A Return to Tradition in Derekh Ha Limmud

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					      A Return to Tradition in Derekh Ha-Limmud:
 Careful Analysis of Torah She-Bikhtav as a Prerequisite
            to Studying Torah She-B'al Peh
                                         Ami Hordes
                                        ATID 1998-1999

I. PROLOGUE

                                                                       ‫משנה מסכת אבות פרק ה, משנה כא‬

 ‫הוא היה אומר בן חמש שנים למקרא בן עשר למשנה בן שלש עשרה למצות בן חמש עשרה לתלמוד בן שמונה‬
 ‫עשרה לחופה בן עשרים לרדוף בן שלשים לכח בן ארבעים לבינה בן חמשים לעצה בן ששים לזקנה בן שבעים‬
                     :‫לשיבה בן שמונים לגבורה בן תשעים לשוח בן מאה כאילו מת ועבר ובטל מן העולם‬


         At a time when, thankfully, so many people are learning Torah and Jewish bookstore shelves

continuously display newly published sefarim, the serious study of Tanakh often is neglected – both in

how it is learned and whether it is even learned at all. This is true, for example, in many yeshiva high

school classrooms, where too often, Tanakh students will be sent to the mefarshim before “critically

examining” a text themselves, and then will be asked a question like, “What was bothering Rashi

here?” A related phenomenon occurs in many yeshivot, where the start of a new Masechet of Gemara

is rarely preceded by an analysis of the relevant passages of Tanakh. I know this from personal

experience. At the start of shana bet, instead of sitting down with Parshat Mishpatim, we dove right

into Bava Kamma and were learning acharonim on the very first day.

         This approach is backwards. Instead of jumping straight to the Gemara or running to Rashi

after a cursory reading of the text, students should be encouraged to read the text carefully themselves,

so they can uncover difficulties in the text – and maybe even the same question that was bothering

Rashi – before reading a commentary on that text.

         This in fact is the traditional approach of the Mishnah, as quoted above: “ ‫בן חמש שנים למקרא‬

‫[" ,”בן עשר למשנה‬The Jewish child] should begin studying Tanakh at 5 years old, and Mishnah at 10

years old." The Mishnah's derekh has two components. First, Torah She-Bikhtav must be the starting

point in studying Torah and second, the student must invest significant time studying it thoroughly,

before moving on to Mishnah. This is sensible, given that Torah She-B'al Peh is based on and rooted

in Torah She-Bikhtav.
         Since reflecting on my shana bet experience at the beginning of college, I have been

developing this derekh for my personal learning. But the ideas really began to take shape while I was

in law school, where I realized both the importance of critical textual analysis and that logically, the

best way to understand a commentary on a text is to understand that original text first. A lawyer needs

to know the facts of a case before he can apply the law to them, and must examine those facts with a

sharp eye in order to develop his own interpretation and to be able to understand the interpretations of

others such as opposing counsel or judges. In a similar way, familiarity with Torah She-Bikhtav is a

prerequisite for a student to truly appreciate and understand Torah She-B'al Peh.

         As I have come to learn, however, this adjustment calls for more than simply becoming

familiar with the text; it requires active learning. This involves thinking logically, asking questions,

proposing answers, imagining situations under which the laws come into affect, and rereading the

section in light of each new idea presented to see if it is true to the text. It means critically examining

the chosen text and assessing the impact that other Biblical sections have on it.

         There are many advantages to this approach beyond its fundamental logic. It challenges

students to be more actively involved in the learning process, and thus is more intellectually

stimulating for them. It sharpens the students’ understanding of the text, enabling them to identify

problematic passages and search for creative solutions. It aims to parallel the same thought processes

through which Hazal must have gone, allowing students to anticipate issues that will be raised in Torah

She-B'al Peh and thereby putting them in a better position to appreciate the commentaries and

interpretations therein. Finally, it is much more gratifying for the student. There is no comparison

between the feeling you get from reading a nice question in Rashi versus the feeling you get upon

discovering that Rashi’s nice question is the very same question you yourself raised while preparing the

text beforehand.

         Given my background in law, I decided to develop this derekh for my ATID project with

respect to legal texts in general, and chose to examine Parshat Nazir, Bamidbar 6:1-21, in particular.

The derekh involves four stages of analysis and the body of the paper walks the reader very carefully

through the first three. The first level is a critical examination of the text and introduces various

techniques through which the student can become active in the learning process. This includes

defining the parameters of each law as precisely as possible, imagining hypothetical situations in which

the laws are put into effect, and rearranging the section in outline form. The second level looks at the
impact of the rest of Chumash on the Parsha. Here, the student will use the same analytical techniques

as above, but will be looking for, among other things, additional treatments of the laws applicable to

the nazir, conflicting laws, passages similar to that of Parshat Nazir and narratives which apply its laws.

This analysis opens the door to exploring hashkafic implications, and the conceptual framework, of the

halakhic section being studied. The original text then is outlined, and the questions raised by the first

two levels are incorporated into that outline in preparation for the final two levels, which shift focus to

Torah She-B'al Peh. The third level then looks at Mishnayot Nazir and puts the derekh to the test, by

asking: To what extent do the Mishnayot deal with the issues raised in the first two levels of analysis?

To what degree did those analyses prepare the student for studying the Mishnah? In addition, some

Mishnayot are examined to see which fit in with the text and which seem problematic and will require

further explanation. The paper concludes by briefly introducing the fourth level, which adapts the type

of analysis applied to the Mishnah for use with other sources of Torah She-B'al Peh.

         One final note. Given that my two-fold purpose is to engage the reader in the learning process

and to demonstrate a derekh ha-limmud, the paper is written as if communicating directly with the

student, and thus has an interactive tone.
    II. THE DEREKH1

    A. Torah She-Bikhtav

    1. Level 1: Critical Examination of the Original Source Text

             Assume that you are a shana alef student, and your school has decided to learn Masechet Nazir.

    What is the first thing you need to do to prepare yourself for this task? The answer, clearly, is to study

    the relevant sections in the Torah.2 In this case, Parshat Nazir, Bamidbar 6:1-21, represents Chumash's

    entire treatment of the subject, but as we will see later on, it is far from being a self-contained unit.

             For you to really appreciate what is written in Torah She-B'al Peh, you must go through the same

    thought process that Hazal themselves went through as they formulated their conclusions. 3 This is the

    best way to prepare yourself for what you will find in the Mishnah or the mefarshim, because by

    following the path taken by past Torah scholars, you are likely to identify some of the issues that troubled

    them and anticipate some of their solutions as well.

             To get started, read through the text for the first time. Since we will be referring back to it

    repeatedly throughout the process, I have quoted it here in its entirety.


                                                                                                     ‫במדבר פרק ו‬

                                                                              :‫(א) וידבר ידוד אל משה לאמר‬
                          :‫(ב) דבר אל בני ישראל ואמרת אלהם איש או אשה כי יפלא לנדר נדר נזיר להזיר לידוד‬
       :‫(ג) מיין ושכר יזיר חמץ יין וחמץ שכר לא ישתה וכל משרת ענבים לא ישתה וענבים לחים ויבשים לא יאכל‬
                                            :‫(ד) כל ימי נזרו מכל אשר יעשה מגפן היין מחרצנים ועד זג לא יאכל‬
      :‫(ה) כל ימי נדר נזרו תער לא יעבר על ראשו עד מלאת הימם אשר יזיר לידוד קדש יהיה גדל פרע שער ראשו‬
                                                                   :‫(ו) כל ימי הזירו לידוד על נפש מת לא יבא‬
                                    :‫(ז) לאביו ולאמו לאחיו ולאחתו לא יטמא להם במתם כי נזר אלהיו על ראשו‬
                                                                             :‫(ח) כל ימי נזרו קדש הוא לידוד‬
               :‫(ט) וכי ימות מת עליו בפתע פתאם וטמא ראש נזרו וגלח ראשו ביום טהרתו ביום השביעי יגלחנו‬
                                   :‫(י) וביום השמיני יבא שתי תרים או שני בני יונה אל הכהן אל פתח אהל מועד‬
           :‫(יא) ועשה הכהן אחד לחטאת ואחד לעלה וכפר עליו מאשר חטא על הנפש וקדש את ראשו ביום ההוא‬
                    :‫(יב) והזיר לידוד את ימי נזרו והביא כבש בן שנתו לאשם והימים הראשנים יפלו כי טמא נזרו‬
                                         :‫(יג) וזאת תורת הנזיר ביום מלאת ימי נזרו יביא אתו אל פתח אהל מועד‬
‫(יד) והקריב את קרבנו לידוד כבש בן שנתו תמים אחד לעלה וכבשה אחת בת שנתה תמימה לחטאת ואיל אחד תמים‬
                                                                                                   :‫לשלמים‬
                               :‫(טו) וסל מצות סלת חלת בלולת בשמן ורקיקי מצות משחים בשמן ומנחתם ונסכיהם‬
                                                       :‫(טז) והקריב הכהן לפני ידוד ועשה את חטאתו ואת עלתו‬
                           :‫(יז) ואת האיל יעשה זבח שלמים לידוד על סל המצות ועשה הכהן את מנחתו ואת נסכו‬
     :‫(יח) וגלח הנזיר פתח אהל מועד את ראש נזרו ולקח את שער ראש נזרו ונתן על האש אשר תחת זבח השלמים‬


