FEDERATION OF STATE BOARDS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY

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					F EDERATION OF S TATE B OARDS OF P HYSICAL T HERAPY




2009 NPTE Candidate Handbook
 FOR THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL THERAPY EXAMINATIONS: PT, PTA




 SETTING THE GOLD STANDARD FOR SERVICE AND PROTECTION




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For a directory of licensing authorities; go to www.fsbpt.org and click on "Licensing Authorities."
  ONLINE REGISTRATION FOR THE NPTE AND JURISPRUDENCE EXAMS
Visit http://www.fsbpt.org then click on the Shortcut for “Register for an Exam.” Online registration allows you to
register and pay online with one simple form.
 STATUS OF YOUR NPTE REGISTRATION - FSBPT EXAMINATION SERVICES
Online • Check the status of your registration online at https://www.pt.fsbpt.net
  Click on "Status of My Request."
Voice • 703-739-9420 Fax • 703-739-9421 E-mail • examregistration@fsbpt.org
 ONLINE PEAT
To learn more about and order Online PEAT, the FSBPT's Practice Exam and Assessment Tool, visit our website,
www.fsbpt.org. Click on “For Candidates/Licensees” and then “PEAT.”
  FSBPT SCORE TRANSFER APPLICATIONS
Online • Go to http://www.fsbpt.org then click on the Shortcut for “Transfer a Score.”
E-mail • scoretransfer@fsbpt.org
 PROMETRIC
Online • Schedule your appointment or find a test center online at www.prometric.com
Voice • Prometric Registration Center, 1-800-796-9857 • Special Accommodations, 1-800-967-
 1139 • Candidate Cares, 1-800-853-6769
  FSBPT OFFICES: OPEN MONDAY-FRIDAY, 9:00 AM TO 5:00 PM ET
124 S. West Street, 3rd Floor, Alexandria, VA 22314
Exam Services • Telephone 703-739-9420 • Fax 703-739-9421
Administrative Services • Telephone 703-299-3100 • Fax 703-299-3110
Web Site • www.fsbpt.org




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   TABLE OF CONTENTS
General Information ........................................................................................................... 4
     The Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy (FSBPT) ........................................... 4
     Purpose of the Examination Program ............................................................................... 4
     Examination Development............................................................................................... 4
     Eligibility ......................................................................................................................... 5
     Examination Administration ............................................................................................ 5
Examination Security ............................................................................................................ 6
     Protect Your Reputation and Career ................................................................................ 6
     Exam Security During Testing.......................................................................................... 6
    Additional Security Information....................................................................................... 7
Frequently Asked Questions .................................................................................................. 8
     Preparing for the Examination ......................................................................................... 8
    Arranging To Take the NPTE........................................................................................... 8
     Making a Testing Appointment............................................................................................... 9
     Rescheduling, Canceling, No-Shows and Refunds............................................................ 10
     Taking the Examination ................................................................................................... 11
     Examination Results and Scoring ..................................................................................... 16
     Retaking the Examination ................................................................................................ 16
    Additional Questions ....................................................................................................... 17
Jurisprudence Exams.............................................................................................................. 18
Content Outlines................................................................................................................... 19
Sample Questions .................................................................................................................. 40
Additional Services ................................................................................................................ 43
     Score Transfer Service....................................................................................................... 43
     Performance Feedback ..................................................................................................... 43
     Examination Score Verification ........................................................................................ 43
     Online PEAT (Practice Exam and Assessment Tool) ......................................................... 43




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General Information
THE FEDERATION OF STATE BOARDS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY
The mission of the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy (FSBPT) is to protect the public by providing
service and leadership that promote safe and competent physical therapy practice.
Our Federation promotes and protects the health, safety and welfare of the public by identifying and promoting
desirable and reasonable uniformity in physical therapy regulatory standards and practices. We recommend
consistent regulatory practices through the Model Practice Act for Physical Therapy, address foreign education
equivalency and collect and disseminate information relevant to the regulation of physical therapy through our
Jurisdiction Licensure Reference Guide.
We develop, maintain and administer the National Physical Therapy Examinations (NPTE) for Physical Therapists
(PT) and Physical Therapist Assistants (PTA). We continually research and use the best examination methodology
available.
We also provide educational programs for our Member Boards and other bodies interested in effective licensure,
regulation and enforcement in the practice of healthcare professions.

P URPOSE     OF THE     E XAMINATION P ROGRAM
The NPTE program has three purposes: 1) to provide examination services to regulatory authorities charged with
the regulation of physical therapists and physical therapist assistants; 2) to provide a common element in the
evaluation of candidates so that standards will be comparable from jurisdiction to jurisdiction; and 3) to protect
the public interest in having only those persons who have the requisite knowledge of physical therapy be
licensed to practice physical therapy.
The physical therapist (PT) examination is designed to assess basic entry-level competence of the licensure
candidate who has graduated from an accredited program of physical therapy or from an equivalent non-accredited
program.
The physical therapist assistant (PTA) examination is intended to assess basic entry-level competence of the
candidate who has graduated from an accredited program for physical therapist assistants or has met equivalent
requirements set by a licensing authority for physical therapist assistants.
The national examination is only one part of the evaluation process used by licensing authorities. In some
jurisdictions, the national examination is supplemented by other means of assessing candidates' ability to provide
physical therapy.

E XAMINATION D EVELOPMENT
The Physical Therapist and Physical Therapist Assistant Licensure Examinations are developed by physical
therapists and physical therapist assistants who serve on FSBPT committees; the Examination Development
Committee (EDC), the Item Bank Review Committee (IBRC) and the Item Writer Regional Coordinators.
The EDC determines which items are included on an examination based on an examination outline or blueprint.
This outline provides the committee with the content areas that must be on the examination and the number of
questions to be included from each content area. The outline is developed from a job analysis, which identifies the
activities and tasks that comprise the practice of physical therapy at the entry level. The job analysis is based on
survey data and expert judgments. Questions (items) for the examinations are solicited from physical therapists and
physical therapist assistants representing a broad range of practice settings in all parts of the country. Item writers
attend workshops and receive instruction to enable them to write high-quality, job-related examination items.
The involvement of a large, representative group of practicing physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and

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other professionals at every stage of examination development ensures that the examinations are relevant to the
current practice of physical therapy.

E LIGIBILITY
Each licensing authority has established its own criteria for eligibility to sit for the PT and PTA examinations. You
should review the materials distributed by the licensing authority, to which you intend to apply for licensure or
certification, to determine if you have met that authority's eligibility requirements. A current examination may be
used only for administration to bona fide candidates for initial licensure or certification, relicensure or reactivation,
or to candidates who are not currently licensed in a jurisdiction and do not have a qualifying examination score
for that jurisdiction.

E XAMINATION A DMINISTRATION
The computer-based PT and PTA examinations are administered by FSBPT through Prometric. FSBPT scores your
examination and then transmits the score to the licensing authority. Individual licensing authorities make all
decisions regarding licensure or certification as well as licensure and certification procedures for their jurisdictions.
One commonality among U.S. licensing authorities is that, effective July 1996, all licensing authorities adopted
FSBPT's criterion-referenced passing point, so that the minimum passing score is now the same in all jurisdictions.




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Examination Security
PROTECT YOUR REPUTATION AND CAREER
Passing the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE) is a big step toward receiving your license to practice
Physical Therapy. Understandably, you want to take advantage of all available resources when preparing for this
important examination. In the past, when you have prepared for examinations at school, you considered fellow
students to be good resources for learning about questions that were on those tests. This is not the case when
preparing for the NPTE.
The NPTE is the property of the FSBPT and is protected by contract, trade secret, and federal copyright laws. It is a violation of
those laws, and thus illegal, to share any information whatsoever about any NPTE question. In particular, sharing information
about a NPTE question recalled from memory or asking someone who has taken the NPTE to share such information is illegal. It
is also unethical to share or solicit someone else to share information about a NPTE question.
Do You Mean It's Illegal to Recall Questions?
  YES! The FSBPT aggressively protects the integrity of the NPTE. Such protection is important to
  safeguarding the public from persons who do not have the requisite knowledge about physical therapy and
  therefore are not qualified to practice physical therapy. Any person for whom the FSBPT has a reasonable
  suspicion of sharing or soliciting information about any NPTE examination question may be prohibited from
  sitting for the NPTE unless and until they are determined after full investigation not to have shared or solicited
  such information.
I TEMS   FROM THE    E XAMINATION       ARE   N OT   TO BE   SHARED WITH ANY PERSON                   FOR   A NY P URPOSE .
Why is it Unethical to Ask Someone Else for Recalled Questions?
  Soliciting recalled questions from candidates who have previously taken the examination is unethical for several
  reasons. The first is obvious; you are expected to pass the test based on your own merit without assistance. The
  members of the public who will entrust you with their well-being expect that you are a trustworthy and
  competent individual. Secondly, the purpose of the NPTE is to protect the public by ensuring that candidates
  for licensure have achieved entry-level competence. By asking previous test takers to share questions with you, you
  are committing an illegal act and are undermining the very purpose of the examination. Lastly, by soliciting
  questions from previous test takers, you are encouraging such persons to commit illegal acts.
I TEMS   FROM THE    E XAMINATION       ARE   N OT   TO BE   S OLICITED   FOR   A NY P URPOSE .
What Happens If I Do Share or Solicit Recalled Questions?
  Any person for whom the FSBPT has a reasonable suspicion of sharing or soliciting information about any NPTE
  examination question MAY BE PROHIBITED FROM SITTING FOR THE NPTE unless and until they are
  determined after full investigation not to have shared or solicited such information.
  The FSBPT has and will continue to actively prosecute individuals to the full extent of the law who share or
  solicit others to share any information whatsoever about any NPTE examination question.
  The FSBPT will also report any incidents of students requesting questions or sharing questions to their licensing
  jurisdiction.
  Candidates who are determined to be guilty of soliciting or sharing questions will severely damage their chances
  of ever being licensed in any jurisdiction.

