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Wine and Wine Tasting

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					Wine and Wine Tasting

    November 15, 2005
     Eugene N. Losey
     Elmhurst College
              Why Wine?
• It's natural.
Budbreak
Harvest
              Why Wine?
• It's natural.
• It's living.
Red Wine
                Why Wine?
•   It's natural.
•   It's living.
•   It's social.
•   It's aesthetic.
Aesthetic
               Why Wine?
•   It's natural.
•   It's living.
•   It's social.
•   It's aesthetic.
•   It's unique and varied.
California Chardonnay
Washington Chardonnay
German Riesling
Napa Valley Merlot
Ho Ho Ho
               Why Wine?
•   It's natural.
•   It's living.
•   It's social.
•   It's aesthetic.
•   It's unique and varied.
•   It’s healthful (in moderation).
Wine Making - White Wines
                       Grapes

                  Crusher/Stemmer
 Addition of SO   2



                        Press          Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                       put back on vineyard




                      Fermenter


              stop                 ferment
              fermentation         fully


Bottle                                              Bottle
and                                                 and
Sell                                                Sell
               Sweet Wines      Dry Wines

(Total Time 0.9 mo - 1.5 yr)
Riesling
Merlot
                       Grapes

                  Crusher/Stemmer
 Addition of SO   2



                        Press          Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                       put back on vineyard




                      Fermenter


              stop                 ferment
              fermentation         fully


Bottle                                              Bottle
and                                                 and
Sell                                                Sell
               Sweet Wines      Dry Wines

(Total Time 0.9 mo - 1.5 yr)
Grapes Arriving
Crusher / Destemmer
Crusher / Destemmer
                       Grapes

                  Crusher/Stemmer
 Addition of SO   2



                        Press          Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                       put back on vineyard




                      Fermenter


              stop                 ferment
              fermentation         fully


Bottle                                              Bottle
and                                                 and
Sell                                                Sell
               Sweet Wines      Dry Wines

(Total Time 0.9 mo - 1.5 yr)
Press
                       Grapes

                  Crusher/Stemmer
 Addition of SO   2



                        Press          Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                       put back on vineyard




                      Fermenter


              stop                 ferment
              fermentation         fully


Bottle                                              Bottle
and                                                 and
Sell                                                Sell
               Sweet Wines      Dry Wines

(Total Time 0.9 mo - 1.5 yr)
Stainless Steel Fermenters
                       Grapes

                  Crusher/Stemmer
 Addition of SO   2



                        Press          Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                       put back on vineyard




                      Fermenter


              stop                 ferment
              fermentation         fully


Bottle                                              Bottle
and                                                 and
Sell                                                Sell
               Sweet Wines      Dry Wines

(Total Time 0.9 mo - 1.5 yr)
Wine Making - Red Wines
                      Grapes

                 Crusher/Stemmer
Addition of SO   2




                     Fermenter




                          Press     Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                    put back on vineyard




             Aging                              Bottle
                          Barrels               and
                                                Sell


(Total Time 1.5 - 4 yr)
Fermentation - Small Batch
Pumping Over
                      Grapes

                 Crusher/Stemmer
Addition of SO   2




                     Fermenter




                          Press     Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                    put back on vineyard




             Aging                              Bottle
                          Barrels               and
                                                Sell


(Total Time 1.5 - 4 yr)
Free Run Juice
                      Grapes

                 Crusher/Stemmer
Addition of SO   2




                     Fermenter




                          Press     Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                    put back on vineyard




             Aging                              Bottle
                          Barrels               and
                                                Sell


(Total Time 1.5 - 4 yr)
Barrels
                      Grapes

                 Crusher/Stemmer
Addition of SO   2




                     Fermenter




                          Press     Skins, seeds (pomace)
                                    put back on vineyard




             Aging                              Bottle
                          Barrels               and
                                                Sell


