Flavors of the Mediterranean by pengxuebo

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                        Flavors of the Mediterranean
                         Cuisine Template/Overview

Country: Greece




Notable Regions: Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Central Greece, Peloponnese, Aegean
Islands, Ionian Islands, Crete




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Historical/Cultural influences: (3)
Greek cuisine has had many different influences but the 4 main influences can been linked back
to Mediterranean cuisine, Macedonian cuisine, Ottoman and Byzantine cuisine.
        Mediterranean cuisine is the food from the cultures adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea.
Given the geography, these nation-states have influenced each other over time in both food and
culture and the cooking evolved into sharing common principles. Mediterranean cuisine is
characterized by its flexibility, its range of ingredients and its many regional variations. The
terrain has tended to favor the raising of goats and sheep. Fish dishes are also common, although
today much of the fish is imported since the fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea are weak.
Seafood is still prominent in many of the standard recipes. Olive oil and garlic are widely used in
Mediterranean cuisine. It is widely believed that Mediterranean cuisine is particularly healthful;
see Mediterranean diet. Grilled meats, pita bread, hummus, and falafel are very popular forms of




the eastern type of the cuisine.
         The Mediterranean diet is a modern nutritional recommendation inspired by the
traditional dietary patterns of southern Italy, Crete and much of the rest of Greece in the 1960s.
Despite its name, this diet is not typical of all Mediterranean cuisine. In Northern Italy, for
instance, lard and butter are commonly used in cooking, and olive oil is reserved for dressing
salads and cooked vegetables. In North Africa, wine is traditionally avoided by Muslims. In both
North Africa and the Levant, along with olive oil, sheep's tail fat and rendered butter (samna) are
traditional staple fats. The most commonly-understood version of the Mediterranean diet was
presented, amongst others, by Dr Walter Willett of Harvard University's School of Public Health
from the mid-1990s on including a book for the general public. Based on "food patterns typical
of Crete, much of the rest of Greece, and southern Italy in the early 1960s", this diet, in addition
to "regular physical activity," emphasizes "abundant plant foods, fresh fruit as the typical daily
dessert, olive oil as the principal source of fat, dairy products (principally cheese and yogurt),
and fish and poultry consumed in low to moderate amounts, zero to four eggs consumed weekly,
red meat consumed in low amounts, and wine consumed in low to moderate amounts". Total fat
in this diet is 25% to 35% of calories, with saturated fat at 8% or less of calories. The principal
aspects of this diet include high olive oil consumption, high consumption of legumes, high
consumption of unrefined cereals, high consumption of fruits, high consumption of vegetables,
moderate consumption of dairy products (mostly as cheese and yogurt), moderate to high
consumption of fish, low consumption of meat and meat products, and moderate wine
consumption. Olive oil is particularly characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. It contains a very
high level of monounsaturated fats, most notably oleic acid, which epidemiological studies
suggest may be linked to a reduction in coronary heart disease risk. There is also evidence that
the antioxidants in olive oil improve cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol reduction, and

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that it has other anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects.




        Byzantine cuisine was based around class. The Imperial Palace was a metropolis of
spices and exotic recipes; guests were entertained with fruits, honey-cakes and syrupy
sweetmeats. Ordinary people ate more conservatively. The core diet consisted of bread,
vegetables, pulses, and cereals prepared in varied ways. Salad was very popular; to the
amazement of the Florentines, the Emperor John VIII Palaiologos asked for it at most meals on
his visit in 1439. Byzantine people produced various cheeses, including anthotyros or kefalintzin.
They also relished shellfish and fish, both fresh and salt-water. They prepared eggs to make
famous omelet’s called sphoungata, i.e. "spongy" mentioned by Theodoros Prodromos. Every
household also kept a supply of poultry. Byzantines obtained other kinds of meat by hunting, a
favorite and distinguished occupation of men. They usually hunted with dogs and hawks, though
sometimes employed trapping, netting, and bird-liming. Larger animals were a more expensive
and rare food. Citizens slaughtered pigs at the beginning of winter and provided their families
with sausages, salt pork, and lard for the year. Only upper middle and higher Byzantines could
afford lamb. They seldom ate beef, as they used cattle to cultivate the fields. Middle and lower
class citizens in cities such as Constantinople and Thessaloniki digested the offerings of the
tavern. The most common form of cooking was boiling; a tendency which sparked a derisive
Byzantine maxim the lazy cook prepares everything by boiling. Garum sauce in all its varieties
was especially favored as a condiment. Thanks to the location of Constantinople between
popular trade routes, Byzantine cuisine was augmented by cultural influences from several
locales such as Lombard Italy, the Persian Empire, and an emerging Arabic Empire. The
resulting melting pot continued during Ottoman times and therefore both modern Greek cuisine




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and Turkish cuisine, as well as general food in the Middle East and the Balkans are similar.




