Lebanon_Template_18_11_10 2003

Document Sample
Lebanon_Template_18_11_10 2003 Powered By Docstoc
					Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :      page 1



                          Overview of data access &               Statistical monitoring of key social and economic
Template                  environment in Lebanon                  indicators such as the MDGs is obstructed by the
                                                                  limited availability of reliable data collection and
                          →                                                    1
                                                                  monitoring . Data collection in Beirut has until
                                                                  recently been fragmented and inconsistent, due to the
                                                                                                 2
                                                                  civil war and its aftermath . However, the
                                                                  government through the Central Agency of Statistics
                                                                  has household survey and building census data (see
                                                                  below). Universities are now investing substantially in
                                                                                               3
                                                                  urban planning programs : a number of universities
                                                                  are listed in the contacts. NGOs are free to operate
                                                                  and undertake some analysis, though a large
                                                                  proportion of them are overtly politicised. Given the
                                                                  unstable environment in the country, the availability
                                                                  of reliable quantitative data from these sources may
                                                                  be limited.
                          National indicators                     Summary themes: analysis with statistical
Issues                                                            notes & additional sources
1. Population &
Urbanization
Demographic & urban       Population                              Lebanon’s population is concentrated primarily in
statistics: 1980-2010 &                                                                                         17
                          4.2546 million (2.0827 male,            Beirut’s and its suburbs, as well as the coast . 50.4%
2010-2030 forecasts.      2.1719 female) (UN DESA, 2010)
                                                           4
                                                                  of the population were based in Beirut and Mount
                                                             5                                                    18
                          4.2335 million (World Bank, 2009 )      Lebanon in 2004, compared to 61.5% in 1970 .
National totals (urban
                          3,759,134 (1,857,659 males,
& rural)
                          1,901,475 females) (2007, Living        The 2007 Living Conditions household survey is a good
                                              6
Urban growth rates        Conditions survey) . The number         source of data on population, education, health and
                          of males in a particular age band       employment. There is also an extended section of
City sizes & population   between 0-24 years is higher than       analysis preceding the figures, in Arabic: this has not
distribution by           the number of female, but then          been incorporated into the present document but may
country.                  this imbalance is reversed with         be valuable in providing comparative historic data and
                          higher numbers of females in            thematic insights. The previous 2004 survey, with an
                          every age bracket from 25-69            English-language introductory analysis, has been
                                 7
                          years . One of the reasons the          included here, but the 2007 survey may provide more
                          2004 living conditions suggests for     up-to-date analysis in this area.
                          this is the emigration of Lebanese
                                  8
                          males .                                 This link has a good summary of some of the available
                          However, according to some              statistical resources on page 16:
                          commentators the population is in       http://www.cas.gov.lb/images/PDFs/Lebanon-Figures-


1
  UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.8. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
2
  Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
3
  Verdeil, E. (2008), ‘State development policy and specialised engineers. The case of urban planners in Lebanon’. Savoir Travail
Société / Knowledge Work Society, 5 (1): 29-51. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-
00261163/
4
  UN DESA. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/population.htm
5
  World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL
6
  Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.126. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
7
  Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.130. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
8
  Ministry of Social Affairs / Central Administration of Statistics/ UNDP, The National Survey of Household Living Conditions
2004, p.32. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :      page 2



                         fact considerably higher due to the      2008.pdf
                         large number of refugees in the          This page is where the CAS lists all its publications:
                         country, in particular Kurds,            http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_conten
                                                      9
                         Armenians and Palestinians .             t&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
                         Population growth (2010-2015):
                         Urban: 0.9%                              The last publicly available Multiple Indicator Cluster
                                      10
                         Rural: -0.3%                             Survey data is from 200. However, another MICS was
                         Urban population:                        conducted in 2009 and though the results are not yet
                         2.052 million (1980)                     publicised, these should be available on request from
                          3.712 million (2010)                   the Central Administration of Statistics or UNICEF.
                                                 11
                          4.374 million (2030) (UN
                         DESA).                                   The Census on Building and Establishments 2004 is a
                                              12
                         3.678 million (2009)                     comprehensive study by district of housing conditions
                         % of the total population resident       (‘houses’, ‘mixed’, ‘under construction’, ‘empty’, etc.),
                         in urban areas:                          accompanying facilities such as parking and an
                         73.7% (1980)                             electricity generator and more specifically the
                          87.2% (2010)                           availability of water networks and sewage systems.
                                          13
                          90.0% (2030) .                         There is also data on the tenure of the buildings (such
                         Population of Beirut:                    as ‘property’, ‘rent’, ‘occupied’ and ‘empty’). There is
                         1.623 million (1980)                     also data on the number of establishments in each
                          1.268 (1995)                           district and breakdown of their main economic activity
                         1.937 million (2010)                    that could be useful if focussing on the livelihoods
                                                 14
                          2,135 million (2025)                   basis of Beirut or other cities.
                         The 2007 Living Conditions survey        http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_conten
                         puts the population of Beirut at         t&view=article&id=54&Itemid=37
                         361,366 (presumably a defined
                         central core), with the population       There is also an annual Statistical Yearbook, most
                         of Mount Lebanon 1,026,513 and           recently for 2008, with data on a range of issues, from
                                           15
                         Dahyieh 457,960 . The survey             health and education to housing loan activity and
                         also has a breakdown by age and          transport.
                         gender of the populations in the         http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_conten
                         different regions that could be          t&view=article&id=101&Itemid=2
                         useful if the report wanted to put
                         in specific gender/age data on           The Council for Development and Reconstruction is
                         Beirut, though the figure swould         responsible for infrastructure and planning. It has a
                         need to be carefully scaled if the       website, though the English and French versions are
                                                     16
                         focus was on greater Beirut .            still under construction. The Arabic version should

17
   Ministry of Social Affairs / Central Administration of Statistics/ UNDP, The National Survey of Household Living Conditions
2004, p.26. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
18
   Ministry of Social Affairs / Central Administration of Statistics/ UNDP, The National Survey of Household Living Conditions
2004, p.27. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
9
  Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
10
   UN DESA. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/hum-sets.htm
11
   United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
12
   World Bank data, based on UN DESA World Urbanisation prospects data. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL
13
   United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
14
   UN DESA. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html
15
   Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.132. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
16
   Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :         page 3



                                                                  therefore be consulted directly, as the planning
                                                                  commentary and publications were not accessible on
                                                                  the other versions.
                                                                  http://www.cdr.gov.lb/

                                                                  Note that in many instances (particularly with CAS
                                                                  household survey data) data for the capital is
                                                                  presented as ‘Beirut’. This is because the parameters
                                                                  of the governorate are limited to the city centre and
                                                                  much of the city more troubled suburbs (for instance,
                                                                  in the separate governorate of Mount Lebanon) are
                                                                  excluded from these boundaries. Therefore the
                                                                  ‘Beirut’ figures should be used with this in mind and
                                                                  possibly integrated with figures from its suburbs as
                                                                  well: one descriptive definition employed is the
                                                                  Central Urban Area (CUA), which incorporates some of
                                                                  the suburbs as well. Given the disparities within the
                                                                  city, it may also be desirable to check for district-level
                                                                  data on particular areas, such as the Southern
                                                                  Suburbs, where much of Beirut’s urban slums are
                                                                  concentrated.

                                                                  UN HABITAT operates several local urban
                                                                  observatories (no data for this was locatable online,
                                                                  but may be available on request). It also has a
                                                                  database of demographic, financial and governance
                                                                                                                  19
                                                                  data on 42 Unions of Municipalities in Lebanon . This
                                                                  should be available on request.




19
  UN HABITAT, ‘Lebanon updates (10): August 2010’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.unhabitat.org/list.asp?typeid=15&catid=208
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :     page 4



Country urbanization      Annual growth in urban areas:           Rural to urban migration has been accelerated by
trends.                    2.25% (1975-80)                        Lebanon’s multiple conflicts, such as the Israeli
                           0.98% (2005-10)                       invasions in 1978 and 1982 and the subsequent
Drivers of urbanization                                                                                        25
                           0.94% (2010-2015)                     occupation of southern Lebanon until 2000 . The
                                             20
                          0.67% (2025-30) .                      large volume of refugees (see below) is also an
Where is the future
heading?                  Annual growth in rural areas:           important urbanisation driver.
                          -4.19% (1975-80)
                           -0.15% (2005-10)                      In 2008, despite the global recession, Lebanon
                           -0.30% (2010-2015)                    experienced high economic growth rates – largely
                                              21
                          -0.83% (2025-30) .                     fuelled by its construction boom. This may be, as one
                          Annual growth in Beirut:                columnist has argued, because Middle Eastern and
                          1.58% (1975-80)                         Lebanese expatriate investors were looking for a
                           -4.08% (1985-90)                      relatively safe investment haven in the context of the
                           1.72% (2005-10)                       global financial instability and Lebanon was perceived
                                                                                  26
                          0.97% (2010-2015)                      to provide this . However, Lebanon’s redevelopment
                                                 22
                           0.42% (2020-2025)                     has been criticised for its volatility and the lack of
                          Proportion of Lebanon’s total           governmental regulation or planning, with potentially
                          urban population resident in            grievous implications for Lebanon’s environment, its
                                                                                                         27
                          Beirut:                                 infrastructure and its quality of life . Another negative
                          79.1% (1980)                            consequence of the boom is the steady destruction of
                                                                                              28
                           42.8% (1995)                          Beirut’s historic buildings .
                           52.2% (2010)
                                          23
                           50.5% (2025)                          A recent news article, citing Order of Architects and
                          Proportion of Lebanon’s total           Engineers figures, says that 2009 saw 11.5 million
                          population resident in Beirut:          square metres of construction and that 5,376 building
                          58.3% (1980)                            were under construction, compared to 2,931 in
                                                                       29
                           36.3% (1995)                          2007 . These figures should perhaps be
                           45.5% (2010)                          independently checked if used in the report.
                                          24
                           45.1% (2025)
                                                                  Urban sprawl has increased. In the early 1960s,
                                                                  Lebanon had a population of around 2 million and 260
                                                                  km2 of urbanised areas: around 130m2 per inhabitant.
                                                                  By 1998, this was 4 million and 600 km2 of urbanised
                                                                  areas: around 150km2/inhabitant. In 2030, the 2005


20
  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
21
  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
22
   United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html
23
   United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html
24
   United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html
25
   Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
26
   Lowry, N., ‘A country under construction’. Now Lebanon, July 12, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=185251
27
   Frommherz-Hassib, W. (2010), ‘No plan?...Money rules! Lebanon’s construction boom and the challenges to urban and
environmental planning’. Heinrich Böll Foundation. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.boell-meo.org/web/114-
384.html
28
   Fielding-Smith, A., ‘Property boom raises fears for Beirut heritage’. Financial Times, September 16, 2010. Retrieved November
17, 2010 at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/783affd6-c1b0-11df-9d90-00144feab49a.html#axzz15ZY1Us6V
29
   Lynch, S., ‘Seaside Beirut’. Now Lebanon, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/Arabic/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=142568
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 5



                                                                  master plan anticipates that a population of 5.2
                                                                                                                        30
                                                                  million, 170 km2/inhabitant and growth of 282km2 .
                                                                  However, these figures include a number of
                                                                  assumptions (and don’t seem to adjust for the
                                                                  changing proportion of the urban population in
                                                                  relation to the total) and it may be better to quote the
                                                                  net area increases alone. This 250-300km2 expansion
                                                                  would be concentrated in a number of areas.
                                                                  Assuming 300km2 (30,000 ha), 5,500 would be in the
                                                                  Central Urban Area (Greater Beirut and the
                                                                  surrounding urban agglomerations), 1,800 ha in Tripoli
                                                                  and a range of areas in other cities such as Baalbek,
                                                                  Saida and Tyr, as well as smaller towns. It foresees a
                                                                  growth in the Central Urban Area from 170km2 to
                                                                           31
                                                                  225km2 . The data breakdown of this shows that the
                                                                  intensification would be much more pronounced in
                                                                  the outer areas: while the urbanised surfaces in Beirut
                                                                  in 2030 would remain at 2okm2, in the Second Ring
                                                                  urbanised areas are predicted to grow from 80km2 to
                                                                  125 km2. This is the case in other cities too, such as
                                                                  Saida, Baalbek and Tyre, where the large majority of
                                                                  growth will be located in its suburbs rather than the
                                                                         32
                                                                  centre .




Existing & desirable     Prior to the outbreak of civil            The academic urban observatory MAJAL has criticised
urbanization policies.   conflict, there was very limited         the government for the lack of participation in its
                         emphasis on social housing or            approach to urban planning:
National urban policy
                         other welfare mechanisms,                “Urban projects have seldom been successful in
development.
                         despite a booming economy and            Lebanon. The Government’s approach is largely to be
Governance               sizeable investment in                   held responsible for this. Within an obsolete legal
                                                        33
adaptations for urban    construction and real estate .           framework, the Government has usually acted
& regional spatial       Subsequent post-conflict                 unilaterally, with little – if any - appeal to the
                                                                               42
planning for the         reconstruction policy was                population” .
future.                  criticised by a 2003 review of           Together with the Lebanese Transparency Association,
                         Beirut’s informal urban                  the organisation has proposed that the urban planning
                         settlements as focussed largely on       code be altered to incorporate a specific prescription
                         physical infrastructure and              on public consultation and participation: at present,
                         ‘showcase’ developments, with            no specific code exists obliging the government to do
                                                                     43
                         little emphasis on public transport      so .
                                                   34
                         and low-income housing .