     1
       The author would like to thank Rabbi Zvi Grumet for providing advice, guidance and encouragement
    as I put this project together.
     2
       Of course, the amount of Biblical text on a topic can vary and sometimes the treatment of a subject in
    Chumash is so brief that this type of analysis will be difficult. My purpose here is to show that there
    are legal texts in the Torah which lend themselves to this type of examination, and that in those
    instances, a careful analysis of the text can be extremely beneficial in advance of studying Torah She-
    B'al Peh.
     3
       In his presentation to ATID, Rabbi Menachem Leibtag made a similar point with respect to the
    thematic approaches to Chumash developed by some mefarshim. According to Rabbi Leibtag, since
    these commentators must have gone through thematic analyses of the text, we must repeat that same
    process ourselves in order to fully understand their ideas.
‫(יט) ולקח הכהן את הזרע בשלה מן האיל וחלת מצה אחת מן הסל ורקיק מצה אחד ונתן על כפי הנזיר אחר התגלחו את‬
                                                                                                       :‫נזרו‬
      :‫(כ) והניף אותם הכהן תנופה לפני ידוד קדש הוא לכהן על חזה התנופה ועל שוק התרומה ואחר ישתה הנזיר יין‬
  :‫(כא) זאת תורת הנז יר אשר ידר קרבנו לידוד על נזרו מלבד אשר תשיג ידו כפי נדרו אשר ידר כן יעשה על תורת נזרו‬


                At first glance, the section seems relatively straightforward. Here is a brief summary:

       To be told to the Jews:

       A. If a man or woman takes a nazirite vow, then during the period of nezirut, he or she (1) may not eat or

       drink grape products, (2) must grow their hair wild and may not get a haircut, and (3) may not be m'tamei

       to any meit, including immediate relatives.

       B. If someone dies suddenly in the presence of the nazir, the nazir becomes tahor on the 7th day and must

       shave his hair. On the 8th day, he must bring various korbanot – chatat, asham and olah – and must restart

       counting the nazirite period again from the beginning.

       C. At the end of the nazirite period, the nazir must go to the ohel moed and must bring korbanot chatat,

       shlamim, olah and tenufah, along with their associated libations and meal offerings. He shaves his hair

       and drinks wine.

                Now ask yourself: after having read the text once, do you feel comfortable enough with the

       material to start studying the Masechet? You shouldn’t. To see why, let's first identify Mishnah's

       place within the context of Jewish law as a whole. Jewish law has two components, the Written Law

       and the Oral Law. The Written Law is Torah She-Bikhtav. The Oral Law, Torah She-B'al Peh, is "the

       authoritative interpretation of the Written Law."4 Critical examination of the Biblical text as a

       technique for this interpretation began as early as the time of Ezra, during the Second Temple period.5

       Eventually, the rules of Biblical exegesis were consolidated into 13 methods of interpretation, 6 which

       were used to architect the Haklakhic Midrashim during the Tannaitic period in the second century CE.

       The Mishnah, commonly referred to as the first code of Jewish law because it is organized by subject

       matter, was produced toward the end of this period, and the halakhic statements therein generally were

       derived by using the same principles of interpretation. For our purposes, the 13 methods can be
        4
          See ENCYCLOPEDIA JUDAICA, vol. 12, p. 1439, s.v. Oral Law (1971) (emphasis added).
        5
          See Ezra 7:10, "For Ezra dedicated himself to interpret (lidrosh) the Torah of the Lord so as to
       observe it, and to teach laws and rules to Israel," and Menachem Elon, JEWISH LAW: HISTORY,
       SOURCES, PRINCIPLES, translated by Bernard Auerbach and Melvin J. Sykes, vol. 1, p. 313 (1994),
       adding, "to study the Torah using methods of interpretation (midrash) in order to teach the people the
       Torah's laws and rules." See also Elon, id. at 313, saying that the public Torah reading conducted by
       Ezra in Nechmiah 8:1-8 "was not confined to reading and explaining the Torah, but involved
       application of intelligence and discernment, and analytical study of sections and verses through
       midrashic interpretation."
        6
          Actually, there was a dispute between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yishmael about the methods of
       Biblical interpretation, but the differences are not critical here.
summarized into the following categories: (1) basic explanation of the content of the text, (2) rules of

inference, (3) interaction with other Torah texts, and (4) fundamental logic. 7

         Now think about the kind of effort required to interpret a text based on these techniques.

Hazal must have spent countless hours reading texts, discussing, reviewing, and reexamining each and

every word, detail, implication and nuance. They had to raise questions. They had to propose

solutions and reinsert those ideas back into the text to see if they harmonized with the section as a

whole. In short, they must have learned actively. They must have critically examined the text.

         You must do the same. You must confront the text, analyze it, interact with it. You must use

your own sense of logic and your own life experience to relate to the text. In doing so, you will connect

back to Torah scholars of the past by grappling with some of the same problems that they did, and at the

same time you will carry on the tradition of Torah study.

         By using basic principles of textual interpretation, I hope to show the complexity of a text that

initially seems relatively simple, while at the same time demonstrating the great value in taking the time

to analyze the text before jumping to the Mishnah or Gemara. I believe that employing this derekh of

learning will not only better prepare you for studying Torah She-B'al Peh, but the very fact that you will

be active in the learning process will make the study of Torah a more enjoyable experience.

         a. Parameters

         The practical aim of legal interpretation is to work towards more precisely defining the

parameters of each law within the dimensions of space and time. Thus, in analyzing a legal text, you

should ask parametric questions about each law it presents, such as: To whom does the law apply? How

does the law come into force? When does the law apply? Etc.

         Read Parshat Nazir again with these issues in mind. Do we have any answers?

         1. To whom do the laws apply? Jewish men and women (pasuk 2).

         2. How do the laws come into force? Voluntarily, by expressing a vow (pasuk 2).

         3. When do the laws apply? During a person's nazirite period (pesukim 4,5,6,8).

But it's not that simple. These terms need more precise definitions. For example, "Jewish man" and

"Jewish woman" – do these terms have age parameters? In other words, are children subject to the

nazirite laws? Take another example, the dimension of time. We are told that there are at least ‫, ימי נזרו‬

"the days of his nezirut," (pesukim 4,5,8), and pasuk 13 refers to the "end" of nezirut. But the exact

7
  Logical interpretation "plays an important role in the methods of interpretation in Jewish law,
although it, too, is not listed as one of the thirteen canons." See Elon, supra note 5, at 319.
length of the period is not defined. We are not even certain when precisely the period ends – it might be

just before, sometime during, or after the concluding procedure. Here's a third example. What

constitutes a properly expressed nazirite vow? What exactly do you have to say? And finally, just what

is a nazir? Is it merely someone who is subject to these three prohibitions? If a person takes three

separate vows for these three prohibitions does he make himself a nazir thereby?

         The precision of these definitions has practical implications for real life situations. For instance,

we are told that if the nazir is m'tamei l'meit during the nezirut period, he must restart counting his nezirut

from the beginning (pasuk 12). Thus, it is critical to know exactly when the period ends, since if he is

m'tamei l'meit one second before the period ends, he must start his nezirut anew.

         By asking these questions, we have initiated a critical examination of the text. The next step in

the active learning process is to try to find answers. Let's take a closer look at the precise end of the

nezirut period to see if we can use the text to help define this parameter more precisely. Read pasuk 18

again. Here, at the conclusion of his nezirut, the nazir is told to perform an act – haircutting – which

normally would constitute a violation of his nezirut if performed during the nezirut period. What does

this tell us about the timing of that haircut? It implies that the precise end of the period occurs at some

point before that haircut.

         By simply thinking about this pasuk critically, we seem to be a step closer to identifying the

precise end of the nezirut period. It is important to note here, however, that the conclusions we come to

based on our own careful reading will not necessarily turn out to be the halakha. 8 Among other things,

our reasoning might be faulty, there may be other methods of interpretation that take precedence over the

techniques we applied, or a received tradition of which we were unaware might be in play. Nevertheless,

if our conclusions stem from an analysis that is logical, it is likely that Torah She-B'al Peh was sensitive

to that reading and attempted to explain why the halakha does not follow what appears to be the simple

meaning of the text. Regardless, it is the process, not the conclusions that it yields, that is important. 9



8
  For example, it may turn out that this haircut is an exception to the nazirite prohibition against
haircutting, in which case its timing would not be relevant in determining the exact end of the period.
9
  Hazal themselves recognized this point. See, e.g., Mishnah in Nazir 7:4:

   ‫אמר רבי אליעזר משום רבי יהושע כל טומאה מן המת שהנזיר מגלח עליה חייבין עליה על ביאת מקדש וכל‬
    ‫טומאה מן המת שאין הנזיר מגלח עליה אין חייבין עליה על ביאת מקדש אמר רבי מאיר לא תהא זו קלה מן‬
   ‫השרץ אמר רבי עקיבא דנתי לפני רבי אליעזר מה אם עצם כשעורה שאינו מטמא אדם באהל הנזיר מגלח על‬
 ‫מגעו ועל משאו רביעית דם שהוא מטמא אדם באהל אינו דין שיהא הנזיר מגלח על מגעה ועל משאה אמר לי‬
  ‫מה זה עקיבא אין דנין כאן מקל וחומר וכשבאתי והרציתי דברים לפני רבי יהושע אמר לי יפה אמרת אלא כן‬
                                                                                      :‫אמרו הלכה‬
         b. Rereading the Text

         To properly probe a text, it is vital to reread it often, especially in light of new questions,

thoughts and approaches raised during the analytic process. This is the best way to test the validity of a

new idea. Does the entire text, including its simple meaning, implied meaning, word structure,

phraseology, etc, support the idea?