         Ottoman cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire, its successor is the Turkish
cuisine. It also has influenced on some cuisines of conquered people by the empire such as
Balkan cuisines, and much on the Middle Eastern cuisines. The importance of culinary art for the
Ottoman Sultans is evident to every visitor of Topkapı Palace. The palace houses several
kitchens that are built underneath ten domes in several different buildings. By the 17th century
approximately 1300 kitchen staff were housed in the Palace full time. The cooks specialized in
several different dishes and would feed as many as ten thousand people a day and, in addition,
sent trays of food to others in the city as a royal favor. The importance of food has been also
evident in the structure of the Ottoman military elite, the Janissaries. The commanders of the
main divisions were known as the Soupmen, other high ranking officers were the Chief Cook,
Scullion, Baker, and Pancake Maker. The huge cauldron used to make pilaf had a special
symbolic significance for the Janissaries, as the central focus of each division. The kitchen was
also the center of politics, for whenever the Janissaries demanded a change in the Sultan's
Cabinet, or the head of a grand vizier, they would overturn their pilaf cauldron. "Overturning the
cauldron," is an expression still used today to indicate a rebellion in the ranks. It was in this
environment that hundreds of the Sultans' chefs, who dedicated their lives to their profession,
developed and perfected the dishes of Turkish cuisine, which then influenced on the kitchens of
the provinces ranging from the Balkans to Southern Russia, and reaching North Africa. Istanbul
was the capital of the world and had all the prestige, so that its ways were imitated. At the same
time, it was supported by an enormous organization and infrastructure, which enabled all the
treasures of the world to flow into it. The provinces of the vast Empire were integrated by a
system of trade routes with refreshing caravanserais for the weary merchants and security forces.
The Spice Road, the most important factor in culinary history was under the full control of the
Sultan. Only the best ingredients were allowed to be traded under the strict standards established
by the courts. Despite the disintegration of the Ottoman political empire, we can still see the
survival of a large region which could be called the Ottoman culinary empire. The Balkans,
Greece, Anatolia and the Fertile Crescent... are common heirs to what was once the Ottoman
life-style and their cuisines offer treacherous circumstantial evidence of this fact. Of course, they
represent at the same time a good deal of local or regional culinary traditions. Excluding its
successor, Turkish cuisine, the Ottoman cuisine has influenced on the cuisines of Persia,
Armenian cuisine, Cypriot cuisine, of the Balkans (Greek cuisine, Bulgarian cuisine, Romanian




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cuisine, Macedonian cuisine, Albanian cuisine, Serbian cuisine, Bosnian cuisine), and of the




Middle East.
        Macedonian cuisine is the cuisine of the region of Macedonia. Contemporary
Macedonian cooking shares much with general Greek and wider Balkan and Mediterranean
cuisine, including dishes from the Ottoman tradition. Some dishes date from ancient Greek days.
Some Macedonian dishes include Masnic which is a pastry rolled in to a spiral and filled with
either pumpkin, cheese or sweet potato, Slatki which is bread filled with cheese and Burek which




is a sort of a sweet cake.

Religion (s): (1-3)
The constitution of Greece recognizes the Orthodox faith as the "prevailing" of the country,
while guaranteeing freedom of religious belief for all.[38] The Greek Government does not keep
statistics on religious groups and censuses do not ask for religious affiliation. According to the
State Department, an estimated 97% of Greek citizens identify themselves as Orthodox
Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church.[87] In the Eurostat – Eurobarometer poll of
2005, 81% of Greek citizens responded that they believe there is a God,[88] which was the third
highest percentage among EU members behind only Malta and Cyprus.[88] According to other
sources, 15.8% of Greeks describe themselves as very religious, which is the highest among all
European countries. The survey also found that just 3.5% never attend a church, compared to
4.9% in Poland and 59.1% in the Czech Republic.
     _____ | Embassy of Greece | _____. Web. 11 July 2011.
        <http://www.greekembassy.org/Embassy/content/en/Article.aspx?folder=95>.
       "Overview of Greek Religion - ReligionFacts." Religion, World Religions, Comparative Religion - Just the
        Facts on the World's Religions. Web. 11 July 2011. <http://www.religionfacts.com/greco-
        roman/overview.htm>.

Climate and geographical influences: (3-4)


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Greece is a country located in Southern Europe, on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula.
Greece is surrounded on the north by Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia and Albania; to the
west by the Ionian Sea; to the south by the Mediterranean Sea and to the east by the Aegean Sea
and Turkey. The country ranges approximately in latitude from 35°00′N to 42°00′N and in
longitude from 19°00′E to 28°30′E. The country consists of a large mainland; the Peloponnese, a
peninsula connected to the southern tip of the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth; and around
3,000 islands, including Crete, Rhodes, Corfu, the Dodecanese and the Cyclades. According to
the CIA World Factbook, Greece has 13,676 kilometres (8,498 miles) of coastline.




