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Post WWII to Present - Holley Central School District

VIEWS: 383 PAGES: 88

									Jan 2011 number 35

The United Nations was created mainly to
(1) prevent globalization
(2) work for international peace
(3) stop the spread of disease
(4) establish democratic governments

The primary purpose for the creation of the United Nations was to
(1) maintain an international army
(2) promote peace through international agreements
(3) free Eastern European countries from communism
(4) supply food to all member countries

Which action was taken by the United States government to help Europe‘s economic recovery after
World War II?
(1) forming the Alliance for Progress
(2) sending troops to Turkey
(3) creating the Marshall Plan
(4) joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

A major purpose of the GI Bill (1944) was to
(1) replace the draft near the end of World War II
(2) prohibit racial discrimination in the armed forces
(3) provide federal funds for veterans to attend college
(4) increase the number of women working in defense industries

What was a major result of the Servicemen‘s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill)?
(1) Millions of veterans received a college education.
(2) Women kept their factory jobs after World War II.
(3) Jobs were created by the Manhattan Project.
(4) Veterans were exempted from gasoline rationing

The GI Bill affected American society after World War II by
(1) eliminating child labor
(2) expanding voting rights
(3) increasing spending on space exploration
(4) extending educational and housing opportunities

What was the main purpose of the GI Bill passed by Congress shortly before the end of World War
(1) to offer low-interest loans to the defense industry
(2) to provide economic aid to veterans
(3) to contain the spread of international communism
(4) to expand career opportunities in the military

A major purpose of the GI Bill was to provide World War II veterans with
(1) educational opportunities after the war
(2) protection against racial discrimination
(3) civilian jobs in the military
(4) increased Social Security payments
[Type text]

The war crimes trials in Nuremberg and Tokyo following World War II established the concept that
(1) nations could be made to pay for wartime damages
(2) pardons should be granted to all accused war criminals
(3) those convicted should be given shorter sentences than ordinary criminals
(4) individuals could be held accountable for their actions in a war

The Nuremberg trials held at the conclusion of World War II added to international law by
(1) settling boundary disputes in Europe through arbitration
(2) placing the blame for World War II on many nations
(3) ruling that moral and ethical considerations do not apply in wartime
(4) establishing that high officials and individuals are responsible for their wartime actions

The war crimes trials that followed World War II were historically significant because for the first
(1) nations were asked to pay for war damages
(2) individuals were given immunity from prosecution
(3) nations on both sides were found guilty of causing the war
(4) individuals were held accountable for their actions during wartime

The post–World War II trials held by the Allied powers in Nuremberg, Germany, and in Japan set
an international precedent by
(1) placing blame only on civilian leaders
(2) forcing nations to pay for war damages
(3) returning conquered territories to their peoples
(4) holding individuals accountable for their war crimes

One reason the Nuremberg trials following World War II were held was to
(1) bring Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo to justice
(2) force Japan to pay for the attack on Pearl Harbor
(3) make German leaders accountable for the Holocaust
(4) punish the German government for bombing England

A controversial issue that resulted from World War II was the
(1) future role of the League of Nations
(2) morality of nuclear warfare
(3) commitment of troops without congressional approval
(4) civilian control of the military

Which statement best explains why the United States mainland suffered minimal physical damage in
both World War I and World War II?
(1) The United States policy of isolationism discouraged attacks by other countries.
(2) Geographic location kept the United States protected from most of the fighting.
(3) United States military fortifications prevented attacks on United States soil.
(4) Latin America provided a buffer zone from acts of aggression by other countries.

―The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in
[Type text]

the purposes and principles of the Charter of the
United Nations and their desire to live in peace
with all peoples and all governments.
―They are determined to safeguard the freedom,
common heritage and civilisation of their
peoples, founded on the principles of democracy,
individual liberty and the rule of law. . . .‖
— Preamble to the North Atlantic Treaty, 1949

This statement shows the commitment of the United States to the principle of
(1) colonialism
(3) militarism
(2) neutrality
(4) collective security

The primary reason for the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 was
(1) maintain peace in the Middle East
(2) block the German Nazi threat in Europe
(3) protect Western Europe from the Soviet Union
(4) increase United States influence in Asia

President Harry Truman‘s order requiring loyalty checks and the Senate hearings led by Joseph
McCarthy were both responses to
(1) excessive spending by the armed forces after World War II
(2) racial discrimination against African Americans
(3) fear of communist influence in government
(4) control of labor unions by known criminals

The United States committed to a Cold War policy of mutual defense when it
(1) aided the Nationalists in China
(2) established the Eisenhower Doctrine
(3) joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
(4) rejected United Nations efforts to halt the development of atomic weapons

The events shown on the time line occurred as a result of
(1) the bombing of Pearl Harbor
[Type text]

(3) a need for collective security
(2) the launching of Sputnik
(4) a fear of communism

Which civil liberty was most seriously threatened during the period shown on the time
(1) freedom of speech
(3) the right to bear arms
(2) freedom of religion
(4) the right to petition the government

Controversies involving Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg reflected the post–World War II
concern over
(1) testing nuclear missiles
(2) joining the United Nations
(3) placing weapons in outer space
(4) spying by communists in the United States

In 1948, President Harry Truman showed his support for civil rights by issuing an executive order to
(1) end the immigration quota system
(2) assure equal status for women in military service
(3) ban racial segregation in the military
(4) guarantee jobs for Native American Indians

President Harry Truman changed the United States military after World War II by
(1) allowing women to serve in combat roles
(2) establishing an all-volunteer army
(3) banning racial segregation in the military
(4) withdrawing all military forces from Europe

The Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were
all part of the foreign policy of
(1) isolationism
(2) détente
(3) colonialism
(4) containment

Issuing the Truman Doctrine, defending South Korea, and sending military advisors to Vietnam were
actions taken by the United States to
(1) encourage membership in the United Nations
(2) promote American business in Asia
(3) limit the spread of communism
(4) gain additional overseas colonies

The primary goal of the United States foreign policy of containment was to
(1) return to noninvolvement in world affairs
(2) stop communist influence from spreading
(3) gain territories in Africa and Latin America
(4) overthrow existing dictatorships
[Type text]

The main foreign policy objective of the Marshall Plan (1948–1952) was to
(1) stop communist aggression in Korea
(2) fight poverty in Latin America
(3) rebuild the economies of European nations
(4) provide jobs for unemployed Americans

Which foreign policy decision by President Harry Truman is an example of the policy of
(1) relieving General MacArthur of his Korean command
(2) recognizing the new nation of Israel
(3) supporting the trials of war criminals in Germany and Japan
(4) providing military aid to Greece and Turkey

After the end of World War II, many working women left their factory jobs because they were
(1) fired from their jobs due to poor performance
(2) unprepared for peacetime employment
(3) forced to give up their jobs to returning war veterans
(4) dissatisfied with their low wages

A goal of the Marshall Plan (1948) was to
(1) rebuild Japan after World War II
(2) provide military aid to the Warsaw Pact
(3) establish a Pan-American military alliance system
(4) provide economic aid to European nations threatened by communism

The Marshall Plan (1948–1952) was a United States effort to assist the nations of Europe by
(1) forming a strong military alliance
(2) providing economic aid
(3) sending United States troops to trouble spots
(4) continuing Lend-Lease aid to the Soviet Union

. . . I believe that it must be the policy of the
United States to support free peoples who are
resisting attempted subjugation [control] by
armed minorities or by outside pressures.
I believe that we must assist free peoples to work
out their own destinies in their own way.
I believe that our help should be primarily
through economic and financial aid which is
essential to economic stability and orderly
political processes. . . .
—President Harry Truman, speech to Congress
(Truman Doctrine), March 12, 1947

The program described in this quotation was part of the foreign policy of
(1) détente
(2) containment
(3) neutrality
[Type text]

(4) colonialism

In the Truman Doctrine, President Harry Truman pledged to
(1) support Greece in its fight against communist aggression
(2) fight hunger in Africa and Asia
(3) strengthen the United States nuclear arsenal
(4) reject a policy of containment

The goal of President Harry Truman‘s Fair Deal was to
(1) continue reforms begun during Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s presidency
(2) decrease government spending on social welfare programs
(3) reduce taxes on large corporations and wealthy individuals
(4) restore domestic policies that existed in the 1920s

The development of the Marshall Plan and the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) were part of President Harry Truman‘s effort to
(1) end the Korean War
(2) limit the spread of communism
(3) provide aid to Asian nations
(4) promote an isolationist foreign policy

Before ratification of the 22nd amendment in 1951, most presidents served no more than two terms
because of
(1) a federal law
(2) a Supreme Court decision
(3) the elastic clause
(4) custom and tradition

The rapid growth in personal income in the decade after World War II contributed to
(1) a decrease in the birthrate
(2) a major economic depression
(3) expansion of the middle class
(4) shortages in the supply of luxury goods

• In the 1940s, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made winning World War II a priority over
extending the New Deal.
• In the 1950s, President Harry Truman’s focus shifted from the Fair Deal to the Korean War.
• In the 1960s, President Lyndon B. Johnson’s attention to the Great Society gave way to
preoccupation with the Vietnam War.