         Take the analysis we just did and read Parshat Nazir again with those ideas in mind. Does our

analysis affect another part of the text? Look at pasuk 9, instructing the nazir to cut his hair if someone

dies unexpectedly in his presence. The same point we made about the haircut in pasuk 18 can be made

here – this normally would violate the nezirut! Does this mean that he is no longer a "nazir" at this point?

Does his status change as a result of being m'tamei l'meit? Read through the text again and see if it

provides any clues. In pasuk 12, we are told that after the cleansing process is completed on the 8 th day,

the nazir must restart his nezirut period, and in fact the words "‫ "והזיר לידוד את ימי נזרו‬indicate that he

does so by retaking his vow. What does that mean for the interim period, while he is tamei? If he will

not restart his nezirut period until after the cleaning process, is he a nazir during it? Are the nazirite

prohibitions suddenly suspended?

         c. Hypothetical Examples

         A useful technique for examining legal parameters which goes beyond simply reading and

rereading the text is the hypothetical case. This tool allows us to isolate issues by using our imagination

to formulate concrete circumstances under which a law applies, and at the same time helps us relate to the

legal context with a real-life situation. For our first hypothetical example ("HYPO"), look at pesukim 9-

12. In this section, the Torah tells us that if someone dies suddenly in the nazir's presence (peta pitom),

the nazir must restart his nezirut upon completing the cleansing period. Notice here that this violation of

the prohibition against being m'tamei l'meit was unintended and completely out of the nazir's control.

Let's look more closely at the issue of intent with a hypothetical example.

         HYPO 1: The nazir is m'tamei l'meit on purpose. Must he restart his count here, just as in the

peta pitom case?




Despite Rabbi Yehoshua's praise for Rabbi Akiva's correct use of the kal vachomer method of legal
reasoning, the latter is told that the halakha is not in accordance with the outcome of his analysis,
because of overriding interpretive principles. By quoting his opinion and Rabbi Yehoshua's reaction to
it, however, the Mishnah emphasizes that while Rabbi Akiva's conclusion was rejected, his thought
process itself was inherently valuable.
The Torah does not give us the answer, but maybe we can figure it out ourselves. In the peta pitom case,

the nazir must restart his count most likely either (1) as a consequence of becoming tamei, 10 in which case

his intent is irrelevant and he would have to restart his count even if he was m'tamei on purpose, or (2)

because he is being punished for violating the prohibition. If it is a punishment, then we can use the kal

vachomer11 to reason that if the Torah considers an unintentional violation deserving of punishment, it

certainly would consider an intentional violation deserving of that same punishment.

         d. Hashkafic Implications

         Sometimes a "purely" legal analysis can result in non-legal, hashkafic questions.

         HYPO 2: Someone suddenly, and without warning, dies in the presence of the nazir. The

cleansing procedure then requires the nazir to restart counting the period from the beginning (pasuk 12).

Why does the nazir deserve a punishment here? 12 Granted, the m'tamei l'meit prohibition was,

technically, violated – but it was through no fault of the nazir! Furthermore, why must the nazir bring a

sin offering and a guilt offering here (pesukim 10-11)? Why should the nazir be blamed for something

beyond his control?

         A similar hashkafic question can be raised regarding the ending period.

         HYPO 3: The nazir manages to complete his entire nezirut period without violating a single

prohibition. Why, then, does the Torah instruct him to bring a sin offering as part of the concluding

procedure (pasuk 14)? What is the nazir's sin here? Is there something negative about nezirut in general?

Read the text again, and strengthen the question. How do you reconcile this sin offering with pasuk 8,

which says: ‫" ,כל ימי נזרו קדש הוא לידוד‬For the entire nezirut period, the nazir is holy to God." If taking

the nazirite vow elevates the individual to the status of "holy", how can this be a sin as well?

         e. Outlining

         Another useful tool for examining a legal text is the outline. Outlining allows you to rearrange

the given set of rules in your own way and provides another perspective from which to view the text. The

creative process involved in generating an outline, as well as the outline itself, can open up new lines of

thinking, reveal new difficulties, and sharpen questions already raised. In Outline 1 (see Appendix for all

outlines), I have rearranged the laws as presented by the pesukim in a manner logical and familiar to me

based on my experience with legal codes. We actually could have looked at Outline 1 right after having

10
    A status which cannot coexist with his holiness (pasuk 8).
11
    One of the original 13 methods of Biblical interpretation. A fortiori in Latin.
 12
    This line of analysis is relevant, of course, only to the opinion in the previous section that this is a
punishment, and not merely a consequence of becoming tamei.
read Parshat Nazir for the first time (in place of the summary I wrote above), but I am introducing it here

so that it immediately precedes our look at Outline 2, which will incorporate all the issues we have raised

in this first level of analysis.

          One benefit of having an outline is that it can help you spot inconsistencies. Read through

Outline 1. Notice that in section "D", detailing the three nazirite prohibitions, there is a subsection called

"Violation" under m'tamei l'meit only. If you hadn't notice this incongruity before, the outline highlights

it for you. Let's explore this idea further.

          HYPO 4: What if other people shave the nazir's hair while he is sleeping?

          HYPO 5: What if other people force wine down the nazir's throat?

The text gives us no insight into what consequences, if any, there are in these cases. In particular, we

should be curious to know if the consequences are the same as peta pitom: does the nazir have to restart

his count in these cases? Must he bring korbanot?

          Outlines also can be used to track the analytic process as it develops. Look at Outline 2. This is

actually just an expanded version of Outline 1, different only in that it incorporates (in underlined text)

some of the thoughts and questions raised by our first level examination of the text. This technique

should be repeated at every level of the learning process.

          f. Summary

          What have we gained by this first level of analysis? By carefully examining the text and

thinking critically about it, we are now better prepared for the next level of analysis, Parshat Nazir's

interaction with the rest of Torah She-Bikhtav, because we already are familiar with the text, and have an

understanding of the topic, an outline of its rules and a list of issues that are in need of further analysis.



2. Level 2: The Rest Of Chumash

          After spending a significant amount of time analyzing the original source text as a self-contained

entity and arming ourselves with numerous questions about it, we are now ready to investigate what

impact other sections of Chumash13 have on this first level of examination and what new difficulties will

arise based on them.14 This second stage of analysis, which will round out Torah She-Bikhtav's treatment



13
   Nach's treatment of the subject also is important, but it is beyond the scope of this paper.
14
   Because the level of familiarity with Chumash varies greatly from person to person, many will need
help identifying these sections. While the nature of that assistance is beyond the scope of this paper,
this point underscores the importance of the general derekh proposed by the Mishnah Avot quoted at
of the subject, is equally as important as the first level because Torah She-B'al Peh interprets the entire

Written Law as a single unit. Thus, to fully recreate the process Hazal went through, you must analyze

the text's interaction with Torah She-Bikhtav as a whole. In the case of Parshat Nazir, we are looking for

texts which deal with, or make reference to, the following subjects:

                    (1) Neder
                    (2) Grape-product consumption
                    (3) Haircut
                    (4) Contact with the dead
                    (5) Korbanot

         a. Neder

         Because nazir is a type of neder (pasuk 2), it is subject to the laws of nedarim in general. This

means that the full set of nazir laws, at the Torah She-Bikhtav level, goes beyond what is written in our

text. It also means that Parshat Nazir is not a self-contained unit. The entire section must be read in light

of its broader context as a neder, with the laws of nedarim in mind. Let's take two of the most significant

neder laws: (1) annulment of vows (Bamidbar 30:2-17) and (2) the prohibition against late fulfillment,

(Devarim 23:22), and, as usual, plug this new information back into our text.

                    (1) Annulment

                                                                                              ‫במדבר פרק ל‬

                              :‫(ב) וידבר משה אל ראשי המטות לבני ישראל לאמר זה הדבר אשר צוה ידוד‬
         :‫(ג) איש כי ידר נדר לידוד או השבע שבעה לאסר אסר על נפשו לא יחל דברו ככל היצא מפיו יעשה‬
                                             :‫(ד) ואשה כי תדר נדר לידוד ואסרה אסר בבית אביה בנעריה‬
‫(ה) ושמע אביה את נדרה ואסרה אשר אסרה על נפשה והחריש לה אביה וקמו כל נדריה וכל אסר אשר אסרה‬
                                                                                      :‫על נפשה יקום‬
‫(ו) ואם הניא אביה אתה ביום שמעו כל נדריה ואסריה אשר אסרה על נפשה לא יקום וידוד יסלח לה כי הניא‬
                                                                                         :‫אביה אתה‬
                             :‫(ז) ואם היו תהיה לאיש ונדריה עליה או מבטא שפתיה אשר אסרה על נפשה‬
                     :‫(ח) ושמע אישה ביום שמעו והחריש לה וקמו נדריה ואסרה אשר אסרה על נפשה יקמו‬
‫(ט) ואם ביום שמע אישה יניא אותה והפר את נדרה אשר עליה ואת מבטא שפתיה אשר אסרה על נפשה וידוד‬
                                                                                           :‫יסלח לה‬
                                              :‫(י) ונדר אלמנה וגרושה כל אשר אסרה על נפשה יקום עליה‬
                                                :‫(יא) ואם בית אישה נדרה או אסרה אסר על נפשה בשבעה‬
             :‫(יב) ושמע אישה והחרש לה לא הניא אתה וקמו כל נדריה וכל אסר אשר אסרה על נפשה יקום‬
  ‫(יג) ואם הפר יפר אתם אישה ביום שמעו כל מוצא שפתיה לנדריה ולאסר נפשה לא יקום אישה הפרם וידוד‬
                                                                                           :‫יסלח לה‬
                                         :‫(יד) כל נדר וכל שבעת אסר לענת נפש אישה יקימנו ואישה יפרנו‬
‫(טו) ואם החרש יחריש לה אישה מיום אל יום והקים את כל נדריה או את כל אסריה אשר עליה הקים אתם כי‬
                                                                                :‫החרש לה ביום שמעו‬
                                                       :‫(טז) ואם הפר יפר אתם אחרי שמעו ונשא את עונה‬
                 ‫(יז) אלה החקים אשר צוה ידוד את משה בין איש לאשתו בין אב לבתו בנעריה בית אביה: פ‬