80% of Greece is mountainous, and the country is one of the most mountainous countries of
Europe. The Pindus, a chain of mountains lies across the center of the country in a northwest-to-
southeast direction, with a maximum elevation of 2637 m. Extensions of the same mountain
range stretch across the Peloponnese and underwater across the Aegean, forming many of the
Aegean Islands including Crete, and joining with the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey.
Central and Western Greece contain high and steep peaks dissected by many canyons and other
karstic landscapes, including the Meteora and the Vikos Gorges - the latter being one of the
largest of the world and the third deepest after the Copper Canyon in Mexico and the Grand
Canyon in the USA, plunging vertically for more than 1,100 metres. Mount Olympus is the
highest point of Greece and the fourth highest in relative topographical prominence in Europe,
rising to 2,919 m above sea level. The Rhodope Mountains form the border between Greece and
Bulgaria; that area is covered with vast and thick forests. Plains also are found in eastern
Thessaly, in central Macedonia and in Thrace. Western Greece contains lakes and wetlands. The

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main geographic divisions of Greece are (1) the northern region which includes Epirus,
Macedonia and Thrace; (2) Central Greece and Thessaly; (3) the Peloponnese which is separated
from the mainland by the Corinth Canal; and (4) the islands of the Aegean Sea to the east of the
mainland, the Ionian islands to the west, and Crete, the largest Greek island, to the south. The
seas adjoining Greece, accounting for 8,919 square miles of Greece's total area.

The highest mountain in Greece is Mount Olympus (9,754 ft.), seat of the gods of Greek
mythology. Mount Parnassus (7,066 ft.) has on its lower slope the ancient site of Delphi, once
dedicated to the god Apollo and famous for its oracle. On the peninsula of Chalkidiki, located in
the north-east, is Mount Athos, where a number of monasteries of the Greek Orthodox Church
form, as they have for centuries, an autonomous monastic community.
     "CIA - The World Factbook." Welcome to the CIA Web Site — Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 11 July
        2011. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html>.

. The climate of Greece is a combination of Dry, Alpine, and Continental Mediterranean:
    1. Dry Mediterranean
           a. This climate occurs in the Aegean Islands, especially the Cyclades and the
               Dodecanese, southern and parts of central Evia, low-lying areas of Attica, the
               eastern and south Peloponnesus, and the low-lying areas of Crete. During the
               summer, the weather is almost always sunny and dry, and any precipitation falls
               in the form of showers or thunderstorms from cumuliform clouds. The air is
               usually hot during the day and pleasantly warm at night. Heat waves can occur,
               but they are usually quite mild at the coastal areas, where the Etesian winds blow
               throughout the summer. Winters are wet and any snow that falls does not last too
               long, especially in the south-facing slopes. Rain in winter is often persistent and
               can cause flooding.
    2. Alpine Mediterranean
           a. In this climate, the winter is harsh with abundant snowfalls, while the summers
               are cool with frequent thunderstorms. This climate is to be found on high
               mountains, like Pindus and Rhodope. Few meteorological stations are in areas
               with a truly Alpine Mediterranean climate in Greece and these are not available
               online.
    3. Continental Mediterranean
           a. This climate is wetter than the dry Mediterranean and has cooler winters and not
               so hot summers. It occurs in most of Macedonia and Thrace.
Average annual temperature in Greece ranges from +10 to +19.7 °C (50 to 67 °F). However,
since Greece is generally a mountainous country, real average temperatures vary considerably
from region to region.
     Google Translate. Web. 11 July 2011.
        <http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http://www.hnms.gr/hnms/greek/index_html>.



Thessaly occupies the east side of the Pindus watershed, extending south of Macedonia to the
Aegean Sea. The northern tier of Thessaly is defined by a generally southwest-northeast spur of
the Pindus range that includes Mount Olympus, close to the Macedonian border. Within that
broken spur of mountains are several basins and river valleys. The easternmost extremity of the
spur extends southeastward from Mt. Olympus along the Aegean coast, terminating in the

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Magnesia Peninsula that envelops the Pagasetic Gulf (also called the Gulf of Volos), and forms
an inlet of the Aegean Sea. Thessaly's major river, the Pineios, flows eastward from the central
Pindus Range just south of the spur, emptying into the Thermaic Gulf.

The Trikala and Larissa lowlands form a central plain which is surrounded by ring of mountains.
It has a distinct summer and winter season, with summer rains augmenting the fertility of the
plains. This has led to Thessaly occasionally being called the "breadbasket of Greece". The
region is well delineated by topographical boundaries. The Chasia and Kamvounia mountains lie
to the north, the Mt. Olympus massif to the northeast. To the west lays the Pindus mountain
range, to the southeast the coastal mountains of Óssa and Pelion. Several tributaries of the
Pineios flow through the region.

Staple grains and carbohydrates: (1-4) Kremezi, Aglaia. Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July
2011. <http://www.greecefoods.com/index.html>.
    Wheat
    Barley
    Beans
    Lentils
    Lots of breads leavened with alkali, a wine making yeast.
    Rice
Protein sources: (3-6) Kremezi, Aglaia. Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://www.greecefoods.com/index.html>.