E XAM S ECURITY D URING T ESTING
Candidates are required to provide two currently valid forms of identification to be able to sit for the exam. Before
entering the testing room, all candidates will be photographed and a digital image of their fingerprint will be taken.
Another fingerprint will be taken each time a candidate enters or leaves the testing room during their exam.
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Additionally, all testing sessions will be videotaped.
If you give or receive assistance during the examination, you can be required to stop testing immediately and leave
the room. Your examination will not be scored. The performance of all candidates is monitored and may be
analyzed statistically for purposes of detecting and verifying cheating. If it is determined that a score has
questionable validity, the licensing authority will be notified.
A DDITIONAL S ECURITY I NFORMATION
If you have questions regarding exam security or know of a person or people who have violated exam security, it is
your responsibility to email security@fsbpt.org.




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Frequently Asked Questions
PREPARING FOR THE EXAMINATION
How can I prepare for the examination?
 Preparation should involve review of the specific content areas within the content outline. The content outline is
 provided within this handbook. Since the examination is multiple choice and computerized, candidates should
 make sure they are comfortable taking multiple-choice, computerized examinations.

A RRANGING       TO   T AKE   THE    NPTE
What are the steps for taking the examination?
 • Obtain registration materials from the licensing authority of the jurisdiction in which you are seeking
   licensure. All jurisdictions allow online registration for the examination at http://www.fsbpt.org
 • If you have a documented disability, you may request special accommodations to take the examination.
   Contact the licensing authority in the jurisdiction in which you are seeking licensure for details. You must
   request special accommodations at the time you register.
 • Return completed registration materials, along with payment, to the appropriate organization as identified on
   the instructions you received from the licensing authority.
 • The jurisdiction licensing authority will approve your eligibility and notify FSBPT.
 • FSBPT will send you an "Authorization to Test" letter containing instructions on how to schedule an
   appointment with Prometric. Questions regarding registration processing may be directed to
   examregistration@fsbpt.org.
 • Schedule an appointment for the examination with Prometric. You may schedule your appointment with
   Prometric by calling the number given in your "Authorization to Test" letter or you may schedule online at
   www.prometric. com.
 • Sit for the examination at your chosen Prometric testing site. You must sit for the examination within your 60-
   day eligibility period as indicated on the "Authorization to Test" letter provided by FSBPT. If you do not sit for
   the examination, or withdraw your registration, within these 60 days, you will be removed from the eligibility
   list and will be required to begin the registration process again.

Must I sit for the examination in the jurisdiction in which I am seeking licensure?
 No. You may sit for the examination at any of the approximately 300 testing centers in the United States. You are
 not required to sit for the examination within the jurisdiction in which you are seeking licensure.

May I register to take the examination with more than one jurisdiction at the same time?
 No. You may not register to take the examination through more than one jurisdiction at the same time. If you
 submit registration forms for more than one jurisdiction, FSBPT will process only the first registration form
 received and register you to take the examination for licensure in that jurisdiction. Once you are registered in one
 jurisdiction, if you attempt to register with another jurisdiction at the same time, examination registration fees
 that you submit to FSBPT will not be refunded.
 If you do not pass the examination, you may register with the same jurisdiction or a different jurisdiction.
 However, as before, you may register through only one jurisdiction to retake the examination.




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What are my licensure and examination registration fees?
 To determine licensure fees you will need to consult the materials provided by the licensing authority, as fees vary
 from state to state. The fee for the NPTE is $350 as of January 1, 2005.

The NPTE registration form asks for a Social Security Number and I do not have one. What do I do?
 We require a unique identification number in order for you to sit for the examination. This should be your Social
 Security Number. If you do not have a Social Security Number, you can obtain one from the Social Security
 Administration at http://www.ssa.gov/or call 1-800-772-1213.
 In rare cases where a candidate cannot obtain a Social Security Number, an "Alternate Identification Number"
 (AIN) may be obtained from FSBPT by application. You may print an application for an Alternate
 Identification Number from the FSBPT Web site, www.fsbpt.org, by clicking on "For Candidates/Licensees,"
 then "NPTE," and then “Exam Reports and Services.” Your registration will not be processed without either a
 Social Security Number or an Alternate Identification Number.
 The issuance of an AIN is solely for the purpose of registering for examinations or services through the FSBPT
 when a candidate cannot obtain a Social Security Number. The AIN is not a substitute for a Social Security
 Number for any other purpose.
 Applicants should retain their AIN and utilize it concerning all correspondence, inquiries, or requests relating to
 their licensure examination. AIN applications will be processed within eight business days of receipt. Candidates
 will be notified of their assigned number by mail upon issuance.

Can individuals with disabilities be accommodated?
 You must submit appropriate documentation of your request for special accommodations to the licensing
 authority of the jurisdiction in which you are seeking licensure, at the time that you submit your initial applica-
 tion materials. Only those candidates who have been granted approval from their licensing authority will receive
 special accommodations during testing. For information about how to request special accommodations, you must
 contact the jurisdiction licensing authority in which you are seeking licensure prior to registering to take the
 examination. All Prometric testing centers are fully accessible and compliant with the Americans with Disabilities
 Act.

M AKING     A   T ESTING A PPOINTMENT
What is Prometric?
 Prometric is the name of the company that provides FSBPT’s computer-based testing services. You may visit their
 Web site at www.prometric.com for more information.

When may I take my examination?
 You must sit for the examination within your 60-day eligibility period as indicated on your "Authorization to
 Test" letter provided by FSBPT. You are strongly encouraged to call Prometric to make an appointment as soon
 as you receive notification from FSBPT that you are eligible. Testing will be scheduled at the location and on the
 date and time of your choosing, if available. If not available, alternate dates, times and/or locations will be
 offered.

What information must I provide when I schedule my examination with Prometric?
 • Name of the examination (Physical Therapist, Physical Therapist Assistant, Jurisprudence Exam)
 • Where and when you would like to test (location of Prometric Center and desired date)



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 • Your name
 • Social Security Number or Alternate Identification Number
 • Daytime telephone number
 • Type of payment: credit card or direct debit
 Prometric will always endeavor to accommodate your scheduling preferences as closely as possible. Please keep in
 mind that it is in your best interest to schedule and test early in your eligibility period.

What is the Prometric fee for my examination?
 The Prometric fee for the National Physical Therapy Examination for PTs is $65. The Prometric fee for the
 National Therapy Examination for PTAs is $50.

What are the acceptable forms of payment for the Prometric test center fee?
 Payment for the Prometric test center fee may be made by credit card (Visa or MasterCard) or by direct debit to
 a checking account. Payment information must be provided at the time you schedule your examination. It is not
 possible to pay at the testing center.
 To pay by credit card, you will be asked to provide a valid credit card number and expiration date. To pay by
 direct debit to a checking account, you will be asked to provide bank information and a checking account
 number. This information can be found on one of your blank checks. Your credit card will be charged or your
 account debited on the day of your examination. The Prometric testing fee is payable to Prometric and therefore
 can only be refunded by Prometric.

Should I reconfirm my appointment before my testing date?
 Yes. It is an excellent idea to confirm your appointment. If you schedule online with Prometric at
 www.prometric.com/fsbpt you will automatically receive an email confirmation with your appointment
 information. Otherwise, you can check online at www.prometric.com or call Prometric at 1-800-796-
 9857. When you call, you will need the confirmation number provided when your appointment was
 scheduled. You can reconfirm the date, time, and location of your appointment using Prometric's
 automated system.

How will I find my local Prometric Testing Center?
 There are three ways to get directions to your local Prometric Testing Center: 1) You may access directions
 through Prometric's Registration Center at 1-800-796-9857. 2) You may call a local Prometric Center and ask for
 directions. 3) You may obtain test center directions via the Internet at www.prometric.com. Once there, click on
 "Find a Test Center," and then choose "Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy" from the drop down
 menu. Choose the state in which you want to test, and you will be provided with a current list of test centers.

Is the NPTE available at all Prometric test centers?
 No. The NPTE is not offered at all Prometric test centers in the United States, nor is it offered overseas. For a
 complete list of Prometric sites that do offer the NPTE, visit Prometric's Web site at www.prometric.com.