These presidential actions best support the conclusion that
(1) presidents prefer their role as commander in chief to that of chief legislator
(2) domestic programs are often undermined by the outbreak of war
(3) Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, and Johnson were not committed to their domestic initiatives
(4) large domestic reform programs tend to lead nations toward involvement in foreign wars
[Type text]

This photograph shows the post–World War II growth that was typical of
(1) tourist resorts
(2) suburban communities
(3) inner cities
(4) public housing projects
[Type text]

What does this photograph indicate about the United States in the 1950s?
(1) Extraordinary steps were taken to hide atomic weapons.
(2) The nation had become the only nuclear superpower.
(3) Much fear was created by the Cold War.
(4) Only government officials would be safe in a nuclear attack.
[Type text]

Which heading is most appropriate for the partial outline above?
(1) Results of World War I
(2) The Cold War at Home
(3) Problems of Urbanization
(4) Reactions to Immigration

Most opponents of the Senate hearings led by Senator Joseph McCarthy during the 1950s argued that
these investigations
(1) weakened the armed forces of the nation
(2) violated the constitutional rights of many people
(3) undermined the powers of the president
(4) encouraged the spread of communism

―. . . The American people are sick and tired of
being afraid to speak their minds lest they be
politically smeared as ‗Communists‘ or ‗Fascists‘
by their opponents. Freedom of speech is not
what it used to be in America. It has been so
abused by some that it is not exercised by others.
The American people are sick and tired of seeing
innocent people smeared and guilty people
whitewashed. But there have been enough proved
cases to cause nationwide distrust and strong
suspicion that there may be something to the
unproved, sensational accusations. . . .‖
— Senator Margaret Chase Smith,
United States Senate, June 1, 1950

When Senator Smith spoke these words, she was reacting to
(1) the Yellow Peril
(2) McCarthyism
(3) the Eisenhower Doctrine
(4) Progressivism

Which factor is most closely associated with McCarthyism?
(1) buildup of Soviet missiles in Cuba
[Type text]

(2) fear of communist influence in the United States
(3) rise of the Communist Party in China
(4) creation of the Warsaw Pact by the Soviet Union

McCarthyism in the early 1950s resulted from
(1) new commitments to civil rights for African Americans
(2) opposition to the Marshall Plan
(3) charges that Communists had infiltrated the United States government
(4) increased public support for labor unions

As a result of the Interstate Highway Act of 1956, the United States experienced
(1) increased suburban growth
(2) the elimination of urban renewal programs
(3) less air pollution from motor vehicles
(4) a reduction in United States dependence on foreign oil

Which generalization about the Korean War is supported by information on the maps?
(1) The war began when South Korea attacked North Korea.
(2) General MacArthur launched an invasion from China early in the war.
(3) Neither side experienced a major military victory during the war.
(4) At the end of the war, Korea remained a divided nation.

―Security Council Approves Use of Force Against
Communist Invaders‖
―President Truman Fires General MacArthur‖
―Armistice Divides Nation at 38th Parallel‖

These headlines refer to which international conflict?
(1) World War I (3) Korean War
(2) World War II (4) Persian Gulf War
[Type text]

The major reason the United States became involved in the Korean War was the
(1) threat of communism spreading throughout Asia
(2) need to prevent war between China and the Soviet Union
(3) demand by the United States for Korean natural resources
(4) desire to limit Japanese expansion

During the Korean War, President Harry Truman removed General Douglas MacArthur from
command because MacArthur
(1) called for an immediate end to the war
(2) refused to serve under the United Nations
(3) lacked the experience to provide wartime leadership
(4) threatened the constitutional principle of civilian control of the military

What was a major outcome of the Korean War (1950–1953)?
(1) Korea continued to be a divided nation.
(2) North Korea became an ally of the United States.
(3) South Korea became a communist nation.
(4) Control of Korea was turned over to the United Nations.
[Type text]

The United States carried out the idea expressed in this late 1940s cartoon by
(1) forming a military alliance with Russia
(2) airlifting supplies to West Berlin
(3) accepting Russian authority over West Berlin
(4) agreeing to turn over control of Berlin to the United Nations

Which development resulted from the construction of the interstate highway system?
(1) increased suburbanization
(2) reduced air pollution
(3) decreased fuel consumption
(4) growth of long-distance passenger train service
[Type text]

―. . . I was disappointed not to see what is inside
Central High School. I don‘t understand why the
governor [of Arkansas] sent grown-up soldiers to
keep us out. I don‘t know if I should go back. But
Grandma is right, if I don‘t go back, they will think
they have won. They will think they can use
soldiers to frighten us, and we‘ll always have to
obey them. They‘ll always be in charge if I don‘t
go back to Central and make the integration
happen. . . .‖
— Melba Beals, Warriors Don’t Cry,
an African American student, 1957

President Dwight D. Eisenhower reacted to the situation described in this passage by
(1) forcing the governor of Arkansas to resign
(2) allowing the people of Arkansas to resolve the problem
(3) asking the Supreme Court to speed up racial integration
(4) sending federal troops to enforce integration
[Type text]

Which event of the 1950s most likely led to the publication of this cartoon?
(1) Russia put cosmonauts on the Moon.
(2) The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite.
(3) The United States was defeated in the Vietnam War.
(4) American students scored low on tests in math and science.

                          African American Migration, 1940–1970
[Type text]

The information on the map supports the conclusion that African American migration
between 1940 and 1970 was mainly from the
(1) urban areas to rural areas
(2) south to the north
(3) Mountain states to the West Coast
(4) Sun Belt to the Great Plains

           ―Jackie Robinson Breaks Color Barrier in Major League Baseball‖
       ―President Truman Issues Executive Order Desegregating Armed Forces‖
                      ―NAACP Challenges School Segregation‖

These headlines are most closely associated with
(1) a decline in African American participation in political activities
(2) the beginning of the modern civil rights movement
(3) Southern resistance to the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(4) the effects of affirmative action programs
[Type text]

During the 1950s, the main goal of the civil rights movement was to
(1) create separate African American economic and social institutions
(2) eliminate legal segregation from American life
(3) establish affirmative action programs to compensate for past wrongs
(4) form a new nation for African Americans

The president acted as commander in chief in response to which event of the civil rights movement?
(1) refusal of the governor of Arkansas to obey a federal court order to integrate public schools in
Little Rock
(2) desegregation of the city bus system in Montgomery, Alabama
(3) arrest of Martin Luther King Jr. during protests in Birmingham, Alabama
(4) assassination of Medgar Evers in Mississippi

Which event was a result of the other three?
(1) sit-ins at whites-only lunch counters in Greensboro, North Carolina
(2) Martin Luther King Jr.‘s March on Washington, D. C.
(3) signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(4) bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama

Lunch counter sit-ins and the actions of freedom riders are examples of
(1) steps taken in support of the Americans with Disabilities Act
(2) programs dealing with affirmative action
(3) violent acts by the Black Panthers
(4) nonviolent attempts to oppose segregation

Lyric A: . . . Father, father
We don‘t need to escalate
You see, war is not the answer
For only love can conquer hate
You know we‘ve got to find a way
To bring some lovin‘ here today. . .
— “What’s Going On,” Al Cleveland, Marvin Gaye,
Renaldo Benson, 1971

Lyric B: . . . Yeah, my blood‘s so mad
Feels like coagulatin‘
I‘m sittin‘ here, just contemplatin‘
I can‘t twist the truth
It knows no regulation
Hand full of senators don‘t pass legislation
And marches alone can‘t bring integration
When human respect is disintegratin‘
This whole crazy world
Is just too frustratin‘. . .
— “Eve of Destruction,” P.F. Sloan, 1965

Which conclusion is most clearly supported by an examination of these song lyrics?
[Type text]

(1) In the 1960s and early 1970s, Americans shared common views on foreign policy.
(2) Social conflict existed over war and civil rights in the 1960s and early 1970s.
(3) The music of the 1960s and early 1970s supported government policies.
(4) Most songwriters of the 1960s and early 1970s used their music to advocate violent revolution.

Which conclusion is most clearly supported by information in this program?
(1) Opponents of racial integration were allowed equal time on the program.
(2) Support for the March on Washington came from a variety of groups.
(3) Freedom of religion was an important goal of the March.
(4) The March was directed at southern state legislators.

Rosa Parks was honored at the March on Washington for her part in
(1) bringing about the Montgomery bus boycott
(2) integrating Little Rock Central High School
(3) forming the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(4) organizing lunch counter sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina
[Type text]

What is a valid generalization that can be drawn from this photograph?
(1) Activists often advocate taking over the government.
(2) Demonstrators use nonviolent means to demand equal rights.
(3) Civil rights leaders supported ―separate but equal‖ education.
(4) Protesters encouraged a nationwide strike by teachers.

The delay in implementing which Supreme Court decision helped lead to the protest shown in this
(1) Plessy v. Ferguson
(2) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
[Type text]

(3) Tinker v. Des Moines
(4) New Jersey v. T. L. O.

―. . . In a sense we‘ve come to our nation‘s capital
to cash a check. When the architects of our
republic wrote the magnificent words of the
Constitution and the Declaration of Independence,
they were signing a promissory note to
which every American was to fall heir. This note
was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well
as white men, would be guaranteed the
‗unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty, and the
pursuit of Happiness.‘ It is obvious today that
America has defaulted on this promissory note
insofar as her citizens of color are concerned.
Instead of honoring this sacred obligation,
America has given the Negro people a bad check,
a check which has come back marked ‗insufficient
funds.‘ ‖. . .
— Martin Luther King, Jr., August 28, 1963

The focus of this passage from Dr. King‘s speech was his belief that
(1) equal rights for all were guaranteed by the founders of this nation
(2) Americans had become blind to racial differences
(3) violence was often necessary for the protection of civil liberties
(4) civil rights for African Americans would always be a dream

―Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers ‗I Have a Dream‘
Speech to Civil Rights Demonstrators in D.C.‖
―Rachel Carson Awakens Conservationists with Her
Book, Silent Spring‖
―Cesar Chavez Organizes Migrant Farm Workers‖
A valid conclusion based on these headlines is that
(1) individuals have a great impact on movements for change
(2) social reforms progress faster with support from big business
(3) the press discouraged efforts at reform in the 1960s
(4) mass movements often continue without strong leaders

During the 1950s and 1960s, which civil rights leader advocated black separatism?
(1) Medgar Evers
(2) James Meredith
(3) Rosa Parks
(4) Malcolm X

. . . In 1961, James Farmer orchestrated and led
the famous Freedom Rides through the South,
which are renowned for forcing Americans to
confront segregation in bus terminals and on
[Type text]

interstate buses. In the spring of that year, James
Farmer trained a small group of freedom riders,
teaching them to deal with the hostility they were
likely to encounter using nonviolent resistance.
This training would serve them well. . . .
— Senator Charles Robb, “A Tribute to an American
Freedom Fighter,” U.S. Senate

The principal goal of the activity described in this statement was to
(1) achieve racial integration of public facilities
(2) encourage change through violent means
(3) expand voting rights for African Americans
(4) force the president to send military troops into the South

The activities described in this statement helped lead to
(1) President Harry Truman‘s order to desegregate the military
(2) passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(3) ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment
(4) a decision by the Supreme Court to integrate public schools

During the civil rights movement of the 1960s, activities of the Congress of Racial Equality, the
National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) illustrated that
(1) all civil rights groups use the same tactics
(2) different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal
(3) organizational differences usually lead to failure
(4) violence is the best tool for achieving social change
[Type text]