       Hare or Rabbit
       Lamb/Sheep
       Game birds like quail or pheasant
       Larger and wealthier farms would have Chicken or Geese
       Goat
       Pork
       Squid
       Octopus
       Shellfish
       Sardines/Anchovies

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     Common salt water fish were
          o Yellow fin tuna
          o Red mullet
          o Ray
          o Swordfish
          o Sturgeon
          o Skaren (parrotfish)
          o Northern Blue fin tuna
    Fresh water fish were
          o Pike-fish
          o Carp
          o Catfish
          o Eel
Cooking fat: (2) Kremezi, Aglaia. Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://www.greecefoods.com/index.html>.
       Olive Oil
       Sheep’s tail fat
       Butter (this was distained and looked down on. They would call these people “butter
        eaters”)




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Vegetables: (8) "Greek Food: Fruits and Vegetables." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://www.greecefoods.com/vegetables/index.htm>.




    Cabbage
    Onions
    Lentils
    Sweet peas
    Chickpeas
    Broad beans
    Garden peas
    Grass peas
    Olives
    Green Beans
    Potatoes
    Carrots
    Lettuce
    Peppers
    Capers
    Faba Beans
    Garlic
    Eggplant
    Zucchini
    Artichokes
    Leeks
    Mushrooms
Fruits: (6) "Greek Food: Fruits and Vegetables." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://www.greecefoods.com/vegetables/index.htm>.
       Apples
       Watermelon
       Honeydew
       Tomatoes


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    Lemons
    Pears
    Cherries
    Figs
    Dates
    Oranges
Herbs: (3)- Greece has been using herbs for many years not just for cooking but also for the
medicinal properties that they can provide: "Greek Food: Herbs and Spices." Greek Food: A Complete
Guide. Web. 18 July 2011. <http://www.greecefoods.com/herbs-spices/index.htm>.




    Mint
    Lemon Balm
    Rosemary
    Sage
    Coriander
    Thyme
    Dill
    Oregano
Dried Spices: (4 -15) "Greek Food: Herbs and Spices." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://www.greecefoods.com/herbs-spices/index.htm>. "Spices Used in Cooking Greek Foods." Greek Food at
About.com - Greek Food and Greek Recipes - Traditional and Modern Greek Cooking. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://greekfood.about.com/od/discovergreekfood/a/cookingspices.htm>.




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       Name: Allspice
        Greek name: Bahari
       Name: Anise
        Greek name: Glykaniso
       Name: Cardamom
        Greek name: Karthamo
       Name: Cinnamon
        Greek name: Kanela
       Name: Cloves
        Greek name: Garifalo
       Name: Coriander
        Greek name: Kolianthro
       Name: Cumin
        Greek name: Kymino
       Name: Curry
        Greek name: Kari
       Name: Ginger
        Greek name: Piperoriza
       Name: Hot Peppers
        Greek name: Kafteres Piperies
       Name: Mahlab
        Greek name: Mahlepi
       Name: Mastic
        Greek name: Mastiha
       Name: Mustard Powder
        Greek name: Moustartha Skoni

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       Name: Nutmeg
        Greek name: Moschokarido
       Name: Pepper
        Greek name: Piperi
       Name: Saffron
        Greek name: Zafora or Safrani
       Name: Sumac
        Greek name: Sumaki
       Name: Vanilla
        Greek name: Vanilia

Flavorings (to include primary sweeteners): (10) "Greek Food: Desserts and Sweets." Greek
Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://www.greecefoods.com/desserts/index.htm>.

       Honey
       Sugar
       Anise
       Vanilla
       Saffron
       Olives
       Yogurt
       Nuts (walnuts, pecans, or pistachios)
       Garlic
       Onion
       Cinnamon

Preserved foods: (4)

       Cheeses (Feta, Kasseri, Halloumi, ect…)
       Olives (notably in olive oils)
       Vegetables are preserved in sugar syrups for family and close friend gatherings.
       Grape leaves are brined
       May different types of lamb or goat sausages.




Beverages: (2)


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       Greek bottled water
       Wine
       Greek style coffee
       Metaxa




       Ouzo




       Retsina

Cooking techniques and methods: (3)
    Boil/stewing
    Roast
    Grilling
    Poached
    Fried
    Baked
    Sautéed

Cookware/specialized cookware: (3)
    Greek cuisine is comprised of many ingredients to create the final dish. A number of
     cooking utensils help meld those ingredients into a delectable meal. You could certainly
     survive without Greek-leaning kitchenware, and you may even consider them
     nonessential. But many of these utensils ease the cooking experience by making the
     food's creation more convenient and, sometimes, more authentic.
      Olive Pitter
         o Olives are a mainstay of Greek cooking, either raw or cooked. The only problem
             with fresh olives are the hard pits embedded in the skin. Instead of cutting them

