfat may not result in big
increases in bodyweight. Bodyweight changes depend on your body composition.
1) How Much Water Do I Need?
You should drink enough water to cause you to regularly urinate every couple of hours.
You will also know if you are drinking enough water by the color of your urine. If it is
clear, then you are consuming enough water. Another guideline would be to drink 1
gallon of water/day and 16 oz of water for every pound of bodyweight lost through
sweating. If taking creatine monohydrate as a supplement, you may need to consume
even more water. Force yourself to drink, do not let thirst be your guide. Keep a big jug
of water in your fridge and set the goal of drinking it several times each day.
2) What Should I Drink During My Workouts?
You should consume about 8-10oz of water every 15-20 minutes during your workouts,
especially conditioning workouts. Do not rely upon your thirst as a cue for you to drink.
By the time your brain has cued you to drink because of thirst, you may already have lost
a significant amount of bodyweight though your sweat. In addition, you may want to
consume a sports drink while working out. The small amount of sugar and sodium found
within most sports drinks will enhance the rate of water absorption by the body. Gatorade
is a very sensible choice during your workouts because it has the right amount of sugar
present in it. Therefore, it will not only provide liquid for hydration, but also, it will
provide your muscles with an added fuel source. Don't worry about the high GI of sports
drinks either. Because the insulin response is repressed somewhat during exercise, the
consumption of Gatorade will not cause you to have a sugar low (tired feeling).
3) What Should I Drink After My Workouts?
This will depend on how much water you lost during the training session. If training
outside in the heat, you will have the tendency to lose more water. As a result, you
should weigh yourself before and after each vigorous training session to determine the
quantity of water you need to consume. Drink 16oz for every pound lost. If successive
hard training sessions results in you not being able to hold your weight over a couple
days, then supplement your water with some salt. One half to ¾’s of a teaspoon of salt
mixed with 1 liter of water is the ideal concentration of sodium to be consumed. Sodium
significantly enhances the absorption of water by the body thus allowing you to more
effectively hold your weight and perform at a high level during your next workout.
One of the most important aspects of any nutritional program for an athlete is the eating
of a wholesome breakfast. By eating a well-balanced breakfast, you can think and work
better throughout the day in addition to having much more energy for your workouts.
However, many people, including athletes, will find excuses for skipping this wonder
meal. Don’t be lazy and regularly skip breakfast for any reason! You must eat it in order
for you to perform at your best. In addition, you should be consuming a large portion of
the day’s calories first thing in the morning. If you haven’t regularly eaten at this time,
then force your body to do so. Please don’t make the following excuses that everyone has
used from time to time regarding breakfast:
1) Breakfast Excuses:
"I don't have the time!"
If you can find the time to train, then you must find the time to refuel your energy stores.
If you can't eat breakfast at home, then eat it on the run. Refer to the following 7
breakfast grab and go’s:
a) Blend ½ cup of low-fat yogurt with orange juice and ½ frozen banana and
b) Add fresh fruit or cereal to plain low-fat yogurt
c) Melt 1 thin slice of Jarlsberg Lite Swiss Cheese over sliced tomato on an
d) Stuff half a whole-wheat pita with ½ cup cottage cheese sliced peaches, pears,
e) Roll up a tortilla with scrambled Egg Beaters and salsa.
f) Layer a whole-grain toaster waffle with ½ cup plain low-fat yogurt and ½ cup
g) Spread 1 Tbs. Peanut butter on whole-wheat bread and wrap it around a
"I'm not hungry in the morning!"
One of the reasons for this cop-out is that many people eat heavy late night snacks, often
right before bedtime, that only serve to curb their appetite for a morning feeding. Eating
high-fat food snacks such as cookies, chips, or ice cream will not only curb your appetite
for breakfast, but will also impair with your recovery from workouts.
"I'm on a diet!"
You'll lose bodyfat better by eating a substantial breakfast, rather than a large dinner.
Research indicates that you're more likely to burn off calories that you eat during the
daytime rather than at night.
“I don’t like breakfast foods!”
There are plenty of choices for breakfast. See below for some sample breakfast menus
that are quick, easy, and full of nutritious foods to fuel your day.
2) What Should I Eat for Breakfast?
When planning your breakfast of champions, remember to include:
See the section on Carbohydrates.
Choose low-fat milk products and drink at least 8 oz.