(Total Time 1.5 - 4 yr)
Bottling
     Chemical Substances in
            Grapes
•   Water
•   Grape Sugars
•   Natural Acids
•   Phenolics
   Chemical Substances in
          Grapes
• Pectins
• Organic Molecules (flavor components)
    • Esters
    • Carboxylic Acids
    • Aldehydes
    • Alcohols
    • Terpenes
• Biochemicals
       Water



H 2O           O
          H        H
         Grape Sugars
    CH2 OH
H        O H                   CH2 OH    H
    H                               O
    OH   H                       H    OH
OH           OH               HO        CH2 OH
    H    OH                           OH   H

    Glucose                      Fructose

             CH2 OH
         H        O H        CH2 OH        H
                                  O
             H
             OH   H              H     OH
         OH              O               CH2 OH
              H   OH             OH    H

                       Sucrose
   Natural Acids
     CO 2H          CO 2H
  H C OH            CH 2
  H C OH         H C OH
     CO 2H          CO 2H

Tartaric Acid    Malic Acid

                   CO 2H

    CH 3           CH 2

 H C OH         HO C CO 2H
                   CH 2
    CO 2H          CO 2H

Lactic Acid     Citric Acid
                Phenolics
Anthocyanins
                 OH
                        OH

  HO        O
                                 delphinidin
                       OH

  HO            OH


                                               CO 2 H




                                        HO              OH
                                               OH

 Tannins             OH(H)                   Gallic Acid
                         OH

  HO        O
                         OH(H)     flavanols
                 OH
       OH                          500-700 young wines
                                   200-3000 old wines
                Pectins
• Nature’s thickening agents.
• Lost in Fermentation
• Or ‘removed’ with pectic enzymes
Organic Molecules (flavor)
   CH 3CH 2OH                       ethanol



   CH 3CH 2CHCH 2OH               2-methyl-1-butanol
            CH 3


                           O
   CH 3CH 2CH 2CH   CH C            2-hexenal (grassy)
                            H


        O
    CH 3C
            O CH 2CH 2CH(CH 3)2    isoamyl acetate (fruity)




                                      linalool (floral)
                       OH
              Biochemicals
•   Enzymes
•   Amino Acids
•   Proteins
•   Vitamins
•   Glycerin
•   Inorganic Ions
   Fermentation Biochemistry


        yeast’s enzymes
C6H12O6 -------------> 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 +
                     (ethyl alcohol) heat
     Malolactic Fermentation

                 bacteria
 Malic Acid ----------------> Lactic Acid
(more acidic)                  (less
  acidic)
Analysis of Must and Wines
            Goals of Analysis
•   Determining Grape Maturity
•   Improving Yield and Processing Efficiency
•   Detecting and Reducing Spoilage
•   Improving Quality
•   Analysis for Blending
•   Meeting Specifications (govt, export)
            Analysis Methods
• Soluble Solids (Sugar)
  – Refractometer
  – Hydrometer
  – HPLC
• Acidity
  – TA (total, titratable) - Wet Chemistry
  – Volatile (acetic acid) - Wet Chemistry
  – Individual Acids - HPLC
     Analysis Methods, contd
• Alcohol and Alcohols
  – Ethanol - ebulliometer, GC, NIR
  – Individual Alcohols - GC, GC/MS
• Phenolics
  – Total - colorimetric/enzymatic methods
  – Individual Phenolics - HPLC
      Analysis Methods, contd
• Carbonyl Compounds
  – Acetaldehyde - GC
  – Di-acetyl - GC
• Esters
  – Ethyl acetate - GC
• Additives
  – SO2
     Analysis Methods, contd
• Metals
  – Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Pb - AA
• N-Compounds
  – Amino Acids - HPLC, GC-MS
  – Proteins - Biochemical Methods
Chemistry vs. Organoleptic
      Impressions
        (Sugars)
       CH2 OH
   H        O H                   CH2 OH    H
       H                               O
       OH   H                       H    OH
   OH           OH               HO        CH2 OH
       H    OH                           OH   H

       Glucose                      Fructose

                CH2 OH
            H        O H        CH2 OH        H
                                     O
                H
                OH   H              H     OH
            OH              O               CH2 OH
                 H   OH             OH    H