30
   Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
31
   Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
32
   Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2, pp.27-29. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
33
   Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
34
   Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :     page 6



                                                                  A 2004 article by Rachid Chamoun, based at the
                         Following the finalisation of the        Lebanese American University, has argued that the
                         T’aif Accord, the private Lebanese       Schemeur urban planning framework favours only the
                         company Solidere was created by          most affluent and has fostered a city of segregation
                         the highly affluent politician Rafik     and gated communities: “the city looks old and
                                                                                                              44
                         Hariri, prime minster during 1992-       eclectic but in reality is much more brutal” .
                         1998 and 2000-2004 and
                         assassinated in 2005. This               Another article by Eric Verdeil (published in
                         inevitably attracted accusations of      Knowledge Work Society, an online journal – this may
                         corruption. Solidere rapidly             not be a peer-reviewed publication) highlights how, in
                         destroyed swathes of the city’s          the aftermath of the civil conflict, Beirut was
                         urban fabric to impose its new           constructed in the image of the elite’s liberal ideology,
                         master plan, 2creating a virtual         with the private sector (often drawing on foreign
                         tabula rasa at the heart of the          expertise for the planning component) playing a major
                               35
                         city” : the academic Saree               role: social interventions in areas such as housing and
                         Makdisi has stated that by 1993          slum upgrading were much more limited. Rising public
                         80% of the downtown’s buildings          debt was another factor in the marginal planning role
                         were damaged beyond repair, but          of the state, or at least this was the official pretext. He
                         only a third of the damage was a         also argues that planning has been sidelined as a
                                                   36
                         consequence of the war . This            vocation and that the centralised control of planning
                         represented “the decisive                and the marginalisation of the municipalities have
                         withering of the State and               meant that there are limited opportunities for
                         common public space and the              planners to get involved in the public sector. The
                         supremacy of private commercial          professionalization of planning that has occurred in
                                               37
                         interest and control” . The              other countries such as Tunisia has not occurred in
                         influence of Solidere is still a         Lebanon. “Historically, planning has been an essential
                         contentious issue, and a ‘Stop           tool for nation building, without ever relying on
                         Solidere’ campaign has developed         academically trained professionals. The establishment
                         to attempt to wrest back the             of new curricula in the nineties owes more to
                         control of the city centre to its        academic logic than market demand...[Planning]
                         original landowners. Critiques of        suffers from the effects of the restriction of the State’s
                         Beirut’s urban reconstruction            role and of shrinkage of its commands and reflects the
                                                                                                   45
                         focus on its surrounding                 greater role of private actors” .
                         corruption, its neo-liberal
                         assumption and the attendant             The photographer and anthropologist Houda Kassatly
                         erosion of public space, and its         staged an exhibition in April 2010 that highlighted,
                         amnesiac erasure of the city’s           among other themes, the ‘urbicide’ of Beirut and
                         traumatic and conflictual recent         suggested, in an echo of Naomi Klein, a correlation
                                  38
                         history .                                between the destruction of the war and the



42
   MAJAL. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.majal-
lebanon.com/Projects_detail.php?menu=mn2&typ=0&name=&idp=5
43
   MAJAL. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.majal-
lebanon.com/Projects_detail.php?menu=mn2&typ=0&name=&idp=5
35
   Larkin, C. (2009), ‘Reconstructing and deconstructing Beirut: space, memory and Lebanese youth’, p.5. Divided
Cities/Contested States Working Paper No.8. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/conflictincities/PDFs/WorkingPaper8_21.5.09.pdf
36
   Cited in Larkin, C. (2009), ‘Reconstructing and deconstructing Beirut: space, memory and Lebanese youth’, p.5. Divided
Cities/Contested States Working Paper No.8. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/conflictincities/PDFs/WorkingPaper8_21.5.09.pdf
37
   Larkin, C. (2009), ‘Reconstructing and deconstructing Beirut: space, memory and Lebanese youth’, p.6. Divided
Cities/Contested States Working Paper No.8. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/conflictincities/PDFs/WorkingPaper8_21.5.09.pdf
38
   Larkin, C. (2009), ‘Reconstructing and deconstructing Beirut: space, memory and Lebanese youth’, p.7. Divided
Cities/Contested States Working Paper No.8. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/conflictincities/PDFs/WorkingPaper8_21.5.09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :      page 7



                                                                  destruction of the subsequent peace. In her exhibition
                                                                  catalogue, she writes: “The end of civil war, and more
                                                                  recently, the thirty-three days in the summer of
                                                                  2006…were quickly followed and even accompanied
                                                                  by a massacre on the city…. As if the destruction from
                                                                  outside was an evil which, once established, had no
                                                                                                           46
                                                                  alternative but to continue to spread.”

                         However, the 2005 National               Along with health, social protection, youth
                         Physical Master Plan of the              empowerment, equitable employment and socio-
                         Lebanese Territory outlines a            economic development, community revitalisation is
                         range of future policy directions        one of the central components of Lebanon’s National
                         for the country, including a land        Social Development Strategy. The strategy aims to
                         use management with the stated           enhance living environments in urban concentrations
                         aim of promoting unity, equitable        and promote home ownership among low-income
                         regional development, sustainable        families through the extension of credit facilities and
                         resource use, economic                   private sector instruments. In addition to
                         productivity, social development,        environmental protection and heritage conservation,
                         environmental protection and             the strategy aims to promote public parks, libraries
                                                 39
                         heritage conservation . It               sports facilities and transport networks. It also has
                         highlights the need to develop           institutional and policy strands, too: increasing the
                         planning protection in the regions       impartiality of the judiciary and its relationship to the
                         (80-90% of the territory) without        public, protecting rights through enhanced legislation
                         local regulations, and ensure            and changing building codes to foster public utilisation
                         future housing developments are          of unused land and inclusive development. It also aims
                         appropriately integrated into the        to improve access to public housing and alter existing
                         existing urban fabric. It also           codes so that developers are obliged to build a
                         outlines a number of urban               proportion of smaller apartments within a
                         programs, including a coordinated        development. It intends to create a housing policy
                         program of infrastructure                managed by the Ministry of Social Affairs and
                         development in Aaley, an area            distribute housing loans in a more regionally equitable
                         that is rapidly being absorbed by        fashion. To raise living standards in slums, the plan
                                                           40
                         Beirut’s southern urban spread :         also focuses on extending basic services such as water
                         it would be interesting to follow        and sanitation, improve the conditions of existing
                         this up to see if progress has been      buildings and imposing the building codes on new
                         achieved and if not, why. The pan        construction. Finally, the strategy looks at reviewing
                         also outlined the need to set up an      building restrictions in Palestinian camps, providing
                         urban development agency, a              infrastructure, clarifying ownership ambiguities within
                         commercial autonomous public             them and reforming current legislative barriers to
                                                                                          47
                         office, to manage land                   Palestinian ownership .
                                                        41
                         expropriation and allocations .



44
   Chamoun, R., ‘Confusing political, social and cultural urban changes in Beirut’. Paper rpesented at the 6 th International Summer
Academy on International Studies on Urban Infrastructure in Transtiion: What can we learn from history?, Austria, July11-17,
2004. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: www.ifz.tugraz.at/index_en.php/filemanager/.../Chamoun_SA%202004.pdf c
45
   Verdeil, E. (2008), ‘State development policy and specialised engineers. The case of urban planners in Lebanon’. Savoir Travail
Société / Knowledge Work Society, 5 (1): 29-51. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-
00261163/
39
   Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Introduction. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Intr.PDF
40
   Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 6, p.18. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt6.PDF
41
   Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt6.PDF
46
   Zughini, F., ‘War and peace’. Now Lebanon, April 1, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=157914
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 8



                                                                  Aseel Sawalha’s 2010 book, Reconstructing Beirut:
                                                                  Memory and Space in a Postwar Arab City, is a
                                                                  potentially useful additional source for resident
                                                                  perspectives on the reconstruction of the city and the
                                                                  alienation of traditional social life in the wake of its
                                                                                  48
                                                                  redevelopment .
Details of & impact of   No. of international migrants:           Internal displacement
migrants, refugees &                       49
                         758,167 (2010)                           The civil war resulted in the displacement of a large
IDPs on urbanization.    No. of refugees:                         portion of the population. In Beirut, this helped
                                           50
                         462,584 (2010)                           catalyse further informal urbanisation in the city and
Policy implications.
                         International migrants as % of           substantial demographic repatterning. Subsequently,
(For Magreb, Mashreq
& LDCs only)             population:                              the ‘return policies’ of the Ministry of Displaced has
                                        51
                         17.8% (2010) .                           promote the return of these displaced to their original
                         According to UNRWA, as of 30             homes, resulting at times in the displacement of
                         June 2008 there were 416,608             established squatters. Some owners, having
                         registered refugees: 50,066 in           established roots in new neighbourhoods, have
                                                                                                                58
                         Beirut, 81,217 in Mountain,              preferred to rent out their former homes .
                         101,627 in Saida, 107,025 in Tyre,
                         59,767 in Tripoli and 16,906 in          Refugees
                         Beqaa. 220,809 of these were             According to some estimates, the population is
                         housed in camps: only 618 in             considerably higher than the official 4.2 million due to
                         Beirut, but 37,962 in Mountain,          the larger number of refugees, in particular
                         59,286 in Saida, 56,546 in Tyre,         Armenians, Kurds and Palestinians. However, while a
                         49,128 in Tripoli (where the Nahr        large proportion of Kurds and Armenians have been
                         el-Bared camp is located, among          granted citizenship status, most Palestinians in the
                                                      52                                                         59
                         others) and 7,823 in Beqaa .             country continue to be classified as refugees . Iraqis
                         However, in addition to the              constitute the second largest refugee group in the
                         officially registered refugees in        country: according to UNHCR, between 30,000 and
                                                                                            60
                         camps, many other refugees in            50,000 live in the country . However, according to the
                         Lebanon live in unofficial camps or      Norwegian Refugee Council, “Local integration is not a
                                               53
                         camp-like situations .                   viable solution in Lebanon since Lebanon does not
                                                                  consider itself an asylum country and has very strong
                                                                  reservations about acceding the 1951 Refugee
                                                                                               61
                                                                  Convention / 1967 protocol” .

                                                                  Sectarian concerns have often complicated the
                                                                  citizenship status of long term residents. For instance,
                                                                  between 75,000 and 100,000 Kurds who have been in
                                                                  Lebanon for decades still have not been awarded
                                                                  citizenship largely due to the perceived need to
                                                                  maintain the country’s existing confessional


47
   Ministry of Social Affairs, ‘The development of a comprehensive social strategy in Lebanon’. Workshop at Dunes, September,
2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: www.socialaffairs.gov.lb/nsds.doc
48
   Sawalha, A. (2010), Reconstructing Beirut: Memory and Space in a Postwar Arab City. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=hfkq7blO4f0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=beirut+urban+survey&source=bl&ots=2l3UfaPy42
&sig=wd_HQ8pHN4Oo_mOBNZDwyoCi2do&hl=en&ei=ITTkTPaKFsaxhAe629SuDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resn
um=8&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=beirut%20urban%20survey&f=false
49
   UN DESA, Trends in international migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://esa.un.org/migration
50
   UN DESA, Trends in international migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://esa.un.org/migration/p2k0data.asp
51
   UN DESA, Trends in international migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://esa.un.org/migration/p2k0data.asp
52
   UNRAW. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.unrwa-lebanon.org/Refugees.aspx
53
   Kamel Dorai, M. (2010), ‘From camp dwellers to urban refugees? Urbanisation and marginalisation of refugee camps in
Lebanon’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cmi.no/file/?121
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :     page 9


                                                                                62
                                                                  composition .

                         UN HABITAT has finalised a report        As stateless persons, the approximately 350,000
                         on basic urban services in the           Palestinians refugees are restricted in their ability to
                                                                                                             63
                         areas surrounding several refugee        work, construct homes or own property (though this
                         camps in Lebanon, ‘Grey area:            may be reformed as part of Lebanon’s social strategy:
                                                                              64
                         access to basic urban services in        see above) . Those who owned property prior to the
                         the adjacent areas of Palestinian        passing of this prohibitive legislation in 2001 are
                                                     54                                                            65
                         refugee camps in Lebanon’ . This         forbidden from handing it on to their children . As a
                         is not online but should be              result of work restrictions, many refugees are forced
                                                                                               66
                         available on request.                    into the informal economy . This has had far-reaching
                                                                                                               67
                                                                  effects on their socio-spatial organisation . The
                                                                  government’s guiding aim since 1948 has been to
                                                                  prevent the integration or naturalisation of
                                                                  Palestinians: the consequence of this attitude is a
                                                                                                     68
                                                                  ‘protection gap’ for the refugees . Social ad economic
                                                                  deprivation, coupled with the ‘strategic localisation’ of
                                                                  Palestinian refugee camps, has helped fuel the
                                                                                                     69
                                                                  development of violent Islamism .

                                                                  The land area allocated assigned for refugee camps
                                                                  has only increased slightly since 1948, despite the
                                                                  number of registered refugees having increased four
                                                                  times since then. The camps are overpopulated,
                                                                  damaged and afflicted with high levels of poverty and
                                                                        70
                                                                  crime . Around 40% of Palestinians live in “informal
                                                                  gatherings”, often with even worse service access than
                                                                                                   71
                                                                  those in the UNRAW-run camps . One 2004 study of

58
   Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.16. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
59
   Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
60
   United States Government, Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htm
61
   Norwegian Refugee Council. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.nrc.no/?did=9167197
54
   UN HABITAT, ‘Lebanon updates (10): August 2010’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.unhabitat.org/list.asp?typeid=15&catid=208
62
   United States Government, Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htm
63
   Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
64
   Ministry of Social Affairs, ‘The development of a comprehensive social strategy in Lebanon’. Workshop at Dunes, September,
2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: www.socialaffairs.gov.lb/nsds.doc
65
   United States Government, Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htm
66
   United States Government, Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htm
67
   Kamel Dorai, M. (2010), ‘From camp dwellers to urban refugees? Urbanisation and marginalisation of refugee camps in
Lebanon’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cmi.no/file/?121
68
   Knudsen. A. (2009), ‘Widening the protection gap: the ‘politics of citizenship’ for Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, 1948-2008.
Journal of Refugee Studies, 22 (1): 51-73. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://jrs.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/1/51.abstract
69
   Knudsen, A. (2005), ‘Islamism in the Diaspora: Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon’. Journal of Refugee Studies, 18 (2): 216-234.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://jrs.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/2/216.abstract
70
   United States Government, Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htm
71
   Norwegian Refugee Council. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.nrc.no/?did=9167197
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :        page 10



                                                                  the camp of Chatila highlights the inter-communal
                                                                  conflict between Palestinians and other communities,
                                                                  and attributes these tensions in part to the
                                                                  exclusionist policies of the Lebanese state, which it
                                                                                                        72
                                                                  argues undermine the peace process .