R ESCHEDULING , C ANCELING , N O -S HOWS ,                AND   R EFUNDS
If I am unable to keep the scheduled testing appointment, how do I reschedule?
 You may cancel or reschedule your examination 30 or more days prior to your appointment at no charge by calling
 the number for Prometric as provided in your "Authorization-to-Test" letter.
 If you cancel or reschedule your appointment 3 to 29 days prior to your exam date, you will be charged a


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 reschedule fee of $25 by Prometric.
 If you cancel or reschedule your exam within 2 days of your appointment, fail to appear for your scheduled exam,
 or arrive late and are refused admission, you will forfeit the entire Prometric sitting fee.


                    Cancellation/Reschedule Period              Cancellation/Rescheduling Fee
                    30 or more days before exam date            No charge
                    Between 3 and 29 days before                $25 per cancellation/reschedule (to
                    scheduled exam date                         be collected by Prometric)
                    Less than 3 days before the exam            The full Prometric Sitting Fee for
                    date, no-show for exam date, or             the cancelled/rescheduled exam
                    arrives more than fifteen (15)
                    minutes after the scheduled start
                    time and is refused admission

Are refunds available for no-shows?
 If you fail to contact Prometric a minimum of two business days prior to your appointment to cancel or to
 reschedule your appointment and do not show up for your scheduled exam, you will not receive a refund from
 Prometric. A refund of your examination fee, less the processing fee, is available if you do not show up for your
 examination, as long as the refund is requested within your 60-day eligibility period.

If I apply for the examination, but do not take it, will I receive a refund?
 You will receive a refund only if you withdraw your registration, from the FSBPT, before the end of your 60-day
 eligibility period. The refund will be less a processing fee.
 If you fail to sit for the examination or fail to withdraw your registration within your eligibility period, you will forfeit
 your examination fee and will be required to register and pay again if you would like another 60-day eligibility period.

How do I withdraw if I decide I do not want to or cannot take the examination?
 If you wish to withdraw your registration, you must notify FSBPT in writing of your intent to withdraw your
 registration. This notification must arrive at FSBPT before your 60-day eligibility period has expired. Make sure
 to include your name, address, telephone number, and Social Security Number on your withdrawal request. If
 you have already made an appointment with Prometric to sit for the examination, you must cancel that
 appointment two business days prior to the scheduled appointment and before sending your withdrawal request
 to FSBPT.

What happens if I have sent my examination registration fee to FSBPT but the licensing authority
does not approve my registration?
 In cases where you are deemed ineligible by a jurisdiction licensing authority or voluntarily withdraw a
 registration, and FSBPT has already received the examination fee, FSBPT will refund its portion of the
 examination fee, less a processing fee.
 NOTE: The total amount you pay to apply for licensure with your jurisdiction may include fees not related to
 testing. Individual licensing authorities establish these additional fees. FSBPT does not receive these fees and thus
 cannot refund them. FSBPT also cannot refund any fees paid to Prometric.

TAKING THE EXAMINATION
What are the requirements for admission to the testing center?


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 You must arrive 30 minutes prior to your scheduled appointment with two forms of acceptable identification.
 Acceptable ID is a currently valid, government-issued photo ID (passport, driver's license, etc.), and another piece
 of identification pre-printed with your name and containing your signature such as a credit card. On both forms
 of ID your signature must match your pre-printed name. A Social Security card is not an acceptable form of
 identification. As part of your identification processing, the driver’s license/passport will be swiped in order to
 retain scanned information.
 Your first and last name on both forms of ID must exactly match the first and last name on your Author-
 ization to Test letter issued by FSBPT. If you are denied admittance to the examination due to any problem with
 your identification you will forfeit your Prometric fee and will be required to schedule another testing appointment
 within your eligibility period.

Will I be thumb-printed or photographed at the Prometric testing center?
 Yes. A digital image of your fingerprint will be taken and you will be photographed at the testing center. Another
 fingerprint will be taken each time you leave the testing room during your exam. Additionally, all testing sessions
 will be videotaped.

How much time will I have for the examination?
 You are allowed 5 hours for the PT examination and 4 hours for the PTA examination. There are 250 items
 (questions) on the physical therapist examination, and 200 items on the physical therapist assistant examination.

Why is my appointment time longer than the examination?
 For the PT examination the appointment time is 5 ½ hours even though the exam itself is only 5 hours. For the
 PTA examination the appointment time is 4 ½ hours even though the exam itself is only 4 hours. The extra half
 hour is to allow for the scheduled 15-minute break as well as the pre-exam tutorial and post-exam survey.

Are all questions scored?
 No. Fifty (50) pretest questions are included on each examination. Your scores will only be based on 200 scored
 items for the PT examination and 150 scored items for the PTA examination. Pretest questions are included to
 determine if the questions meet rigorous psychometric (testing) standards. If the questions meet standards, they
 can be used as scored items in future examinations. All 200 scored PT items or 150 scored PTA items on the
 examination you will be taking were included as pretest items in previous versions of the examination. Item
 pretesting also eliminates delays in sending score reports to candidates when new examination forms are
 introduced.

Will I be able to tell which questions are pre-test items?
 No. Pretest items will be distributed randomly within each examination and cannot be identified. Therefore, you
 should answer each question as if it were a scored item. However, as stated above, your score will only be based
 on 200 scored items for the PT examination and 150 scored items for the PTA examination.

What is a section?
 The exam is delivered in sections or blocks of 50 questions. Each section is a “mini exam” in that it will follow
 the same basic content outline as the larger exam and contain both scored and pretest items. The PT exam has 5
 sections. The PTA exam has 4 sections. Once you have completed a section you cannot return to the section to
 review or change your answers.

Will there be a penalty for items answered incorrectly?
 Examination scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly. You should consider the answers to



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 each question carefully and select the correct or best one. There is only one correct or best answer to each question.
 Because there is no additional penalty for incorrect answers, it is to your advantage to answer every question,
 even when you are unsure of the correct or best answer.

Will there be other candidates testing at my test center?
 There may be other candidates testing for a number of different examinations. All candidates will be separated by
 modular testing booths that allow privacy and ample workspace.

What will the temperature be in the testing center?
 The temperature in the Prometric centers varies, and people perceive temperature differently. You should dress in
 layers that can be removed if you become uncomfortable. For security reasons, Prometric does not allow bulky
 jackets to be worn.

Can I take a break during the examination?
 Yes. There are two kinds of breaks during the examination: scheduled and unscheduled. Both the PT and PTA
 examinations have one scheduled 15-minute break after section two has been completed. The PT exam also has
 three unscheduled breaks. The PTA exam has two unscheduled breaks.
 The scheduled break has been added for candidate convenience. During the scheduled break, after section 2 of
 the examination has been completed, the exam timer is paused for up to 15 minutes. If candidates do not want to
 take the break or want to take a shorter break, they can end the break by following the directions on the computer
 screen.
 An unscheduled break can be taken between sections when the “Unscheduled Break” screen is showing on the
 computer. During an unscheduled break the exam timer continues to elapse. This means time spent on an
 unscheduled break is time that you are choosing to not spend on the examination.
 Candidates may leave the examination only when either a scheduled break or an unscheduled break screen is
 showing on their computer. If a candidate leaves the testing room while not on a specified break screen, the test
 center administrator will report to the FSBPT that an exam irregularity occurred during the candidate’s exam
 administration.

Is computer knowledge necessary?
 No. Computer knowledge is not required to take a computerized examination. Before the examination begins, a
 simple introductory lesson (tutorial) is presented that explains the process of selecting answers and moving from
 question to question. The time you spend on the tutorial does not count against the time allotted for the
 examination. Most candidates take approximately 5-10 minutes to complete the tutorial and may repeat it, if
 desired. You may select your answers using either the keyboard or the mouse. You are strongly encouraged to
 take the tutorial prior to taking the examination.

Can I mark items for later review?
 Yes. The testing software allows you to "mark" questions that you want to review before ending a section. Any
 question can be "marked," regardless of whether it has been left blank or answered. It is not necessary to
 "unmark" a question in order for it to be scored at the end of the examination. After you finish a section, you
 cannot return for additional review.

While taking the examination, can I move back and forth between questions?
 Yes. While taking the computerized examination, you can skip forward or backward through the section you are
 currently in and review questions, whether the questions are "marked" or "unmarked."



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Can I use "scratch paper" when taking the examination?
 Yes. You are allowed to use "scratch paper" that is supplied at the testing center. The "scratch paper" will be an
 erasable note board. You are not allowed to bring in your own scratch paper. Testing center staff will collect the
 erasable note board at the completion of the examination.

What items are prohibited while taking the examination?
 Candidates are not permitted to bring digital watches, cell phones, pagers and other electronic devices into the
 test room. Additionally, food and beverages are not permitted in the test room. Lockers are provided to
 candidates in order to store personal items while testing.

Can I use earplugs when taking the examination?
 No. The Prometric testing center will supply headphones to help dampen noise but not earplugs. Candidates should
 expect that there will be some background noise during their examination. There may be candidates in surrounding
 cubicles taking typing intensive examinations. There may be other candidates entering and leaving the testing room
 during the course of your examination. The headphones will help to dampen noise that you may find distracting.