         Having read this text, we are now aware that a concept of annulment exists with respect to

nedarim. Specifically, we know that if a woman takes a vow, then sometimes it can be annulled by her

father or her husband on the day he hears it. This means that one of our original categories of

the outset, to focus the Torah education of our young children on Mikra first. A solid background in
Torah She-Bikhtav will lay the groundwork necessary for doing deeper analyses as they grow older.
applicability – to whom do the nazirite laws apply? – has an exception, and this new piece of information

allows us to define the rule's parameters more precisely. A Jewish woman that takes a nazirite vow is not

subject to its laws if her father / husband annuls the vow on the day he hears it. As we put together

Outline 3, which will incorporate into Outline 1 issues raise by the Level 2 investigation, we are now able

to add a completely new section about annulment (section "C/D").

                  (2) Prohibition Against Late Fulfillment ("Lo T'acher")

                                                                                              ‫דברים פרק כג‬

             :‫(כב) כי תדר נדר לידוד אלהיך לא תאחר לשלמו כי דרש ידרשנו ידוד אלהיך מעמך והיה בך חטא‬

          This law gives us a good opportunity for active learning. Reread Parshat Nazir with this

prohibition in mind. Did you notice how this law might be triggered in the peta pitom case, in which the

nazir must restart counting the nezirut period after he becomes tahor? This obviously will cause him to

fulfill his vow later than originally intended. Does the nazir thereby violate "lo t'acher"? Actually,

maybe not, since lo t'acher seems to prohibit intentional delay, while the nazir's delay here was accidental.

Note that this answer turns on the nazir's intent to be m'tamei l'meit. Sound familiar? Let's revisit HYPO

1.

          HYPO 1, take two: What if the nazir is m'tamei l'meit on purpose?

In dealing with this case originally, we noted that the nazir would have to recount if he was m'tamei on

purpose regardless of whether the obligation to recount was a punishment or as a consequence of his

becoming tamei. Thus, if the nazir is m'tamei l'meit intentionally, then he has also knowingly delayed

fulfillment of his nazirite vow, and probably has violated lo t'acher as well.

                  (3) Conditions

          Sometimes a narrative has legal implications.

                                                                                    ‫בראשית פרק כח‬
     ‫(כ) וידר יעקב נדר לאמר אם יהיה אלהים עמדי ושמרני בדרך הזה אשר אנכי הולך ונתן לי לחם לאכל ובגד‬
                                                                                            :‫ללבש‬
                                                  :‫(כא) ושבתי בשלום אל בית אבי והיה ידוד לי לאלהים‬
                    :‫(כב) והאבן הזאת אשר שמתי מצבה יהיה בית אלהים וכל אשר תתן לי עשר אעשרנו לך‬


Here, Yaakov takes a neder that "If Hashem will be with me … then I will set aside a tithe for Him." "If,

then" is a classic contingency formula. Yaakov's neder, to set aside a tithe, will only take effect if the

contingency, that Hashem is with him, is fulfilled. This story suggests15 that nedarim can be conditional,



15
    I say "suggests" here rather than the more conclusive "teaches" because the latter would raise the
issue of whether or not halakhot can be learned from the Avot, a topic which Hazal debated and which
is beyond the scope of this paper.
 and helps us further narrow the definition of who is subject to the laws of nazir. If a person makes his

 nazirite vow contingent on something, then he is only subject to the laws of nazir if that condition is met.

             b. Conflicting Laws: Haircut

                                                                                                   ‫ויקרא פרק כא‬

        ‫(י) והכהן הגדול מאחיו אשר יוצק על ראשו שמן המשחה ומלא את ידו ללבש את הבגדים את ראשו לא יפרע‬
                                                                                    :‫ובגדיו לא יפרם‬

                                                                                                    ‫ויקרא פרק יד‬

                                                                        :‫(א) וידבר ידוד אל משה לאמר‬
                                              … :‫(ב) זאת תהיה תורת המצרע ביום טהרתו והובא אל הכהן‬
 ‫(ח) וכבס המטהר את בגדיו וגלח את כל שערו ורחץ במים וטהר ואחר יבוא אל המחנה וישב מחוץ לאהלו שבעת‬
                                                                                              :‫ימים‬
 ‫(ט) והיה ביום השביעי יגלח את כל שערו את ראשו ואת זקנו ואת גבת עיניו ואת כל שערו יגלח וכבס את בגדיו‬
                                                                            :‫ורחץ את בשרו במים וטהר‬


             The laws of metzora and Kohen Gadol are of particular interest in the context of studying

 Parshat Nazir, because the Torah requires these individuals to get a haircut at certain times. This raises a

 general question about how Jewish law handles a situation of conflicting directives, and specifically

 opens the door here for numerous hypotheticals. For example:

             HYPO 6: What happens if a nazir becomes a metzora or a Kohen Gadol? Does he get his hair

 cut or not?

             HYPO 7: A person already is a metzora or a Kohen Gadol, but wants to become a nazir. Given

 that he knows he will be required to cut his hair at some point because of his current status, would such a

 vow even take affect? And if so, is he permitted to take the nazirite vow, knowing that the conflict will

 arise?

             This consideration actually has already been a part of our analysis. When we first looked at the

 haircuts that the nazir himself is told to take, our suggestion that, at the time of the haircut, the person no

 longer had a status of nazir – whether because his nezirut was suspended or because it had ended –

 resulted from a desire to avoid a conflict with the nazir's haircut prohibition. 16

             c. Impact of Other Laws: Parshat Para Aduma


                                                                                                ‫במדבר פרק יט‬

    :‫(י) וכבס האסף את אפר הפרה את בגדיו וטמא עד הערב והיתה לבני ישראל ולגר הגר בתוכם לחקת עולם‬
                                                      :‫(יא) הנגע במת לכל נפש אדם וטמא שבעת ימים‬
…:‫(יב) הוא יתחטא בו ביום השלישי וביום השביעי יטהר ואם לא יתחטא ביום השלישי וביום השביעי לא יטהר‬
 ‫(כ) ואיש אשר יטמא ולא יתחטא ונכרתה הנפש ההוא מתוך הקהל כי את מקדש ידוד טמא מי נדה לא זרק עליו‬

                                                                                                     :‫טמא הוא‬

  16
       See above, section 1.a.
         Parshat Para Aduma describes the cleansing process for someone who becomes tamei from a

human corpse, and helps us understand the nazir's peta pitom case. In the text quoted above, we are told

that a m'tameit l'meit is tamei for 7 days (19:11) and that he becomes tahor at the end of the 7th day if the

red heifer's ashes are sprinkled properly on the 3d and 7 th days. This explains why our pasuk 9 says that

the 7th day after the nazir becomes tamei is ‫" ,יום טהרתו‬his day of purification". The nazir does not just

automatically become tahor on the 7th day, but rather Parshat Nazir contemplates that the nazir will go

through the cleansing process outlined in Parshat Para Aduma, by which he becomes tahor after the 7th

day. Let's tease this out further. The cleansing procedure provides that if the sprinkling is not done

properly on the 3d or 7th days, then the person does not become tahor (19:12). In other words, he is still

tamei (19:20). And if he is still tamei, he still must redo at least part of the cleansing procedure in order

to become tahor, thus delaying the day he becomes tahor.

         HYPO 8: Assume there is a mistake in the sprinkling process, which delays when the nazir

becomes tahor. What effect does this have on the nazir? Look at the peta pitom pesukim again. Does the

nazir have his hair cut on the 7th day even though he is not tahor? The language of the pasuk, ‫וגלח ראשו‬

‫" ,ביום טהרתו‬He should have his hair cut on the day of his purification" implies that he must wait until he

is tahor to have his hair cut. Pasuk 10 tells the nazir to bring korbanot on the 8 th day after he becomes

tamei. Are these korbanot contingent on the purification process? On the haircut? On both?

         Did you notice that lo t'acher may be implicated if a mistake in the sprinkling process causes

further delay?

         d. Similar passages: Kohen Gadol

         The following is the full passage from Vayikra about the Kohen Gadol, quoted in part above.