                                                                  Historically, the tendency with the refugee camps was
                                                                  generally to disregard them under the aegis of the
                                                                  UNRWA and outside Lebanese jurisdiction: “maps and
                                                                  projects tend to simply ignore them and consider
                                                                  them, over 50 years after their establishment, as
                                                                                       73
                                                                  ‘temporary camps’” . However, Mohamed Kamel
                                                                  Dorai has discussed the blurring of distinct boundaries
                                                                  between ‘camp dwellers’ and ‘urban refugees’, as well
                                                                  as the integration of camps into their surrounding
                                                                  urban areas. Urban camps attract other migrant
                                                                                 74
                                                                  communities . He has also highlighted how in the Al
                                                                  Buss refugee camp at Tyre, Lebanese restrictions on
                                                                  any construction material entering the camp
                                                                  hampered construction and renovation, thus
                                                                                                   75
                                                                  worsening the housing situation .

                                                                  In 2007, the Nahr el-Barad refugee camp was
                                                                  destroyed in a conflict between the Lebanese army
                                                                  and Fatah al-Islam, resulting in hundreds of deaths and
                                                                                                            76
                                                                  the mass displacement of 31,000 people . In August
                                                                  2010, an urban planner was reportedly arrested as a
                                                                  result of his criticism of the army and public
                                                                  authorities over what he saw as their obstructive role
                                                                  in the reconstruction of the Nahr el-Bared refugee
                                                                        77
                                                                  camp .

                                                                  Mohamed Kamel Dorai has also argued that, as
                                                                  displaced persons rarely return to their place of origin,
                                                                  Iraqi and Palestinian refugees should not be regarded
                                                                  merely as aid recipients in line for return or
                                                                  resettlement, but as important actors contributing to
                                                                  the development of their host cities.

                         Remittance outflows (2007):              Migrant workers
                                       55
                         $2,845million                            Foreign domestic workers are “routinely exploited and


55
   UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
72
   Halabi, Z. (2004), ‘Exclusion and identify in Lebanon’s Palestinian refugee camps: a story of sustained conflict. Environment
and Urbanization, 16 (2): 39-48. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://eau.sagepub.com/content/16/2/39
73
   Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.26. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
74
   Kamel Dorai, M. (2010), ‘From camp dwellers to urban refugees? Urbanisation and marginalisation of refugee camps in
Lebanon’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cmi.no/file/?121
75
   Kamel Dorai, M. (2010), ‘From camp dwellers to urban refugees? Urbanisation and marginalisation of refugee camps in
Lebanon’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cmi.no/file/?121
76
   UNDP, UNDP Lebanon Achievements 2006-2009, p.10. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/achievements.pdf
77
   Human Rights Watch, ‘Lebanon: critic of Nahr al-Bared reconstruction efforts detained’. August 20, 2010. Retrieved November
17, 2010 at: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/08/20/lebanon-critic-nahr-al-bared-reconstruction-efforts-detained
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.        Lebanon :     page 11



                                                                  physically abused”, though the Labour Ministry passed
                                                                  legislation in 2009 affording domestic workers
                                                                                                          78
                                                                  guaranteed time off and limited hours . “Foreign
                                                                  domestic servants, usually women, were often
                                                                  mistreated, abused, and in some cases raped or placed
                                                                                              79
                                                                  in slavery-like conditions” . In a survey of 600
                                                                  domestic workers in 2006, 31% of respondents
                                                                  reported that their employers did not allow them to
                                                                                    80
                                                                  leave their home . A considerable number of suicides
                                                                                                                   81
                                                                  by foreign domestic workers continue to occur . In
                                                                  August 2008, Human Rights Watch reported that
                                                                  migrant workers were dying at a disproportionate rate
                                                                  (more than one every week) and attributed this to the
                                                                  high number of suicides and attempted escapes
                                                                                           82
                                                                  among migrant workers . In October 2009, 8 deaths
                                                                  among migrant workers were reported in a single
                                                                          83
                                                                  month .

                                                                  In February 2010, it was reported that the Ministry of
                                                                  Labour intended to set up a complaints office for
                                                                                   84
                                                                  foreign workers . However, a September 2010 Human
                                                                  Rights Watch report concluded from a review of 114
                                                                  legal cases that the judiciary was failing to protect
                                                                  migrant workers from human rights abuses by their
                                                                             85
                                                                  employers . In February 2010, a group of human
                                                                  rights organisation petitioned for an end to the
                                                                  arbitrary detention of migrants and refugees in
                                                                  Lebanon, citing Internal Security Forces figures that
                                                                  13% of detainees in Lebanese prisons were foreigners
                                                                                                                86
                                                                  who had already completed their sentence .

                         Remittance inflows (2007):               Emigration and diaspora
                                        56
                         $5,769 million                           Lebanon has a very large diaspora population.
                         24.5% of Lebanon’s GDP (2008)            Estimates vary considerably, but generally agree that it
                         comes from remittances - $1,712          outnumbers Lebanon’s domestic population
                                   57
                         per capita .                             considerably. For instance, the UK government’s

56
   UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
57
   UNDP, Human Development Report 2010, p.205. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Complete.pdf
78
   Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htmhttp://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&y
ear=2010
79
   United States Government, Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htm
80
   Human Rights Watch, ‘Lebanon: migrant domestic workers dying every week’. August 26, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010
at: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2008/08/24/lebanon-migrant-domestic-workers-dying-every-week
81
   Migrant Rights. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.migrant-rights.org/category/news/lebanon/
82
   Human Rights Watch, ‘Lebanon: migrant domestic workers dying every week’. August 26, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010
at: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2008/08/24/lebanon-migrant-domestic-workers-dying-every-week
83
   Human Rights Watch, ‘Lebanon: deadly month for migrant workers’. November 9, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/11/09/lebanon-deadly-month-domestic-workers
84
   Migrant Rights, ‘Lebanese Ministry of Labour to create a complaints office for foreign workers’. February 4, 2010. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://www.migrant-rights.org/2010/02/04/lebanese-ministry-of-labor-to-create-a-complaints-department-
for-foreign-workers/
85
   Human Rights Watch, ‘Lebanon: judiciary failing to protect domestic workers’. September 16, 2010. Retrieved November 17,
2010 at: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/09/15/lebanon-judiciary-failing-protect-domestic-workers
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.        Lebanon :       page 12



                                                                  Foreign Office states that the diaspora population “is
                                                                                               87
                                                                  thought to total 14 million” . The Consortium for
                                                                  Applied Research on Migration, on the other hand,
                                                                  states that diaspora estimates are “often driven by
                                                                  politics. Frequent but unfounded claims are made for
                                                                                                            88
                                                                  several million Lebanese in the Diaspora” .

                                                                  Emigration from Lebanon is connected to the social
                                                                  and economic conditions in the country at a particular
                                                                  time and was particularly pronounced during the civil
                                                                      89
                                                                  war . ‘Brain drain’ is a concern: there is a continued
                                                                  trend of young educated emigrating from the country,
                                                                  fuelled in part by the precarious job market and the
                                                                  availability of better positions and living conditions
                                                                              90
                                                                  elsewhere .
2. The Growing
Economic Role
of Cities
The economic role of        GDP (current US$):                    Ongoing political instability, such as the assassination
urban networks &            34.450 billion (2009, World           of its former Prime Minister in 2005 and Israeli’s
systems of cities.          Bank)
                                  91
                                                                  attack in 2006, has been a major barrier to the
                                                      92
                            28.540 billion (2008, UN)             country’s economic development. In 2006, after a
Country’s cities’ role in
                            GDP per capita ($US current,          positive start and predicted GDP growth of 6% for the
global markets, the
rise of global &            PPP):                                 year, there was no GDP growth largely as a result of
                                                 93                                               101
regional cities.            $14,226 (2009, IMF)                   the Israeli attack on Lebanon . Among the areas
                            GNI per capita (current US$):         identified by the 2005 National Physical Master Plan as
                                                           94
Changing role of            $9,450(2005)  $13,230 (2009)         potential growth areas were agriculture, tourism,
                                                                                                  102
countries cities under      GNI per capita (Atlas method,         publishing, culture and crafts . It also highlights the
economic                    US$):                                 challenge of increased global competition and a 1997
globalization.              $5,670 (2005)  $7,970 (2009)
                                                          95
                                                                  figure that suggests income exceeds production value
                            Merchandise trade exports             by 20% and is unsustainably maintained through
City marketing, related                                                  103
                            (2009):                               loans .
fiscal policy, export-

86
   Human Rights Watch, ‘Letter to Lebanese government voicing concern over migrant and refugee arbitrary detentions’.
February 24, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/02/24/letter-lebanese-government-
voicing-concern-over-migrant-migrant-and-refugee-arbitrar
87
   UK Government, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-
living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/middle-east-north-africa/lebanon
88
   Consortium for Applied Research on Migration (2010), ‘CARIM – Migration Profile: Lebanon’. Retrieved November 17, 2010
at: http://www.carim.org/public/migrationprofiles/MP_Lebanon_EN.pdf
89
   Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
90
   UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.14. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
91
   World Bank. Retrieved October 30, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD/countries
92
   United Nations Retrieved October 30, 2010 at: http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Lebanon
93
   IMF. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=24&pr.y=7&sy=2009&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&
sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512,941,914,446,612,666,614,668,311,672,213,946,911,137,193,962,122,674,912,676,313,548,419,
556,513,678,316,181,913,682,124,684,339,273,638,921,514,948,218,943,963,686,616,688,223,518,516,728,918,558,748,138,618
,196,522,278,622,692,156,694,624,142,626,449,628,564,228,283,924,853,233,288,632,293,636,566,634,964,238,182,662,453,96
0,968,423,922,935,714,128,862,611,716,321,456,243,722,248,942,469,718,253,724,642,576,643,936,939,961,644,813,819,199,1
72,184,132,524,646,361,648,362,915,364,134,732,652,366,174,734,328,144,258,146,656,463,654,528,336,923,263,738,268,578,
532,537,944,742,176,866,534,369,536,744,429,186,433,925,178,746,436,926,136,466,343,112,158,111,439,298,916,927,664,846
,826,299,542,582,967,474,443,754,917,698,544&s=PPPPC&grp=0&a=
94
   World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD
95
   World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :      page 13



oriented industrial      Fuel and mining products: 10.3%
cities.                  Manufactures 56.3%                       Lebanon’s economy is already relatively liberalised,
                         Agriculture 12.2%                        but it has also committed to additional treaties with
What are the most
                         Share in world’s exports (2009):         Arab and European countries to benefit its private
dynamic urban                  96
                         0.03%                                    sector, in particular its agricultural, industrial and
sectors?                                                                           104
                         Rank in world trade (2009):              services sectors . Lebanon presented a substantial
                         Merchandise (exports): 104               reform strategy in 2007, built around privatisation,
                         Merchandise (imports): 72                social sector reform, growth-enhancement and fiscal
                                                                               105
                         Commercial services (exports): 39        adjustment . It also included a Social Action Plan
                         Commercial services (imports):           incorporating income support, poverty reduction and
                            97
                         43                                       social development, together with the establishment
                         Foreign direct investment inflows        of an Inter-Ministerial Committee for Social Issues to
                                                                                        106
                         (BoP, current US$):                      monitor its progress .
                         $2,623,502,612 (2005)
                                              98
                         4,803,602,660 (2009)                     According to the 2008 Millennium Goals Development
                                                                  Report, Lebanon has one of the highest debt-to-GDP
                         The 2004 Census of Buildings,            ratios in the world. Net public debt was $29.5 billion in
                         Dwellings and Establishments has         2002 (158% of GDP) and $39 billion in 2007. Debt
                         data on the number of                    service payments came to 16% in 2002 and 13.2% in
                                                                       107
                         establishments in different parts        2007 . Lebanon also suffers from a chronic trade
                         of the country. In Beirut, the           deficit. (around $9 billion in 2007, approximately 34%
                         number of establishments                 of Lebanon’s GDP). The export-to-import ratio was
                         increased 3.47% between 1996             23.8% in 2007. This naturally impacts on the country’s
                                                                                        108
                         and 2004, from 24,660 to 25,516          balance of payments .
                                           99
                         establishments . There is also
                         data on the specific sectoral            Beirut’s economy continues to be dominated by its
                         activities these are engaged in,         large service sector, and also has a sizeable informal
                                                                            109
                         highlighting concentrations in           economy . It is at the heart of the country’s service-
                         particular fields such as wholesale,     based economy, comprising a third of the country’s
                         retail and motor sales and               population and two-thirds of the total value added in
                                        100                                     110
                         maintenance .                            the economy .


101
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, pp.11-12. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
102
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
103
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2, p.6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
96
   World Trade Organisation. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=LB
97
   World Trade Organisation. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=LB
98
   World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD
99
   Central Administration of Statistics, Census of Buildings, Dwellings and Establishments 2004, table 11. Retrieved November
17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=37
100
    Central Administration of Statistics, Census of Buildings, Dwellings and Establishments 2004, table 10. Retrieved November
17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=37
104
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.78. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
105
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.8. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
106
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, pp.11-12. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
107
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.75. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
108
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.78. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.     Lebanon :     page 14




Services &                 Air transport, registered carrier
infrastructure             departures worldwide (#
(supporting global or      domestic/international flights
international
                           abroad by carriers registered in
functions.)
                           Lebanon)
Policy implications.                       111
                           11,274 (2006)
Cities, mobility &         Mobile cellular subscription/100
transportation             people:
                                                  112
infrastructures (facts &   24 (2005) 34 (2008)
trends).                   Internet users, number per 100
                           population:
                                                      113
                           17.2 (2005) 22.5 (2008)
Urban productivity &       Labour participation rate, total (%
employment - facts &       of total population ages 15+):
trends.                    45% (2008)
                                       114
                                                                  The 2008 Millennium Development stated that male
                           Labour participation rate, male        unemployment was highest in Beirut, while female
                           (15+):                                 unemployment was highest in South Lebanon and
                                       115                                 142
                           70% (2008)                             Nabatiyeh .
                           Labour participation, female
                           (15+):
                                       116
                           22% (2008)
                           In addition, female employment is
                           characterised by limited access to
                           positions of substantive
                           responsibility or authority: for
                           instance, according to 2004 data,
                           5.1% if employed females were in
                           managerial positions, compared to
                                                      117
                           12.4% of employed males .
                           Employment-to-population ration
                           (2008):
                           45.9% - M/F
                           70.9% – male
                                            118
                           22.6% - female
                           Youth unemployment rate, 15-24
                           (2004):
                                  119
                           20.9%
                           Unemployment is around 20%
                                                          120
                           among the 15-24 population .