What can I do if there is glare on the computer screen?
 As a first step, you should reposition the computer monitor to eliminate the glare. If the glare persists despite
 attempts to adjust the position of the monitor, and you still have difficulty seeing the computer screen, you
 should notify Prometric test center staff immediately of the problem.

What can I do if I experience a delay in starting my examination?
 You should note that your appointment time is not necessarily your starting time. You will have to be checked-
 in before taking the examination (i.e., sign in, present the appropriate identification, get thumb-printed and
 photographed). The check-in process may take time if many candidates have the same appointment time.
 However, if the delay is more than 30 minutes after your scheduled appointment, and you cannot continue to
 wait, Prometric will allow you to reschedule for another time if you still have time left in your 60-day eligibility
 period. If you have waited until the last day of your eligibility period to test, you should continue to wait, despite
 any delays.

What can I do if the computer malfunctions while taking the examination?
 If you experience technical difficulties while taking the examination, you must alert Prometric staff immediately.
 If Prometric staff cannot remedy the situation within 30 minutes, or the problem persists despite attempts to
 remedy the problem, you have the right to request rescheduling of the examination on another day within your
 60-day eligibility period at no additional cost. The time Prometric spends remedying a problem does not count as
 part of your examination time. You should contact both the licensing authority from which you are seeking
 licensure and FSBPT to notify them of the technical difficulties.

What happens if there is a fire drill, evacuation, or another unexpected event, during my
examination?
 If the disruption lasts for less than 30 minutes, you will be expected to complete your examination. If the
 disruption is longer than 30 minutes, you have the right to request rescheduling of the examination on another
 day within your 60-day eligibility period at no additional cost.

What should I do if I experience other disruptions not covered here while taking my examination?
 You should alert Prometric staff immediately to disruptions occurring within the testing room. The sooner the
 testing center staff is aware of a problem, the sooner steps can be taken to reduce or eliminate the disruption.



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Can I make comments concerning the examination administration?
 Yes. You are given the opportunity to complete a survey after finishing your examination. The survey is presented
 on the computer and consists of questions about the examination administration.

What is the FSBPT policy regarding examination security?
 The FSBPT policy is that you must act to protect the integrity of the NPTE at all times, i.e., before, during, and
 after you take the NPTE. The NPTE is the property of the FSBPT and is protected by trade secret, contract, and
 federal copyright laws. The FSBPT strictly prohibits any sharing of any information whatsoever about any
 question contained within any past or present NPTE. The FSBPT warns that it is a violation of FSBPT’s property
 rights in the NPTE and is illegal to share questions that are on the NPTE or to ask any person who has taken the
 NPTE about any NPTE question. The FSBPT also warns persons who have registered to take the NPTE that their
 sharing or soliciting others to share information about any question contained within any past or present NPTE
 may be a breach of their registration contract and further result in their being liable for consequential damages
 and attorneys fees.
 The FSBPT will prosecute all persons who solicit questions or share information about NPTE questions. Persons
 for whom the FSBPT has a reasonable suspicion of sharing or soliciting information about any NPTE question
 may be prohibited from sitting for the NPTE unless and until they are determined after a full investigation not to
 have shared or solicited such information.
 If you give or receive assistance during the examination, you can be required to stop testing immediately and
 leave the room. Your examination will not be scored. The performance of all candidates is monitored and may be
 analyzed statistically for purposes of detecting and verifying cheating. If it is determined that a score has
 questionable validity, the licensing authority will be notified and will decide whether the candidate's scores will be
 released.
 For purposes of examination security, each candidate who wishes to take the NPTE is required to enter into the
 following agreement as part of the registration and examination-taking processes:
        I hereby acknowledge and agree that the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE) is the exclusive
        property of the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy (FSBPT), and that the content of the NPTE
        is protected by trade secret, contract, copyright, and other laws. I further acknowledge and agree that no
        part of the NPTE may be copied or reproduced in part or whole by any means whatsoever, including
        memorization, note-taking, or electronic transmission, unless previously authorized in writing by the
        FSBPT. I additionally acknowledge and agree that the theft or attempted theft of the contents of the NPTE
        is punishable as a felony and that the FSBPT is within its rights to aggressively protect the integrity of the
        NPTE.

        I further acknowledge and agree that FSBPT may terminate my participation, invalidate the results of my
        examination, or take other appropriate action if, in FSBPT’s sole judgment, there is a good faith basis to
        question the validity of my results for any reason, regardless of whether there is any evidence of my
        personal involvement in irregular activities. Irregularities occurring prior to, during, or after my taking of
        the NPTE include but are not limited to conduct such as soliciting, receiving, or viewing reproduced or
        recalled NPTE test questions when preparing for the exam; taking or using notes during the exam; failure
        to comply with all Prometric Test Center security procedures; attempting to communicate in any way with
        fellow test-takers during the exam; or sharing recalled contents of the NPTE with others after the test
        administration. Evidence of invalid results may include, but is not limited to answer patterns or score
        increases determined by FSBPT, in its sole discretion, to be atypical, unusual, or aberrant.




                                                                                                                    15
        Lastly, I acknowledge and agree that the purpose of the NPTE is to protect the public from the licensure of
        and practice of physical therapy by persons who do not have the requisite knowledge to safely practice
        physical therapy and that the foregoing terms and conditions are important and reasonable measures for
        safeguarding the public welfare.
 In order to safeguard the public welfare and the integrity of the NPTE, FSBPT reserves the right to prohibit
 any person from taking the NPTE who has not accepted the terms and conditions of the foregoing Security
 Agreement.

EXAMINATION RESULTS AND SCORING
How will I get my examination results?
 After the administration of the examination, your examination will be scored by FSBPT. The results will then be
 transmitted to the licensing authority. Inquiries concerning examination results should be directed to the licensing
 authority to which you have applied for licensure.

What are scale scores and what is the passing score?
 The NPTE scale score is an arithmetic conversion of raw scores (the number of questions a candidate answers
 correctly) to a scale that ranges from 200 to 800. One reason for converting raw scores to scaled scores is that
 forms (versions) of the examinations may vary slightly in their level of difficulty. A given raw score on one form of
 the examination may not be comparable to the same raw score on another form of the examination. To ensure that
 scores on different forms of the examination have the same meaning, raw scores are converted to scaled scores that
 represent equivalent levels of achievement regardless of the examination form taken.
 The NPTE minimum passing scaled score is 600. The number of questions that have to be answered correctly to
 achieve a score of 600 can change from form to form.
 If a form of the examination is slightly easier than the form on which the passing score was set, more questions
 would have to be answered correctly to obtain a scale score of 600. If the form of the examination is slightly harder,
 fewer questions would have to be answered correctly to pass the examination. Thus, candidates are not unfairly
 rewarded because their examination was easier nor unfairly penalized because it was more difficult.
 Effective July 1996, all jurisdiction licensing authorities adopted the same criterion-referenced passing score for the
 NPTE. Therefore, effective July 1996, a score at or above 600 is considered to be a passing score by all jurisdiction
 licensing authorities and a score below 600 is considered a failing score by all jurisdiction licensing authorities.

R ETAKING      THE   E XAMINATION
How do I register to take the NPTE again?
 If a retake is necessary due to failure of an examination, you must register with a jurisdiction licensing authority
 following the steps indicated in the section of this book entitled, "Arranging To Take the NPTE."

How often can I take the examination?
 This varies by jurisdiction. However, FSBPT will only allow you to take the examination a maximum of three
 times in any 12-month period.

Do I need to wait a specified period of time between examinations?
 This varies by jurisdiction. It is estimated that given the need to reapply to the licensing authority for each
 examination administration, there will normally be at least one (1) month between administrations.




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ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS
What services are available online?
 The following services are available at http://www.fsbpt.org:
 • Register for examinations.
 • Check the status of your registration
 • Update your profile
 • Add a payment to a requested service
 • Apply for a score transfer
 • Contact information for Licensing Authorities
 • Listing of school codes

Whom can I call if I have additional questions about the NPTE Program?
 You may call FSBPT at 703-739-9420 to obtain general information about the NPTE program, the status of your
 registration, Authorization to Test letter, or the score report that is transmitted to your jurisdiction licensing
 authority.

Can I make comments on the examination?
 If you wish to provide comments on the examination, you may do so by mailing or faxing your comments to
 FSBPT. You may also address comments to npte@fsbpt.org. The Examination Development Committee (EDC)
 reviews these comments for consideration in future examination development. However, submission of
 comments will not alter your examination score. Please direct comments to:
 Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy
 124 S. West Street, 3rd Floor
 Alexandria, VA 22314

Is there a way to appeal a policy related to the National Physical Therapy Examination?