Which conclusion about the success of efforts to end segregation in public schools in the 1950s and
1960s can be drawn from the map?
(1) In 1964, a majority of southern states had no integrated schools.
(2) State governments were slow to integrate public school systems.
(3) A higher percentage of African American students attended integrated public schools in Arkansas
than in Oklahoma.
(4) Prior to 1964, a majority of African American students attended integrated schools in former
Confederate States.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was intended to end
(1) loyalty oaths for federal employees
(2) affirmative action programs in education
(3) unfair treatment of the elderly
(4) discrimination based on race or sex

Which constitutional principle was tested in the cases of Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka?
(1) separation of powers
(2) popular sovereignty
(3) equal protection of the law
(4) separation of church and state

In which case did the United States Supreme Court rule that segregated public facilities were
(1) Worcester v. Georgia
(2) Plessy v. Ferguson
(3) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
(4) Miranda v. Arizona
[Type text]

Which state had the largest increase in the percentage of African Americans registered to vote
between 1965 and 1988?
(1) Alabama
(2) Georgia
(3) Louisiana
(4) Mississippi

Which conclusion is best supported by the changes shown on the chart?
(1) African American voters would have little impact on presidential elections.
(2) The income of African Americans had increased between 1965 and 1988.
(3) Efforts to encourage African American voter registration were successful.
(4) After 1988, no further effort was made to register African Americans.
[Type text]

Which leader is most closely associated with the approach to reform illustrated in this photograph?
(1) Malcolm X of the Black Muslims
(2) Huey Newton of the Black Panthers
(3) Booker T. Washington of the Tuskegee Institute
(4) Martin Luther King Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

The activity shown in the photograph can best be described as an example of
(1) labor unrest
(3) nonviolent protest
(2) judicial activism
(4) affirmative action

Which pair of circumstances represents an accurate cause-and-effect relationship?
(1) more jobs in factories  migration of African Americans from the South to northern cities
(2) establishment of Jim Crow laws    beginning of Reconstruction
(3) Dred Scott decision passage of the Fugitive Slave Law
(4) closing of the frontier completion of the transcontinental railroad
[Type text]

This poster was used during the
(1) abolitionist movement
(2) woman‘s suffrage movement
(3) civil rights movement
(4) environmental movement

In 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka advanced the civil
rights movement by
(1) guaranteeing equal voting rights to African Americans
(2) banning racial segregation in hotels and restaurants
(3) declaring that racial segregation in public schools violated the 14th amendment
(4) upholding the principle of separate but equal public facilities

The Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) was an effort by the United States to
(1) gain control of the Suez Canal
(2) take possession of Middle East oil wells
(3) find a homeland for Palestinian refugees
(4) counter the influence of the Soviet Union in the Middle East
[Type text]

When President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957, he was
fulfilling his presidential role as
(1) chief executive
(2) chief diplomat
(3) head of state
(4) head of his political party

. . . Whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the
Executive Branch of the Federal Government to use its powers and authority to uphold Federal
Courts, the President‘s responsibility is inescapable. In accordance with that responsibility, I have
today issued an Executive Order directing the use of troops under Federal authority to aid in the
execution of Federal law at Little Rock, Arkansas. This became necessary when my Proclamation of
yesterday was not observed, and the obstruction of justice still continues. . . .
— President Dwight D. Eisenhower,
September 24, 1957

The situation described in this statement grew out of efforts to
(1) uphold the Voting Rights Act
(2) pass a constitutional amendment ending poll taxes
(3) enforce the decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
(4) extend the Montgomery bus boycott to Little Rock

Which development led to the other three?
(1) The United States government increased funding for science and math education.
(2) The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite.
(3) A joint Soviet-American space mission was announced.
(4) President John F. Kennedy set the goal of landing a man on the Moon.

―. . . My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what
America will do for you, but what together we can
do for the freedom of man. . . .‖
— John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961

To implement the idea expressed in this statement, President Kennedy supported the
(1) creation of the Marshall Plan
(2) formation of the Peace Corps
(3) removal of United States troops from Korea
(4) establishment of the South East Asia Treaty Organization

. . . But this secret, swift, and extraordinary buildup
of Communist missiles—in an area well known to
have a special and historical relationship to the
United States and the nations of the Western
Hemisphere, in violation of Soviet assurances, and
in defiance of American and hemispheric policy—
this sudden, clandestine [secret] decision to station
strategic weapons for the first time outside of
Soviet soil—is a deliberately provocative and
[Type text]

unjustified change in the status quo which cannot
be accepted by this country, if our courage and our
commitments are ever to be trusted again by
either friend or foe. . . .
— President John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962

This statement is most closely associated with the
(1) Bay of Pigs invasion
(2) Cuban missile crisis
(3) United States-Soviet space race
(4) nuclear test ban controversy

What is a valid conclusion based on this statement?
(1) Strategic weapons of the United States should be stationed on foreign soil.
(2) An isolationist foreign policy is the most effective way to preserve peace.
(3) Presidential attempts were made to end military alliances.
(4) Geographic location plays an important role in determining foreign policy.

―. . . Let every nation know, whether it wishes us
well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any
burden, meet any hardship, support any friend,
oppose any foe to assure the survival and the
success of liberty. . . .‖
— President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address,

This statement by President Kennedy suggests a continued commitment to the foreign policy of
(1) isolationism
(3) containment
(2) appeasement
(4) imperialism

The 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion and the 1962 missile crisis are conflicts directly related to United
States relations with which two nations?
(1) the Dominican Republic and Haiti
(2) Cuba and the Soviet Union
(3) China and Japan
(4) North Korea and South Korea

The United States began a trade embargo against Cuba in the 1960s to
(1) encourage political change in Cuba
(2) promote domestic industries in Cuba
(3) motivate Cubans to immigrate to the United States
(4) end the domination of the banana industry by Cuba
[Type text]

―This Government, as promised, has
maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet
Military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within
the past week, unmistakable evidence has
established the fact that a series of offensive
missile sites is now in preparation on that
imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases
can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike
capability against the Western Hemisphere. . . .‖
— President John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962

Which action did President Kennedy take following this statement?
(1) urging Allied forces to remove Soviet weapons from Cuba
(2) ordering a naval quarantine of Cuba
(3) breaking off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union
(4) asking the United Nations to stop grain shipments to the Soviet Union

The crisis described in this passage was resolved when
(1) Cuba became a capitalist nation
(2) the United States seized control of Cuba
(3) Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev met with President Kennedy
(4) the Soviet Union withdrew its missiles from Cuba

What was one outcome of the Cuban missile crisis in 1962?
(1) Cuba became a communist nation.
(2) The United States seized military control of Cuba.
(3) The Soviet Union withdrew its nuclear missiles from Cuba.
(4) Fidel Castro met with President John F. Kennedy.

What was a result of the takeover of Cuba by Fidel Castro?
(1) Relations between the Soviet Union and Cuba worsened.
(2) Many Cuban Americans returned to their homeland.
(3) Trade between the United States and Cuba increased.
(4) Many people fled from Cuba to the United States.

Which development is most closely associated with the belief in the domino theory?
(1) military involvement in Vietnam
(2) construction of the Berlin Wall
(3) signing of the nuclear test ban treaty
(4) end of the Korean War

―Soviets Create Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe‖
―Mao Zedong Leads Successful Revolution in China‖
―North Korean Invasion of South Korea Leads to War‖

Which development is reflected in these headlines?
(1) the post–World War II expansion of communism
(2) the beginning of détente between the Soviet Union and the United States
[Type text]

(3) the return to an isolationist foreign policy
(4) the beginning of pro-democracy movements during the Cold War

One way in which President John F. Kennedy‘s Peace Corps and President Lyndon Johnson‘s
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) are similar is that both programs attempted to
(1) increase domestic security
(2) support United States troops fighting overseas
(3) improve the quality of people‘s lives
(4) provide aid to immigrants coming to the United States

Which development led to the other three?
(1) growth of new home construction
(2) increase in school populations
(3) start of the baby boom
(4) pressure on the Social Security system

The police enter an individual’s home without invitation or a warrant and seize evidence to be
used against the individual.

Which Supreme Court decision may be used to rule this evidence inadmissible in court?
(1) Baker v. Carr
(2) Gideon v. Wainwright
(3) Mapp v. Ohio
(4) Roe v. Wade

In the 1960s, which issue was the focus of the Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio, Gideon v.
Wainwright, and Miranda v. Arizona?
(1) freedom of the press
(2) racial segregation
(3) rights of the accused
(4) interstate commerce

The Supreme Court decisions in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona
(1966) resulted in
(1) an increase in the power of the police to obtain evidence
(2) a clarification of rules pertaining to cruel and unusual punishment
(3) a limitation of a citizen‘s right to an attorney
(4) an expansion of rights for persons accused of crimes

The Supreme Court cases of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona
(1966) dealt with the constitutional principle of
(1) freedom of religion
(2) freedom from unreasonable search
(3) separation of powers
(4) rights of the accused

The Supreme Court decisions in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona
(1966) have been criticized because these rulings
(1) expanded the rights of the accused
[Type text]

(2) granted more powers to federal judges
(3) lengthened prison sentences for the guilty
(4) reinstated the use of capital punishment

What was a central issue in the Supreme Court cases of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v.
Arizona (1966)?
(1) freedom of religion
(2) voting rights
(3) rights of the accused
(4) property rights

One way in which the Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) are similar is that each decision
(1) defined the rights of students in public schools
(2) strengthened the role of the police in the arrest process
(3) demonstrated the Court‘s disapproval of increasing crime rates
(4) expanded the constitutional rights of persons accused of crimes

The Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio (1961) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) directly
expanded the rights of which group?
(1) students with disabilities
(2) women in the military
(3) homeless Americans
(4) persons accused of crimes

You have the right to remain silent. Anything you
say can and will be used against you in a court of
law. You have the right to speak to an attorney,
and to have an attorney present during any
questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one
will be provided for you at government expense.