                                                                                                 ‫ויקרא פרק כא‬

    ‫(י) והכהן הגדול מאחיו אשר יוצק על ראשו שמן המשחה ומלא את ידו ללבש את הבגדים את ראשו לא יפרע‬
                                                                                      :‫ובגדיו לא יפרם‬
                                                   :‫(יא) ועל כל נפשת מת לא יבא לאביו ולאמו לא יטמא‬
                 :‫(יב) ומן המקדש לא יצא ולא יחלל את מקדש אלהיו כי נזר שמן משחת אלהיו עליו אני ידוד‬
                                                                          :‫(יג) והוא אשה בבתוליה יקח‬
                              :‫(יד) אלמנה וגרושה וחללה זנה את אלה לא יקח כי אם בתולה מעמיו יקח אשה‬
                                                          .‫(טו) ולא יחלל זרעו בעמיו כי אני ידוד מקדשו‬


         The similarities between the nazir and the Kohen Gadol are obvious when you compare this

section to Parshat Nazir. Like the nazir, the Kohen Gadol is holy (21:15) and is prohibited from being

m'tamei to any meit including his close relatives (21:11), and the Torah uses the root .‫ נ.ז.ר‬to describe
him, saying ‫ .)21:12( כי נזר שמן משחת אלהיו עליו‬In addition, the Kohen Gadol, like all Kohanim, is

prohibited from drinking wine when entering the sanctuary to perform the Divine service, 17 and, as noted

above, the Kohen Gadol also has a specific law regarding his hair (21:10), though in this case it is

opposite that of the nazir. The similarities between the nazir and the Kohen Gadol are so blatant that they

demand further explanation – though not necessarily on a halakhic level.

         e. Non-Legal Issues: Questions of Hashkafa

         During the first stage of our critical examination, we raised hashkafic questions about the sin of

the nazir – both in the peta pitom case and at the end of the nezirut period. Are there other passages in the

Torah which shed light on this question? To what degree can we learn about whether nazir is a good or

bad thing in general from other Torah passages?

                   (1) Chatat

         One aspect of our hashkafic question is that, while the nazir does not appear to do anything

worthy of blame, he must bring a chatat. This is normally translated as "sin offering". Does chatat have

other meanings in the Chumash? In Parshat Para Aduma, for example, chatat may refer to "purification"

and not sin.18 Thus, maybe the nazir's chatat is not a sin offering at all, but rather some type of

purification offering. This obviously would help explain the chatat required after the nazir becomes

tamei, but it's applicability to the chatat at the end of the nezirut period is not readily apparent.

         Another possibility is that a chatat may be required sometimes even though no sin was

committed.

                                                                                                 ‫ויקרא פרק יב‬

  ‫ו) ובמלאת ימי טהרה לבן או לבת תביא כבש בן שנתו לעלה ובן יונה או תר לחטאת אל פתח אהל מועד אל‬
                                                                                        :‫הכהן‬


         Here we are told that a woman who has just given birth (yoledet) must bring a chatat, and the

same hashkafic question can be raised. Why does a mother have to bring a chatat? What did she do

wrong, especially given that we are commanded to have children! 19 The chatat of the yoledet may

suggest that sometimes, this korban is brought for reasons other than sin. However, even if this were the

case, it does not explain why the nazir has to bring an asham in the peta pitom case. 20



17
    Vayikra 10:8-11.
18
    See Bamidbar 19:9,12-13,19-20.
 19
    See Breishit 1:28.
 20
    The case of the metzora, who must bring both a chatat and an asham seemingly without committing
a sin, may help solve this problem. See Vayikra 14:13,19.
                   (2) Neder: Positive or negative?

          An initial exploration of Chumash reveals a lack of clarity about the merit of taking vows in

general. Yaakov's neder, mentioned above, for example, implies that neder is a positive thing, as does the

neder Bnei Yisrael makes before battling the Kena'ani. 21 The pesukim surrounding the prohibition

against late fulfillment, on the other hand, are relatively negative about it:

                                                                                                      ‫דברים כב‬

                :‫(כב) כ י תדר נדר לידוד אלהיך לא תאחר לשלמו כי דרש ידרשנו ידוד אלהיך מעמך והיה בך חטא‬
                                                                   :‫(כג) וכי תחדל לנדר לא יהיה בך חטא‬
                              :‫(כד) מוצא שפתיך תשמר ועשית כאשר נדרת לידוד אלהיך נדבה אשר דברת בפיך‬


Notice that pesukim 22-23 mention sin in the context of neder, stating that it is better to avoid taking

vows because of the risk of late or non-fulfillment.

          Passages relating to several other issues also might have an impact on this hashkafic discussion,

and you are encouraged to explore them as well. This would include, for instance, alternate meanings of

the root .‫ ,נ.ז.ר‬the context within which Parshat Nazir appears in Chumash, the merit of avoiding wine,

and the propriety of placing yourself in a situation in which you are prohibited from tending to the proper

burial of a close relative.

          f. Outlining (Again)

          As noted, outlining helps us track the active learning process, and should be done at the

conclusion of every stage of the inquiry. Outline 3 incorporates into Outline 1 the issues raised by our

Level 2 analysis and includes references to other sections of Chumash that are relevant to the nazir,

such as laws pertaining to the korbanot he must bring. Outline 4 combines Outlines 2 and 3 to create a

final Torah She-Bikhtav outline in preparation for studying the commentaries thereto. Look at these

outlines before moving on to the next section.



B. Hazal's Interpretation of the Text: Torah She-B'al Peh

1. Mishnah

          Now that we have carefully analyzed the original source text and its interaction with the rest of

Torah She-Bikhtav, ask yourself again – do you feel comfortable enough with the material to start

21
     See Bamidbar 21:1-3:

            :‫(א) וישמע הכנעני מלך ערד ישב הנגב כי בא ישראל דרך האתרים וילחם בישראל וישב ממנו שבי‬
                       :‫(ב) וידר ישראל נדר לידוד ויאמר אם נתן תתן את העם הזה בידי והחרמתי את עריהם‬
            ‫(ג) וישמע ידוד בקול ישראל ויתן את הכנעני ויחרם אתהם ואת עריהם ויקרא שם המקום חרמה: פ‬
studying Masechet Nazir? Certainly you are in a much better position to do so than when I first posed

this question. You have a good understanding of Parshat Nazir and its relationship to other sections of

Chumash, and by being active in the learning process, you both have raised some of the questions that

must have bothered Hazal and have yourself proposed answers in anticipation of their expected responses

in Torah She-Bal Peh. And, hopefully, the combination of these factors means that you are more eager to

find out what they had to say. Let's see how the Mishnah deals with some of the issues that came up in

our first two levels of analysis.

         a. The Nazirite Vow

         To become a nazir, a person must express a "nazirite vow". What exactly do you have to say?

                                                                           ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ג, משנה א‬

   ‫מי שאמר הריני נזיר מגלח יום שלשים ואחד ואם גלח ליום שלשים יצא הריני נזיר שלשים יום אם גלח ליום‬
                                                                                   :‫שלשים לא יצא‬


         The Mishnah answers our question and teaches us that the basic formula is a simple declaration

that "‫" ,"הריני נזיר‬I am a nazir." What is the basis for this answer? And, in general, where do the rules in

the Mishnah come from? As I mentioned above, there are a number of possibilities. Many of the

halakhic statements made by the Tannaim resulted from (1) the type of careful textual analysis we are

employing, but others may flow, for example, from (2) global halakhic principles or (3) received tradition

(mesorah). In this case, the Mishnah appears to have borrowed from the general rules of nedarim which

describe the standard formula for taking a vow, ‫ הריני‬or ‫.הרי עלי‬

         b. To whom does the law apply?

         Based on our original analysis of the text, the nazirite laws seemed to apply to any Jewish male

or female who took the nazirite vow voluntarily. Does this include children?

                                                                            ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ד, משנה ו‬

   ‫האיש מדיר את בנו בנזיר ואין האשה מדרת את בנה בנזיר. כיצד גלח או שגלחוהו קרוביו מיחה או שמיחו‬
 ‫קרוביו היתה לו בהמה מופרשת החטאת תמות ועולה תקרב עולה והשלמים יקרבו שלמים ונאכלין ליום אחד‬
  ‫ואינן טעונין לחם היו לו מעות סתומין יפלו לנדבה מעות מפורשין דמי חטאת ילכו לים המלח לא נהנין ולא‬
   :‫מועלין דמי עולה יביאו עולה ומועלין בהן דמי שלמים יביאו שלמים ונאכלין ליום אחד ואינן טעונין לחם‬


According to this Mishnah, a child can become a nazir – involuntarily! – if his father declares him to be

one. On its face, this law is not consistent with the simple reading of the pesukim, which, as we pointed

out, state that a person himself must express the nazirite vow, and must do so voluntarily, for it to take

effect. Hopefully, further explanation will be offered at subsequent levels of Torah She-B'al Peh.

         c. Conditions
                                                                              ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ה, משנה ז‬

    ‫ראה את הכוי ואמר הריני נזיר שזה חיה הריני נזיר שזה אינו חיה הריני נזיר שזה בהמה הריני נזיר שאין זה‬
‫בהמה הריני נזיר שזה חיה ובהמה הריני נזיר שאין זה לא חיה ולא בהמה הריני נזיר שאחד מכם נזיר הריני נזיר‬
                                            :‫שאין אחד מכם נזיר הריני נזיר שכולכם נזירין הרי כולם נזירים‬


 This Mishnah confirms that the neder of nazir can be made on contingency and that the nezirut will take

 affect if that condition is met.

            d. Time

                      (1) Length of Nezirut

            How long is the nezirut period?

                                                                              ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ו, משנה ג‬

                                                                                      .‫סתם נזירות שלשים יום‬

 Here is our answer: it's a minimum of 30 days.

                      (2) Conclusion of Nezirut

            When exactly does the nezirut period end?