 The FSBPT Board of Directors routinely reviews the policies that govern the development and administration of the
 National Physical Therapy Examination. These policies are then shared with the licensing authority for each U.S.
 jurisdiction. Careful consideration is given when developing policies to ensure that they are in line with the
 Federation’s mission of public protection.
 If you wish to appeal a specific policy related to the National Physical Therapy Examination the first step is to
 discuss the issue with a Federation staff person. The staff may be able to provide a better understanding of the
 policy and explain how the policy relates to the Federation mission. If you still choose to appeal a policy, you will
 need to submit a request in writing to the FSBPT Board of Directors. Requests for appeals must be submitted by the
 candidate within 60 days of his/her most recent examination. The request must include the rationale for the
 exception to the policy and any steps already taken to resolve this problem with FSBPT staff.
 When reviewing appeals, the FSBPT Board of Directors will consider what effect granting the appeal would have
 on other candidates, the role of the exam in providing a measure of minimal entry-level competence, the security of
 the NPTE, and any impact the decision might create for the jurisdiction in which the candidate is applying or any
 other jurisdiction. Candidate appeals will be responded to in writing by the President of the FSBPT Board of
 Directors within 60 days.




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Jurisprudence Exams
Your jurisdiction may require that you take a jurisprudence exam that is administered by the FSBPT. If your
jurisdiction does require that you take the jurisprudence exam through the FSBPT, the policies and procedures for
the jurisprudence exam are the same as those for the NPTE. To register online for a jurisprudence exam, go to
http://www.fsbpt.org.




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Content Outlines
The examinations consist of objective, multiple-choice questions covering the major areas of physical therapy. The
PT examination consists of 250 items and the PTA examination consists of 200 items. The outlines beginning on
the next page delineate the major content areas of the examinations.
These examinations were developed to measure knowledge and abilities required of entry-level physical therapists
and physical therapist assistants. A committee composed of physical therapist and physical therapist assistants
developed them. Based on national analyses of the tasks that physical therapists and physical therapist assistants
perform, the following examination content outlines were developed.




                                                                                                                     19
       National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE) Test Content Outline – Physical Therapist

    This test is designed to measure whether or not an examinee has the requisite knowledge and skills required
    of entry-level physical therapist practitioners. The focus is on the clinical application of knowledge, concepts
    and principles necessary for the provision of safe and effective patient care. Provision of safe patient care
    includes consideration of current best evidence from clinically relevant research regarding the safety and
    efficacy of therapeutic, rehabilitative, and preventive physical therapy services.

Content Area Description (# Items)                                              # Items      % Items
Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences                                       29        14.5%
           Cardiac, Vascular & Pulmonary Systems (5)
           Musculoskeletal System (6)
           Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems (6)
           Integumentary System (3)
           Other Systems* (9)
Examination/ Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis, &                  73        36.5%
Prognosis
   Examination                                                                      26        13.0%
           Cardiac, Vascular & Pulmonary Systems (4)
           Musculoskeletal System (9)
           Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems (9)
           Integumentary System (3)
           Other Systems* (1)
   Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis, & Prognosis                 47         23.5%
           Cardiac, Vascular & Pulmonary Systems (7)
           Musculoskeletal System (10)
           Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems (9)
           Integumentary System (3)
           Other Systems* (18)
Interventions/ Equipment & Devices; Therapeutic Modalities                          59        29.5%
   Interventions                                                                    37        18.5%
           Cardiac, Vascular & Pulmonary Systems (7)
           Musculoskeletal System (11)
           Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems (10)
           Integumentary System (5)
           Other Systems* (4)
   Equipment & Devices; Therapeutic Modalities                                     22         11.0%
           Equipment & Devices (10)
           Therapeutic Modalities (12)
Safety, Protection, & Professional Roles; Teaching & Learning; Research             39        19.5%
& Evidence-Based Practice
           Safety, Protection, & Professional Roles (15)
           Teaching & Learning (11)
           Research & Evidence-Based Practice (13)
Total                                                                              200        100%
         • Other Systems include one or more of the following: Metabolic & Endocrine, Gastrointestinal,
           Genitourinary, and Multi-System Involvement.




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Cardiac, Vascular, & Pulmonary Systems

Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific principles
that serve as the foundation for understanding the involvement of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary
systems in the treatment of patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems
        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the lymphatic system
        •   Pharmacology as related to the cardiovascular/pulmonary system
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the cardiovascular/pulmonary system (including the
            physiological response of the cardiovascular/pulmonary system to various types of
            test/measures and interventions)

Examination: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of cardiac, vascular, and
pulmonary systems tests and measures and their relevance to information collected from the history and
systems review. The category includes the reaction of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems to
tests and measures, and the mechanics of body movement as related to the cardiac, vascular, and
pulmonary systems. Information covered in these areas supports appropriate and effective patient/client
management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of cardiovascular/pulmonary system tests/measures and their applications
        •   Movement analysis as related to the cardiovascular/pulmonary system (e.g., rib cage
            excursion)

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
interpretation of knowledge about the diseases and conditions of cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary
systems in order to ensure the appropriate and effective patient/client treatment and management
decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases/conditions of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems
        •   Diseases/conditions of the lymphatic system
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of the lymphatic system
        •   Diseases or conditions of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems in order to make
            effective treatment decisions
        •   Diseases or conditions of the lymphatic system in order to make effective treatment decisions
        •   Diagnostic imaging of the cardiovascular/pulmonary system
        •   Medical management of the cardiovascular/pulmonary system (e.g., surgical procedures,
            medical tests)

Interventions: This category refers to the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems interventions
(including types, applications, responses, and potential complications) as well as the impact on the
cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems of interventions performed on other systems in order to support
patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of cardiovascular/pulmonary system interventions and their applications
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on cardiovascular/pulmonary system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on cardiovascular/pulmonary system from interventions
            used on other systems


                                                                                                        21
Musculoskeletal System

Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific principles
that serve as the foundation for understanding musculoskeletal system involvement in the treatment of
patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the muscular and skeletal systems
        •   Pharmacology as related to the musculoskeletal system
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the musculoskeletal system
        •   Joint structure
        •   Joint functionality and mobility

Examination: This category refers to the types and applications of musculoskeletal system tests and
measures and their relevance to information collected during history and systems review. The category
also includes the reaction of the musculoskeletal system to tests and measures, and the mechanics of
body movement as related to the musculoskeletal system. Information covered in these areas supports
appropriate and effective patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of musculoskeletal system tests/measures and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the musculoskeletal system to various types of tests/measures
        •   Movement analysis including application of kinesiology/kinematics as related to the
            musculoskeletal system (e.g., gait analysis)

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
diseases and conditions of musculoskeletal system in order to ensure the appropriate and effective
patient/client treatment and management decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases/conditions of the muscular and skeletal systems
        •   Diseases/conditions of the connective tissue
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of the muscular and skeletal systems
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of the connective tissue
        •   Diseases or conditions of the muscular and skeletal systems in order to make effective
            treatment decisions
        •   Diseases or conditions of the connective tissue in order to make effective treatment decisions
        •   Diagnostic imaging of the musculoskeletal system
        •   Medical management of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., surgical procedures, medical
            tests)

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of musculoskeletal system interventions as well as the impact on the musculoskeletal
system of interventions performed on other systems in order to support patient/client management across
the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of musculoskeletal system interventions and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the musculoskeletal system to various types of interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on musculoskeletal system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on musculoskeletal system from interventions used on
            other systems




                                                                                                          22
Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems

Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific principles
that serve as the foundation for understanding neuromuscular/nervous system involvement in the
treatment of patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the neuromuscular system
        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS)
        •   Pharmacology as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Motor control as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Motor learning as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Neurological functioning (e.g., cognition, affect, arousal, memory)

Examination: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of neuromuscular/nervous
system tests and measures and their relevance to information collected during history and systems
review. The category also includes the reaction of the neuromuscular/nervous system to tests and
measures, and the mechanics of body movement as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system.
Information covered in these areas supports appropriate and effective patient/client management across
the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of neuromuscular/nervous system tests/measures and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the neuromuscular/nervous system to various types of
            test/measures
        •   Movement analysis including application of kinesiology/kinematics as related to the
            neuromuscular/nervous system (e.g., gait analysis, balance assessment)

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
diseases and conditions of neuromuscular/nervous system in order to ensure the appropriate and
effective patient/client treatment and management decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases/conditions of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS)
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS)
        •   Diseases or conditions of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS) in order to make effective
            treatment decisions
        •   Diagnostic imaging of the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Medical management of the neuromuscular/nervous system (e.g., surgical procedures,
            medical tests)

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of neuromuscular/nervous system interventions as well as the impact on the
neuromuscular/nervous system of interventions performed on other systems in order to support
patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of neuromuscular/nervous system interventions and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the neuromuscular/nervous system to various types of
            interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on neuromuscular/nervous system from interventions
            used on other systems



                                                                                                           23
        •   Motor control as related to neuromuscular/nervous system interventions
        •   Motor learning as related to neuromuscular/nervous system interventions



Integumentary System

Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific principles
that serve as the foundation for understanding integumentary system involvement in the treatment of
patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the integumentary system
        •   Pharmacology as related to the integumentary system
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the integumentary system

Examination: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of integumentary system
tests and measures and their relevance to information collected during history and systems review. The
category also includes the reaction of the integumentary system to tests and measures. Information
covered in these areas supports appropriate and effective patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of integumentary system tests/measures and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the integumentary system to various types of tests/measures
        •   Movement analysis as related to the integumentary system (e.g., friction, shear, pressure,
            and scar).