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               out with a knife, an easy tool is the olive pitter, which with one squeeze presses
               the pit out of the olive, keeping the skin nearly intact. When shopping at
               cookware shops, the olive pitter might also be called a cherry pitter.
         Olive Oil Cans
           o While pouring olive oil, a mainstay of Greek cooking, out of a bottle is perfectly
               fine, many cooks prefer to use metal olive oil cans. Coming in various sizes and
               shapes, the cans' spouts make it easier to measure the liquid, particularly when
               using measuring spoons or pouring atop a salad.
         Cheese Graters
           o A cheese grater is a handy kitchen gadget for Greek cooking, as well as other
               ethnic dishes. A standard four-sided grater will handle both hard and soft cheeses.
               So should a hand-held rotary grater. The cheese is placed in a small bin, clamped
               in place, and then the handle is rotated to grate the cheese onto salads, breads or
               cooked meals.
         Mortar & Pestle
           o Crushing herbs is simple by using a mortar and pestle. These handy kitchen tools
               come in a variety of sizes and are usually made of wood or metal. They are
               attractive when displayed on a kitchen counter or shelf, as well.
         Spice Grater
           o Another way to incorporate the fragrance of spices in Greek dishes is by using a
               spice grater. These are small hand-held graters, similar in appearance to cheese
               graters (which can be substituted).
         Pastry Brushes
           o Phyllo, or filo, dough is a popular wrapping for meats, fruits and cheeses. To
               keep the dough moist, butter or olive oil is brushed across the dough. Various
               sizes of pastry brushes are used to coat the dough.




Eating and/or dining habits: (3)
    Late lunches (3-4 PM) and even later suppers (after 9 PM)
    Dining Etiquette

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         o If you are invited to a Greek home:
             . Arriving 30 minutes late is considered punctual!
             . Dress well. This demonstrates respect for your hosts.
             . Offer to help the hostess with the preparation or clearing up after a meal is
             served. Your offer may not be accepted, but it will be appreciated.
             . Expect to be treated like royalty!
             . Compliment the house.
     Table manners
         o . Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular
             seat.
             . Table manners are Continental -- the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in
             the right while eating.
             . The oldest person is generally served first.
             . Do not begin eating until the hostess starts.
             . Keep your elbows off the table and your hands above the table when eating.
             . Accepting a second helping compliments the host.
             . Expect a great deal of discussion. Meals are a time for socializing.
             . It is considered polite to soak up gravy or sauce with a piece of bread.
             . People often share food from their plate.
             . Finish everything on your plate.
             . Put your napkin next to your plate when you have finished eating.
             . Indicate you have finished eating by laying your knife and fork parallel on your
             plate with the handles facing to the right.
             . The host gives the first toast.
             . An honoured guest should return the toast later in the meal.
             . The most common toast is "to your health", which is "stinygiasou" in informal
             situations and "eis igían sas" at formal functions.

Whenever possible identify the region from which the dish is produced-"Greek Cuisine."
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 19 July 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_cuisine>.
Representative preparation of a grain or carbohydrate dish: (2)
    Fakes a lentil soup and one of the famous everyday Greek soups, usually served with
      vinegar and feta cheese.
    Fasolada a bean soup defined in many cookery books as the traditional Greek dish. It is
      made of beans, tomatoes, carrot, celery and a lot of olive oil.
    Revithia a chickpea soup.
    Trahana a mixture of fermented grain and yoghurt.

Representative preparation of a protein dish: (2)
    Apáki: a famous Cretan specialty; lean pork marinated in vinegar, then smoked with
      aromatic herbs and shrubs, and packed in salt.
    Chtapodi sti schara: Grilled octopus in vinegar, oil and oregano. Accompanied by
      Ouzo.
    Giouvetsi: lamb or veal baked in a clay pot with Kritharaki (orzo) and tomatoes.
    Gyros: meat roasted on a vertically turning spit and served with sauce (often tzatziki) and
      garnishes (tomato, onions) on pita bread; a popular fast food.

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     Kleftiko: literally meaning "in the style of the Klephts", this is lamb slow-baked on the
      bone, first marinated in garlic and lemon juice, originally cooked in a pit oven. It is said
      that the Klephts, bandits of the countryside who did not have flocks of their own, would
      steal lambs or goats and cook the meat in a sealed pit to avoid the smoke being seen.
    Keftedakia, fried meatballs with oregano and mint.
    Moussaká(s) (from Arabic musaqqa'): an oven-baked layer dish: ground meat and
      eggplant casserole, topped with a savory custard which is then browned in the oven.
      There are other variations besides eggplant, such as zucchini or rice, but the eggplant
      version, melitzánes moussaká is by far the most popular. The papoutsákia ("little shoes")
      variant is essentially the same dish, with the meat and custard layered inside hollowed,
      sauteéd eggplants.
    Oven-baked lamb with potatoes (Αρνί στο υούρνο με πατάτες). One of the most
      common "Sunday" dishes. There are many variations with additional ingredients.
    Païdakia: grilled lamb chops with lemon, oregano, salt and pepper.
    Pastitsio: an oven-baked layer dish: Bechamel sauce top, then pasta in the middle and
      ground meat cooked with tomato sauce at the bottom.
    Soutzoukakia Smyrneika (Smyrna meatballs): long shaped meatballs with cumin,
      cinnamon and garlic and boiled in tomato sauce with whole olives. Often served with rice
      or mashed potatoes.
    Souvlaki: (lit: 'skewer') grilled pork small pieces or gyros, tomatoes, onions and tzatziki
      as sauce all wrapped with pita considered as fast food.
    Spetsofai: a stew of country sausage, green mild peppers, onions and wine. Originates
      from Pelion.
    Stifado: rabbit or hare stew with pearl onions, vinegar, red wine and cinnamon. Beef can
      be substituted for game.
    Yiouvarlakia: meatballs soup with egg-lemon sauce
Representative preparation of a vegetable/fruit dish: (2)