                                                                              ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ו, משנה י‬

      ‫גלח על הזבח ונמצא פסול תגלחתו פסולה וזבחיו לא עלו לו גלח על החטאת שלא לשמה ואחר כך הביא‬
   ‫קרבנותיו לשמן תגלחתו פסולה וזבחיו לא עלו לו גלח על העולה או על השלמים שלא לשמן ואחר כך הביא‬
 ‫קרבנותיו לשמן תגלחתו פסולה וזבחיו לא עלו לו ר' שמעון אומר אותו הזבח לא עלה לו אבל שאר זבחים עלו‬
                          :‫לו ואם גלח על שלשתן ונמצא אחד מהן כשר תגלחתו כשרה ויביא שאר הזבחים‬


 This Mishnah is sensitive to the delicacy of the haircut at the end of the nezirut period, which we noted

 earlier. Here we learn that if the concluding procedure is not started properly, that is, if there was not at

 least one kosher korban brought before the nazir shaved his head, then that haircut was in violation of his

 nezirut.

            e. Prohibitions

                      (1) Consuming Grapes and Grape Products: Amount

                                                                              ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ו, משנה א‬

‫שלשה מינין אסורין בנזיר הטומאה והתגלחת והיוצא מן הגפן וכל היוצא מן הגפן מצטרפין זה עם זה ואינו חייב‬
  ‫עד שיאכל מן הענבים כזית. משנה ראשונה עד שישתה רביעית יין רבי עקיבא אומר אפילו שרה פתו ביין ויש‬
                                                                            :‫בה כדי לצרף כזית חייב‬


 According to this Mishnah, the nazir does not violate the prohibition against consuming grape products

 until he eats or drinks a ‫ ,כזית‬an olive's bulk. Read pesukim 3 and 4 again. It that the sense of the text?

 The terms ‫ לא ישתה‬and ‫ לא יאכל‬imply that consuming any amount violate the prohibition. Based on the
words of the pesukim, this parametric rule is surprising,22 and, elsewhere in Torah She-B'al Peh, Hazal

are certain to explain why this is the halakha.

                     (2) Violating Prohibitions

            As noted above, Parshat Nazir provides a set of rules that take effect if the nazir is m'tamei

l'meit, but no rules for violations of the other two prohibitions. The Mishnah is sensitive to that gap, and

fills it.

                                                                               ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ו, משנה ג‬

                                            .‫סתם נזירות שלשים יום. גלח או שגלחוהו לסטים סותר שלשים יום‬


                                                                               ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ו, משנה ה‬

        ‫שלשה מינין אסורין בנזיר הטומאה והתגלחת והיוצא מן הגפן חומר בטומאה ובתגלחת מביוצא מן הגפן‬
   ‫שהטומאה והתגלחת סותרין והיוצא מן הגפן אינו סותר חומר ביוצא מן הגפן מבטומאה ובתגלחת שהיוצא מן‬
     ‫הגפן לא הותר מכללו וטומאה ותגלחת הותרו מכללן בתגלחת מצוה ובמת מצוה וחומר בטומאה מבתגלחת‬
  :‫שהטומאה סותרת את הכל וחייבין עליה קרבן ותגלחת אינה סותרת אלא שלשים יום ואין חייבין עליה קרבן‬


These mishnayot tell us that korbanot are not brought for a violation of either of the other two

prohibitions, but that while grape-product consumption does not require recounting, a haircut does

necessitate a recount of 30 days. At this point, however, we are left wondering about the reason for the

distinction.

                     (3) Conflicting Laws

            In the second level of our analysis, we discovered that both the metzora and the Kohen Gadol are

required to get a haircut at certain times, such that if either was a nazir at the same time, he would be

subject to two contradictory laws. Which law takes precedence? One of the Mishnayot above, 6:5, deals

with this situation, stating that the prohibition against haircuts is set aside in the face of a conflicting

positive commandment ("‫ .)"ותגלחת הותרו מכללן בתגלחת מצוה‬This does not address, however, our

related question about whether it is proper for a metzora or a Kohen Gadol actively to put himself in this

situation by taking a nazirite vow. Plug the Mishnah back into Outline 4. Given what we know now,

these cases seem to raise a lo t'acher issue: since the haircut of the metzora or Kohen Gadol overrides the

nazir's prohibition against it, his nezirut will be delayed for 30 days while he recounts, as the Mishnah

requires. The halakha is not likely to approve of this vow then, since two prohibitions (nazir's haircut and

lo t'acher) will be violated as a result.

22
   Note that Hazal have assigned fixed amounts (shiurim) to many halakhot with little if any direct
support from the text or what can be inferred from it. To someone who is aware of this, of course, the
olive's bulk rule here is not halakhically surprising, though an explanation is still called for, since it ia
not consistent with the simple meaning of the text.
                      (4) Cleansing Procedure for Peta Pitom

           Were we correct in assuming that Parshat Para Aduma's sprinkling procedure is contemplated by

  our text? And if so, what happens when the sprinkling is not done properly? Does the nazir get a haircut

  on the 7th day anyway? When are the korbanot brought?

                                                                              ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ז, משנה ב‬

     ‫על אלו טומאות הנזיר מגלח על המת ועל כזית מן המת ועל כזית נצל ועל מלא תרווד רקב על השדרה ועל‬
‫הגולגולת ועל אבר מן המת ועל אבר מן החי שיש עליו בשר כראוי ועל חצי קב עצמות ועל חצי לוג דם על מגען‬
  ‫ועל משאן ועל אהלן ועל עצם כשעורה על מגעו ועל משאו על אלו הנזיר מגלח ומזה בשלישי ובשביעי וסותר‬
                                     :‫את הקודמין ואינו מתחיל למנות אלא עד שיטהר ומביא את קרבנותיו‬


  While this Mishnah confirms for us that if the nazir becomes tamei, he goes through the sprinkling

  process described in Parshat Para Aduma, we are not told what happens if the sprinkling is not done

  properly.

           f. Similarity to Kohen Gadol

                                                                              ‫משנה מסכת נזיר פרק ז, משנה א‬

 ‫כהן גדול ונזיר אינן מיטמאין בקרוביהן אבל מיטמאין למת מצוה היו מהלכין בדרך ומצאו מת מצוה רבי אליעזר‬
‫אומר יטמא כהן גדול ואל יטמא נזיר וחכמים אומרים יטמא נזיר ואל יטמא כהן גדול אמר להם רבי אליעזר יטמא‬
       ‫כהן שאינו מביא קרבן על טומא תו ואל יטמא נזיר שהוא מביא קרבן על טומאתו אמרו לו יטמא נזיר שאין‬
                                              :‫קדושתו קדושת עולם ואל יטמא כהן שקדושתו קדושת עולם‬


  This Mishnah is sensitive to the similarities between the nazir and the Kohen Gadol, and its comparison

  of their relative levels of holiness possibly will serve as a springboard for commentaries to address the

  issue as a whole.

           g. Summary

           The fact that so many of the issues raised by the first two levels of analysis are treated by the

  Mishnah highlights the value and importance of critically examining the text – both as a self-contained

  unit and in light of the rest of Chumash – before jumping to Torah She-B'al Peh. Of course, some of

  the questions we posed are not fully answered by these Mishnayot, while others, such as the nazir's

  interim status while he is tamei in the peta pitom case, are not addressed by the Mishnah at all.

  Hopefully these remaining questions will spark additional interest in further investigating these issues

  at subsequent levels of Torah She-B'al Peh. We will look at that stage briefly here.

  2. Other Sources of Torah She-B'al Peh

           The first two phases of our textual analysis also have provided a foundation from which to

  approach other segments of Torah She-B'al Peh in addition to the Mishnah. Take the hashkafic
questions we asked about the sin of the nazir, for example. Whereas the Mishnah did not address the

issue, the Gemara and some mefarshim did.

                                                                      ‫תלמוד בבלי מסכת סוטה דף טו עמוד א‬

                                        …‫חטאתו של מצורע ואשמו טעונין נסכים, לפי שאין באין על חטא‬
     :‫…אלא מעתה, חטאת נזיר תהא טעונה נסכים, לפי שאינה באה על חטא! סבר לה כרבי אלעזר הקפר, דאמר‬
                                                                                .‫נזיר נמי חוטא הוא‬

"The chatat of the the metzora should be accompanied by libations, since they are not brought because
of a sin … If so, then the chatat of the nazir also should be accompanied by libations, since it, too, is
not brought because of a sin! [This authority] follows the opinion of Rabbi Elazar Hakappar, who says,
'The nazir also is a sinner.'" (Talmud Bavli, Sotah 15a)

           This Gemara reveals that there is a Tannaitic dispute about whether or not the nazir is a sinner.

What is the nazir's sin according to Rabbi Elazar Hakappar? Look at the following Halakhic Midrash.

                                                                        ‫ספרי במדבר פיסקא ל ד"ה וכפר עליו‬

     ‫וכפר עליו. מאשר חטא על הנפש, [ר' אלעזר הקפר אומר] וכי על איזו נפש חטא זה שצריך כפרה על שציער‬
        '‫נפשו מן היין והלא דברים ק"ו ומה אם המצער נפשו מן היין צריך כפרה ק"ו למצער נפשו על כל דבר ר‬
               .‫ישמעאל אומר בנזיר טמא הכתוב מדבר שנאמ ר וכפר עליו מאשר חטא על הנפש שנטמא למתים‬


           In Rabbi Elazar Hakappar's opinion, the nazir's sin is his abstinence from the worldly pleasure

of drinking wine. The Rambam follows this view. 23 But as Nechama Leibowitz points out, 24 this

assessment does not account for the nazir's holiness.

           For a different approach, reread the Halakhic Midrash quoted above, but this time focus on the

opinion of the second tanna, Rabbi Yishmael. He says that the sin of the nazir in the peta pitom case is

simply a consequence of becoming tamei. Technically, the prohibition was violated here. And what

about the chatat and asham the nazir must bring at the end of his nezirut, even if he completes the

period without violating any prohibitions?