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
diseases and conditions of integumentary system in order to ensure the appropriate and effective
patient/client treatment and management decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases/conditions of the integumentary system
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of the integumentary system
        •   Diseases or conditions of the integumentary system in order to make effective treatment
            decisions
        •   Medical management of the integumentary system (e.g., surgical procedures, medical tests)

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of integumentary system interventions as well as the impact on the integumentary system
of interventions performed on other systems in order to support patient/client management across the
lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of integumentary system interventions and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the integumentary system to various types of interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on integumentary system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on integumentary system from interventions used on
            other systems
        •   Wound management techniques (e.g., selective debridement, nonselective debridement,
            dressings, topical agents)




                                                                                                          24
Metabolic & Endocrine Systems

Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific principles
that serve as the foundation for understanding metabolic and endocrine systems’ involvement in the
treatment of patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy of the endocrine system
        •   Physiology and pathophysiology of the metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Pharmacology as related to the metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the metabolic and endocrine systems

Examination: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of metabolic and
endocrine tests and measures and their relevance to information collected during history and systems
review. The category also includes the reaction of the metabolic and endocrine systems to tests and
measures. Information covered in these areas supports appropriate and effective patient/client
management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of metabolic and endocrine systems tests/measures and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the metabolic and endocrine systems to various types of
            tests/measures

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
diseases and conditions of metabolic and endocrine systems in order to ensure the appropriate and
effective patient/client treatment and management decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases/conditions of the metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of the metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Diseases or conditions of the metabolic and endocrine systems in order to make effective
            treatment decisions
        •   Medical management of the metabolic and endocrine systems (e.g., surgical procedures,
            medical tests)

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of metabolic and endocrine systems interventions as well as the impact on the metabolic
and endocrine systems of interventions performed on other systems in order to support patient/client
management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of metabolic and endocrine systems interventions and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the metabolic and endocrine systems to various types of
            interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Secondary effects or complications on metabolic and endocrine systems from interventions
            used on other systems




                                                                                                          25
Gastrointestinal System

Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific principles
that serve as the foundation for understanding gastrointestinal system involvement in the treatment of
patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal system
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal system

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
interpretation of knowledge of diseases and conditions of gastrointestinal system in order to ensure the
appropriate and effective patient/client treatment and management decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases/conditions of the gastrointestinal system
        •   Diseases or conditions of the gastrointestinal system in order to make effective treatment
            decisions

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of gastrointestinal system interventions and their relevance to information collected during
history and systems review and examination. It also includes the impact on the gastrointestinal system of
interventions performed on other systems in order to support patient/client management across the
lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of gastrointestinal system interventions and their applications (e.g.,
            positioning for reflux, positioning for bowel programs)
        •   Physiological response of the gastrointestinal system to various types of interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on gastrointestinal system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on gastrointestinal system from interventions used on
            other systems



Genitourinary System

Clinical Application of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific principles
that serve as the foundation for understanding genitourinary system involvement in the treatment of
patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the genitourinary system
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the genitourinary system
        •   Motor control as related to the genitourinary system
        •   Motor learning as related to the genitourinary system

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
diseases and conditions of genitourinary system in order to ensure the appropriate and effective
patient/client treatment and management decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases/conditions of the genitourinary system
        •   Diseases or conditions of the genitourinary system in order to make effective treatment
            decisions

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, and potential complications)


                                                                                                           26
of genitourinary system interventions as well as the impact on the genitourinary system of interventions
performed on other systems in order to support patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of genitourinary system interventions and their applications (e.g.,
            positioning for bladder programs, biofeedback, pelvic floor retraining)
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on genitourinary system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on genitourinary system from interventions used on other
            systems


Multi-System

Clinical Applications of Foundational Sciences: This category refers to the essential scientific
principles that serve as the foundation for understanding multi-system involvement in the treatment of
patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Normal interrelationships among multiple systems
        •   Polypharmacy as it relates to multi-system involvement
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)

Foundations for Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis: This category refers to the
interpretation of knowledge of multiple system involvement in order to ensure the appropriate and
effective patient/client treatment and management decisions.

        •   Diseases/conditions affecting multiple systems (e.g., cancer, pregnancy, morbid obesity)
        •   Differential diagnoses related to pathologies of multi-system involvement
        •   Diseases or conditions of multiple systems in order to make effective patient/client
            management decisions
        •   Medical management of multiple systems (e.g., surgical procedures, medical tests, diagnostic
            imaging)
        •   Impact of co-morbidities/co-existing conditions on patient/client management (e.g., diabetes
            and hypertension; obesity and arthritis; hip fracture and dementia)
        •   Psychological and psychiatric conditions that impact patient/client management (e.g.,
            depression, schizophrenia)



Equipment & Devices

This category refers to the different types of equipment and devices, use requirements and/or contextual
determinants, as well as any other influencing factors involved in the selection and application of
equipment and devices in order to support patient/client treatment and management decisions across the
lifespan.

        •   Assistive and adaptive devices
        •   Prosthetic devices
        •   Orthotic devices
        •   Protective devices
        •   Supportive devices
        •   Gravity-assisted devices
        •   Bariatric equipment and devices


                                                                                                           27
Therapeutic Modalities

This category refers to the underlying principles for the use of therapeutic modalities as well as the
justification for the selection and use of the variety of types of therapeutic modalities employed to support
patient/client treatment and management decisions across the lifespan.

        •   Indications, contraindications, and precautions of therapeutic modalities
        •   Physical agents (e.g., athermal agents, cryotherapy, hydrotherapy, light agents, sound
            agents, thermotherapy)
        •   Mechanical modalities (e.g., compression therapies, mechanical motion devices, traction
            devices)
        •   Electrotherapeutic delivery of medications (e.g., iontophoresis)
        •   Electrical stimulation (e.g., Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), High Voltage Pulsed
            Current (HVPC), Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NES), TENS)

Safety, Protection, & Professional Roles

This category refers to the critical issues involved in patient/client safety and protection and the
responsibilities of healthcare providers to ensure that patient/client management and healthcare decisions
take place in a secure and trustworthy environment.

        •   Factors influencing patient/client safety (e.g., fall risk, use of restraints, use of equipment,
            environmental factors)
        •   Emergency preparedness (e.g., CPR, first aid, disaster response)
        •   Proper body mechanics
        •   Injury prevention
        •   Infection control procedures (e.g., standard/universal precautions)
        •   Legal obligations for reporting abuse and neglect
        •   Patient/client rights (e.g., ADA, IDEA, HIPAA)
        •   Human resource legal issues (e.g., OSHA, sexual harassment)
        •   Standards of documentation
        •   Risk guidelines (e.g., documentation, policies and procedures, incident reports)
        •   Roles and responsibilities of other healthcare professionals and support staff


Teaching & Learning

This category refers to the principles and theories of teaching and learning required to create a learning
environment in which information is effectively communicated to patients/clients to ensure that they
receive appropriate instruction designed to support patient/client management decisions.

        •   Teaching and learning strategies, theories, and techniques (e.g., cognitive, motor, models of
            education)
        •   Health behavior change models
        •   Communication skills




                                                                                                               28
Research & Evidence-Based Practice

This category refers to the application of measurement principles and research methodology to make
reasoned and appropriate assessment and interpretation of information sources and practice research to
support patient/client management decisions fundamental to evidence-based practice.

       •   Research design and interpretation (e.g., qualitative, quantitative)
       •   Measurement science (e.g., reliability, validity, common statistical methods)
       •   Outcome measures (e.g., suitability, applications)
       •   Data collection techniques (e.g., surveys, direct observation)
       •   Hierarchy of evidence (e.g., randomized control, case studies, anecdotal observation)




                                                                                                    29
System Specific Specifications - Physical Therapy
System             Percent of the Examination
Musculoskeletal            18%
Neuromuscular              17%
Cardiovascular/pulmonary 11.5%
Integumentary              7%
Other Systems              16%




                                                    30
     National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE) Test Content Outline – Physical Therapist
                                           Assistant

This test is designed to measure whether or not an examinee has the requisite knowledge and skills
required of entry-level physical therapist assistants working under the supervision of a physical therapist.
The focus is on the clinical application of knowledge, concepts and principles necessary for the
provision of safe and effective patient care consistent with the principles of best practice.