109
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
110
    Cited by World Bank (2008), Project Paper on a Proposed Additional Loan. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/12/30/000333037_20081230231946/Rendered/PDF/464
340PJPR0P111E0ONLY10R20081027711.pdf
111
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.AIR.DPRT
112
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2
113
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.P2
114
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.ZS
115
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.MA.ZS
116
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.FE.ZS
117
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.31. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
118
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
119
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.    Lebanon :   page 15



                         Share of youth (15-24)
                         unemployment to total
                         unemployment (2004):
                                            121
                         48.1% - both sexes

                         The employment rate as of 2007
                         was 43.3%. Unemployment as of
                         2007 (15-64, as defined by the ILO)
                                               122
                         was 9.2% (CAS, 2007) .
                         2007 Living Condition Survey data
                         According to the Living Conditions
                         Survey 2007 data, 6.5% of males
                         and 3.1% of females (of the entire
                         population, including and pre-
                         school and students) are
                         unemployed. However, an
                         additional 45.3% of females are
                         ‘inactive’ (occupied with
                         housework, etc.).45.1% of males
                         and 14.2% of females are
                                  123
                         working – as before, this is out
                         of the entire population, so is
                         distinct from the labour
                         participation rate.

                         Out of the 15+ year age group,
                         6.2% are unemployed (8.6% male,
                         4.0% female), 15.3% are students
                         (15.5% male, 15.0% female),
                         31.2% ‘inactive’ (3.2% male, 57.8%
                         female) and 39.0% working (60.6%
                                              124
                         male, 18.5% female) . In ‘Beirut’,
                         out of the 15+ population, 43.3%
                         are working, 26.4% ‘inactive’,
                         14.3% are students and 5.7% are
                                      125
                         unemployed .

                         There is also unemployment data
                         by age group. Adapting the data in
                         the tables, 47% of the country’s




120
    UNDP, UNDP Lebanon Achievements 2006-2009, p.6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/achievements.pdf
142
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.31. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
121
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
122
    Central Administration of Statistics. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=83&Itemid=2#unempl
123
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.238. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
124
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.239. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
125
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.247. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.    Lebanon :   page 16



                         unemployed are between 20 and
                                     126
                         29 years old . 13.2% of 20-24
                         year olds and 11.7% of 25-29 year
                                             127
                         olds are unemployed .

                         There is also data on the
                         educational attainment of the
                         work force: for instance, 4.1%
                         (4.4% of employed males, 3.1% of
                         employed females) of the 15+
                         employed are illiterate 23.6% of
                         the 15+ working population
                         (18.3% males, 39.9% females) are
                                                      128
                         educated to university level .

                         The largest economic sectors in
                         terms of employment are services
                         (41.6% of all employment), trade
                         (22.6% of all employment),
                         industry (13.8%), agriculture
                         (7.2%), transport, post and
                         telecoms (7.0%), and construction
                         (5.6%) and financial
                         intermediation and insurance
                         (2.1%). However, the composition
                         varies significantly by gender: 7.4%
                         of employed men but 0% of
                         employed women work in
                         construction, for instance, while
                         64.0% of employed women work
                         in services compared to 34.2% of
                                          129
                         employed men .
                         In ‘Beirut’, 52.4% of the work force
                         are in services, 24.3% in trade,
                         9.4% in industry, 6.9% in
                         transport, post and telecoms, 4.7%
                         in financial intermediation and
                         insurance, 2.1% in construction
                         and 0.2% in agriculture. The
                         proportions vary in other part of
                         the country, including Mount
                                                 130
                         Lebanon and Dahyieh .

                         Along with 1.0 % ‘other’, 15.7% of
                         the 15+ employed work in the
                         public sector, 58.0% in the private

126
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.241. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
127
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.238. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
128
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.249. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
129
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.258. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
130
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.260. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.    Lebanon :   page 17



                         sector (declared enterprise) 25.3%
                         in the private sector (not declared
                                     131
                         enterprise) . It would be useful
                         to clarify what the last category
                         entails and whether it represents
                         the informal economy. In ‘Beirut’,
                         9.5% of the 15+ employed work in
                         the public sector, 68.5% in the
                         private sector (declared
                         enterprise), 19.5% in the private
                         sector (not declared enterprise)
                                           132
                         and 2.5% ‘other’ .

                         93.1% of employed work in
                         permanent positions and 6.9% in
                                        133
                         occasional work . In ‘Beirut’,
                         93.2% work in permanent work
                                                     134
                         and 6.8% in occasional roles .

                         52.9% of the country’s
                         unemployed are between 20 and
                         29 years old (66.8% if the 15-19
                                                  135
                         group are also included) . 2.1%
                         of the unemployed are illiterate
                         and 29.7% are educated to
                                         136
                         university level - suggesting that
                         in some areas at least the
                         educational attainment of the
                         unemployed is in fact higher than
                         that of the employed. Of the 15-64
                         unemployed, 30.1% are educated
                                             137
                         to university level .

                         94.8% of those working at the
                         beginning of the war did not have
                         their employment affected by it.
                         However, 4.2% lost their
                         employment and 1.0% had to
                                                         138
                         change it as a result of the war .
                         The ration was worse for the


131
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.238. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
132
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.265. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
133
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.266. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
134
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.238. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
135
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.272. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
136
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.272. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
137
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.279. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
138
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.284. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.        Lebanon :         page 18



                         young (15-24) employed at the
                         outbreak of the war: 8.4% lost
                         their work and 1.3% had to change
                           139
                         it . There is additional data on
                         this looking at the effects on
                         individual sectors and regions.

                         2004 Household Budget Survey             The average wage in Lebanon as of 2004, according to
                         data                                     the Household Budget Survey 2004, was 8.394 million
                         It is clear from the Household           LBP. In Beirut, the average wage was 10.663 million
                         Budget Survey 2004 data that             LBP and in Mount Lebanon 9.075 million LBP. The
                         expenditure is generally higher in       governorate with the lowest average wage was
                                                                                                         143
                         Beirut than other parts of the           Southern Lebanon, at 6.467 million LBP .
                         country. For instance, while in
                         Lebanon as a whole the                   Public sector salaries were generally higher (11.567
                         proportion of households an              million LBP) than private sector wages (7.427 million
                                                                       144
                         expenditure less than 6.0 million        LBP) . There is also data comparing average wages in
                         LBP is 8.2% and between 6.0              different sectors, with financial intermediation the
                         million and 8.5 million is 11.1%, in     highest (14.904 million LBP) and agriculture the lowest
                                                                                                   145
                         Beirut the proportions are 3.4%          (3.660 million LBP) paid sectors .
                         and 4.1% respectively – compared
                         to 13.0% and 15.5% in Southern
                         Lebanon. Conversely, while 10.8%
                         of Lebanese households have
                         expenditure exceeding 35 million
                         LBP, the proportion in Beirut is
                         26.5% - compared to just 4.7% in
                                              140
                         Southern Lebanon . There is also
                         data on expenditure by
                                     141
                         individual .
                                                  146                                                                  166
Urban & national         HDI Rank (2007): 83rd .                  48.3% of the country benefit from health insurance .
education & health       It is the lowest of the countries in     There is also region-specific data available, as well as
details & trends.        the ‘high human development’             disaggregation by age and gender.
                         category. Lebanon is not ranked in
                         the 2010 Human Development               According to the World Health Organisation, health
                         Report.                                  expenditure accounts for 10.2% of national GDP
                                                    147
                         HDI value (2007): 0.803                  (undated) and around 80% of the country health care
                         Life expectancy at birth, years:         is delivered by the private sector, which has grown in
                                            148                                                               167
                         72.4 years (2010)                        the last decades in an unregulated fashion .


139
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.285. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
140
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Expenditures by household 2004-2005’, table 5.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
141
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Expenditures by household 2004-2005’, table 8.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
143
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Income 2004-2005’, table 14. Retrieved November 17,
2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
144
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Income 2004-2005’, table 20. Retrieved November 17,
2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
145
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Income 2004-2005’, table 21. Retrieved November 17,
2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
146
    2007 figure, from UNDP (2009), Human Development Report 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
147
    UNDP, Human Development Report 2009, p.170. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
148
    UNDP, 2010 Human Development Report, p.146. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Complete.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.        Lebanon :       page 19



                         Life expectancy, years (2007
                         data):                                   A recent survey of Hay el Sellom, one of the largest
                         M/F: 71.9 (2007)                         informal settlements on the margins of Beirut,
                         69.8 (male)                              explored the connection between illness and housing
                                         149
                         74.1% (female)                           quality through a survey of 3,881 residents. The
                         Health expenditure per capita            results showed a strong correlation, with around 50%
                         (current US$):                           of surveyed households reporting chronic illnesses and
                                                     150
                         $449 (2005)  $525 (2007)                two-thirds of individuals living in households with
                         Health expenditure (public and           more than four problems relating to housing
                         private) as % of total GDP:              conditions. The study concludes that health in these
                                     151
                         8.8% (2007)                              poor urban communities could be significantly
                                                                                                       168
                         Under-5 mortality rate:                  improved through better planning .
                                                 152
                         40 (1990)  13 (2008)
                         Infant mortality rate (<1):
                                                 153
                         33 (1990)  12 (2008)

                         Combined gross enrolment ratio           The Living Conditions Survey 2007 has a large volume
                                                      154
                         in education (2007): 78.0%               of data on the number of its population in education,
                         School life expectancy, years:           though not all of it is relevant to the report.
                         14 (overall), 13 (male), 14 (female)
                                                155
                         (2009, UIS estimate)
                         Adult (15+) literacy (2007):
                         89.6% (M/F)
                         93.4 % (male)
                         86.0% (female)
                         Youth (15-24) literacy (2007):
                         98.7% (M/F)
                         98.4% (male)
                                           156
                         99.1% (female)
                         Illiteracy rates for the 15+
                         population in Lebanon were 6.6%
                         for males and 14% for females in
                         2007, compared to 6.4% for males
                                                          157
                         and 13.7% for females in 2004 .
                         According to the Living Conditions
                         Survey 2007, the proportion of the
                         age 3+years non-studying

166
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.153. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
167
    World Health Organisation. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_lbn_en.pdf
149
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report, p.181. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
150
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PCAP
151
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.TOTL.ZS
152
    UNICEF. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/lebanon_statistics.html
153
    UNICEF. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/lebanon_statistics.html
154
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report, p.171. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
155
    UN DESA. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/education.htm
156
    UNESCO. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=4220&BR_Regi
on=40525
157
    El Jouni, I. & Fong, M., ‘Gender Statistics in Lebannon: Current Situation and Future Needs – Education’. Paper presented at
the Central Administration of Statistics/World Bank seminar on ‘Gender Statistics in Lebanon: Current Situation and Future
Needs’ in Beirut, June 17 2010http://www.cas.gov.lb/images/PDFs/Gender_statistics/2-
%20Use%20of%20Gender%20Statistics%20-%20Education.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.      Lebanon :    page 20



                         population who were illiterate was
                         13.5% (9.3% male, 17.6%)
                                  158
                         female . There is also data on
                         currently non-studying 3+
                         residents and their educational
                         attainment (preschool,
                         elementary, intermediate,
                         secondary, university) as a total
                                               159
                         and by gender/age .
                         The illiteracy rate of the age 3+
                         non-studying population is 13.5%
                         in the country as a whole and 6.4%
                         in ‘Beirut’, 7.3% in Mount
                         Lebanon, 14.3% in Dahyieh and
                                           160
                         21.4% in Bekaa . There is data
                         also on the whole +3 population,
                         regardless of whether or not they
                         are currently studying.
                         Of all the population (3+), 8.2% are
                         illiterate in the country as a whole
                         – rates in ‘Beirut’ are half that
                         (4.1%). In Mount Lebanon it is
                         5.1%, in Dahyieh 7.9% and in
                                        161
                         Bekaa 12.7% . Older (40+)
                         women in rural areas are
                         particularly disadvantaged and
                         there needs to be a move beyond
                         current education policy to
                         specifically target this group if
                         gender equity and rural-urban
                                                       162
                         equality are to be achieved .
                         Education - Primary enrolment,
                         gross enrolment rate:
                         101% (2008) (M/F)
                         102% (2008) (male)
                         100% (2008) (female)
                         Education - Primary enrolment,
                         net enrolment rate:
                         88% (2008) (M/F)
                         89% (2008) (male)
                         88% (2008) (female)
                         Education – Secondary
                         enrolment, gross enrolment rate:
                         82% (2008) (M/F)

168
    Habib, R. et al., ‘Housing quality and ill health in a disadvantaged urban community’, Public Health, 123 (2): 174-181.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.publichealthjrnl.com/article/S0033-3506(08)00321-1/abstract
158
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.220. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
159
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.220-222. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
160
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.224. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
161
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.230. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
162
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.22. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 21



                         77% (2008) (male)
                                             163
                         86% (2008) (female)
                         Tertiary enrolment – gross
                         enrolment rate:
                         52% (2008) (M/F)
                         46% (2008) (male)
                                             164
                         57% (2008) (female)