                          Sucrose
Chemistry vs. Organoleptic
      Impressions
         (Acids)
         CO 2H          CO 2H
      H C OH            CH 2
      H C OH         H C OH
         CO 2H          CO 2H

    Tartaric Acid    Malic Acid

                       CO 2H

        CH 3           CH 2

     H C OH         HO C CO 2H
                       CH 2
        CO 2H          CO 2H

    Lactic Acid     Citric Acid
Chemistry vs. Organoleptic
      Impressions
       (Phenolics)
    Anthocyanins
                     OH
                            OH

      HO        O
                                     delphinidin
                           OH

      HO            OH


                                                   CO 2 H




                                            HO              OH
                                                   OH

     Tannins             OH(H)                   Gallic Acid
                             OH

      HO        O
                             OH(H)     flavanols
                     OH
           OH                          500-700 young wines
                                       200-3000 old wines
Chemistry vs. Organoleptic
      Impressions
  (Organic Molecules)
    CH 3CH 2OH                       ethanol



    CH 3CH 2CHCH 2OH               2-methyl-1-butanol
             CH 3


                           O
   CH 3CH 2CH 2CH   CH C             2-hexenal (grassy)
                             H


        O
     CH 3C
             O CH 2CH 2CH(CH 3)2    isoamyl acetate (fruity)




                                       linalool (floral)
                        OH
    Chemistry vs. Organoleptic
          Impressions
            (Alcohol)
• Preservative
• Hot taste
• Moderates acidity
      Vineyard Practices vs.
      Organoleptic Properties

• Crop Thinning
• Leaf Pulling
• Terroir
       Winemaking Practices vs.
       Organoleptic Properties

•   Maceration Techniques
•   Hard and Soft Tannins
•   Unfiltered Wines
•   Low Sulfite Wines
Wine Tasting - the senses
         • SIGHT

        • SMELL

        • TASTE

        • TOUCH
             Wine and Health
• Wine and Total Mortality
  – The J - Curve


• Wine and Cardiac Heart Disease
  – The French Connection and the Mediterranean Diet
  – Platelet aggregation
              Wine and Health
• Quercetin
  – a flavanoid
  – antioxidant
  – onions, broccoli, squash and red grapes
                Wine and Health
• Resveratrol
  –   skins of red grapes, peanuts, mulberries, plants
  –   heart disease
  –   antioxidant            HO


  –   anticancer                         H

  –   phytoestrogen               H
                                               OH



                                           OH (Glucose)
                  Resveratrol
• Heart Disease
  – reduced platelet aggregation
  – inhibition of COX-1 (thromboxane biosynthesis)
• Antioxidant
  – oxidation of LDL and cells
  – related to platelet aggregation compounds
                   Resveratrol
• Cancer
  – affects tumor initiation, promotion, progression
  – inhibition of free radical formation
  – COX-1 enzyme (pro-inflammatory compounds)
• Cautions
  – short term studies
  – in-vitro and animal studies
  – absorption, liver effects, etc.
       What’s Hot?
 ABC (Syrah, Viognier)
• Chilean wines - 
• Australian wines - $
• Vineyard designation wines
• Italian wines and varietals
• Cult cabernets - $$$$
• 1998 - 2003 Oregon Pinot noirs
• 1997, 1999, 2001 CA Cabernets
• 2001, 2002, 2003 German Wines
• Two-Buck Chuck
            Getting Serious
•   Begin a wine cellar - $ to $$$
•   Vacation in wine country - $ to $$$
•   Construct wine/food dinners - $
•   Become a serious collector - $ to 
•   Buy wine at wine auction - $ to $$$
             Learning More
•   Read wine books - 
•   Attend wine store tastings - 
•   Join wine-store "wine club" - free
•   Take a wine class -  to $
•   Have a structured wine tasting - $
•   Attend a wine maker dinner - $$
•   Subscribe to Wine Spectator
The End

				
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