Content Area Description (# Items)                                            # Items     % Items
Clinical Application of Physical Therapy Principles & Foundational               59       39.33%
Sciences
            Cardiac, Vascular & Pulmonary Systems (10)
            Musculoskeletal System (15)
            Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems (14)
            Integumentary System (4)
            Other Systems – Metabolic & Endocrine, Gastrointestinal,
            and Multi-System Involvement (16)
Data Collection/ Interventions/ Equipment & Devices; Therapeutic                72          48%
Modalities
    Data Collection                                                             23         15.33%
            Cardiac, Vascular & Pulmonary Systems (4)
            Musculoskeletal System (9)
            Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems (7)
            Integumentary System (2)
            Other Systems – Metabolic & Endocrine, Gastrointestinal,
            and Multi-System Involvement (1)
    Interventions                                                               27         18.00%
            Cardiac, Vascular & Pulmonary Systems (5)
            Musculoskeletal System (8)
            Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems (9)
            Integumentary System (3)
            Other Systems – Metabolic & Endocrine, Gastrointestinal,
            and Multi-System Involvement (2)
    Equipment & Devices; Therapeutic Modalities                                 22         14.67%
            Equipment & Devices (9)
            Therapeutic Modalities (13)
Safety, Protection, & Professional Roles; Teaching & Learning;                  19         12.67%
Evidence-Based Practice
            Safety, Protection, & Professional Roles (12)
            Teaching & Learning (4)
            Evidence-Based Practice (3)
Total                                                                           150         100%




                                                                                                          31
Cardiac, Vascular, & Pulmonary Systems

Clinical Application of Physical Therapy Principles and Foundational Sciences: This category refers
to the essential scientific principles, pathologies, diseases and conditions that serve as the foundation for
understanding the involvement of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems in the treatment of
patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems
        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the lymphatic system
        •   Diseases/conditions of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems
        •   Diseases/conditions of the lymphatic system
        •   Diseases or conditions of cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems in order to provide
            effective treatments
        •   Diseases or conditions of the lymphatic system in order to provide effective treatments
        •   Medical management of the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems (e.g., medical tests,
            medications, surgical procedures)
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the cardiovascular/pulmonary system (including the
            physiological response of the cardiovascular/pulmonary system to various types of
            test/measures and interventions)

Data Collection: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of cardiac, vascular,
and pulmonary systems tests and measures. The category includes the reaction of the cardiac, vascular,
and pulmonary systems to tests and measures, and the mechanics of body movement as related to the
cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems. Information covered in these areas supports appropriate and
effective patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of cardiovascular/pulmonary system tests/measures and their applications
            (e.g., measuring blood pressure, heartrate)
        •   Movement analysis as related to the cardiovascular/pulmonary system (e.g., rib cage
            excursion)

Interventions: This category refers to the cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems interventions
(including types, applications, responses, and potential complications) as well as the impact on the
cardiac, vascular, and pulmonary systems of interventions performed on other systems in order to support
patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of cardiovascular/pulmonary system interventions and their applications
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on cardiovascular/pulmonary system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on cardiovascular/pulmonary system from interventions
            used on other systems




                                                                                                          32
Musculoskeletal System

Clinical Application of Physical Therapy Principles and Foundational Sciences: This category refers
to the essential scientific principles, pathologies, diseases and conditions that serve as the foundation for
understanding musculoskeletal system involvement in the treatment of patients/clients across the
lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the muscular and skeletal systems
        •   Diseases/conditions of the muscular and skeletal systems
        •   Diseases/conditions of the connective tissue
        •   Diseases or conditions of the muscular and skeletal systems in order to provide effective
            treatments
        •   Diseases or conditions of the connective tissue in order to provide effective treatments
        •   Medical management of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., medical tests, medications,
            surgical procedures)
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the musculoskeletal system
        •   Joint structure
        •   Joint functionality and mobility

Data Collection: This category refers to the types and applications of musculoskeletal system tests and
measures. The category also includes the reaction of the musculoskeletal system to tests and measures,
and the mechanics of body movement as related to the musculoskeletal system. Information covered in
these areas supports appropriate and effective patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of musculoskeletal system tests/measures and their applications (e.g.,
            manual muscle testing, isokinetic testing)
        •   Physiological response of the musculoskeletal system to various types of tests/measures
        •   Movement analysis including application of kinesiology/kinematics as related to the
            musculoskeletal system (e.g., observation of gait)

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of musculoskeletal system interventions as well as the impact on the musculoskeletal
system of interventions performed on other systems in order to support patient/client management across
the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of musculoskeletal system interventions and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the musculoskeletal system to various types of interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on musculoskeletal system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on musculoskeletal system from interventions used on
            other systems




                                                                                                          33
Neuromuscular & Nervous Systems

Clinical Application of Physical Therapy Principles and Foundational Sciences: This category refers
to the essential scientific principles, pathologies, diseases and conditions that serve as the foundation for
understanding neuromuscular/nervous system involvement in the treatment of patients/clients across the
lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the neuromuscular system
        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS)
        •   Diseases/conditions of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS)
        •   Diseases or conditions of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, ANS) in order to provide effective
            treatments
        •   Medical management of the neuromuscular/nervous system (e.g., medical tests, medications,
            surgical procedures)
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Motor control as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Motor learning as related to the neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Neurological functioning (e.g., cognition, affect, arousal, memory)

Data Collection: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of
neuromuscular/nervous system tests and measures. The category also includes the reaction of the
neuromuscular/nervous system to tests and measures, and the mechanics of body movement as related
to the neuromuscular/nervous system. Information covered in these areas supports appropriate and
effective patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of neuromuscular/nervous system data collection techniques and their
            applications (e.g., tests of deep and superficial sensation)
        •   Physiological response of the neuromuscular/nervous system to various types of
            test/measures
        •   Movement analysis including application of kinesiology/kinematics as related to the
            neuromuscular/nervous system (e.g., observation of gait, balance)

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of neuromuscular/nervous system interventions as well as the impact on the
neuromuscular/nervous system of interventions performed on other systems in order to support
patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of neuromuscular/nervous system interventions and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the neuromuscular/nervous system to various types of
            interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on neuromuscular/nervous system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on neuromuscular/nervous system from interventions
            used on other systems
        •   Motor control as related to neuromuscular/nervous system interventions
        •   Motor learning as related to neuromuscular/nervous system interventions




                                                                                                           34
Integumentary System

Clinical Application of Physical Therapy Principles and Foundational Sciences: This category refers
to the essential scientific principles, pathologies, diseases and conditions that serve as the foundation for
understanding integumentary system involvement in the treatment of patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the integumentary system
        •   Diseases/conditions of the integumentary system
        •   Diseases or conditions of the integumentary system in order to provide effective treatments
        •   Medical management of the integumentary system (e.g., medical tests, medications, surgical
            procedures)
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the integumentary system

Data Collection: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of integumentary
system tests and measures. The category also includes the reaction of the integumentary system to tests
and measures. Information covered in these areas supports appropriate and effective patient/client
management across the lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of integumentary system tests/measures and their applications (e.g.,
            measuring wound characteristics)
        •   Physiological response of the integumentary system to various types of tests/measures
        •   Movement analysis as related to the integumentary system (e.g., friction, shear, pressure,
            and scar)

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of integumentary system interventions as well as the impact on the integumentary system
of interventions performed on other systems in order to support patient/client management across the
lifespan.

        •   Appropriate types of integumentary system interventions and their applications
        •   Physiological response of the integumentary system to various types of interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on integumentary system
        •   Secondary effects or complications on integumentary system from interventions used on
            other systems
        •   Wound management techniques (e.g., nonselective debridement, dressings, topical agents)




                                                                                                          35
Metabolic & Endocrine Systems

Clinical Application of Physical Therapy Principles and Foundational Sciences: This category refers
to the essential scientific principles, pathologies, diseases and conditions that serve as the foundation for
understanding metabolic and endocrine systems’ involvement in the treatment of patients/clients across
the lifespan.

        •   Anatomy of the endocrine system
        •   Physiology and pathophysiology of the metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Diseases/conditions of the metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Diseases or conditions of the metabolic and endocrine systems in order to provide effective
            treatments
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)
        •   Effects of activity and exercise on the metabolic and endocrine systems

Data Collection: This category refers to awareness of the types and applications of metabolic and
endocrine tests and measures. The category also includes the reaction of the metabolic and endocrine
systems to tests and measures. Information covered in these areas supports appropriate and effective
patient/client management across the lifespan.

        •   Physiological response of the metabolic and endocrine systems to various types of
            tests/measures

Interventions: This category refers to the features (e.g., types, applications, responses, and potential
complications) of metabolic and endocrine systems interventions as well as the impact on the metabolic
and endocrine systems of interventions performed on other systems in order to support patient/client
management across the lifespan.

        •   Physiological response of the metabolic and endocrine systems to various types of
            interventions
        •   Secondary effects or complications from interventions on metabolic and endocrine systems
        •   Secondary effects or complications on metabolic and endocrine systems from interventions
            used on other systems




                                                                                                          36
Gastrointestinal System

Clinical Application of Physical Therapy Principles and Foundational Sciences: This category refers
to the awareness of diseases or conditions that serve as the foundation for understanding gastrointestinal
system involvement in the treatment of patients/clients across the lifespan.

        •   Diseases or conditions of the gastrointestinal system in order to provide effective treatments



Multi-System

Clinical Applications of Physical Therapy Principles and Foundational Sciences: This category
refers to the essential scientific principles, pathologies, diseases and conditions that serve as the
foundation for understanding multi-system involvement in the treatment of patients/clients across the
lifespan.