                         Central Administration of Statistics
                         data (2007):
                         Gross enrolment rate, elementary
                         level: 110.1% male, 105.1% female
                         Net enrolment rate, elementary
                         level: 92.8% (male), 93.4%
                         (female)
                         Net enrolment rate, secondary
                         level: 50.7% (male), 56.5%
                                  165
                         (female)
Tourism- details &                                                Lebanon’s cultural heritage is one of its main
trends.                                                           attractions. One of the stated aims of its 2005 National
                                                                  Physical Master Plan was to encourage hotel
                                                                  investment and a regional tourism development plan
                                                                                                            169
                                                                  in the cities of Tyre, Tripoli and Baalbek .
3. Urban
development &
Housing
Conditions
How do cities of this
country relate to the
region? (either
Mashreq, Margeb, LDC
or Gulf)
Urban poverty,           Human Poverty Index:                     Within the country, regional variations in the
inequality &             7.6% (2009, HDR)                         incidence of poverty are marked. For instance, the
vulnerable groups        Rank: 33
                                  170
                                                                  2000 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey found that the
(youth, gender,
                         Proportion of population living          under-5 mortality rate was 25 in Beirut but 57 in
migrants, refugees,                                                     188
                         below national poverty line ($2.4        Bekaa . 28.5% of the population are considered
IDPs).                                             171
                         per capita/day): 8 (2004)                poor, but figures are 53% in the north and 42% in the
Percentage of slum &     Poverty estimates put extreme            south. In Beirut the figure is around 6% - excluding the
                                                                                                             189
informal settlements     poverty at 8% in 2005 and 28.5%          deprived area of Beirut Southern Suburbs . Beirut’s

163
    UNESCO. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=4220&BR_Regi
on=40525
164
    UNESCO. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=4220&BR_Regi
on=40525
165
    El Jouni, I. & Fong, M., ‘Gender Statistics in Lebannon: Current Situation and Future Needs – Education’. Paper presented at
the Central Administration of Statistics/World Bank seminar on ‘Gender Statistics in Lebanon: Current Situation and Future
Needs’ in Beirut, June 17 2010http://www.cas.gov.lb/images/PDFs/Gender_statistics/2-
%20Use%20of%20Gender%20Statistics%20-%20Education.pdf
169
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt6.PDF
170
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
171
    Central Administration of Statistics, ‘Lebanon in the Millennium Development Goals’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=56&Itemid=50
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 22



dwellers.                below the upper poverty line of          northern suburbs is also very poor, with high
                                                                                                 190
                         $4/day. Around 300,000 people in         deprivation and overcrowding . It should be noted
                         Lebanon are unable to meet their         that there is considerable divergence within areas that
                         basic food and non-food needs.           complicate the perspective of a regional overview: for
                         Poverty is highest in Baalbek,           instance, Mount Lebanon contains some of the least
                         Hermal and Akkar while in Beirut         deprived areas of the country, but also “the largest
                                                  172
                         the poverty rate is 0.7% - this          poor urban community in Lebanon”, the Southern
                         latter figure presumably hinges on       Suburbs, and other deprived areas in the northern
                                                                                          191
                         a limited definition of Beirut and       suburbs and elsewhere .
                         not its surrounding areas.
                         The 2005 Physical Master Plan            The 2004 Household Budget Survey is a potentially
                         recognises the very serious threat       useful data source to illustrate the divergence
                         of poverty to social cohesion and        between the poorer and more affluent sections of
                         its particular concentration in the      Lebanese society and their different spending
                         urban areas of Tripoli, Aakar and        patterns. For example, while households with an
                                   173
                         Baalbeck .                               income less than 3.6 million LBP spent on average
                                                                  33.65% of their income on housing, water, electricity,
                         According to a ‘Comparative              gas and other fuels, the figure was 20.67% for
                                                                                                                     192
                         Mapping study conducted in 2007          households with an income of 28.8 million LBP .
                         and using 2004/5 data, 25.5% of          There is data on income brackets too that could
                         the population do not have their         possibly be reprocessed to get a comparative figure on
                         basic needs met and therefore            the top and bottom 10% of earners. This trend is
                         were considered to live in poverty.      perhaps even more pronounced when disaggregated
                         This compares to 34% in 1998.            by household expenditure: households with
                         This relative improvement was in a       expenditure of less than 6 million LBP allocated
                         variety of fields, such as               45.45% of their expenditure to housing, water,
                         education, housing, water and            electricity, gas and other fuels compared to 20.03% for
                         sanitation, though income-related        households with expenditures exceeding 35 million
                         indicators such as employment,           LBP. This was counter balanced by much higher
                         economic dependency and car              proportionate (as well as absolute) spending on
                         ownership actually deteriorated          transportation (such as motor cars and air travel)
                                           174
                         during this time . Poverty is            among the >35 million expenditure group (13.26% of
                         particularly concentrated in rural       their total expenditure) compared to the <6 million
                         areas, with 40-50% of the                LBP group (2.38% of their total), as well as in other
                         population there considered poor.        areas, in particular education (0.65% of the <6 million
                         However, the poor are in the             LBP group’s total expenditure, compared to 9.59% of
                                                                                                                    193
                         largest numbers in marginalised          the >35 million LBP group’s total expenditure) . It is
                         urban areas, such as Mount               likely that to a certain extent these figures reflect
                         Lebanon (with 28% of the                 public services and state subsidisation in these areas
                         country’s poor) and ‘poverty             for the lowest income families.
                         pockets’ around Beirut, Tripoli and
                               175
                         Saida . Poverty remains higher           There is also similar data from the 2004 Household




188
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.39. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
189
    UNDP, UNDP Lebanon Achievements 2006-2009, p.6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/achievements.pdf
172
    UNDP. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.undp.org.lb/FastFactSheets/PovertyFactSheet.pdf
173
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
174
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, pp.11-12. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
175
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.12. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 23



                         among female-headed                      Expenditure Survey showing spending disparities
                                   176
                         households .                             among different regions. For instance, net health
                                                                  spending per individual person in Beirut (0.609 million
                         The proportion of deprived               LBP) was more than four times that in Northern
                         households in the country fell           Lebanon (0.146 million LBP). Spending on education
                         from 30.9% in 1995 to 24.6% in           was 0.567 million LBP and 0.206 million LBP
                                                                               194
                         2004. In some sub-areas such as          respectively . There is also data showing spending
                         water and sanitation there was           by household in Beirut (2.316 million LBP on health,
                         relatively little improvement            2.158 million on education) and in Northern Lebanon
                         (18.9% in 1995 to 16.6% in 2004)         (0.700 million LBP on health, 0.987 million LBP on
                                                                             195
                         while in other areas such as             education) .
                         housing progress was more
                         marked (25.9% in 1995 to 26.6% in        According to the Household Budget Survey 2004, the
                               177
                         2004) . Updated figures for 2007         average salary was 8.394 million LBP. For males, the
                         should be available in the 2007          average was 8.591 million LBP and for females 7.857
                                                                             196
                         survey, possibly in the                  million LBP .
                         introduction (see p.24):
                         http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?
                         option=com_content&view=article
                         &id=52&Itemid=27

                         Per capita consumption is highest
                                  178
                         in Beirut . A UNDP report
                         estimated that 2004/2005 nominal
                         per capita consumption was 6.51
                         million LBP compared to 2.53
                                                     179
                         million in Northern Lebanon .

                         UNDO’s recommendations to
                         tackle deprivation in Lebanon
                         include geographically and socially
                         targeted initiatives aimed at
                         strengthening employment
                         opportunities in peripheral areas
                         and among disadvantaged groups
                         such as women, youth, the
                         disabled and uneducated workers.
                         Other recommendations include

190
    UNDP/Ministry of Social Affairs (2007), Development of Mapping of Living Conditions in Lebanon, 1995-2004, p.44.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/comp.mapping%201995-
2004%20-%20English.pdf
191
    UNDP/Ministry of Social Affairs (2007), Development of Mapping of Living Conditions in Lebanon, 1995-2004, p.44.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/comp.mapping%201995-
2004%20-%20English.pdf
192
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Expenditures and revenues 2004-2005’, table 2.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
193
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Expenditures by household 2004-2005’, table 23.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
176
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.12. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
177
    UNDP/Ministry of Social Affairs (2007), Development of Mapping of Living Conditions in Lebanon, 1995-2004, pp.22-23.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/comp.mapping%201995-
2004%20-%20English.pdf
178
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.13. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
179
    UNDP (2008), Poverty, Growth and Income Distribution in Lebanon, p.14. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/index.cfm
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :      page 24



                         social support mechanisms,
                         extending market access and
                                                    180
                         promoting entrepreneurship .


                         % of population aged (0-14):              Informal urbanisation in Beirut has occurred over a
                                      181
                         25% (2008)                                number of stages, first with the formation of slums
                         Slum to urban population:                 refugees from the 1920s onwards, then further
                         50.0% (1990) 53.1%% (2005                informal settlement in the 1950s and 1960s due to
                                   182
                         estimate)                                 rural-urban migration, then the displacement of urban
                                          183                                                      197
                         50% (2001 est.)                           populations during the civil war .
                         Slum population in urban areas
                         (2005):                                   Prior to the outbreak of the civil war in 1975, Beirut’s
                                    184
                         1,844,343                                 slums were concentrated in the city’s north-eastern
                         A 2003 estimate suggested that            industrial suburbs. However, eviction and subsequent
                         the population of Beirut’s 24             conflict-driven migration from rural areas led to large-
                         slums was around 300,000,                 scale resettlement in the previously exclusive southern
                         around 20% of the city’s total            suburbs, located by the sea. “Expensive sea-front
                                     185
                         population .                              resorts” were occupied by squatters and the area’s
                                                                   open spaces were turned into large informal
                                                                                198
                         Mayors and newspapers have also           settlements . A number of large slums in Beirut were
                         been in the habit of inflating slum       completely destroyed by militias during the civil
                                                                       199
                         population sizes by as much as a          war .
                         factor of ten. Discourses on slums
                         frequently rely on hygienic               Following the end of the conflict, informal urban
                         terminology, social stereotype,           populations in Beirut continues to change as a result
                         legalistic classifications or political   of policy to reverse population changes during the
                                186
                         labels .                                  conflict and as a result of new construction programs.
                                                                   The latter result both in the displacement of existing
                         One study highlighted the                 residents and the attraction of additional residents
                                                                                                              200
                         difficulty of mapping out Beirut’s        attracted by the prospect of employment .
                         slums due to the absence of a
                         unified understanding of the city.        As a result of sustained in-migration since the civil
                         This is the result of the civil and       war, Beirut’s slums are not ethnically or religiously
                         the consequent divergence of              homogenous. The status and condition of slum
                         developmental paths within                housing is also very variable, from temporary
                         different areas of the city. Many         structures to permanent buildings, some hooked up
                         studies at the time generally             illegally to the electricity network and others legally

194
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Expenditures by regions 2004-2005’, table 1. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
195
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Expenditures by regions 2004-2005’, table 2. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
196
    Central Administration of Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2004, ‘Income 2004-2005’, table 18. Retrieved November 17,
2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=108&Itemid=115
180
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.17. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
181
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS
182
    UN Statistics Division. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?q=slum&d=MDG&f=seriesRowID:710
183
    UN HABITAT. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.un-habitat.org/categories.asp?catid=208
184
    United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=MDG&f=seriesRowID:711
185
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.29. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
186
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.27. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :    page 25


                                                                                            201
                         focussed on specific                     connected to the network .
                         neighbourhoods rather than the
                                        187
                         city as a whole .                        The environmental quality of the slums can be poor.
                                                                  For instance, the Hayy El Sallom slum developed
                                                                  rapidly during the eighties, with construction
                                                                  habitually breaking planning codes and regulations. As
                                                                  of 2003, the population density was around 1,200
                                                                  persons/ha and is plagued by environmental
                                                                  contamination and health issues that residents
                                                                  attribute to the lack of open space and pollution from
                                                                                           202
                                                                  nearby industrial areas . Note that this case study
                                                                  was alluded to in 2003. The very poor slum
                                                                  neighbourhood of Wata el Mousseitbeh is constructed
                                                                  largely from tin, wood and plastic sheets and
                                                                  vulnerable to river flooding: people have drowned as a
                                                                                      203
                                                                  result of heavy rain . Many formal settlements are
                                                                  also isolated from basic public services, such as health
                                                                                  204
                                                                  and education .
Informal urbanization:   Historically, the government’s
The role/impacts of      attitude to slums has been “laissez
lacking or restrictive   faire...punctuated by violent
legislation.
                         incidents of eviction” and
                         initiatives in the past tended to
                         rely on individuals rather than
                         institutions. Occasional slum
                                                     205
                         clearances have occurred .
                         Municipal authorities in general
                         (excepting the existence of socio-
                         political links between residents

197
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.7. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
198
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
199
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.16. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
200
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
187
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
201
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.8. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
202
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.17. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
203
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.20. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
204
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.19. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
205
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.31. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 26



                         and the authorities) have generally
                         ignored slums in their territory. In
                         part this is because many slum
                         dwellers, as foreigners or rural
                         migrants, have no voting power
                         within the municipality and
                         consequently local officials have
                         little accountability towards
                                206
                         them .
Housing supply,          The 2004 Census of Buildings,            The Living Conditions Survey 2007 has data on the
                         Dwellings and Establishments has         total number of housing units in different regions
                         data on the number of buildings          (amounting to 888,814 across the country as a whole)
                         and housing units in different           and the different types (villa, independent house,
                         areas of the country: the total          apartment, room-keeper, improvised residence). The
                         number of housing units in ‘Beirut’      ‘improvised residence’ data (none in ‘Beirut’, but 645
                         actually declined by 1.6% between        in Mount Lebanon and 293 in Dahyieh) could
                                                                                                                      212
                         1996 and 2004, from 159,438 to           potentially be an indicator of informal urbanisation .
                         156,890. In Lebanon as a whole,
                         the total number rose by 5.52%           There data shows that 96.3% of primary residences in
                                          207
                         over this period . There is also         ‘Beirut’ (and 95.2% in Dahyieh) are apartments. The
                         data on the state of buildings           figure is lower in Mount Lebanon (75.8%), where a
                         (‘houses’, ‘other than houses’,          significant proportion (22.2%) are independent houses
                         ‘mixed’, ‘under construction’,           – in other parts of the country the proportion is much
                                            208
                         ‘empty’, ‘closed’) . There is also       higher, with independent houses constituting the
                                                                                                            213
                         data on the tenure of the buildings      majority of housing types in some regions .
                         (such as ‘property’, ‘rent’,
                                                   209
                         ‘occupied’ and ‘empty’).                 There is data showing the proportion of living areas
                                                                  within a particular band of living space (<30 m2, 30-80
                         Most of the country’s                    m2, 80-130 m2, etc.) and the number of household
                         infrastructure was destroyed in          members in the unit. This could be processed into a
                                                         210
                         the country’s multiple conflicts .       headline figure relating to living density and possibly
                                                                                                            214
                                                                  disaggregated into a city-specific figure . The 2004
                         A news article cites a recent UNDP       Household Conditions Survey has data on the
                                                                                                      215
                         report that predicts that 300,000        proportion of households (16.7% ) living in
                         new buildings will be constructed        unacceptable conditions (with an average of more
                                                      211
                         in Beirut in the next decade .           than 2 people per room): there should be a 2007



206
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.35. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
207
    Central Administration of Statistics, Census of Buildings, Dwellings and Establishments 2004, table 11. Retrieved November
17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=37
208
    Central Administration of Statistics, Census of Buildings, Dwellings and Establishments 2004, table 2. Retrieved November
17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=37
209
    Central Administration of Statistics, Census of Buildings, Dwellings and Establishments 2004, table 5. Retrieved November
17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=37
210
    Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
211
    Abou Harb, A., ‘NGO hopes to save Beirut, brick by brick’. Daily Star, September 23, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_ID=10&article_ID=119578&categ_id=4#axzz15Yt0O169
212
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.168. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
213
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.169. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
214
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, pp.170-171. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.        Lebanon :       page 27



                                                                  figure for this available.