The requirements included in this passage are part of the Supreme Court‘s effort to protect the rights
(1) individuals accused of crimes
(2) students from unreasonable searches
(3) defendants from double jeopardy
(4) criminals from cruel and unusual punishment

This passage resulted from which Supreme Court decision?
(1) Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
(2) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
(3) Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
(4) Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)

The Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio, Gideon v. Wainright, and Miranda v. Arizona all
[Type text]

(1) integration of public facilities
(2) rights of the accused
(3) presidential powers
(4) equality in the workplace

As a result of the Supreme Court ruling in Miranda v. Arizona (1966), a person accused of a crime is
entitled to
(1) a speedy trial
(2) reasonable bail
(3) a reading of his or her rights at the time of arrest
(4) protection against cruel or unusual punishment

One similarity in the Supreme Court decisions in Gideon v. Wainwright and Miranda v. Arizona is
that both decisions
(1) expanded the rights of the accused
(2) improved the ability of the police to gather evidence
(3) lengthened sentences for violent felony offenses
(4) set limits on the use of the death penalty

Which statement most accurately describes the main idea of this 1975 cartoon?
(1) The press should not publish materials that damage the reputation of public officials.
(2) The government is improperly hiding information from the public.
(3) Government should restrict the publication of sensitive materials.
(4) Libraries are making too many government reports open to the public.
[Type text]

The term Great Society was used by President Lyndon B. Johnson to describe his efforts to
(1) lower taxes for all Americans
(2) win the race for outer space
(3) end poverty and discrimination in the United States
(4) improve the nation‘s armed forces

… For the war against poverty will not be won
here in Washington. It must be won in the field,
in every private home, in every public office,
from the courthouse to the White House.…
— President Lyndon B. Johnson,
State of the Union Address, January 8, 1964

This statement expresses President Lyndon B. Johnson‘s view that the
(1) federal government is solely responsible for the war on poverty
(2) court system must be held accountable for poverty
(3) problem of poverty is easily solved
(4) entire country must help fight poverty

A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson‘s Great Society was to
(1) provide government aid to business
(2) end poverty in the United States
(3) conserve natural resources
(4) stop emigration from Latin America

In 1965, Congress established Medicare to
(1) provide health care to the elderly
(2) assist foreign nations with their health problems
(3) grant scholarships to medical students
(4) establish universal health care

One goal of President Lyndon Johnson‘s Great Society was to
(1) improve the quality of life for the poor
(2) privatize many government programs
(3) send additional troops to Vietnam
(4) reduce the number of nuclear weapons

Population increases that resulted from the baby boom of the 1950s and 1960s contributed to a
(1) housing surplus
(2) drop in immigration
(3) reduction in government services
(4) rise in demand for consumer goods

What was a major reason President Lyndon B. Johnson decided not to run for reelection in 1968?
[Type text]

(1) He was ineligible to hold a third term as president.
(2) He was threatened with impeachment for government scandals.
(3) His Vietnam War policies had reduced his popularity with voters.
(4) Most Americans were unhappy with his failure to establish social reforms.

―. . . With America‘s sons in the fields far away,
with America‘s future under challenge right here
at home, with our hopes and the world‘s hopes for
peace in the balance every day, I do not believe
that I should devote an hour or a day of my time
to any personal partisan causes or to any duties
other than the awesome duties of this office—the
Presidency of your country.
Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not
accept, the nomination of my party for another
term as your President. . . .‖
— President Lyndon B. Johnson, March 31, 1968

The decision announced in this speech was based primarily on the
(1) assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
(2) growing violence in urban America
(3) outbreak of terrorist attacks around the world
(4) involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War

The domino theory was used to justify United States involvement in the
(1) War on Poverty
(3) Bosnian crisis
(2) Berlin airlift
(4) Vietnam War

Which event best completes this graphic organizer?
(1) Vietnam War (3) Persian Gulf War
(2) Holocaust (4) D-Day invasion
[Type text]

The Berkeley demonstrations, riots at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and the Kent State
protest all reflect student disapproval of
(1) the Vietnam War
(2) increases in college tuition
(3) the unequal status of American women
(4) racial segregation

―No person in the United States shall, on the
basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be
denied the benefits of, or be subjected to
discrimination under any education program or
activity receiving Federal financial assistance, . . .‖
— Title IX, 1972

The passage of this law affected women across the nation by
(1) granting them the right to own property
(2) guaranteeing them the same wages as male workers
(3) increasing their opportunities to participate in school sports
(4) allowing them the right to seek elective offices

Dear Mr. Barr,
… This letter does not express all that is in my
heart, Mr. Barr. But if it says nothing else it says
that we do not hate you or rejoice to see your
industry destroyed; we hate the agribusiness
system [agricultural corporations] that seeks to
keep us enslaved and we shall overcome and
change it not by retaliation or bloodshed but by a
determined nonviolent struggle carried on by
those masses of farm workers who intend to be
free and human.
Sincerely yours,
Cesar E. Chavez
— Cesar Chavez, letter to E.L. Barr Jr.,
Good Friday, 1969, in Andrew Carroll, ed.,
Letters of a Nation, Broadway Books

Which action did Cesar Chavez take that is most consistent with the theme of this excerpt?
(1) organizing a farmworkers union
(2) calling for stricter enforcement of immigration laws
(3) asking Congress to pass legislation for lowincome housing
(4) promoting the takeover of large corporations by farmworkers

Which term is most commonly used to describe President Richard Nixon‘s foreign policy toward the
Soviet Union?
(1) collective security
(2) brinkmanship
(3) détente
[Type text]

(4) neutrality

The United States policy of détente can best be described as an effort to
(1) reduce tensions with the Soviet Union
(2) negotiate peace agreements with North Korea
(3) halt the arms race with China
(4) end an embargo against Cuba

The policy of détente pursued by President Richard Nixon was an effort to
(1) increase foreign aid to African nations
(2) maintain access to East Asian markets
(3) reduce conflict with the Soviet Union
(4) end trade barriers among Western Hemisphere nations

The policy of détente was used by President Richard Nixon in an effort to
(1) decrease tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States
(2) improve relations with Latin America
(3) promote democratic government in China
(4) create stronger ties with Western Europe

Which practice of the federal government has contributed most to the situation shown in the table?
(1) taking steps to reduce growth of the gross domestic product
(2) raising taxes to try to reduce inflation
(3) spending more money than is received in revenues
[Type text]

(4) lowering taxes during election years

The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade (1973) was based on the constitutional principle of
(1) protection of property rights
(2) freedom of speech
(3) right to privacy
(4) freedom of religion

The primary purpose of President Richard Nixon‘s policy of détente was to
(1) expand United States military involvement in Southeast Asia
(2) assure an adequate supply of oil from the Middle East
(3) ease tensions between the United States and
the Soviet Union
(4) maintain a favorable balance of trade with China

President Richard Nixon‘s policy of détente is best characterized by his
(1) decision to dismantle the nuclear weapons arsenal of the United States
(2) attempt to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union
(3) order to bomb Cambodia
(4) support for membership in the United Nations for communist countries
[Type text]

The cartoonist is commenting on which Cold War foreign policy?
(1) détente
(3) the domino theory
(2) brinkmanship
(4) collective security

 Which United States foreign policy decision most clearly reflects the relationship shown in the
(1) issuance of the Eisenhower Doctrine
(2) quarantine of Cuba
(3) support of Israel in the Six Day War
(4) negotiation of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)

President Richard Nixon‘s foreign policy of détente was an attempt to
(1) resolve Middle East conflicts
(2) improve relations with the Soviet Union
(3) defend United States interests in Latin America
(4) increase the power of the United Nations Security Council
[Type text]

The conflict that was the focus of the cartoon involved President Richard Nixon‘s attempt to
(1) increase the number of troops in Vietnam
(2) withhold evidence in the Watergate scandal
(3) impose mandatory wage and price controls
(4) improve relations with the People‘s Republic of China

The cartoon illustrates the constitutional principle of
(1) federalism
(2) checks and balances
(3) representative government
(4) civilian control of the military
[Type text]

The cartoonist is expressing the opinion that
(1) the United States should place tariffs on goods from communist nations
(2) most Americans favor trading with both China and Cuba
(3) American foreign trade policies are sometimes inconsistent
(4) democratic nations should receive preferential trade agreements

What is the explanation for the situation shown in the cartoon?
(1) Strong anti-Castro sentiment existed in Congress.
(2) China had met all United States human rights demands.
(3) Castro refused to allow Cuba to trade with the United States.
(4) The United States was dependent on food imports from China.
[Type text]

The cartoon is most closely associated with the controversy over the
(1) Watergate affair
(2) war on drugs
(3) Arab-Israeli conflict
(4) Iran hostage crisis

A major effect of the Watergate scandal of the 1970s was that it
(1) led to the Arab oil embargo
(2) reduced people‘s trust in government
(3) resulted in term limits for elected officials
(4) increased presidential power

President Richard Nixon‘s decision to resign from the presidency in 1974 was based primarily on
(1) developments in the Watergate investigation
(2) backlash from his policies toward China and the Soviet Union
(3) protests against his secret military actions during the Vietnam War
(4) accusations of trading arms for hostages

President Richard Nixon‘s visit to the People‘s Republic of China in 1972 was significant because it
(1) convinced the Chinese to abandon communism
(2) brought about the unification of Taiwan and Communist China
(3) reduced tensions between the United States and Communist China
[Type text]

(4) decreased United States dependence on Chinese exports

What was the primary reason Richard Nixon resigned his presidency?
(1) He was convicted of several serious crimes.
(2) He was facing impeachment by the House of Representatives.
(3) His reelection was declared invalid by the Supreme Court.
(4) His actions in Cambodia and Laos were exposed in the Pentagon Papers

The War Powers Act of 1973 was passed by Congress as a response to the
(1) spread of nuclear weapons during the Cold War
(2) invasion of Kuwait by Iraq
(3) threat of communism in the Middle East
(4) United States involvement in the Vietnam War.