       Aginares a la Polita: artichokes with olive oil.
       Arakas me aginares: fresh peas with artichokes in the oven.
       Bamies: okra with tomato sauce (sometimes with potatoes and/or chicken/lamb).
       Briám: an oven-baked ratatouille of summer vegetables based on sliced potatoes and
        zucchini in olive oil. Usually includes eggplant, tomatoes, onions, and ample aromatic
        herbs and seasonings.
       Domatokeftedes: tomato fritters with mint, fried in olive oil and typically served with
        Faba (split pea paste). Mainly a Cycladic island dish.
       Fasolakia freska: fresh green beans stewed with potatoes, zucchini and tomato sauce.
       Gigantes: baked beans with tomato sauce and various herbs. Often made spicy with
        various peppers.
       Horta (greens) ,already mentioned in the appetizers section, are quite often consumed as
        a light main meal, with boiled potatoes and bread.
       Kinteata, dish from boiled young nettles.
       Lachanodolmades: Cabbage rolls, stuffed with rice and sometimes meat, spiced with
        various herbs and served with avgolemono sauce or simmered in a light tomato broth.
       Lachanorizo (Λαχανόριζο) (Cabbage with rice)

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       Prassorizo (Πρασόριζο) (Leeks with rice)
       Spanakorizo: Spinach and rice stew cooked in lemon and olive oil sauce.
       Yemista: Baked stuffed vegetables. Usually tomatoes, peppers, or other vegetables
        hollowed out and baked with a rice and herb filling or minced meat.

Representative preparation of a sweet or dessert dish: (2)
    Amygdalotá or pasteli exist in many varieties throughout Greece and Cyprus, and are
      especially popular in the islands. They consist of powdered blanched almonds,
      confectioner's sugar and rose water, molded in various shapes and sizes. They are snow-
      white and are considered wedding and baptismal desserts.
    Finikia, cookie topped with chopped nuts
    Baklava, phyllo pastry layers filled with nuts and drenched in honey.
    Diples, a Christmas and wedding delicacy, made of paper-thin, sheet-like dough which is
      cut in large squares and dipped in a swirling fashion in a pot of hot olive oil for a few
      seconds. As the dough fries, it stiffens into a helical tube; it is then removed immediately
      and sprinkled with honey and crushed walnuts.[15]
    Galaktoboureko, custard baked between layers of phyllo, and then soaked with lemon-
      scented honey syrup. The name derives from the Greek "gala"(γάλα), meaning milk, and
      from the Turkish börek, meaning filled, thus meaning "filled with milk."
    Halva, nougat of sesame with almonds or cacao.
    Karidopita, a cake of crushed walnuts, soaked or not in syrup.
    Koulourakia, butter or olive-oil cookies.
    Kourabiedes, Christmas cookies made by kneading flour, butter and crushed roasted
      almonds, then generously dusted with powdered sugar.
    Loukoumadesb similar to small crusty donuts, loukoumades are essentially fried balls of
      dough drenched in honey and sprinkled with cinnamon.
    Loukoumi is a confection made from starch and sugar, essentially similar to the Turkish
      delight. A variation from Serres is called Akanés. Loukoúmia are flavored with various
      fruit flavors, with rose water considered the most prized.
    Melomakarona, "honey macaroons", Christmas cookies soaked with a syrup of diluted
      honey (méli in Greek) and then sprinkled with crushed walnuts.
    Milopita me Pandespani, apple pie with cinnamon and powdered sugar.
    Moustalevria, a flour and grape must flan.
    Moustokouloura, cookies of flour kneaded with fresh grape juice (must) instead of
      water.
    Rizogalo ("rice-milk") is rice pudding.
    Spoon sweets (γλσκά ηοσ κοσηαλιού) of various fruits, ripe or unripe, or green unripe
      nuts. Spoon sweets are essentially marmalade except that the fruit are boiled whole or in
      large chunks covered in the fruit's made syrup.
    Tsoureki, a traditional Christmas and Easter sweet bread also known as 'Lambropsomo'
      (Easter bread), flavored with "mahlepi", the intensely aromatic extract of the stone of the
      St. Lucie Cherry.
    Vasilopita, Saint Basil's cake or King's cake, traditional only for New Year's Day.
      Vasilopites are baked with a coin inside, and whoever gets the coin in their slice are
      considered blessed with good luck for the whole year.

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Exceed Standard

Cuisine Overview
Notable wines from the region: (3) "A Guide to Greek Wine." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18
July 2011. <http://www.greecefoods.com/wine/index.html>.