                                                                  The 2004 living conditions survey has data on the age
                                                                  of the buildings, too: 22.1% > 49 years old, 34.7% 25 -
                                                                  49 years old, 22.3% 15-24 years old, 10.9% 10-14 years
                                                                                                                 216
                                                                  old, 7.2% 5-9 years old and 2.6% <5 years old .

                                                                  The average household size in Lebanon is 4.23 persons
                                                                  / household. In ‘Beirut’ the figure is 3.75 persons /
                                                                                                      217
                                                                  household and in Mount Lebanon .

housing finance,                                                  The 2005 Physical Master Plan recognised the growing
mortgage markets &
                                                                  discrepancy between under-30 salaries and the cost of
affordability.
                                                                  housing and its tendency to create a range of
                                                                  problems including excess debt, illegal solutions,
                                                                  delayed marriage, cohabitation with parents and even
                                                                            218
                                                                  emigration .

                                                                  Property rises for buyer are rising and developers are
                                                                  anticipating urban sprawl in Lebanese urban housing,
                                                                  as middle-income buyers are forced out of the city
                                                                  centre by high prices. Developers are also sub-dividing
                                                                  large apartments and demolishing older buildings to
                                                                                      219
                                                                  construct high rises .

                                                                  The Public Housing Institution is a public corporation
                                                                  that aims to help low- and middle-income citizens
                                                                                         220
                                                                  secure mortgage loans .

Rental housing:                                                   Renting has become, since 1982, the main access
policies & restrictive                                                             221
                                                                  point for housing , in part due to the ‘return policies’
legislation.
                                                                  following the end of the civil war: many original
                                                                  owners, rather than returning to their former homes,
                                                                  opted to rent out their properties to renters – often
                                                                           222
                                                                  migrants . The study on Beirut used in the 2003
                                                                  Global Report on Human Settlements undertook a (not



215
    Ministry of Social Affairs / Central Administration of Statistics/ UNDP, The National Survey of Household Living Conditions
2004, p.29. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
216
    Ministry of Social Affairs / Central Administration of Statistics/ UNDP, The National Survey of Household Living Conditions
2004, p.29. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
217
    Central Administration of Statistics, Lebanon in Figures 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/images/PDFs/Lebanon-Figures-2008.pdf . Figure sourced from the 2007 Living Conditions Survey.
218
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 2. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt2.PDF
219
    Qiblawi, T., ‘Demand lifts Lebanese real-estate prices’. Daily Star, October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_ID=1&article_ID=120745&categ_id=3#axzz15Ysokdmd
220
    http://www.housing-institute.com/
221
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.6. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
222
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.18. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 28



                                                                  scientific) survey of 20 households in Hayy el Sellom
                                                                                                            223
                                                                  and found that around two-thirds rented .

                                                                  According to a recent unnamed survey cited by the
                                                                  Financial Times, Beirut’s has the tenth most expensive
                                                                                      224
                                                                  rents in the world . The report is likely to be
                                                                  EuroCost International’s 2010 annual survey, which
                                                                                                               th
                                                                  raised Beirut rental price ranking from 28 most
                                                                                           th
                                                                  expensive in 2009 to 10 most expensive rent in 2010
                                                                                              225
                                                                  (its focus is expat housing) . It also ranked Beirut as
                                                                          th                                           226
                                                                  the 13 most expensive city for expat cost of living .
                                                                  The expat focus may mean the figures are not
                                                                  appropriate.
                                                                                                           230
Impacts of the youth      % of population aged (0-14):            Women have the right to own housing .
bulge, household                     227
                          25% (2009)
formation rates,          % population, 0-24 (2010): 42.2%        An essay by Michael Johnson argues that urbanisation
gender issues.
                          % population, 15-24 (2010): 18.7%       and with it the development of the nuclear family has
                          % population, 0-24 (2025): 32.9%        disrupted the traditional order of rural extended
                          % population, 15-24                     kinship and consequently threatened traditional
                                        228
                          (2025):13.3%                            masculine identities. As a result, ethnic nationalism
                          % of population aged (0-14)             has “filled the moral vacuum” and “helped resolve
                          (2007): 44.1% (2007)                    difficult tensions within the urban nuclear family”. He
                          % population, 15-24                     states that the majority of the militia recruits were
                                        229
                          (2007):19.5%                            recruited from recently urbanised communities
                                                                                      231
                                                                  strained by change .
Urban tenure,             Civil war broke out in Lebanon in       Some of Beirut’s squatter settlements are based in
property rights &         1975 and continued until the            areas, such as Ouzai and Raml, with property conflicts
titling.                  1989 Taif Peace Accord. During          dating back to the development of French Land
                          this time, the country saw the          Registries, the abolition of the Ottoman communal
Urban land markets,
                          entry of a Syrian peacekeeping          land and the later expropriation of public land by the
tenure, property rights                                                       237
& titling.                mission and two invasions by            city’s elite .
                          Israel, in 1978 and 1982. Despite a
Urban land & fiscal       partial withdrawal, Israeli forces
policy (relating to       remained in southern Lebanon
property speculation,     until 2000. Syria also withdrew
property tax etc).                                    232
                          some of its troops in 2004 .


Land issues in conflict

223
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.18. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003, p.28. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
224
    Fielding-Smith, A., ‘Property boom raises fears for Beirut heritage’. Financial Times, September 16, 2010. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/783affd6-c1b0-11df-9d90-00144feab49a.html#axzz15ZY1Us6V
225
    Daily Star, ‘Beirut tenth most expensive city in the world for expat housing’. September 7, 2010. Retrieved November 17,
2010 at: http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_id=1&categ_id=3&article_id=119058#axzz15ZaiDWkM
226
    EuroCost International. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.eurocost.com/en/cost_of_living_2010.html
227
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS
228
    US Census Bureau, International Data Base. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/groups.php
229229
       Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.131. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
230
    Freedom House. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=176
231
    Johnson, M., ‘Ethnic violence and crises of masculinity: Lebanon in comparative perspective’. Van Hoven, B. & Hörschelmann,
K. (eds.) (2005), Spaces of Masculinities, pp.113-123. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8oJ0ZfbScuAC&oi=fnd&pg=PA113&dq=lebanon+urbanisation&ots=qOV7_woss
p&sig=Bl1AqmtowVyR9ZlPic-YTN6WbIU#v=onepage&q&f=false
232
    Freedom House. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=176
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 29



& occupied area          The civil war resulted in massive        An article by Monia Harb discusses the militarisation
(where relevant).        displacement in Beirut as city was       of Beirut’s landscape through quadrillage during the
                         divided into two sections by             civil war, with the city divided into sub-sections under
                         armed militias and the population        the aegis of a vertical hierarchy to facilitate
                         was forced to migrate into their         surveillance and control, and how this tendency
                         respective ‘safe’ areas, depending       continues in areas such as ‘al-Dahiye’ in the southern
                                                                                                               238
                         on their religion. The old centre        suburbs, largely under Hezbollah control . The
                         was largely vacated and occupied         newspaper article below also discusses in depth the
                         by squatters. During this period,        confrontation between Hezbollah and the state on
                         displacement accelerated informal        how to plan and reconstruct the devastated
                         urbanisation on the city’s               neighbourhood:
                         periphery, the coast and in the          http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.as
                         surrounding hills, frequently in the     px?ID=5049
                         face of building regulations and
                                       233
                         property law .                           A 2010 article by Chris Larkin discusses the ongoing
                                                                  legacy of the conflict among young post-conflict
                                                                  Lebanese in the form of ‘memoryscapes’, “memories
                                                                                                            239
                                                                  of violence localized in particular sites ”. In another
                                                                  article he critiques the amnesiac urban design of
                                                                  Solidere’s reconstruction and highlights the need for a
                                                                  “rebuilt fabric and collective remembrance which
                                                                  balances narratives of loss and suffering alongside
                                                                                                        240
                                                                  those of recovery and redemption” .

                                                                  A 2009 UN ESCWA survey of young in Lebanon in
                                                                  urban and rural areas of the country found that,
                                                                  despite generally positive feelings about sustaining a
                                                                  united and inter-communal Lebanon, there was still
                                                                  strong territorialised notions of where was desirable
                                                                  to live and “the tendency to live in milieus that are
                                                                                                         241
                                                                  social, political and spatial enclaves” .


                         The Israeli assault in 2006 resulted     According to the Living Conditions Survey 2007, 65.0%
                         in 1,200 dead and 4,400 injured,         of households reported a deterioration in their quality
                                                                                                     242
                         around a quarter of the population       of life as a result of the 2006 war .
                         displaced and 500,000 people with
                         damaged or destroyed homes. The          34.2% of the population moved out of their primary
                                                                                           243
                         worst hit areas were among the           residence during the war . There is also data on this
                                                 234
                         poorest in the country . In terms        by region that could be worked into a city-specific
                         of infrastructure, 125,000 housing       figure, though some figures may need to be
                         units, 850 commercial enterprises,       amalgamated to get a figure for the whole of greater
                         600 public schools, 97 bridges and       Beirut.
                                      235
                         16 hospitals .



237
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.19. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
233
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
234
    UNDP. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.undp.org.lb/WhatWeDo/poverty.cfm
235
    UNDP, UNDP Lebanon Achievements 2006-2009, p.10. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/achievements.pdf
238
    Harb, M. (2010), ‘On religiosity and spatiality: lessons from Hezbollah in Beirut’, pp.125-154 in Alsayyad, N. (ed.) The
Fundamentalsit City?: Religiosity and the Remaking of Urban Space. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=vl-
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 30



                                                                  Of those who moved during the war, 42.3% moved to
                         While compensation and                   Mount Lebanon, 15.0% to Beirut, 5.5% to northern
                         reconstruction was initiated by the      Lebanon, 10.8% to southern Lebanon, 9.2% to Bekaa,
                                                                                                    244
                         government following the 2006            0.6% to Nabatieh and 16.5% abroad .
                         conflict, the strategy has been
                         criticised for its delays, lack of       2.5% of primary residences were damaged during the
                         transparency and its failure to          war in ‘Beirut’, 6.7% in Mount Lebanon, 40.1% in
                         assist a substantial proportion of       Dahyieh, and as much as 85.4% in the Most Damaged
                                                                                                                    245
                         the displaced: in a survey involving     South (Nabatiyeh, Sour, Bent, Jbayl, Marjaayoun) .
                         hundreds of housing                      1.5% of residences damaged across the country were
                         compensation beneficiaries, the          totally destroyed, 8.3% partially destroyed, 1.1%
                         Norwegian Refugee Council found          totally burned and 0.7% partially burned. More
                         that 21.7% of displaced families         common damage was broken doors and windows
                                                                                                   246
                         among its respondents were still         (83.5%) and wall cracks (67.7%) . According to UN
                         unable to return to permanent            HABITAT, 12,000 housing units were completely
                                                                                                   247
                         housing two years after the end of       destroyed in southern Lebanon .
                         the July War and remained
                         displaced. 22.0% of survey               Following the 2006 conflict, Hezbollah played an
                         respondents also claimed to have         important role in planning and infrastructure
                         experienced institutional                redevelopment in some areas, particularly the Haret-
                         corruption first-hand during the         Hreik neighbourhood in Beirut’s’ southern suburbs – a
                                  236                                                                               248
                         process .                                significant break from traditional public planning . It
                                                                  also maintains control in areas such as ‘al Dahiye’ in
                                                                  the southern suburbs through the provision of a
                                                                  holistic service network and spatail control through
                                                                  centralisation and centralised quadrillage and
                                                                                           249
                                                                  symbolic representation .