The main purpose of the War Powers Act of 1973 was to
(1) expand the power of Congress to declare war
(2) limit the president‘s ability to send troops into combat abroad
(3) allow people to vote on the issue of United States commitments overseas
(4) end the Vietnam War on favorable terms

The war in Vietnam led Congress to pass the War Powers Act of 1973 in order to
(1) affirm United States support for the United Nations
(2) strengthen the policy of détente
(3) increase United States participation in international peacekeeping operations
(4) assert the role of Congress in the commitment of troops overseas

The Supreme Court ruling in United States v. Nixon (1974) was significant because it directly
(1) increased the power of the legislative branch
(2) showed that the Court controlled the executive branch
(3) limited the president‘s power of executive privilege
(4) weakened the principle of federalism

The decisions of the United States Supreme Court in Tinker v. Des Moines and New York
Times Co. v. United States were based on interpretations of the
(1) meaning of a republican form of government
(2) powers delegated specifically to Congress
(3) president‘s right to executive privilege
(4) rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment

The Supreme Court decisions in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) and United States v.
Nixon (1974) reinforced the principle that the president of the United States
(1) has unlimited use of the veto power
(2) is protected from unfair media criticism
(3) may not be convicted of a crime
(4) is not above the law

―I believe that our young people [18–20 years old]
possess a great social conscience, are perplexed by
the injustices which exist in the world and are
[Type text]

anxious to rectify [correct] these ills.‖
— Senator Jennings Randolph, 1971,
The New York Times

Those who favor this point of view would likely have supported
(1) a constitutional amendment extending voting rights
(2) a presidential decision to raise speed limits
(3) a Supreme Court ruling to reverse desegregation
(4) a law passed by Congress to increase Social Security benefits

The ratification of the 26th amendment, which lowered the voting age to 18, was a result of the
(1) participation of the United States in the Vietnam War
(2) fear of McCarthyism
(3) reaction to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union
(4) reporting of the Watergate scandal

Which action did President Gerald Ford take in an attempt to end the national controversy over the
Watergate affair?
(1) pardoning Richard Nixon
(2) declaring a war on poverty
(3) declining to run for reelection
(4) asking Congress to impeach Richard Nixon
[Type text]

Which statement most accurately expresses the main idea of this cartoon?
(1) Rising farm costs are reducing profits.
(2) Foreign competition has driven up farm costs.
(3) Farm production is failing to keep pace with demand.
(4) Farmers are losing profits due to drought.

Which situation in the 1970s caused the United States to reconsider its dependence on foreign energy
(1) war in Afghanistan
(2) oil embargo by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
(3) meetings with the Soviet Union to limit nuclear weapons
(4) free-trade agreements with Canada and Mexico

―. . . Our decision about energy will test the
character of the American people and the ability
of the President and the Congress to govern. This
[Type text]

difficult effort will be the ‗moral equivalent of
war‘— except that we will be uniting our efforts to
build and not destroy. . . .‖
— President Jimmy Carter
Address to the Nation, April 18, 1977

President Carter put these ideas into practice by
(1) halting construction of nuclear power plants
(2) increasing imports of foreign oil
(3) urging the development of alternative fuel sources
(4) imposing a price freeze on all petroleum products

Since the 1970s, many people have moved from the Midwest and Northeast to the South, Southwest,
and West Coast. This migration has resulted in
(1) support for increasing the membership of Congress
(2) a decrease in immigration from Asia and Latin America
(3) increased pressure to eliminate the electoral college
(4) some states gaining and others losing seats in the House of Representatives

President Jimmy Carter‘s decision to pardon Vietnam War draft evaders who had fled to Canada is
an example of the president‘s role as
(1) chief diplomat
(3) chief executive
(2) head of party
(4) world leader

The Camp David Accords negotiated by President Jimmy Carter were important because
(1) reduced tensions in the Middle East
(2) renewed diplomatic relations between the United States and China
(3) slowed the pace of the nuclear arms race
(4) provided for cooperation with the Soviet Union in the exploration of outer space

In the Camp David Accords (1978), President Jimmy Carter succeeded in
(1) returning the Panama Canal Zone to Panama
(2) suspending grain sales to the Soviet Union and China
(3) providing a foundation for a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel
(4) freeing hostages being held in Iran

Which foreign policy agreement had the most direct influence on the Middle East?
(1) Kellogg-Briand Pact
(2) Yalta Conference declaration
(3) SALT I Treaty
(4) Camp David Accords
[Type text]

Which event is most closely associated with the end of the Cold War?
(1) passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
(2) establishment of a policy of détente with the Soviet Union
(3) invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union
(4) fall of the Berlin Wall

The Supreme Court decisions in New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) and Vernonia School District v.
Acton (1995) show that
(1) a student‘s right to privacy is limited under certain conditions
(2) prayer in public schools must be limited
(3) racially segregated schools are unconstitutional
(4) a student has no guaranteed rights while in school

In the Supreme Court cases New Jersey v. T.L.O. and Tinker v. Des Moines School District, the
Court ruled that
(1) individual student rights are more important than a safe school environment
(2) students can be expelled from school without a hearing
(3) civil liberties can be both protected and limited in schools
(4) the Bill of Rights does not apply to minors

In the United States, regional differences in economic development are primarily due to
(1) settlement patterns of immigrant groups
(2) pressure from various religious groups
(3) state and federal election laws
(4) geographic factors in various parts of the nation
[Type text]

The changes shown on the chart most clearly reflect the
(1) effects of the Cold War
(2) influence of the business cycle
(3) failure of United States military policy
(4) reverses in political party control of Congress
[Type text]

In the 1970s, many women‘s rights advocates reacted to the situation shown in the cartoon by
(1) rejecting the provisions of Title IX
(2) opposing affirmative action programs
(3) demanding the right to vote in all elections
(4) supporting the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution

What is one reason for the increases in worldwide oil prices since the 1970s?
(1) construction of the Trans-Alaska oil pipeline
(2) political unrest in the Middle East
(3) promotion of conservation efforts by United States oil companies
(4) doubling of tariffs on oil imports by the United States government

The United States has had a trade deficit over the past two decades because the nation
(1) imposed protective tariffs on imports
(2) placed high taxes on exports
(3) refused to enter international free trade agreements
(4) imported more goods than it exported
[Type text]

The cartoonist is directing criticism at the
(1) use of unskilled workers
(2) government policy toward illegal immigrants
(3) poor quality of domestic textiles
(4) use of nonunion labor in the workplace

What Native American Indian viewpoint does the cartoonist support?
(1) Illegal immigrants should not be allowed to settle on Native American Indian reservations.
(2) European settlers took Native American Indian land.
(3) Government efforts to restrict immigration should be supported.
[Type text]

(4) Native American Indians support government efforts to stop illegal immigration.

President Ronald Reagan‘s supply-side economic policy was successful in
(1) increasing government spending on social programs
(2) lowering tax rates on personal and business income
(3) reducing defense spending
(4) enforcing stricter environmental regulations

One similarity in the policies of President Herbert Hoover and President Ronald Reagan is that both
(1) a reduction of military spending
(2) the end of Social Security
(3) appointment of a woman to the Supreme Court
(4) economic changes favoring big business

The economic policies of President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) and President George W. Bush
(2001–present) are similar in that both
(1) balanced the federal budget
(2) expanded welfare programs to end poverty
(3) used tax cuts to encourage economic growth
(4) decreased military spending

What is the main topic of this 1985 cartoon?
(1) quality of Japanese products
(2) imbalance in Japanese-United States trade
(3) outsourcing of American jobs to Japan
(4) relocation of American companies to Japan

If this 1985 cartoon were to be redrawn today, which country would most likely replace Japan as the
subject of the cartoon?
(1) China
[Type text]

(3) Germany
(2) Brazil
(4) Russia

A major goal of the Republican Party since the 1980s has been to
(1) increase welfare benefits
(2) increase the size of the federal workforce
(3) reduce defense spending
(4) cut federal taxes

The beginning of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe is most closely associated with the
(1) fall of the Berlin Wall
(2) admission of Warsaw Pact nations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
(3) intervention of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Yugoslavia
(4) formation of the European Union

During the next 30 years, what will be the most likely impact of the baby boom that followed World
War II?
(1) More money will be spent on national defense.
(2) The cost of health care will decrease.
(3) Social Security will have to provide for increasing numbers of retired people.
(4) The elderly will be the smallest segment of the population.

In 1991, one of the reasons President George H. W. Bush committed United States troops to the
Persian Gulf War was to
(1) maintain the flow of trade through the Suez Canal
(2) fulfill military obligations as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
(3) contain the spread of communism in the Middle East
(4) assure the flow of Middle East oil to the United States and its allies

One similarity between President Jimmy Carter and President Bill Clinton is that both leaders
(1) attempted to bring peace to the Middle East
(2) supported the federal takeover of public education
(3) testified under oath at United States Senate hearings
(4) proposed treaties to limit trade with Latin America

In the late 1990s, increasing public concern about the role of money in politics led to
(1) all candidates receiving an equal amount of money
(2) a ban on all private campaign contributions
(3) attempts to reform campaign financing
(4) the widespread defeat of incumbent congressional candidates
[Type text]

The point of view expressed in this cartoon is that
(1) President and Mrs. Clinton have made Chicago their new home
(2) President Clinton supports adoption over abortion
(3) Republican issues should not be part of the Democratic National Convention
(4) Democrats sometimes support traditionally Republican issues

During the 1990s, an increase in Mexican immigration to the United States was caused by the
immigrants‘ desire for
(1) greater political freedom
(2) bilingual education
(3) better economic opportunities
(4) religious freedom

Which event of Bill Clinton‘s presidency best illustrates the use of checks and balances?
(1) hosting peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians
(2) reelection to a second term
(3) selection of Al Gore as vice president
(4) impeachment for alleged perjury and obstruction of justice

―Clinton Offers Economic Aid to Russia‖
―U.S. Sends Peacekeeping Troops to Bosnia‖
―U.S. Airlifts Food and Medicine to Somalia‖
These headlines illustrate that United States foreign policy during the 1990s stressed
(1) containment
[Type text]

(2) collective security
(3) global involvement
(4) neutrality

In the United States, support for the passage and expansion of the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) has been strongest among
(1) labor unions
(2) environmentalists
(3) big business
(4) farmers

According to the cartoonist, the United States has
(1) an ethnically diverse population
(2) an overly restrictive immigration policy
(3) a national requirement that high school students learn foreign languages
(4) a census report printed in languages that are spoken in the United States

The dispute over counting Florida voter ballots in the presidential election of 2000 was settled by
(1) an order of the governor of Florida
(2) an agreement between the candidates
(3) a vote of the United States Senate
(4) a United States Supreme Court decision
[Type text]

Which statement best describes the point of view of the cartoonist?
(1) Outsourcing of jobs has hurt American workers.
(2) Americans receive most of their news from television.
(3) United States presidents now seek support throughout the world.
(4) Low unemployment rates have forced United States companies to expand overseas.