       Antonopoulos Chardonnay: Green gold in color. Lime and sweet oak on the nose.
        Lemon fruity richness-a palate full of roasted hazelnuts. Elegant. World class.
       Antonopoulos 1997 Cabernet-Nea Dris: Playful nose features eucalyptus and red
        berries. Balanced, multi-layered, ripe tannins. Dazzling concentration, freshness and
        depth. Best from 2002.
       Arghyros 1998 Santorini Vareli: Nose reminiscent of Chardonnay and lemon. Spice
        and white pepper on the palate. Yeasty. Toasty. Atypical. A cosmopolitan Santorini.
        World Class.
       Dalmaras 1992 Naoussa: Deep color. A complete nose alternating mulberry and leather.
        Compact, velvety smooth tannins have a gamy richness. A great bottle, best from 2000.
       1997 Gaia Estate: Delivering both power and velvety texture, this serious, fine,
        unfiltered wine has raised the stakes in the Nemea Appellation. Best after 2004. The 1998
        vintage-tasted in cask- is even more concentrated.
       Lazaridis Amethystos Cava: Almost black. Pure fruit evokes the essence of Cabernet
        Sauvignon. Skillful use of oak. Exquisite, long, smoky end-taste. Unfiltered. Much
        finesse.
       Tselepos 1998 Mantinia: Seductive, exotic, floral nose. Violets bursting with grapes and
        fruit on the palate. Extended bone-dry Muscat aftertaste and searing acidity that goes on
        and on. A bold Mantinia from this ultra-ripe vintage.


Notable cheeses from the region: (2) "Greek Cheese." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
<http://www.greecefoods.com/cheese/index.htm>.
       Feta
        Everyone is familiar with feta cheese which is made from sheep, goat or cow and is the
        national cheese of Greece if there is such a thing. Recently the EU made it a law that only
        the Greeks could call their cheese Feta. Feta cheese is actually from the area of Roumeli
        and is soaked in brine to keep it from going bad. It is not an aged cheese and in fact if you
        leave it too long it gets too salty. I use it in my spanakopita, just like my grandmother, in
        fact I am the type who believes when making spanakopita (spinach pie), or any vegetable
        pita, the more feta you use, the better. Aglaia believes the opposite but she is a much
        better and more subtle cook than I who have often been accused of having a heavy hand,
        being the big macho dude that I am. To me there is no feeling like the first bite of a piece
        of feta that makes your whole mouth come alive with sensation. I also use it in my
        omelets and in a feta saganaki I learned from the famous Rolando of Kea.

       Misithra (and Manouri)
        This is one of those cheeses that depending on where you are will be completely
        different. The common one ios the skliri mizithra which is a hard cheese, like manouri

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        which can be dried and grated on pastas and other dishes. But when I think of mizithra I
        think of the Sifnos variety which is a cross between feta and cottage cheese. Imagine a
        mild feta with the consistancy of ricotta. This is usually found on the horiatiki salads on
        the island but can also be ordered seperately.
       Kasseri
        This is a sheep or goats milk cheese, available in many gourmet grocery stores in the
        USA. It is good for slicing and eating plain but is commonly used in saganaki, covered in
        oil, oregano and other spices and baked, or even deep-fried.
       Kefalotyri
        This is a sharp, hard and salty cheese usually made from sheep’s milk and can also be
        used in saganaki or grated on to pasta dishes. Similar to kasseri.
       Graviera
        This is a translation of the French gruyere and is made from cow, sheep or goats milk.
        Like kefalotiri and kasseri you may find yourself in areas of Greece where it will be hard
        to tell the difference between the three. In fact all three can be used in the same way.
       Other Cheeses
        There are as many cheeses as there are people who make them. Every area will have a
        local cheese and some of the names may confuse you because they will have nothing to
        do with the name you associate with a particular cheese. You may go to one island and
        get their special island cheese and realize that this is the same as the special island cheese
        of another island. Even individual cheese makers will have their own special variety.

Holidays, celebrations, or festivals celebrated with food: (2)
    Feast of St Basil. This is associated with a good start for the new year. An old
        Byzantine custom of slicing the Vassilopita (Basilcake or New Year Cake) gives the
        person who finds the hidden coin in his slice, good luck for the year.
       Easter Sunday is the biggest church holiday in Greece. All over the country lambs
        are roasted on a spit and there is wine in abundance. Red eggs are cracked against
        each other and the person with the last remaining uncracked egg will have good
        luck. This is the most beautiful time to be in Greece if the weather is good.
       Greece is a mostly Orthodox Christian country, and many Greeks observe the church's
        fast days. On these days, they eat either no meat or no food at all. There are strict dietary
        rules for Lent and Holy Week (the week before Easter). During Holy Week and on
        Wednesdays and Fridays in Lent, meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products are forbidden.