8rypoHY0C&oi=fnd&pg=PA125&dq=Harb,+Mona++suburbs&ots=hF1MU8Dv3U&sig=nN6DbVGo7043EMyNUJuR5ApZcc8
#v=onepage&q=Harb%2C%20Mona%20%20suburbs&f=false
239
    Larkin, C. (2010), ‘Beyond the war? The Lebanese postmemory experience. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 42:
615-63. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7913326
240
    Larkin, C. (2009), ‘Reconstructing and deconstructing Beirut: space, memory and Lebanese youth’, p.17. Divided
Cities/Contested States Working Paper No.8. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/conflictincities/PDFs/WorkingPaper8_21.5.09.pdf
241
    UN ESCWA (2009), Unpacking the Dynamics of Communal Tensions: a Focus Group Analysis of Perceptions among Youth
in Lebanon, p.21. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/ecri-09-5.pdf
242
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.316. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
243
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.144. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
236
    Barakat, S. & Zyck, S. with Hunt, J. (2008), Housing compensation and Disaster Preparedness in the Aftermath of the July
2006 War in Southern Lebanon. Norwegian Refugee Council, December 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nrc.no/arch/_img/9388658.pdf
244
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.147. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
245
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.174. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
246
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.175. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
247
    UN HABITAT. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.un-
habitat.org/content.asp?cid=7147&catid=577&typeid=13&subMenuId=0
248
    Fawaz, M. (2009), ‘Hezbollah as urban planner? Questions to and from planning theory’. Planning Theory, 8: 323-334.
Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://plt.sagepub.com/content/8/4/323.extract
249
    Harb, M. (2010), ‘On religiosity and spatiality: lessons from Hezbollah in Beirut’, pp.125-154 in Alsayyad, N. (ed.) The
Fundamentalsit City?: Religiosity and the Remaking of Urban Space. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=vl-
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :      page 31



4. Urban
Environmental
Challenges
Urban water security     % of population using improved           Water reform, beginning in 1999, implemented an
(facts & trends).        sanitation facilities:                   Integrated Water Resources Management focussed on
                         98% (total)                              decentralisation, pricing incentives, public-private
Impacts of water                                                                                             257
                         100% (urban)                             partnerships and independent regulation .
scarcity on urban                            250
                         87% (rural) (2005)
form, growth & health                  251
issues.                  100% (2008)                              The Living Conditions Survey 2007 has data on the
                         UN HABITAT lists 2001 data that          main water sources used by region. For example, in
Addressing systemic      puts safe drinking water access at       ‘Beirut’ of the 96,355 primary residences, 38,432
water losses             100% but improved sanitation             (39.9%) use as their main water source the public
(facts & trends).        access at 50% for the urban              network, 27,677 (28.7%) mineral water, 29,777
                                     252
                         population .                             (30.9%) a fixed or movable foundation (free or paid)
Urban sanitation &       Access to improved drinking              and 449 (0.5%) spring or running water. The
waste management.
                         water sources:                           proportions vary elsewhere: for instance, 48.3% in
                                       253
                         100% (2008)                              Mount Lebanon but only 1.3% in Dahyieh use the
                         However, the 2008 Millennium             public network. In the Less Damaged South (Saida,
                         Development Goals report states          Jezzine, Hasbaiya) 57.0% use the public network and
                                                                                                        258
                         that around 50% of the population        46.8% in the More Damaged South . There is also
                         lack access to safe drinking water       data on the second main source of water for
                         and around 20% lack access to            residences: it should therefore be noted that these
                                                254
                         adequate sanitation - a figure           figures do not represent exclusive use: for example, a
                         apparently based in the 2004             large proportion in Beirut use the public network as a
                         household living conditions              second source. (This is also distinct from the main
                         survey. It also reports that, though     source of ‘service water’ type (it is not clear how this is
                         around three-quarters of                 defined): for instance, in ‘Beirut’ the main water
                         households are connected to a            service is a public network for 87.0% of primary
                         public or private network, around        residences, artesian wells for 11.9%, private networks
                                                                                                                   259
                         80% of users in summer (and 50%          for 0.7% and purchased water tanks for 0.4% ). The
                         in winter) suffer service shortfalls,    figures therefore need to be used carefully.
                         with water available only a few
                         hours each day or even each              The 2004 Living Conditions survey has data on the
                         week. Only around half of the            performance of the public network that show its
                         water distributed by water               variability, particularly in summer: for instance, 45.5%
                         authorities reaches consumers            of primary residences in winter and only 21.2% in
                         due to substantial losses. 67.4% of      summer have permanent access to the water
                                                                         260
                         dwellings had access to sanitation       supply . According to a recent Reuters report,
                         networks in 2004, though mot             around 40% of water is lost through leak. It also states
                         wastewater treatment plants did          that the country is predicted to enter a water deficit
                                                 255
                         not operate properly .                   by 2015, largely as a result of urbanisation, population
                         Renewable internal freshwater            increases, climate change and also mismanagement:
                         resources per capita (cubic              “In a country where water is cheap and unmetered,




8rypoHY0C&oi=fnd&pg=PA125&dq=Harb,+Mona++suburbs&ots=hF1MU8Dv3U&sig=nN6DbVGo7043EMyNUJuR5ApZcc8
#v=onepage&q=Harb%2C%20Mona%20%20suburbs&f=false
250
    UN MDGS. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
251
    UN MDGS. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
252
    UN HABITAT. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=208
253
    UN MDGS. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
254
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, pp.11-12. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
255
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, pp.63-64. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :        page 32



                          metres):                                concierges sluice pavements with it to keep the dust
                                       256
                          1,145 (2008)                            down. Housewives slosh it over balconies. Broken
                                                                                                     261
                                                                  pipes gush for days in the streets” .

                                                                  There is also more straightforward data on the
                                                                  sanitation facilities in different regions. In ‘Beirut’,
                                                                  99.6% use public sewer networks, with remaining
                                                                  0.4% relying on open sewer networks. In Mount
                                                                  Lebanon, 64.2% use public sewer networks, 35.3%
                                                                  sanitary pits and 0.6% open sewers. In Dahyieh, 96.8%
                                                                  use public sewers, 1.9% open sewers and 1.3% open
                                                                  sewers. In the Most Damaged South, only 26.5% use
                                                                  public sewer networks, 72.8% sanitary pits and 0.7%
                                                                                           262
                                                                  open sewer networks .
Policy for recycling if
any, & actual practice.                                           Data suggests a slight improvement in waste
                                                                  management and recycling in Lebanon (though the
                                                                  different categories may obscure direct comparisons).
                                                                  In 2000, 82.8% of waste was sent to land fill, 5.1%
                                                                  converted and 5.3% recycled. By 2004, 77% was sent
                                                                                                                       263
                                                                  to landfill, 12.48% composted and 7.67% recycled .
Urban energy issues       Electric power consumption              According to a recent Reuters report, Lebanon’s
(facts & trends).         (KWh/capita):                           electricity plants only produce two-thirds of its energy
                                                        264
                          2,203 (2005)  2,154 (2007)             consumption. However, it now have a target of 12% of
                          Energy use (kg oil                      total consumption (the article calls it ‘implausible’)
                          equivalent/capita):                     through renewable energy and is looking for funding
                                                      265
                          1,331 (2005)  959 (2007)               from developed countries to support its transition into
                          An alternative figure puts 2007         solar energy, hybrid cars and other clean
                                                                                 273
                          consumption at 990 kg                   technologies .
                                    266
                          oil/capita .
                          Fossil fuel use (% of energy            According to the Living Conditions Survey 2007, 100%
                          consumption):                           of primary residences in ‘Beirut’ use the public
                                          267
                          92.7% (2007)                            network as their main source of energy for lighting.
                          Combustible renewables and              The figures are 94.5% for Mount Lebanon and 97.3%
                          waste (as %) of energy use):            for Dahyieh. Elsewhere in Lebanon the proportion is
                                        268                                                274
                          3.5% (2008)                             between 99% and 100% . There is also data on the

257
    Central Administration of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook 2008, Morphology, Climatology, Hydrology , Vegetation and
Environment, p.9. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/Excel/SYB/2008/Environment.pdf
258
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, pp.181-182. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
259
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.188. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
260
    Ministry of Social Affairs / Central Administration of Statistics/ UNDP, The National Survey of Household Living Conditions
2004, p.90. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
256
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.H2O.INTR.PC
261
    Lyon, A., ‘Climate change threatens Lebanon’s snow, cedars’. Reuters, November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/LDE69S0C5.htm
262
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.204. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
263
    UNDP, Millennium Development Goals: Lebanon Report 2008, p.62. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/mdg/MDGRe.pdf
264
    World Bank . Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC
265
    World Bank . Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.PCAP.KG.OE
266
    UN Statistical Division. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pocketbook/country_profiles.pdf
267
    World Bank . Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.COMM.FO.ZS
268
    World Bank . Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.CRNW.ZS
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :     page 33



                         Co2 emissions ( metric tonnes per        second main sources of energy for lighting, suggesting
                         capita):                                 the previous figures do not represent exclusive use.
                                    269
                         3.2 (2007)

                         Traffic congestion, exacerbated by       Public transportation is decreasing and lines are
Urban mobility &
transport –              demographic shifts and the heavy         closing due to lack of investment. In 2008 there were
                                                                                                          275
congestion, pollution,   reliance on private transport in         1,489,596 public transport passengers - it is not
public transport.        Beirut, is responsible for economic      clear if this denotes excusive/habitual users.
                         losses and air pollution. Beirut’s
                         public transport system was badly        There is data from the Living Conditions Survey 2007
                         damaged in the civil war and its         on whether households have private transport. For
                         reconstruction subsequently set          example, in ‘Beirut’ 60,788 primary residences (63.1%)
                         back by the 2006 conflict with           have a private car. Only 5.6% of primary residences
                         Israel. However, the Urban               have a ‘private car used for work’ – it’s not clear if this
                         Transport Development Project            means the car is used for commuting, or a separate
                         aims to reduce congestion through        car for commuting, or a vehicle used specifically within
                         enhanced planning, parking               their employment. 3.3% of primary residences in
                                                                                                     276
                         management, emissions and                ‘Beirut’ have a private motorcycle . There is also data
                         reductions and the integration of        on the proportion of households according to ‘loss of
                         social and environmental concerns        any transportation during the war’ – 1.2% in ‘Beirut’,
                                      270
                         into design .                            1.2% in Mount Lebanon, 4.0% in Danyieh, 12.7% in the
                                                                                         277
                                                                  Most Damaged South .

                         There are also plans to develop          The Council for Development and Reconstruction has
                         mass transit corridor at Beirut’s        undertaken a number of major transport programs,
                         entrances and on the coast using         both in Beirut itself and in the rest of the country,
                                      271
                         bus and rail . Among the other           including its border regions. A summary of all its major
                         potential projects highlighted in        transport projects until October 2009 at:
                         the 2005 National Physical Master        http://www.cdr.gov.lb/eng/progress_reports/pr10200
                         Plan were road maintenance, the          9/Eroads.pdf
                         rehabilitation of disused rail           It mentions road improvement programs in Beirut’s
                         networks for inter-urban rail lines,     Northern and Southern suburbs. It would be
                         strategies to reduce traffic jams in     interesting to find out if there was any social needs
                         the Central Urban Area,                  assessment underlining them or what in social terms
                         construction of new coastal roads,       their impact had been on these impoverished urban
                         upgrading Tripoli Port, and              areas.
                         regulating public transport to
                         promote the development of               An architectural group, ELHUB, have proposed the
                         medium- and large-capacity               creation of a public maritime transit system along the
                                  272
                         vehicles .                               coast to relieve traffic congestion and provide a fast


273
    Lyon, A., ‘Climate change threatens Lebanon’s snow, cedars’. Reuters, November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/LDE69S0C5.htm
274
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.192. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
269
    World Bank. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC
270
    World Bank (2008), Project Paper on a Proposed Additional Loan. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/12/30/000333037_20081230231946/Rendered/PDF/464
340PJPR0P111E0ONLY10R20081027711.pdf
271
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction, Development Programme 2006-2009: Transportation Sector. Retrieved
November 17, 2010 at: www.cdr.gov.lb/Plan/Transport/Selection%20Criteria%20Transport.doc
272
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt6.PDF
275
    Central Administration of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook 2008, Transport and Post, p.10. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/Excel/SYB/2008/Transport%20and%20post.pdf
276
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, pp.177-78. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.             Lebanon :    page 34


                                                                                                          278
                                                                  and effective public transport system     .

                                                                  A May 2010 news article discusses the Urban
                                                                  Development Transport Plan’s policies to reduce
                                                                  congestion, such as increased parking and congestion
                                                                  management, with mixed success. According to the
                                                                  UDTP, less than 10% of commuters are served by
                                                                  public transport. In 2004 (the most recent data
                                                                  available), Lebanon apparently had the second highest
                                                                  people-to-car ratio after the United States. According
                                                                  to Kunhadi, the traffic safety organisation, road deaths
                                                                                                                279
                                                                  are the largest single cause of youth deaths .

                                                                  A 2000 essay by Mark Perry argues that, while
                                                                  Lebanon’s urban development has generally, followed
                                                                  western trends, with transportation “its paradigm has
                                                                  been particularly and almost exclusively American,
                                                                  that is, favoring the private automobile over the
                                                                  establishment of public transport systems”. He also
                                                                  cities 1998 and 1999 studies respectively showing that
                                                                  automobiles comprised 83% and 90% of all passenger
                                                                  trips, with public and private buses constituting the
                                                                  remainder. Between 1974 and 1998, the number of
                                                                  vehicles in Lebanon rose from 243,584 to 1,554,340,
                                                                  an increase of 538%. Among other problems, the rise
                                                                  of the automobile was largely responsible for the
                                                                  destruction of the public tramline, the erosion of
                                                                  pedestrian amenities and the development of
                                                                                                                       280
                                                                  suburban sprawl, aided by weak zoning regulations .
Climate change,                                                   According to Ministry of the Environment data, forest
droughts,                                                         fires increased 217.9% between 2004 and 2008, when
desertification & sea                                             total coverage reached 1,861 ha. The total burnt area
level rise
                                                                  in this time was 77.914 km2. Mount Lebanon suffered
                                                                                                            281
                                                                  the majority (54.3%) of these forest fires .
Information on local
level adaptation to
climate change if any.                                            According to a Reuters report, climate change is
Financial instruments                                             expected to melt snow cover in Lebanon by 40% and
for adaptation.                                                   together with urbanisation and population increases,
                                                                                                               282
                                                                  threaten its future water and energy supplies .
Eco migration (facts &
trends).                                                          As well as deforestation, other environmental




277
    Central Administration of Statistics, Living Conditions Survey 2007, p.179. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=27
278
    Kollock, P., ‘Public transport for Lebanon?’. Now Lebanon, March 5, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=157254
279
    Kollock, P., ‘Still sitting in traffic’. Now Lebanon, May 5, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=166121
280
    Perry, M. (2000), "Car Dependency and Culture in Beirut: Effects of an American Transport Paradigm," Third World Planning
Review, 22 (4): 395-409. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.carfree.com/papers/perry.html
281
    Central Administration of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook 2008, Morphology, Climatology, Hydrology , Vegetation and
Environment, p.12. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/Excel/SYB/2008/Environment.pdf
282
    Lyon, A., ‘Climate change threatens Lebanon’s snow, cedars’. Reuters, November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/LDE69S0C5.htm
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :       page 35



Environmental                                                     problems include desertification, soil erosion, coastal
management & human                                                                             283
                                                                  pollution and heavy traffic . With around 60% of
resources (facts,                                                 Lebanon’s economic activity centred around its thin
policies & trends).
                                                                  coastal strip, this could be vulnerable to potential
                                                                                                                 284
                                                                  rising sea levels as a result of climate change .
5. Urban
Governance
Systems
Urban administrative      Worldwide governance indicators         Lebanon is a parliamentary republic, but not an
structures / authority.   (World Bank):                           electoral democracy. In particular, parliamentary
                          Voice and accountability (2009):        representation continues to be dictated by a system of
                          35.5                                    sectarian seat allocation, unrepresentative of current
                          Voice and accountability (1998):        demographics: for example, Shiites only control 21%
                          38.9                                    of the seats despite constituting more than a third of
                                                                                 286
                          Political stability (2009): 9.0         the population . The position of president is
                          Political stability (1998): 18.3        customarily assigned to a Maronite Christian, that of
                          Government effectiveness (2009):        prime minister to a Sunni Muslim and that of speaker
                                                                                                   287
                          30.5                                    of the house to a Shi’a Muslim . This ingrained
                          Government effectiveness (1998):        sectarianism has drawn the involvement of other
                          52.4                                    countries, such as Syria and Saudi Arabia, into its
                          Regulatory quality (2009): 50.5         domestic politics, evident in the extended negotiations
                          Regulatory quality (1998): 46.3         over cabinet membership following the elections in
                          Rule of law (2009): 32.1                2009. This foreign patronage has in turn eroded the
                          Rule of law (1998): 47.1                accountability of Lebanese politicians to their own
                                                                             288
                          Control of corruption (2009): 22.9      electorate . Furthermore, its long history of conflict
                          Control of corruption (1998):           has precipitated the dominance of a few elite families
                               285                                                             289
                          44.7                                    within the country’s politics .