This cartoon from the disputed presidential
election of 2000 suggests that the winner might
(1) lack strong popular support for his programs
(2) easily win reelection in 2004
(3) succeed in fulfilling his campaign promises
(4) be unable to claim victory in the electoral college
[Type text]

Which statement best describes the main idea of the cartoon?
(1) Iraq is using terrorism to end American military occupation.
(2) Iraq is rejecting help from the United States against terrorists.
(3) The United States and terrorists are competing to influence Iraq.
(4) Iraq is catching up to the United States in the war on terror.
[Type text]

Which event is President George H. W. Bush referring to in this letter?
(1) the bombing of Pearl Harbor during World War II
(2) the military service of Japanese Americans during World War II
(3) the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II
(4) a ban on Japanese immigration to the United States after World War II

Since 1970, what has been a significant economic trend in the United States?
(1) decline in the number of working mothers in the labor force
(2) shift in jobs from manufacturing to service industries
(3) decrease in dependency on foreign oil
(4) increase in federal budget surpluses

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the European Union (EU) both seek to
expand trade within their organizations by
(1) prohibiting imports from nonmember nations
(2) creating a common currency and parliament
(3) lowering tariffs and eliminating import quotas between member nations
(4) forming military alliances
[Type text]

―Congress Passes Alien and Sedition Acts‘‘
―Lincoln Suspends Habeas Corpus‘‘
―Wilson Signs 1918 Sedition Act‖

These headlines show that the federal government can
(1) restrict citizens‘ rights in times of crisis
(2) raise armies without informing the public
(3) station troops in a person‘s home at any time
(4) require citizens to be witnesses against themselves

The Interstate Commerce Act (1887), the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), and the Clayton
Antitrust Act (1914) are similar in that they were intended to
(1) reaffirm the federal government‘s laissez-faire attitude toward big business
(2) increase the federal government‘s power to regulate business practices
(3) authorize the breakup of labor unions
(4) reject the use of trustbusting

―Grant Administration Caught Up in Credit Mobilier
―Harding‘s Secretary of the Interior Indicted in Teapot
Dome Investigation‖
―Iran-Contra Scandal Leads to Resignation of
Reagan Advisor‖

Which conclusion can be drawn from these headlines?
(1) American presidents are not subject to the nation‘s laws.
(2) Senate trials have been used to remove corrupt presidents.
(3) Only Democratic presidents have been investigated for misdeeds.
(4) Some presidents have been damaged by the actions of their aides.

Amendment XXV
Section 1. In case of the removal of the
President from office or of his
death or resignation, the Vice
President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the
office of the Vice President, the
President shall nominate a Vice
President who shall take office
upon confirmation by a majority
vote of both Houses of Congress.
50 This amendment to the Constitution made it possible for
(1) voters to elect Franklin D. Roosevelt to a fourth term as president in 1944
(2) Gerald Ford to become president when Richard Nixon left office in 1974
(3) the House of Representatives to impeach President Bill Clinton in 1998
(4) the Supreme Court to rule on the counting of votes in Florida in the presidential election of 2000
[Type text]

Which situation is associated with the trends in agriculture shown in these tables?
(1) Farm foreclosures decreased.
(2) Farm size was substantially reduced.
(3) Farm output declined.
(4) Farmers became a smaller percentage of the labor force.

One way in which Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, and Woodrow Wilson are similar is that
(1) expanded presidential powers
(2) reduced the size of the federal bureaucracy
(3) faced congressional investigations over the handling of the military
(4) used his power as commander in chief to send troops overseas to fight a war
[Type text]

The changes shown in the graph support the recent concerns of Americans about the
(1) future of Social Security and Medicare
(2) return to an agrarian society
(3) surplus of health care workers
(4) shortage of schools and college

Which of these trials established the principle that leaders of a nation may be tried for crimes
against humanity?
(1) Scopes
(2) Rosenberg
(3) Sacco and Vanzetti
(4) Nuremberg

Radical Republicans‘ passage of the Civil War amendments, President Theodore Roosevelt‘s Square
Deal, and President Lyndon Johnson‘s Great Society programs were all attempts to
(1) promote the theory of laissez-faire
(2) improve society through government action
(3) reduce the economic role of government
(4) increase the influence of large corporations

How were the presidential elections of 1876 and 2000 similar?
(1) The winner of the popular vote lost the electoral vote.
(2) Third-party candidates did not affect the outcome.
(3) The outcome of the election was decided by Congress.
(4) The winner was decided by the Supreme Court.

One similarity between the laws being challenged in the United States Supreme Court cases of
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and Korematsu v. United States (1944) is that
[Type text]

(1) specific groups of people were being targeted based on race or ethnicity
(2) state laws were declared unconstitutional
(3) immigrants were relocated to prison camps
(4) federal laws segregating public transportation were upheld

One way in which the Pearl Harbor attack of December 7, 1941, and the attacks of September 11,
2001, are similar is that both led to
(1) increasing isolation
(2) the creation of a military draft
(3) the impeachment of the president
(4) major changes in United States foreign policy

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, led the federal government to create the
(1) Environmental Protection Agency
(2) Department of Homeland Security
(3) Central Intelligence Agency
(4) Federal Bureau of Investigation

                      Projected Change in House Seats in 2010, By State

Information from the table supports the conclusion that the
(1) population of the United States is increasing
[Type text]

(2) center of population is moving eastward
(3) distribution of House seats follows shifts in population
(4) number of senators will soon increase

―Eisenhower Sends U.S. Troops to Protect Lebanon‖
―Kennedy Places Quarantine on Shipment of Soviet
Missiles to Cuba‖
―Johnson Increases U.S. Troop Strength in Vietnam
by 125,000‖

Which statement about the Cold War is illustrated by these headlines?
(1) Rivalries between the superpowers often involved conflicts in other nations.
(2) United States military support was most often deployed in Europe.
(3) Communist forces were frequently victorious in Asia.
(4) Summit talks frequently succeeded in limiting international tensions.

Which list of wars that involved the United States is in the correct chronological order?
(1) Vietnam War → War on Terrorism → Korean War → World War II
(2) Korean War → World War II → Vietnam War → War on Terrorism
(3) World War II → Vietnam War → War on Terrorism → Korean War
(4) World War II → Korean War → Vietnam War → War on Terrorism

Based on the graph, which statement about median household income between 1967
[Type text]

and 2003 is most accurate?
(1) It doubled.
(2) It decreased by about $5,000.
(3) It increased by about $10,000.
(4) It increased by about $50,000.

Based on the graph, which development occurred during the year before each recession?
(1) Median household income decreased.
(2) Full employment was achieved.
(3) Median household income stayed the same.
(4) The United States population decreased.

The passage of the War Powers Act of 1973 was intended to affect the balance of power between the
president and Congress by
(1) allowing troops to be sent overseas without the president‘s consent
(2) requiring the president to remove all United States troops from Southeast Asia
(3) permitting the president to enter treaties without Senate approval
(4) placing limitations on the president‘s ability to keep troops in hostile situations

Which event led to the investigations that resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon?
(1) a decision to escalate the war in Vietnam
(2) a presidential decision to freeze wages and prices
(3) a break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee
(4) an oil embargo by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

The program that promotes preference in hiring for African Americans and other minorities to
correct past injustices is known as
(1) Title IX
(3) affirmative action
(2) open admissions
(4) Head Start

Which Supreme Court case is correctly paired with the constitutional issue it addressed?
(1) Gibbons v. Ogden — interstate commerce
(2) Dred Scott v. Sanford — executive privilege
(3) Gideon v. Wainwright — voting rights
(4) Roe v. Wade — rights of the accused

One similarity between the actions of Samuel Gompers and Cesar Chavez is that both leaders
(1) organized workers to strive for better conditions
(2) relied on the use of force to gain minority rights
(3) advocated federal regulation of railroad rates
(4) worked to improve consumer product safety

Which heading would be most appropriate for the partial outline below?
[Type text]

(1) Mercantilist Economic Theory
(2) Features of a Bull Stock Market
(3) Monopolistic Business Practices
(4) Causes of the Great Depression

The President:
Helmut! I am sitting in a meeting with
members of our Congress and am calling at
the end of this historic day to wish you well.

Chancellor Kohl:
Things are going very, very well. I am in
Berlin. There were one million people here
last night at the very spot where the Wall used
to stand—and where President Reagan called
on Mr. Gorbachev to open this gate. Words
can‘t describe the feeling. The weather is very
nice and warm, fortunately. There were large
crowds of young people. Eighty percent were
under thirty. It was fantastic. . . .
Source: Telephone conversation between
Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany and
President George H. W. Bush, October 3, 1990

This conversation is referring to the
(1) start of the Berlin airlift
(2) expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
(3) end of the Cold War and reunification of Germany
(4) signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and creation of the Hot Line

Which heading best completes the partial outline below?
[Type text]

(1) Consequences of World War I
(2) Results of the Gentlemen‘s Agreement
(3) Events Leading to Neutrality
(4) Factors Supporting United States Imperialism

Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson supported domestic policies that
(1) favored only one region of the nation
(2) attempted to increase the wealth of the rich
(3) led to tax cuts for all Americans
(4) provided direct help to those in need

The change in the nation‘s attitude toward membership in the League of Nations and
membership in the United Nations shows the contrast between
(1) neutrality and containment
(2) appeasement and internationalism
(3) isolationism and involvement
(4) interventionism and détente

Which conclusion about life expectancy at age 65 is most clearly supported by the
information in the graph?
(1) Life expectancies for men and women are likely to remain the same.
(2) Life expectancy rates for men show a steady decline since 1980.
(3) By 2040, the life expectancy of men will exceed that of women.
(4) Current life expectancy exceeds age 80 for both men and women.

The changes shown between 1940 and 2000 are most likely the result of the
(1) reduction in warfare
(2) improvements in modern medicine
[Type text]

(3) increase in the number of immigrants
(4) decrease in obesity rates

Which sequence shows the correct order of events related to the history of African Americans
in the United States?
(1) Radical Reconstruction _ Emancipation Proclamation _ Brown v. Board of Education decision _
Great Migration
(2) Emancipation Proclamation _ Radical Reconstruction _ Great Migration _ Brown
v. Board of Education decision
(3) Great Migration _ Emancipation Proclamation _ Brown v. Board of Education
decision _ Radical Reconstruction
(4) Brown v. Board of Education decision _ Great Migration _ Radical Reconstruction _
Emancipation Proclamation
[Type text]

Which statement is best supported by the information in this graph?
(1) The surplus of food was greater in 2000 than in 2004.
(2) More money was being spent by consumers at the grocery store in 2000.
(3) The government was helping fewer people in 2004 than in 2000.
(4) More people needed financial assistance to feed their families in 2004.
[Type text]

What is the main idea of this cartoon?
(1) Burning flags is another cause of global warming.
(2) Washington politicians are focusing on the wrong issues.
(3) Respect for the American flag around the world is declining.
(4) Automobiles are mainly responsible for global warming.