List and define 15 terms associated with the selected cuisine.
    Kapama (stovetop meat or poultry casserole in a sweet and spicy tomato sauce), in
       Greek καπαμά, pronounced kah-pah-MAH
    Kokkinisto (stovetop meat or poultry casserole in a tomato sauce), in Greek κοκκινιζηό,
       pronounced koh-kee-nee-STOH
    Lathera, ladera (vegetarian - stovetop vegetable, legume (pulses), and/or rice casseroles
       cooked with olive oil), in Greek λαδερά, pronounced lah-theh-RAH
    Ogkraten (the Greek version of "au gratin" baked with a bechamel sauce and sprinkled
       cheese), in Greek ογκραηέν, pronounced oh-grah-TEN
    Pane (breaded and fried), in Greek πανέ, pronounced pah-NAY
    Plaki (oven casserole), in Greek πλακί, pronounced plah-KEE

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       Pose (poached), in Greek ποζέ, pronounced po-ZAY
       Poure (puréed, mashed), in Greek ποσρέ, pronounced poor-RAY
       Psito (roasted), in Greek υηηό, pronounced psee-TOH
       Skharas (grilled), in Greek ζτάρας, pronounced SKHAH-rahss
       sti skhara (on the grill), in Greek ζηη ζτάρα, pronounced stee SKHAH-rah
       Sote (sautéed), in Greek ζοηέ, pronounced so-TAY
       Stifatho, stifado (stewed with lots of pearl onions), in Greek ζηιθάδο, pronounced stee-
        FAH-thoh
       Sto fourno (baked or oven roasted, literally means "in the oven"), in Greek ζηο θούρνο,
        pronounced stoh FOOR-no
       Tiganita (fried in a skillet, from the Greek word for skillet, tigani), in Greek ηηγανηηά,
        pronounced tee-ghah-nee-TAH
       Toursi (pickled), in Greek ηοσρζί, pronounced toor-SEE
       Yahni (stewed, ragout style), in Greek γιατνί, pronounced yah-HNEE


Ingredient origins:

        Asian ingredients that have had an impact on the cuisine (3)
            Yogurt
            Onions
            Garlic
            Saffron
            Rice

        American/New World ingredients that have had an impact on the cuisine (3)
           Potatoes
           Coffee
           Tomatoes




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Work Sighted Page:
       _____ | Embassy of Greece | _____. Web. 11 July 2011.
        <http://www.greekembassy.org/Embassy/content/en/Article.aspx?folder=95>.
       "Ancient Greek Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]." Internet
        Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. 11 July 2011.
        <http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi/>.
       "The Ancient Olympics." Perseus Digital Library. Web. 11 July 2011.
        <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Olympics/>.
       "CIA - The World Factbook." Welcome to the CIA Web Site — Central
        Intelligence Agency. Web. 11 July 2011.
        <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html>.
       Google Translate. Web. 11 July 2011.
        <http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http://www.hnms.gr/hnms/greek/index_h
        tml>.
       "The History of Kashmiri Saffron." Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Web. 10
        July 2011.
        <http://web.archive.org/web/20070321203602/http://www.saffronspecialist.co.uk/
        Information/AboutSaffron/KashmiriHistory.htm>.
       "Overview of Greek Religion - ReligionFacts." Religion, World Religions,
        Comparative Religion - Just the Facts on the World's Religions. Web. 11 July
        2011. <http://www.religionfacts.com/greco-roman/overview.htm>.
       "SAFFRON - INFORMATION ABOUT THIS SPICE." Verdú · Cantó Saffron
        Spain - Empresa Dedicada Al Envasado Y Comercialización De Azafrán Y
        Especias. Web. 10 July 2011. <http://www.saffron-
        spain.com/ingles/azafran.html>.
       "Saffron - Saffron Spice, the Most Precious and Most Expensive Spice in the
        World." Greek Products and Food.Greek Products E-Shops and Business
        Marketplace. Web. 10 July 2011.
        <http://www.greekproducts.com/greekproducts/saffron/index.html>.
       Saffron Guide. Web. 10 July 2011. <http://saffronguide.com/>.
       "Saffron History." Recipes - Home Cooking Recipes, Cooking Tips, and Help for
        the Home Cook. Web. 10 July 2011.
        <http://homecooking.about.com/od/foodhistory/a/saffronhistory.htm>.
       Szita, Ellen. "The Cooking Inn : Saffron." Welcome To The Cooking Inn A Better
        Way Cooking Website. Web. 10 July 2011.
        <http://www.thecookinginn.com/saffron.html>.
       "Greek Food: Desserts and Sweets." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18
        July 2011. <http://www.greecefoods.com/desserts/index.htm>.
       "Greek Food: Fruits and Vegetables." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18
        July 2011. <http://www.greecefoods.com/vegetables/index.htm>.
       "Greek Food: Herbs and Spices." Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July
        2011. <http://www.greecefoods.com/herbs-spices/index.htm>.
       Kremezi, Aglaia. Greek Food: A Complete Guide. Web. 18 July 2011.
        <http://www.greecefoods.com/index.html>.



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       "Spices Used in Cooking Greek Foods." Greek Food at About.com - Greek Food and Greek
        Recipes - Traditional and Modern Greek Cooking. Web. 18 July 2011.
        <http://greekfood.about.com/od/discovergreekfood/a/cookingspices.htm>.
       "Greek Cuisine." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 19 July 2011.
        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_cuisine>.




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