                                                                                        ‫אברבנאל, במדבר ו:א‬

             .‫הנה היה הקרבן הזה ממנו לפי שהיה עוזב חיי הקדושה והפרישות ובוחר לשוב לתאוות הגשמיות‬



According to the Abravanel, separating from worldly pleasures like drinking wine is a positive aspect

of nezirut. Thus, the nazir's sin as he ends his nezirut is not in the fact that he became a nazir in the

first place, but rather the fact that he has voluntarily chosen to abandon the holiness to which his

nezirut elevated him and return to the worldly pleasures from which he had been abstaining.




23
    See Rambam, Hilchot De'ot 3:1, stating that this ascetic characteristic of the nazirite vow is
inconsistent with Jewish values.
 24
    See Nechama Leibowitz, STUDIES IN BAMIDBAR, translated by Aryeh Newman, p.56 (1980).
III. EPILOGUE

         During the course of my project, I encountered a number of tangential topics which I did not

have time to develop. Nach, for example, contains significant material open to analysis in light of

Parshat Nazir, such as the stories of Shimshon25 and Shmuel.26 A second idea was to investigate

possible the theological reasons for why the Torah included certain halakhic details in the pesukim

while leaving others out.27 Another challenge would be to develop a derekh for careful textual analysis

of narrative portions of Chumash. I hope to research these issues in the future.

         While this derekh is still under construction – and I suspect that such is its permanent state – I

believe it provides a good starting point from which the student can analyze Biblical legal texts and

develop a personal style of learning Torah – with Torah She-Bikhtav at the center.




25
    Shoftim 13:3-18. See also Mishnah Nazir 1:2.
26
    1 Shmuel 1:11-15. See also Mishnah Nazir 9:5.
 27
    This thought emerged from the presentation Eli Assis gave to ATID, in which he developed the
same notion with respect to Biblical narratives.
               OUTLINE 1: PESUKIM (Bamidbar 6:1-21)

A. NAZIR IS A TYPE OF NEDER (6:2)


B. APPLICABILITY OF NAZIR RULES

       1. Voluntary, not obligatory (6:2)
               a. If you choose to do it…


C. BECOMING A NAZIR TORAH

       1. Personal traits
                a. Jewish
                b. ‫)2:6( איש או אשה‬
       2. Express a neder vow of nazir (6:2)


D. OBLIGATIONS DURING NEZIRUT

       1. Separate from grapes and grape products (6:3-4)
                a. No eating (6:3-4)
                         (1) Grapes
                         (2) ‫חרצנים‬
                         (3) ‫זג‬
                b. No drinking (6:3)
                         (1) ‫יין‬
                         (2) ‫שכר‬
                         (3) ‫חמץ יין‬
                         (4) ‫חמץ שכר‬
                         (5) ‫משרת ענבים‬
       2. Let hair grow wild (6:5)
          Do not get a haircut… (6:5)
                a. With a razor
       3. Do not have contact with the dead (‫)7-6:6( )מטמא למת‬
                a. Even parents and siblings (6:7)
                b. Violation of Prohibition
                         (1) Accidental contact with the dead (6:9-12)
                                   (a) Cleansing Procedure (6:9-12)
                                            1. Become ‫ טהור‬from ‫ מת‬on 7th day
                                            2. Shave on 7th day (6:9)
                                            3. Korbanot on 8th day (6:10-12)
                                                      a. One ‫( חטאת‬bird, 6:10-11)
                                                      b. One ‫( עולה‬bird, 6:10-11)
                                                      c. One ‫( ,אשם‬yearling sheep, 6:12)
                                   (b) Restart nezirut from the beginning (reset) (6:12)


E. FINISHING NEZIRUT (6:13-20)

       1. Bring Korbanot
                a. Animals
                        (1) ‫ ,חטאת‬Yearling female sheep (6:14,16)
                        (2) ‫ ,עולה‬Yearling Sheep (6:14,16)
                                 (a) note: reverse of order in 14
                        (3) ‫ ,שלמים‬Ram (6:14,17)
                                 (a) Bring together with matza basket (6:17)
                  (4) Together with: meal offerings and libations (6:15,17)
         b. Basket w/matza (6:15)
                  (1) "unleavened wheat loaves" with oil
                  (2) "flat matzas" saturated with oil
2. Hair (6:18)
         a. Shave head
         b. Burn hair on ‫ שלמים‬fire
3. Wave offering (6:19-20)
         a. Cooked foreleg of ram + one unleavened loaf + one flat matza
         b. Waved by kohen, in hands of nazir
4. Drink Wine (may? must?) (6:20)

[5. Kohen's portion (6:20)
        a. wave offering
        b. Shok hatrumah
        c. Chazeh hatenufah]
                    OUTLINE 2
   PESUKIM WITH INITIAL QUESTIONS BASED ON THE
                       TEXT
A. NAZIR IS A TYPE OF NEDER (6:2)


B. APPLICABILITY OF NAZIR RULES

       1. Voluntary, not obligatory (6:2)
               a. If you choose to do it…


C. BECOMING A NAZIR TORAH

       1. Personal traits
                a. Jewish
                b. ‫)2:6( איש או אשה‬

                        Q: Does this include children?
       2. Express a neder vow of nazir (6:2)

               Q: What exactly do you have to say?

D. OBLIGATIONS DURING NEZIRUT

       1. Separate from grapes and grape products (6:3-4)
                a. No eating (6:3-4)
                         (1) Grapes
                         (2) ‫חרצנים‬
                         (3) ‫זג‬
                b. No drinking (6:3)
                         (1) ‫יין‬
                         (2) ‫שכר‬
                         (3) ‫חמץ יין‬
                         (4) ‫חמץ שכר‬
                         (5) ‫משרת ענבים‬

               Q: Do you restart counting for a violation? Are there korbanot, etc?
       2. Let hair grow wild (6:5)
          Do not get a haircut… (6:5)
                a. With a razor

               Q: Do you restart counting for a violation? Are there korbanot, etc?
       3. Do not have contact with the dead (‫)7-6:6( )מטמא למת‬
               a. Even parents and siblings (6:7)
               b. Violation of Prohibition
                        (1) Accidental contact with the dead (6:9-12)
                                  (a) Cleansing Procedure (6:9-12)

                                            Q: Is he a nazir during this interim period?
                                           1. Become ‫ טהור‬from ‫ מת‬on 7th day
                                           2. Shave on 7th day (6:9)
                                           3. Korbanot on 8th day (6:10-12)
                                                    a. One ‫( חטאת‬bird, 6:10-11)

                                                             Q: Why is there a ‫ חטאת‬here?
                                                             What is the sin?
                                                    b. One ‫( עולה‬bird, 6:10-11)
                                                    c. One ‫( ,אשם‬yearling sheep, 6:12)

                                                             Q: Why is there an ‫ אשם‬here?
                                                             Why is the nazir "guilty"?
                         (b) Restart nezirut from the beginning (reset) (6:12)


Q: How long is nezirut?

E. FINISHING NEZIRUT (6:13-20)

       1. Bring Korbanot
                a. Animals
                        (1) ‫ ,חטאת‬Yearling female sheep (6:14,16)

                                  Q: Why is there a ‫ חטאת‬here? What is the sin?
                         (2) ‫ ,עולה‬Yearling Sheep (6:14,16)
                                   (a) note: reverse of order in 14
                         (3) ‫ ,שלמים‬Ram (6:14,17)
                                   (a) Bring together with matza basket (6:17)
                         (4) Together with: meal offerings and libations (6:15,17)
                b. Basket w/matza (6:15)
                         (1) "unleavened wheat loaves" with oil
                         (2) "flat matzas" saturated with oil
       2. Hair (6:18)
                a. Shave head

                         Q: When exactly does nezirut end – since nazir may not shave
                         during nezirut)?
                b. Burn hair on ‫ שלמים‬fire
       3. Wave offering (6:19-20)
                a. Cooked foreleg of ram + one unleavened loaf + one flat matza
                b. Waved by kohen, in hands of nazir
       4. Drink Wine (may? must?) (6:20)

       [5. Kohen's portion (6:20)
               a. wave offering
               b. Shok hatrumah
               c. Chazeh hatenufah]
                     OUTLINE 3
  PESUKIM – WITH ISSUES RAISED BY, AND REFERENCES
            TO, RELATED TORAH PASSAGES

A. NAZIR IS A TYPE OF NEDER (6:2)

        1. Rules of neder (brief) from Torah

                 a. Annulment by husband or father (inserted below between C and D)
                 (Bamidbar 30:2-17)

                 b.‫( לא תאחר לשלמו‬inserted below as D . "0") (Devarim 23:22)

                 c. A neder can have a condition attached to it (inserted below under
                 C.2.) (Breishit 28:20-22)

B. APPLICABILITY OF NAZIR RULES

        1. Voluntary, not obligatory (6:2)
                a. If you choose to do it…


C. BECOMING A NAZIR TORAH
       1. Personal traits
                a. Jewish
                b. ‫)2:6( איש או אשה‬
       2. Express a neder vow of nazir (6:2)

                 a. Conditions (Breishit 28:20-22)

C/D. ANNULMENT OF NEZIRUT (Bamidbar 30:2-17)