Based on this cartoon, which action by the federal government would the cartoonist most likely
(1) restricting first amendment rights
(2) promoting industrial growth
(3) enforcing environmental regulations
(4) encouraging globalization

Today, the Federal Reserve System attempts to stabilize the economy of the United States by
(1) requiring federal budgets be prepared and presented to Congress
(2) levying and collecting income taxes
(3) regulating interest rates and the money supply
(4) backing all currency with silver and gold

One responsibility of the Federal Reserve System is to
(1) balance the federal budget
[Type text]

(2) raise or lower income taxes
(3) control the supply of money
(4) regulate the stock market

The Federal Reserve System has an impact on economic conditions in the United States by
(1) regulating the amount of money in circulation
(2) providing direct loans to farmers and small businesses
(3) enforcing strict antitrust laws
(4) controlling imports from other nations

Which statement is most clearly supported by the information in the graph?
(1) More children were under age 6 in 1990 than in 1950.
(2) Since 1990, women have made up more than half of the workforce.
(3) The gap between male and female incomes has declined.
(4) Fewer women are staying home to raise their young children.

A candidate for public office would likely conclude from a study of this graph that the
public would favor increased government support for
(1) additional foreign aid
(2) health care facilities
(3) child day-care centers
[Type text]

(4) colleges and universities

The data included in the table suggest that since 1971
(1) boys are losing interest in participating in sports
(2) participation in sports by boys and girls is nearly equal
(3) girls‘ participation in sports equals that of boys
(4) girls‘ participation in sports is increasing at a faster rate than that of boys

Which development contributed most to the changes shown in the table?
(1) passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(2) inclusion of Title IX in the Education Amendments of 1972
(3) the beginning of Head Start programs in the 1960s
(4) increase in the number of nonpublic schools since the 1970s

What is the main issue identified in this cartoon?
(1) the high cost of computer services
(2) conflicts between Congress and the Supreme Court
(3) the increasing lack of privacy
(4) limits placed on the powers of Congress

William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe are best known for their efforts
(1) create free public schools
[Type text]

(2) begin the temperance movement
(3) expand the rights of women
(4) oppose the practice of slavery

Which heading best completes the partial outline below?

(1) American Domestic Programs
(2) Cold War Events
(3) United States Interventionism
(4) Efforts at Isolationism

Rachel Carson and Ralph Nader are similar to the muckrakers of the Progressive Era because they
(1) advocated a total change in the structure of government
(2) attempted to expose societal problems
(3) failed to influence public opinion
(4) supported anti-American activities

 In which war was Manifest Destiny used to justify United States government actions?
(1) Revolutionary War
(2) Mexican War
(3) Civil War
(4) Vietnam War

―The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United
States or by any State on account of sex. . . .‖
— 19th Amendment, United States Constitution

Which group of women worked for the passage of
this amendment?
(1) Harriet Tubman, Jane Addams, and Dorothea Dix
(2) Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(3) Madeline Albright, Geraldine Ferraro, and Sandra Day O‘Connor
(4) Clara Barton, Amelia Earhart, and Eleanor Roosevelt
[Type text]

The cartoonist is trying to encourage American consumers to consider that
(1) the United States buys more from Japan than Japan buys from the United States
(2) cars produced in the United States are often inferior to foreign-made automobiles
(3) single purchases of automobiles do not have an impact on calculating foreign trade balances
(4) automobile dealerships in the United States should offer more incentives for purchasing
American-made cars

The emergence of third political parties such as the Know-Nothing Party, the Greenback Party, and
the Prohibition Party indicates that
(1) basic democratic values are often rejected by many United States citizens
(2) a single powerful issue can mobilize political activity
(3) third parties have failed to influence governmental policies
(4) minor political parties are usually formed by strong leaders
[Type text]

Data from this graph support the conclusion that between 1992 and 2000
(1) the Democrats lost more votes to third-party candidates than the Republicans did
(2) third-party candidates received less support in each succeeding presidential election
(3) less than 50 percent of eligible voters participated in elections
(4) the Republicans received more than 40 million votes in each election

Which generalization about United States presidential elections is most clearly supported by the data
in this chart?
(1) A candidate can win the election without a majority of the popular vote.
(2) Third-party candidates have no effect on presidential elections.
[Type text]

(3) Electoral college votes determine the will of the majority of voters.
(4) Voter participation in national elections is declining.

The Department of Homeland Security was created as a direct response to the
(1) Persian Gulf War (1991)
(2) Oklahoma City bombing (1995)
(3) terrorist attacks on September 11 (2001)
(4) flooding of New Orleans (2005)

Which situation can be inferred from the population trend shown on the graph?
(1) In the 1980s, more new schools were needed than in the early 1960s.
(2) In the 1970s, there was increased migration to the northeast.
(3) In the 1980s, the number of baby boomers was recognized as a threat to the future of Social
Security benefits.
(4) In the 1990s, death rates increased.

Information on the graph shows that the birthrate peaked in
(1) 1940
(3) 1957
(2) 1947
(4) 1970

Which event led to the other three?
(1) United States overthrow of the Taliban in Afghanistan
(2) passage of the Patriot Act
(3) September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks against the United States
(4) creation of the Department of Homeland Security
[Type text]

The cartoon refers to the idea that most candidates for the presidency try to
(1) win the majority of popular votes nationwide
(2) campaign equally in all states
(3) win the electoral vote in certain key states
(4) gain the support of first-time voters

• Establishment of the Peace Corps
• Bay of Pigs invasion
• Cuban missile crisis
These events occurred during the presidency of
(1) John F. Kennedy
(2) Lyndon B. Johnson
(3) Richard Nixon
(4) Jimmy Carter

In 1990, approximately 12 percent of the United States population was over 65. It is estimated
that in 2030 that number will climb to nearly 20 percent.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

The most likely result of this trend will be an increase in the number of
(1) immigrants from Asia
(2) students attending colleges
(3) people receiving Social Security
(4) members of the House of Representatives

. . . There may come a time when we elect a
president at age 45 or 50, and then 20 years later
the country comes up with the same sort of
problems that the president faced before and the
[Type text]

people would like to bring that man or woman
back, and they‘d have no ability to do so. I‘d kind
of like to see it changed. I don‘t have terribly
strong feelings about it. . . .
— President Bill Clinton, A Conversation with
Former President Bill Clinton,
John F. Kennedy Library and Foundation,
May 28, 2003

In this statement, President Clinton is commenting on the
(1) presidential primaries
(2) presidential two-term limit
(3) two-party political system
(4) electoral college system

During the 20th century, federal prosecutions of corporations such as Standard Oil, AT&T, and
Microsoft were based on alleged violations of
(1) stock market practices
(2) environmental regulations
(3) labor union protections
(4) antitrust laws

What was a direct result of the census of 2000?
(1) Personal income tax rates were changed.
(2) New United States District Courts were created.
(3) Seats in the House of Representatives were reapportioned.
(4) The number of United States Senators was increased.

The federal government responded to the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
(1) creating a cabinet-level agency for homeland security
(2) deporting most illegal aliens
(3) decreasing defense spending
(4) expanding the civil liberties of American citizens

An initial response of the United States to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, was to
(1) aid in the overthrow of Taliban rule in Afghanistan
(2) reduce support for Israel
(3) end trade with all Middle Eastern nations
(4) demand an end to communist rule in Iraq

Cultural pluralism in American society is best characterized by the
(1) existence of ethnic diversity within the population
(2) failure of many immigrants to vote in elections
(3) rejection of United States citizenship by most immigrants
(4) flow of illegal immigrants into California
[Type text]

Which issue in the United States is the focus of this cartoon?
(1) poor diets of many older Americans
(2) high cost of many medicines
(3) increased competition among drug manufacturers
(4) government-controlled prices of prescription drugs

The actions of President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and of President Franklin D.
Roosevelt during World War II demonstrate that, during times of war, presidents sometimes have
(1) given up control of the military
(2) failed to gain enough public support to win reelection
(3) granted greater independence to state governments
(4) restricted individual freedoms

―Lincoln Suspends Writ of Habeas Corpus‖
―Supreme Court Rules for Government in Draft Resister Case‖
―Relocation of Japanese Americans Upheld by Supreme Court‖

These headlines illustrate that during wartime
(1) the liberties of individuals can be restricted
(2) the role of the government in regulating the economy increases
(3) most Americans support participation in wars
(4) new job opportunities are created by increased demand

. . . Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey
them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and
obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we
transgress them at once? . . .
[Type text]

— Henry David Thoreau, 1849

. . . But the great glory of American democracy is
the right to protest for right. My friends, don‘t let
anybody make us feel that we [are] to be
compared in our actions with the Ku Klux Klan or
with the White Citizens Council. There will be
no crosses burned at any bus stops in
Montgomery. There will be no white persons
pulled out of their homes and taken out on some
distant road and lynched for not cooperating.
There will be nobody amid, among us who will
stand up and defy the Constitution of this nation.
We only assemble here because of our desire to
see right exist. . . .
— Martin Luther King, Jr., December 1955

Which statement most accurately summarizes the main idea of these quotations?
(1) Revolution is inevitable in a democratic society.
(2) Government consistently protects the freedom and dignity of all its citizens.
(3) Violence is the most effective form of protest.
(4) Civil disobedience is sometimes necessary to
bring about change.

The graduating student pictured in this cartoon is confronted by a problem caused in part by
(1) cheaper foreign labor
[Type text]

(2) increasing tariff rates
(3) high-cost imports
(4) lack of education

―Gasoline Prices Soar in 2008‖
―U.S. Oil Consumption and Imports Continue to
―OPEC Votes to Reduce Oil Production‖

Which conclusion is most clearly supported by
these headlines?
(1) The United States exports more oil than it imports.
(2) Energy policies are not affected by domestic events.
(3) The demand for alternative energy sources is declining.
(4) United States dependence on foreign oil is a major problem.