This mineral is lost through sweat during grueling workouts. Eating a
baked potato, banana, whole grain cereal, or drinking orange juice at
breakfast will aid tremendously in replacing this important mineral.
Eating iron-enriched cereals along with drinking orange juice will help
boost your iron supplies. See Iron section at the end of the nutrition
Any bran cereals will provide fiber to your diet. See Top 10 cereal list
on previous page.
3) Sample Breakfast Menu:
Food Calories Carbs (g) Fats (g) Protein (g)
16 oz orange juice 200 50 0 1
Shredded Wheat/milk 170 31 1 7
1 bagel 280 65 1 4
1 tbsp peanut butter 95 7 6 4
1 cup skim milk 90 13 0 9
1 banana 130 28 1 1
Totals: 965 194 9 26
Protein : 12%
Food Calories Carbs (g) Fats (g) Protein (g)
8 oz orange juice 120 27 0 2
Quaker Oatmeal/milk 210 36 2 9
3 eggs (large) 225 2 15 19
Pam cooking spray 0 0 0 0
1 bagel 280 65 1 4
1 cup skim milk 90 13 0 9
1 apple 84 21 0 0
Totals: 1009 164 18 43
SAMPLE 4000 CALORIE DIET
Type of Food: Calories:
Breakfast: 1) 3 pancakes with ½ tbls butter and ¼ cup syrup 250
2) 2 cups skim milk 220
3) 12 oz juice 150
4) Banana 130
5) 16 oz water 0
Pre-Workout Snack (if applicable):
1) PowerBar and 8oz of chocolate milk, or 380
2) Fruit Yogurt and apple/pear, or 350
3) Apple, peanut butter & skim milk 280
Depending on the workout, you may need a snack between the track workouts and the
lifting sessions on that same day.
Post Workout (have with you and consume before showering):
1) 3 scoops of Endurox R4, & 1tbsp flaxseed oil 545
2) Bagel, peanut butter, and 16 oz of gatorade 470
Note: 16 oz of fluid for each pound lost
1 – 2 Hours Post-Workout:
1) Sub sandwich, mustard/no mayo 600
2) Cup of soup 100
3) 12oz of juice 150
4) Water 0
1) Cereal 220
2) 1 cup skim milk 110
3) Banana 130
4) Water 0
1) Chicken, 6oz white meat 300
2) 2/3 cup brown rice 160
3) Peas, ½ cup 100
4) 1 large roll 140
5) 12oz juice or carbonated beverage (not caffine or diet) 150
6) Sherbet, 1 scoop 120
1) Iron is a very important component of hemoglobin, the protein that transports
oxygen from the lungs to the working muscles.
2) As a result, Iron is very important in reducing fatigue associated with exercise;
especially long duration exercise.
3) The Recommended Daily Allowance for iron is 10 milligrams for men and 18
mgs for women (important info for your wives/girlfriends).
4) Iron in meat products can be absorbed twice as efficiently as that in vegetables.
5) Eat vitamin C rich foods (oranges, grapefruit, kiwi, potato, tomato or peppers)
with meals in order to enhance iron absorption.
6) Combine poorly absorbed vegetable sources of iron with animal sources. For
example, eat broccoli with beef or spinach with chicken.
7) Don’t drink coffee or tea with each meal for they can interfere with iron
absorption. Drink them 1 hour before your meal instead.
8) Use a cast-iron skillet for cooking, if possible. The iron content in spaghetti sauce
may increase from 3 to 88 milligrams if simmered in a cast iron skillet for three
9) Select iron-enriched or fortified cereals or breads.
10) Eat lean cuts of beef, lamb, pork, and the dark meat of chicken or turkey 3 to 4
times per week.
Food Iron Food Iron
Liver, 4oz cooked 10* Cereal, 100% fortified (3/4 cup) 18
Beef, 4oz roasted 6* Kellogg's Raisin Bran, 1/2 cup 18
Pork, 4oz roasted 5* Refried Beans 4
Turkey, 4oz roasted dark meat 3* Prune Juice (8 oz) 3
Tuna, 6.5 canned light 2* Spaghetti, 1 cup cooked, enriched 2
Chicken breast, 4oz roasted 1* Bread, 1 slice enriched 1
* Iron that is best absorbed by the body
-Iron content is expressed in milligrams