D. OBLIGATIONS DURING NEZIRUT

        0. ‫( לא תאחר לשלמו‬Devarim 23:22)
               a. Any delay in fulfillment violates this prohibition
                      (1) eg: ‫ ,מטמא למת‬which requires recounting from the beginning
        1. Separate from grapes and grape products (6:3-4)
                 a. No eating (6:3-4)
                          (1) Grapes
                          (2) ‫חרצנים‬
                          (3) ‫זג‬
                 b. No drinking (6:3)
                          (1) ‫יין‬
                          (2) ‫שכר‬
                          (3) ‫חמץ יין‬
                          (4) ‫חמץ שכר‬
                          (5) ‫משרת ענבים‬
        2. Let hair grow wild (6:5)
           Do not get a haircut… (6:5)
                 a. With a razor
                 Q: What about metzora, who must get a haircut? (Vayikra 13:33; 14:8-
9)

                 Q: What about Kohen Gadol, who must get a haircut? (Vayikra 21:10)
        3. Do not have contact with the dead (‫)7-6:6( )מטמא למת‬
                a. Even parents and siblings (6:7)
                b. Violation of Prohibition
                         (1) Accidental contact with the dead (6:9-12)
                                   (a) Cleansing Procedure (6:9-12)
                                            1. Become ‫ טהור‬from ‫מת‬

                                                     a. Insert laws of ‫ טהרה‬process
                                                             1. Sprinkle on 3d and 7th days
                                                             (Bamidbar19:12,19)

                                                     Q: What if there is a problem in the
                                                     sprinkling process? Is everything else here
                                                     delayed – and does this cause a ‫לא תאחר‬
                                                     ‫ לשלמו‬problem?

                                            2. Shave on 7th day (6:9)
                                            3. Korbanot on 8th day (6:10-12)
                                                     a. One ‫( חטאת‬bird, 6:10-11)

                                                              1. Insert laws of bird offering ‫חטאת‬
                                                              (Vayikra 5:7-10 and other sections)
                                                     b. One ‫( עולה‬bird, 6:10-11)

                                                              1. Insert laws of bird offering ‫עולה‬
                                                              (Vayikra 5:7-10 and others
                                                              sections)
                                                     c. One ‫( ,אשם‬yearling sheep, 6:12)

                                                              1. Insert laws of ‫( אשם‬Vayikra 7:1-
                 5)

                                   (b) Restart nezirut from the beginning (reset) (6:12)


E. FINISHING NEIZRUT (6:13-20)
        1. Bring Korbanot
                 a. Animals
                         (1) ‫ ,חטאת‬Yearling female sheep (6:14,16)
                         (2) ‫ ,עולה‬Yearling Sheep (6:14,16)
                                  (a) note: reverse of order in 14
                         (3) ‫ ,שלמים‬Ram (6:14,17)
                                  (a) Bring together with matza basket (6:17)

                                   (b) Insert laws of ‫( שלמים‬Vayikra 3:6-11; and others)

                          (4) Together with: meal offerings and libations (6:15,17)
                          (a) Insert laws of meal offerings and libations (Bamidbar
15:1-11)
         b. Basket w/matza (6:15)
                  (1) "unleavened wheat loaves" with oil
                  (2) "flat matzas" saturated with oil
2. Hair (6:18)
         a. Shave head
         b. Burn hair on ‫ שלמים‬fire
3. Wave offering (6:19-20)
         a. Cooked foreleg of ram + one unleavened loaf + one flat matza
         b. Waved by kohen, in hands of nazir
4. Drink Wine (may? must?) (6:20)

[5. Kohen's portion (6:20)
        a. wave offering
        b. Shok hatrumah (see Shmot 29:27)
        c. Chazeh hatenufah (see Vayikra 7:34)]
       OUTLINE 4 (= COMBINED OUTLINES 2 + 3)
   PESUKIM WITH INITIAL QUESTIONS BASED ON THE
                        TEXT
    AND WITH ISSUES RAISED BY, AND REFERENCES TO,
               RELATED TORAH PASSAGES
A. NAZIR IS A TYPE OF NEDER (6:2)

        1. Rules of neder (brief) from Torah

                a. Annulment by husband or father (inserted below between C and D)
                (Bamidbar 30:2-17)

                b.‫( לא תאחר לשלמו‬inserted below as D . "0") (Devarim 23:22)

                c. A neder can have a condition attached to it (inserted below under
                C.2.) (Breishit 28:20-22)

B. APPLICABILITY OF NAZIR RULES

        1. Voluntary, not obligatory (6:2)
                a. If you choose to do it…


C. BECOMING A NAZIR TORAH
       1. Personal traits
                a. Jewish
                b. ‫)2:6( איש או אשה‬

                         Q: Does this include children?
        2. Express a neder vow of nazir (6:2)

                Q: What exactly do you have to say?

                a. Conditions (Breishit 28:20-22)


C/D. ANNULMENT OF NEZIRUT (Bamidbar 30:2-17)

D. OBLIGATIONS DURING NEZIRUT

        0. ‫( לא תאחר לשלמו‬Devarim 23:22)
               a. Any delay in fulfillment violates this prohibition
                      (1) eg: ‫ ,מטמא למת‬which requires recounting from the beginning
        1. Separate from grapes and grape products (6:3-4)
                 a. No eating (6:3-4)
                          (1) Grapes
                          (2) ‫חרצנים‬
                          (3) ‫זג‬
                 b. No drinking (6:3)
                      (1) ‫יין‬
                      (2) ‫שכר‬
                      (3) ‫חמץ יין‬
                      (4) ‫חמץ שכר‬
                      (5) ‫משרת ענבים‬

             Q: Do you restart counting for a violation? Are there korbanot, etc?
     2. Let hair grow wild (6:5)
        Do not get a haircut… (6:5)
              a. With a razor

             Q: Do you restart counting for a violation? Are there korbanot, etc?

             Q: What about metzora, who must get a haircut? (Vayikra 13:33; 14:8-
9)

             Q: What about Kohen Gadol, who must get a haircut? (Vayikra 21:10)
     3. Do not have contact with the dead (‫)7-6:6( )מטמא למת‬
             a. Even parents and siblings (6:7)
             b. Violation of Prohibition
                      (1) Accidental contact with the dead (6:9-12)
                                (a) Cleansing Procedure (6:9-12)

                                        Q: Is he a nazir during this interim period?
                                        1. Become ‫ טהור‬from ‫מת‬

                                                 a. Insert laws of ‫ טהרה‬process
                                                         1. sprinkle on 3d and 7th days
                                                         (Bamidbar19:12,19)

                                                 Q: What if there is a problem in the
                                                 sprinkling process? Is everything else here
                                                 delayed – and does this cause a ‫לא תאחר‬
                                                 ‫ לשלמו‬problem?

                                        2. Shave on 7th day (6:9)
                                        3. Korbanot on 8th day (6:10-12)
                                                 a. One ‫( חטאת‬bird, 6:10-11)

                                                          Q: Why is there a ‫ חטאת‬here? What
                                                          is the sin?

                                                          1. Insert laws of bird offering ‫חטאת‬
                                                          (Vayikra 5:7-10 and other sections)
                                                 b. One ‫( עולה‬bird, 6:10-11)

                                                          1. Insert laws of bird offering ‫עולה‬
                                                          (Vayikra 5:7-10 and others
                                                          sections)
                                                 c. One ‫( ,אשם‬yearling sheep, 6:12)
                                                             Q: Why is there an ‫ אשם‬here? Why
                                                             is the nazir "guilty"?

                                                             1. Insert laws of ‫( אשם‬Vayikra 7:1-
                 5)

                                  (b) Restart nezirut from the beginning (reset) (6:12)


Q: How long is nezirut?

E. FINISHING NEIZRUT (6:13-20)
        1. Bring Korbanot
                 a. Animals
                         (1) ‫ ,חטאת‬Yearling female sheep (6:14,16)

                                  Q: Why is there a ‫ חטאת‬here? What is the sin?
                         (2) ‫ ,עולה‬Yearling Sheep (6:14,16)
                                  (a) note: reverse of order in 14
                         (3) ‫ ,שלמים‬Ram (6:14,17)
                                  (a) Bring together with matza basket (6:17)

                                  (b) Insert laws of ‫( שלמים‬Vayikra 3:6-11; and others)

                         (4) Together with: meal offerings and libations (6:15,17)

                                  (a) Insert laws of meal offerings and libations (Bamidbar
        15:1-11)
                 b. Basket w/matza (6:15)
                          (1) "unleavened wheat loaves" with oil
                          (2) "flat matzas" saturated with oil
        2. Hair (6:18)
                 a. Shave head

                         Q: When exactly does nezirut end – since nazir may not shave
                         during nezirut)?
                 b. Burn hair on ‫ שלמים‬fire
        3. Wave offering (6:19-20)
                 a. Cooked foreleg of ram + one unleavened loaf + one flat matza
                 b. Waved by kohen, in hands of nazir
        4. Drink Wine (may? must?) (6:20)

        [5. Kohen's portion (6:20)
                a. wave offering
                b. Shok hatrumah (see Shmot 29:27)
                c. Chazeh hatenufah (see Vayikra 7:34)]
                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. ENCYCLOPEDIA JUDAICA, vol. 12, p. 1439, s.v. Oral Law (1971).

2. Menachem Elon, JEWISH LAW: HISTORY, SOURCES, PRINCIPLES, translated by Bernard Auerbach and
Melvin J. Sykes, vol. 1 (1994).

3. Nechama Leibowitz, STUDIES IN BAMIDBAR, translated by Aryeh Newman, p.56 (1980).
APPENDIX: Outlines 1-4

				
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