The Anthracite Coal Strike (1902), the Wagner Act (1935), and the founding of the United Farm
Workers (1962) were important steps in
(1) limiting the growth of labor unions
(2) creating greater equality for women
(3) ending discrimination directed at African Americans in the South
(4) promoting fair labor practices and collective bargaining for workers

The decision in Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) and the decision in Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad
v. Illinois (1886) addressed the issue of
(1) congressional privileges
(2) regulation of interstate commerce
(3) state taxation of federal property
(4) contract rights

Which pair of Supreme Court cases demonstrates that the Supreme Court can change an earlier
(1) Schenck v. United States and United States v. Nixon
(2) Korematsu v. United States and Miranda v. Arizona
(3) Gideon v. Wainwright and Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
(4) Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
[Type text]

A conclusion best supported by the information in this graph is that the United States
(1) is more efficient and less wasteful than other nations
(2) shows great concern for lesser-developed countries
(3) consumes several times the world average of many resources
(4) spends more than other nations on environmental protection

One way in which the Gold Rush in 1849 and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s are similar is that both
resulted in
(1) a war with other countries
(2) the sale of cheap federal land
(3) an increase in westward migration
(4) the removal of Native American Indians to reservations

Since 1980, most new jobs in the United States have been in
(1) education
(3) service industries
(2) heavy industry
(4) civil service

President George Washington in his Farewell Address, President James Monroe in the Monroe
Doctrine, and the opponents of the League of Nations all wanted the United States to
(1) avoid European conflicts
[Type text]

(2) avoid trade with foreign nations
(3) refuse diplomatic recognition of nondemocratic nations
(4) reduce foreign influence by establishing immigration quotas

In this cartoon, what is the main concern of the cartoonist?
(1) The technology needed to run the federal government is too expensive.
(2) Consumers should be protected from false advertising in the media.
(3) Technology makes it easier to influence legislators.
(4) The government is unable to safeguard the privacy of Internet users.

According to this cartoonist, the problem faced by these college graduates was mainly the result of
(1) slow economic growth
(2) Prohibition
(3) the Great Depression
[Type text]

(4) high rates of inflation

Which economic policy argues that government should limit, as much as possible, any interference in
the economy?
(1) socialism
(2) laissez-faire
(3) mercantilism
(4) protectionism

―President Jackson Signs Force Bill Against South Carolina‖
―Congress Declares Southern States Must Accept 14th Amendment‖
―President Eisenhower Sends Federal Troops to Little Rock, Arkansas‖

Which principle is illustrated by these headlines?
(1) executive privilege
(2) popular sovereignty
(3) limited government
(4) federal supremacy

―Muhammad Ali Refuses Military Draft Induction‖
―Tet Offensive Forces Troops to Defend Saigon‖
―President Johnson Decides Not to Seek Reelection‖

Which war is associated with the events mentioned in these headlines?
(1) World War II
(2) Korean War
(3) Vietnam War
(4) Persian Gulf War

Which category most accurately completes the heading for the partial outline below?

(1) Right to Counsel
(2) Student Rights
(3) School Integration
(4) Federal Funding of Education
[Type text]

The disputed elections of 1876 and 2000 were similar because in both contests the
(1) winner was chosen by a special electoral commission
(2) states were required to hold a second election
(3) winner of the popular vote did not become president
(4) election had to be decided in the House of Representatives

Which generalization about the projected population in New York State is most clearly supported by
the information on the graph?
(1) The death rate will slowly increase by 2020.
(2) The number of citizens 75 and older will double by 2020.
(3) The number of citizens 75 and older will steadily decline by 2020.
(4) The population of both groups shown on the graph will increase by 2020.

Frederick Douglass, Malcolm X, and Jesse Jackson are each well known for
(1) helping to end slavery
(2) working for African American rights
(3) organizing the Underground Railroad
(4) supporting Jim Crow laws
[Type text]

Which group was the main target of the Palmer Raids of 1919–1920 and the McCarthy hearings
of the 1950s?
(1) nativists
(2) industrialists
(3) communists
(4) African Americans

Evidence that the United States has become more economically interdependent since 1990 is shown
by its
(1) participation in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
(2) change from a service economy to a manufacturing economy
(3) increased dependence on domestic farm products
(4) policy of restricting imports

Which pair of events shows a correct cause-and effect relationship?
(1) secession of South Carolina election of Abraham Lincoln
(2) United States enters the Spanish-American War sinking of the USS Maine
(3) passage of the Meat Inspection Act publication of The Jungle
(4) Soviets launch SputnikUnited States lands astronauts on the Moon

The Marshall Plan (1948) and the Cuban missile crisis (1962) are most closely associated with
(1) the establishment of the Peace Corps
(2) the creation of the Alliance for Progress
(3) United States–Soviet relations during the Cold War
(4) an increase in trade between the United States and Cuba

Which federal government program has been most affected by the longer life expectancy of people in
the United States?
(1) Medicare
(2) Americans with Disabilities Act
(3) War on Poverty
(4) No Child Left Behind Act

• Announcement of Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)
• Operation Desert Storm (1991)
• Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003 – present)

These events involve attempts by the United States to
(1) protect human rights in Europe
(2) protect its interests in the Middle East
(3) deliver humanitarian aid to Africa
(4) contain the spread of communism in Asia
[Type text]

What is the main idea of this cartoon?
(1) The global economy is on the verge of collapse.
(2) Rich nations should help poor nations improve their economic conditions.
(3) One nation‘s economic problems affect many other nations.
(4) Each nation controls its own economic destiny.

A major goal of the women‘s movement over the past twenty years has been to gain
(1) full property rights
(2) the right to vote
(3) equal economic opportunity
(4) better access to Social Security

A similarity between the Bank of the United States, created in 1791, and the present-day Federal
Reserve System is that both were established to
(1) set tariff rates
(2) regulate the money supply
(3) achieve balanced budgets
(4) restrict the gold supply

The Supreme Court decisions in Gibbons v. Ogden and Northern Securities Co. v. United States
were based on the federal government‘s power to
(1) issue patents
(2) control the stock market
(3) regulate interstate commerce
(4) encourage technological development

One similarity shared by President Andrew Johnson and President Bill Clinton is that both
(1) served only one term as president
(2) were impeached but not convicted
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(3) had no vice president
(4) came to office after the death of a president

What is the most likely result of the United States raising tariff rates on imported steel?
(1) The price of consumer goods made with American steel is lowered.
(2) American steel companies are protected from foreign competition.
(3) The quality of consumer goods made with steel is improved.
(4) Foreign steel companies are encouraged to buy American steel companies.

Which criticism of the electoral college system is illustrated by the information in the table?
(1) Presidential electors frequently do not vote for the person they were pledged to support.
(2) A person can win the presidency without winning the most popular votes.
(3) The vote of the people in each state has little relationship to the election outcome.
(4) Minor-party candidates often receive too many electoral votes.

Which change is most often proposed to correct the problem shown by the table?
(1) adopt a constitutional amendment to elect the president by popular vote
(2) pass a law requiring state electors to vote for the candidate with the most popular votes
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(3) place limits on the number of political parties allowed in presidential elections
(4) allow the elected members of Congress to select the president

As the average age of the nation‘s population increases, there will be a need to
(1) create more child care facilities
(2) address the financing of Medicare
(3) increase the number of public schools
(4) reform immigration laws

Reducing interest rates to stimulate economic growth is a function of the
(1) Department of Commerce
(2) Federal Reserve System
(3) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(4) Securities and Exchange Commission

Which statement is accurate about congressional bills vetoed between 1961 and 1993?
(1) Congress was usually able to override a presidential veto.
(2) Pocket vetoes were used more often than regular vetoes.
(3) The majority of presidential vetoes were upheld.
(4) The use of the veto increased steadily between 1961 and 1993.

The data in the table illustrate the operation of
(1) executive privilege
(2) checks and balances
(3) congressional immunity
(4) federal supremacy
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The Pacific [Transcontinental] Railway Act (1862) and the Interstate Highway Act (1956) are both
examples of
(1) federally supported internal improvement projects linking the nation
(2) regional construction projects coordinated by southern and western states
(3) military projects required to meet the needs of the defense industry
(4) transportation legislation designed to encourage foreign trade

Mark Twain, Langston Hughes, and John Steinbeck made their most important contributions to the
United States in the field of
(1) music
(3) literature
(2) politics
(4) business

One way in which the New Deal, the Fair Deal, and the Great Society are similar is that these
(1) promoted the idea of ―rugged individualism‖
(2) increased government commitment to the well-being of the people
(3) reduced the amount of money spent on domestic programs
(4) encouraged the states to take a more active role in national defense

Data from the graphs most clearly support the conclusion that by the mid-1990s, American women as
a group
(1) surpassed men in the number of businesses owned and law degrees received
(2) had given up marriage in favor of careers outside the home
(3) had gained more opportunities in professional areas
(4) earned more than men in the legal profession
[Type text]

Which statement is most clearly supported by the information in the chart?
(1) Elderly men outnumber elderly women.
(2) In 1960, more than 10 percent of Americans were age 85 or older.
(3) The number of Americans living past the age of 85 is increasing.
(4) In 1900, only 1 million Americans were age 85.
[Type text]

Which statement about the federal budget is most clearly supported by the information in the graph?
(1) The budget was balanced throughout most of the 1990s.
(2) The budget surplus began declining in 1998.
(3) The budget deficit became smaller between 1992 and 1997.
(4) The budget deficit remained unchanged between 1992 and 2000.

The passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, the McCarthy hearings in the 1950s, and the
passage of the USA Patriot Act in 2001 created controversy because they
(1) required large sums of money to enforce
(2) raised questions about the protection of civil liberties
(3) created alliances with foreign governments
(4) limited the power of the executive branch

The policy of Dollar Diplomacy, the Good Neighbor policy, and the Alliance for Progress were
designed to
(1) increase United States influence in Latin America
(2) open trade with Southeast Asia
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(3) maintain peace with European nations
(4) provide foreign aid to African nations

The Supreme Court decision in Schenck v. United States (1919) and the USA Patriot Act of 2001
both dealt with the power of the federal government to
(1) suspend the writ of habeas corpus
(2) restrict freedom of religion
(3) deny civil rights to those who lack citizenship
(4) limit civil liberties for reasons of national security

President Jimmy Carter‘s decision to criticize South Africa‘s apartheid policy and President Bill
Clinton‘s decision to send troops to Bosnia were both responses to
(1) human rights abuses
(2) civil wars
(3) immigration policies
(4) trade agreement violations.

The Supreme Court rulings in Roe v. Wade (1973) and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern
Pennsylvania, et al. v. Casey (1992) are similar in that both cases dealt with a woman‘s right to
(1) privacy
(2) medical insurance
(3) equal pay for equal work
(4) participate in school sports

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