        •   Normal interrelationships among multiple systems
        •   Impact of co-morbidities/co-existing conditions on patient/client treatment (e.g., diabetes and
            hypertension obesity and arthritis; hip fracture and dementia)
        •   Diseases/conditions affecting multiple systems (e.g., cancer, pregnancy, morbid obesity)
        •   Diseases or conditions of multiple systems in order to provide effective treatments
        •   Medical management of multiple systems (e.g., medical tests, medications, surgical
            procedures)
        •   Physiological response to environmental factors and characteristics (e.g., air temperature,
            humidity, water temperature, water depth, buoyancy, altitude)



Equipment & Devices

This category refers to the different types of equipment and devices, use requirements and/or contextual
determinants, as well as any other influencing factors involved in the application of equipment and
devices in order to support patient/client treatment and management across the lifespan.

        •   Assistive and adaptive devices
        •   Prosthetic devices
        •   Orthotic devices
        •   Protective devices
        •   Supportive devices
        •   Gravity-assisted devices
        •   Bariatric equipment and devices


Therapeutic Modalities

This category refers to the underlying principles for the use of therapeutic modalities as well as the
justification for the use of the variety of types of therapeutic modalities employed to support patient/client
treatment and management across the lifespan.

        •   Indications, contraindications, and precautions of therapeutic modalities




                                                                                                             37
        •   Physical agents (e.g., athermal agents, cryotherapy, hydrotherapy, light agents, sound
            agents, thermotherapy)
        •   Mechanical modalities (e.g., compression therapies, mechanical motion devices, traction
            devices)
        •   Electrotherapeutic delivery of medications (e.g., iontophoresis)
        •   Electrical stimulation (e.g., Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), High Voltage Pulsed
            Current (HVPC), Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NES), TENS)


Safety, Protection, & Professional Roles

This category refers to the critical issues involved in patient/client safety and protection and the
responsibilities of healthcare providers to ensure that patient/client management and healthcare decisions
take place in a secure and trustworthy environment.

        •   Factors influencing patient/client safety (e.g., fall risk, use of restraints, use of equipment,
            environmental factors)
        •   Emergency preparedness (e.g., CPR, first aid, disaster response)
        •   Proper body mechanics
        •   Injury prevention
        •   Infection control procedures (e.g., standard/universal precautions)
        •   Legal obligations for reporting abuse and neglect
        •   Patient/client rights (e.g., ADA, IDEA, HIPAA)
        •   Human resource legal issues (e.g., OSHA, sexual harassment)
        •   Standards of documentation
        •   Risk guidelines (e.g., documentation, policies and procedures, incident reports)
        •   Roles and responsibilities of PTA in relation to PT and other healthcare professionals
        •   Roles and responsibilities of other healthcare professionals and support staff



Teaching & Learning

This category refers to the principles and theories of teaching and learning required to create a learning
environment in which information is effectively communicated to patients/clients to ensure that they
receive appropriate instruction designed to support patient/client management decisions.

        •   Teaching and learning strategies, theories, and techniques (e.g., cognitive, motor, motor)
        •   Communication skills (e.g., styles, verbal and noverbal modes)


Evidence-Based Practice

This category refers to the knowledge of basic research methodology and data collection techniques
necessary for interpretation of information sources and practice research to support patient/client
management fundamental to evidence-based practice.

        •   Outcome measures (e.g., suitability, applications)
        •   Data collection techniques (e.g., surveys, direct observation)
        •   Basic research concepts and interpretation (e.g., reliability, validity)




                                                                                                               38
System Specific Specifications – Physical Therapist Assistant
System             Percent of the Examination
Musculoskeletal            21.33%
Neuromuscular              20%
Cardiovascular/pulmonary 12.67%
Integumentary              6%
Other Systems              12.67%




                                                                39
Sample Questions
The sample questions that follow are illustrative of the type found on the Physical Therapist and Physical
Therapist Assistant examinations.




                                                                                                       40
PHYSICAL THERAPIST EXAMINTION

1. After sitting at a computer station for 2-3 hours, an individual reports experiencing a sharp, localized
pain in the left arm. When asked to show the location of the pain, the individual points to the area of the
insertion of the deltoid. The pain disappears when the individual stands up and walks around briefly.
Which of the following interventions is MOST likely to correct the problem?

    a.   Isometric strengthening of the deltoid
    b.   Lumbar extension exercises in prone
    c.   Instruction in correct postural alignment in sitting
    d.   Instruction in shoulder active range of motion exercises


2. A patient with a medullary level vascular lesion has increased vagal nerve activity. Which of the
following descriptions BEST represents the cardiovascular effects that occur when the patient transitions
from supine to standing?

    a.   Rise in blood pressure and no change in heart rate
    b.   Drop in blood pressure and no change in heart rate
    c.   Rise in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate
    d.   Drop in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate


3. A patient has used crutches with a partial weight-bearing toe touch gait for the past 3 months. When
progressed to full weight bearing, the patient is unable to demonstrate a heel-toe gait sequence with the
involved extremity. Which of the following disorders is the MOST likely origin of the gait abnormality?

    a.   Plantar fasciitis
    b.   Fibular (peroneal) nerve palsy
    c.   Heel cord tightness
    d.   Hammer toe



                               ANSWERS TO SAMPLE QUESTIONS: 1.c; 2.b; 3.c




                                                                                                          41
PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANT EXAMINATION

1. During a physical therapy evaluation, a patient with a sprain of the deltoid ligament of the ankle
reported pain with palpation of the affected area and with ankle motion that stresses the ligament. To
determine any change in the patient’s pain level during subsequent treatments, a physical therapist
assistant should perform which of the following actions?

    a.   Palpate anterior to the lateral malleolus, and passively plantar flex the ankle.
    b.   Palpate inferior to the medial malleolus, and passively evert the ankle.
    c.   Palpate over the sinus tarsi, and passively invert the ankle.
    d.   Palpate deep to the Achilles tendon, and passively dorsiflex the ankle.


2. Which of the following instructions would be MOST appropriate to give a patient who is learning
pursed-lip breathing?

    a.   Exhale through pursed lips while contracting abdominal muscles.
    b.   Exhale by blowing air out forcefully between pursed lips.
    c.   Exhale by relaxing air out through pursed lips.
    d.   Exhale in quick short puffs through pursed lips.


3. A patient with impaired kinesthesia who is performing active range of motion exercises of the upper
extremities will MOST likely require which of the following supplemental interventions?

    a.   Visual cues while performing the exercises
    b.   Pain-relieving modalities prior to performing the exercises
    c.   Trunk stabilization while performing the exercises
    d.   Stretching prior to performing the exercises



                             ANSWERS TO SAMPLE QUESTIONS: 1.b; 2.c; 3.a




                                                                                                         42
Additional Services
Any fees noted below are subject to change without notice. Please check online at www.fsbpt.org for current prices.

S CORE T RANSFER S ERVICE
The FSBPT Score Transfer Service was established to facilitate the endorsement of licenses from one jurisdiction to
another. Your participation in this service is entirely voluntary. In offering this service, FSBPT makes no
guarantees that any licensing authority will accept a score transfer in lieu of other jurisdiction requirements for the
purposes of licensure.
Transfer of your scores on the National Physical Therapy Examination may be requested any time after taking the
examination. Your scores are automatically reported to the jurisdiction licensing authority in which you are seeking
licensure. There is a reporting fee only when you transfer your scores to other jurisdictions.

P ERFORMANCE F EEDBACK
You may wish to purchase a detailed Performance Feedback Report from FSBPT which is a descriptive diagnostic
score report available to all PT and PTA candidates. You will be provided with two reports.
One will be based on all the areas within the Content Outline that have set specifications. You will get a scaled
score in each of these areas. You will also get a scaled score in each of the five system specific areas described in the
System Specific Specification summary. This service is only available for candidates who tested after June 1, 2000.
Requests can be submitted online by going to www.fsbpt.org or offline by submitting a Performance Feedback
Request form to FSBPT. The fee for this service is $90.00.

EXAMINATION SCORE VERIFICATION
You may request verification of your examination score by submitting an Examination Score Verification form to
FSBPT. This form is available on the FSBPT website and the fee for this service is $150.00. This service is only
available for candidates who tested after June 1, 2000. Requests will be processed by FSBPT within five days of
receipt. In deciding whether to have your score verified, please consider that examinations are scored electronically
with a high degree of accuracy. It is therefore unlikely that verification will alter your original score.

O NLINE PEAT (P RACTICE EXAM AND ASSESSMENT T OOL )
The Practice Exam and Assessment Tool is as similar to the real NPTE as possible so that you'll be able to identify
your strengths and potential pitfall areas. FSBPT's Online PEAT offers:
•   The same format and type of questions as the actual NPTE
•   Immediate and automatic scoring for your online practice examination
•   A detailed performance report by content area and system
•   Explanations and rationales behind correct answers
•   References to help you increase your knowledge
You can have access to Online PEAT for 30 days when you have paid the $90.00 access fee. If you decide you
need additional time, you can extend your access time for 15 days by paying an additional $45.00.
To order Online PEAT, please go to http://www.fsbpt.org and click on “Purchase PEAT”.




                                                                                                                       43

				
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