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Desuggestopedia Instructor: Shih-hui Sophia Chen Sophomore Class B Mondays, 13:10~15:00 Room 315 This method and the next few ones are affective-humanistic approach called by Celce-Murcia(1991); there is a respect for Ss‟ feelings. Georgi Lazanov believes as does Galeb Gattegno that LL can occur at a Intro. faster rate than ordinarily occurs. The reason of the inefficiency is that we set up psychological barriers to learning: 1) we fear we‟re unable to perform; 2) we‟ll be limited in our ability to learn; 3) we will fail. According to Lozanov and others: we may be using only 5 to 10 percent of our mental capacity. To make better use of our capacity, the limitations we think we have need to be “desuggested.” Desuggestopedia has been developed to help Ss eliminate the feeling they cannot be successful or the negative association they may have toward studying and to help them overcome the barriers to learning. One way the Ss‟ mental reserves are stimulated is through integration of the fine arts, an important contribution to the method made by Evelyna Gateva. Class and Location Classroom Observation - a university class in Egypt Ss level: beginning. Class meeting: 1) Two hours 2) Three mornings a week The authors noticed this classroom is different from all the others they‟ve been in so far. Everything is bright and colorful and there are several posters on the walls. Most of the posters are travel ones with scenes from the U.K; a few contain grammatical information. One has conjugation of “to be” and the subject pronouns; another has the object and possessive pronouns. There is also a table with some rhythm instruments on it. Next to the instruments are some hats, masks, and other props. T Behavior Ss Behavior T greets Ss in Arabic and Ss are told, “first, you‟ll all get explains they are about to begin to pick new names – English a new and exciting experience ones. It will be fun.” Ss are in LL. T says, “you won‟t need also told that they will need to try to learn. It‟ll just come new identities to go along with naturally.” the new experience. T shows the class a poster w/ Ss are familiar with these different English names printed alphabets from their previous in color in the Roman alphabet. study of French. T tells them they are each to One by one Ss say which name choose a name. She pronounces they have chosen and T is each names and has Ss repeat. pleased with their choices. T tells them they‟ll create an By T‟s using pantomime, T imaginary biography but for acts out various occupations. now they‟d just choose a Ss choose what they want to be. profession to go with the name. T Behavior Ss Behavior T greets each of Ss using their Through her actions Ss understand new names and asks them a the meaning and they reply “yes” or few Qs in English about their “no.” There‟s a lot of recycling of new occupations. the new language. T teaches them a short dialog After practicing with the group, Ss in which 2 people greet each introduce themselves to T. Then other and inquire what each they play various rhythm other does for a living. instruments as singing a name song. T announces to the class Ss are told to turn the page. On the they‟ll be beginning a new right page are 2 columns of print: In adventure. T distributes a 20- the left one is the English dialog; in page handout. the right, the Arabic translation. The handout contains a On the left page are comments in lengthy dialog entitled “To Arabic about certain English Voc. want to is to be able to,” items and grammatical structures Ss which T translates into Arabic. will encounter in the dialog. The items have been boldfaced in the dialog. Throughout the 20 pages are reproductions of classical paintings. T Behavior Ss Behavior Partly in Arabic and English and Ss are asked to pay attention to partly through pantomime, T the comments about Voc. And outlines the story in the dialog. grammar on the left-hand pages. T tells Ss in Arabic that she‟ll Ss are given sufficient time to read the dialog to them in look at both English and Arabic. English and they should follow T says to them, “Just enjoy.” along. T plays Mozart‟s Violin Concerto Ss follow along with T‟s voice. T in A. After some mins, T begins allows them enough time to to read in a quiet voice. silently read the translation in NL. T‟S reading seems to be molded Ss are encouraged to highlight by the music as she varies her and take notes during the session. intonation and keeps rhythm. T Behavior Ss Behavior T sometimes pauses for Ss to For 2 or 3 times at a time, the listen to the music. whole class stands and repeats after the T, joining voices to the music. The lesson pauses. When Ss Ss are asked to put down their return they see T has hung a scripts and just listen. painting of a calming scene in nature in front of the room. The 2nd time T reads the With the end of the 2nd reading, the dialog she seems to be class is over. No HW is assigned. speaking at a normal rate. T T says if the Ss want to do has changed the music. something, they could read over the The music is Water Music by dialog once before they get up in Handel. T makes no attempt the morning. this time to match w/ music. T Behavior Ss Behavior The next class: T indicates that she wants someone After greeting Ss and having else to wear the hat. A girl them introduce themselves with volunteers. 3 more hats are taken new identities, T ask Ss to take out and are distributed with lots of out the script again. playfulness. T pulls out a hat from a bag, puts it on her head and points to her self. T names a character from the dialog. T turns to 4 Ss wearing the hats When Ss finish reading their portion and asks them to read part of the of dialog, 4 different Ss get to wear dialog, imagining they are the the hats and continue reading the characters whose hats they‟re script. wearing T Behavior Ss Behavior T asks the following three Another four new volunteer are groups to read in different tone: told that they are auditioning for a Sad, angry and cheerful way role in a Broadway play and they respectively. want very much to win the role. T told them in order to impress The 1st group reads several pages the director, they must read the of the dialog in this manner and lines very dramatically. the rest of the groups do the same. T asks Qs in E about the dialog Ss are asked to repeat E lines after and asks Ss to give her E her and sometimes individual S is translation of an Arabic asked a Q from the dialog. sentence and vice versa. The environment remains playful. T teaches Ss a children‟s Ss are laughing and clapping as alphabet song containing they sing along. names and occupations. T Behavior Ss Behavior After the song, T has Ss stand The S catches the ball as he says, up and get in a circle. T takes „My name is Richard.‟ He is out a medium-sized soft ball to indicated by T to throw the ball to one S and asks him what his another S while posing a Q. name is in English. T corrects in a very soft voice Richard asks, “What you do?‟ saying “What do you do?” The S: “I am a conductor.” The game continues on in this manner with Ss posing Qs and throwing ball. The 2nd class is now over. Again, there‟s no HW assigned, other than to read over the dialog if Ss wish. During the 3rd class, Ss will continue working w/ this dialog. They will move toward using the new L in a creative way. Ss will play competitive games, do role plays and skits. Important Principles Learning is facilitated in a cheerful environment. Ss can learn from what‟s present in the environment. (Peripheral learning) T should recognize Ss bring certain psychological barriers to the learning situation. T should try to “desuggset” them. Ss feel more secure and open if they perform with a new identity. Songs can free the speech muscles and evoke positive emotions. T should integrate indirect positive suggestions into the learning situations. T should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary but not dwell on them. Fine art provides positive suggestions for Ss. Meaning is made clear through NL translation. Communication takes place on “two planes”: on one the linguistic message is encoded; on the other are the factors that influence the message. A calm state is ideal for overcoming psychological barriers and taking advantage of learning potential. The distinction between the times (before going to bed and just getting up) is most blurred and learning can occur. Dramatization is a particularly valuable way to activate the material. Fantasy reduces barriers to learning. The fine arts enable suggestions to reach the subconscious. Novelty aids acquisition. It‟s desirable that Ss achieve a state of “infantilization” so that they will more open to learning. Errors are corrected gently, not in a direct, confrontational manner.