Municipal                                                         Authority is fairly centralised, though the country is
management &
                                                                  divided up into 6 governorates, each in turn
administration.
                                                                  constituting 26 ‘quarters’. The municipality is a a
Local government                                                  locally elected representative body, with a council
finance.                                                          headed by an elected mayor – except in Beirut, where
                                                                                           290
                                                                  the mayor is appointed . Historically, Lebanon’s local
Decentralization &                                                governance was strong, but this was weakened during
local governance.                                                 the civil war, when authority was centralised and
                                                                  municipal bodies lost much of their role. The
Barriers to                                                       municipal system remains highly centralised due to
decentralization?
                                                                  confessional politics and Lebanon’s small size, as well


283
    World Health Organisation. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_lbn_en.pdf
284
    IRIN, ‘Lebanon: Top five environmental threats’. September 10, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://ww.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=90461
285
    World Bank, Worldwide Governance Indicators 1996-2008. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/sc_country.asp
286
    Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
287
    Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
288
    Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
289
    Freedom House. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=176
290
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.6. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :         page 36



                                                                  as funding constraints: it is estimated that only 30 out
                                                                  of 700 municipalities have an a sufficient tax service to
                                                                                        291
                                                                  deliver local services . Furthermore, as the 2005
                                                                  National Physical Master Plan acknowledges, in large
                                                                  urban centres residents frequently do not participate
                                                                  in local elections and by extension the municipal
                                                                                                  292
                                                                  authorities that govern them : this is particularly the
                                                                                                          293
                                                                  case for foreigners and rural migrants . One stated
                                                                  aim of the Master Plan was to provide municipalities
                                                                  with the finances required to discharge their
                                                                                              294
                                                                  responsibilities effectively .

                                                                  Though autonomous in principle, the judiciary is
                                                                                                         295
                                                                  strongly influenced by political forces . There are
                                                                  currently 15 different personal status codes applicable
                                                                  to the personal and family lives of the country’s 18
                                                                                   296
                                                                  recognised sects . These include Ecclesiastical Courts
                                                                  for different Christian and Jewish sects and Sunni and
                                                                                                                297
                                                                  Shi’a Sharia courts for the Muslim population .

                                                                  UN HABITAT launched a project called ‘Improved
                                                                  municipal governance for effective decentralisation in
                                                                                           298
                                                                  Lebanon’ in March 2010 .
Roles of NGOs, CBOs &                                             Lebanon has a “vibrant” civil society: NGOs are
FBOs [Faith-based                                                                                            299
                                                                  permitted to operate freely in the country . The
orgs]. Civil society                                              organisation Lebanon Support has an online portal
participation, merging
                                                                  listing hundreds of active NGOs and civil society
tradition & modernity.                                                    300
                                                                  groups .

                                                                  A review of NGOs in Lebanon by the UNDP, carried out
                                                                  in 2008/2009, found that a large proportion suffered
                                                                  from undemocratic power structures, an embedded
                                                                  ‘ruling elite’, overly broad operative purviews and
                                                                                                    301
                                                                  weak linkages with stakeholders . An earlier study of
                                                                  Beirut’s slums noted the important activity of local
                                                                  NGOs in the settlements, but also that these


291
    UN-POGAR. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.pogar.org/countries/theme.aspx?cid=9&t=6
292
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt6.PDF
293
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.35. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
294
    Committee for Development and Reconstruction (2005), National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory, Final
Report: Chapter 6. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.cdr.gov.lb/study/sdatl/English/NPMPLT-Chapt6.PDF
295
    Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
296
    Freedom House. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=176
297
    UNDP-POGAR. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.undp-pogar.org/countries/country.aspx?cid=9
298
    UN HABITAT, ‘Lebanon updates (9): April 2010’. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.unhabitat.org/list.asp?typeid=15&catid=208
299
    Freedom House (2010), Country Report: Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7859&year=2010
300
    Lebanon Support. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://lebanon-support.org/index.php?page=national_org
301
    UNDP (2009), Assessment of Capacity Building Needs of NGOs in Lebanon. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/downloads/Capacity%20Building%20Needs%20Assessmentfor%20NGOs.p
df
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :        page 37



                                                                  organisations tended to serve beneficiaries of their
                                                                                 302
                                                                  own affiliation .
Women in politics &        Gender-related development             Though the constitution grants equality to all citizens,
governance (facts &        index (GDI):                           no law specifically prohibits gender discrimination and
trends)                    0.784 (based on 2007 data)             consequently many laws fail to protect adequately
                                            303
                           GDI rank: 71/155                       against this. Among the legislative imbalances is the
Issues around
                           Seats held by women in                 bar on a Lebanese woman’s passing her citizenship on
demographic shifts,
political & social         parliament (% of total):               to her husband or her children, though a Lebanese
                                       304
fragmentation,             3.1% (2010)                            man is able to do so, and the penal code relating to
                                                                                                                        305
increasing political                                              areas such as adultery and so-called ‘honour killing’ .
instability, problematic                                          Social customs and traditions may impact on other
fiscal decentralization                                           areas of women’s lives, such as their ability to
etc.                                                                    306
                                                                  travel .

                                                                  Women have limited representation in parliament.
                                                                  However, women participate actively in community
                                                                                                                   307
                                                                  life, through both official and informal channels .

                                                                  This presentation on ‘Gender statistics in Lebanon’,
                                                                  presented by Monica Fong for a CAS/World Bank joint
                                                                  seminar on ‘Gender Statistics in Lebanon: Current
                                                                  Situation and Future Needs’ in June 2010, gives a good
                                                                  overview of the present data availability on gender
                                                                  indicators in the country.
                                                                  http://www.cas.gov.lb/images/PDFs/Gender_statistics
                                                                  /1-
                                                                  %20Assessment%20of%20Gender%20Statistics%20bas
                                                                  ed%20on%20CAS%20surveys.pdf
                                                                  There were also presentations on the use of gender
                                                                  statistics in the area of education, health, economic
                                                                  participation (at the time of writing, this link was not
                                                                  accessible) and empowerment.
                                                                  http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option=com_conten
                                                                  t&view=article&id=157&Itemid=2
                                                                  In empowerment, for example, the author highlighted
                                                                  the value of both national and household data. In the
                                                                  former category, she also cites the proportion of
                                                                  ministers (6.7%), judges (28%) and syndicate boards
                                                                  (17%), and participation in management in
                                                                  corporations and NGOs. She also cites preliminary on
                                                                  the 2009 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey on
                                                                  domestic economic decision-making: when buying
                                                                  major household items, in 64% of households the
                                                                  decision is made by both husband and wife and in 37%
                                                                  by the husband only (though the stats exceed 100%
                                                                  here); and in deciding on family visits, 88% of
                                                                  households make these decisions together and 11%

302
    Fawaz. M. & Peillen, I. (2003), ‘The case of Beirut, Lebanon’, p.37. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report
on Human Settlements 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-
projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Beirut_bw.pdf
303
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
304
    UN MDGS. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
305
    Freedom House. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=176
306
    Freedom House. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=176
307
    Freedom House. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=176
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :      page 38



                                                                  the husband decides alone (though these figures come
                                                                                    308
                                                                  to less than 100%) .

                                                                  Lebanese women are not permitted to pass on their
                                                                  nationality to their husbands or children, despite the
                                                                  fact that Lebanese men have always enjoyed this
                                                                       309
                                                                  right .
6. Emerging
Urban Issues &
Innovation

EMRs (Extended
Metropolitan regions)
& regional cities.

Mega Urban Regions
(MURs) & urban
development
corridors.

Trans-national labour
migration or imported
labour etc.

Issues of
multiculturalism etc.

Safe & liveable cities                                            A 2004 thesis by Joseph Salamon, Les espaces publics à
:issues & discussions .                                           Beyrouth : entre spécificités locales et modernisation:
                                                                  Une ville en projet à la recherche d’un nouveau
Intra-regional                                                    referential, discusses the creation of public spaces in
dynamics of                                                       Beirut and the political barriers and multiple
cooperation or                                                    subjective perspectives involved. He also highlights the
competition among                                                 lack of popular participation in their planning among
cities.                                                                          310
                                                                  Beirut citizens .

                                                                  In October 2010, the renowned architect Vladimir
                                                                  Djurovic has called for more greening and public
                                                                                  311
                                                                  spaces in Beirut .

                                                                  A NGO has recently been created, the Association for
                                                                  the Protection of Lebanese Heritage, which aims to
                                                                  preserve Beirut’s historic fabric in the face of
                                                                                          312
                                                                  increasing urbanisation .



308
    Fong, M., ‘Women’s empowerment and influence’. Paper presented at the Central Administration of Statistics/World Bank
seminar on ‘Gender Statistics in Lebanon: Current Situation and Future Needs’ in Beirut, June 17 2010. Retrieved November 17,
2010 at: http://www.cas.gov.lb/images/PDFs/Gender_statistics/5-Use%20of%20of%20gender%20Statistics%20-
%20Women's%20Empowerement%20and%20Influence.pdf
309
    UNDP. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.undp.org.lb/WhatWeDo/poverty.cfm
310
    Salamon, J. (2004), Les espaces publics à Beyrouth : entre spécificités locales et modernisation.: Une ville en projet à la
recherche d’un nouveau referential. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://crevilles.org/basethese_NEW/items/show/456
311
    Sikimic, S., ‘Acclaimed architect Djurovic calls for moiré public space in overly urbanised capital’. Daily Star, October 30,
2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_ID=1&article_ID=120943&categ_id=1#axzz15YsnBrP9
312
    Abou Harb, A., ‘NGO hopes to save Beirut, brick by brick’. Daily Star, September 23, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_ID=10&article_ID=119578&categ_id=4#axzz15Yt0O169
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Lebanon :        page 39



                                                                  Figures cited in a recent news article put Beirut’s
                                                                  public green space of municipal parks at just 2.3% of
                                                                  its total area of 20km2. There are 460,000 square
                                                                  metres of green space in total in the city, half of it not
                                                                                      313
                                                                  publicly accessible . The Environment Minsiter has
                                                                  blamed lack of progress in this area on corruption and
                                                                                314
                                                                  bureaucracy . The paucity of public green space was
                                                                  lampooned in June 2010 by a pair of artists who
                                                                  installed a series of tiny patches of grass across the
                                                                  city with an accompanying sign that read ‘Enjoy your
                                                                                315
                                                                  green space’ .


Potentially relevant contact list

Institution         Institution type             Comment                                         Contact information
name

Central             Government                                                                   Director General
Administration      http://www.cas.gov.lb        The CAS has 2007 Living Conditions              Maral TUTELIAN, PhD.
of Statistics                                    survey data on a variety of issues,             Telefax: +961-1-373- 160 /1
                                                 including health, education, population,        Email: GeneralDirector@cas.gov.lb
                                                 employment and household expenditure.
                                                 Most of the tables are in English, but          Household and Social
                                                 there is additional analysis in Arabic that     Statistics department
                                                 may be relevant.                                Ms. Najwa YAACOUB
                                                 http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option          Phone: +961-1-365073
                                                 =com_content&view=article&id=52&Item            Email: nyaacoub@cas.gov.lb
                                                 id=27                                           Ms. Lara BADRE
                                                                                                 Phone: +961-1-373164
                                                 Completed a Multiple Indicator Cluster          Email: lbadre@cas.gov.lb
                                                 Survey at the end of 2009, including            Ms. Ibtissam El JOUNI
                                                 health, education, employment, water            Phone: +961-1-373164
                                                 and sanitation. The results should be           Email: ijouni@cas.gov.lb
                                                 available soon and may be accessible on
                                                 request.                                        Statistical Monthly Bulletin and
                                                 http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option          Yearbook
                                                 =com_content&view=article&id=111&Ite            Ghalia Hamamy, PhD.
                                                 mid=2                                           Email: ghamamy@cas.gov.lb

                                                 The CAS also hosted a conference on
                                                 statistics in June 2010, involving ministry
                                                 officials, UN representatives and NGOs.
                                                 The full list of attendees might disclose
                                                 other useful contacts.
                                                 http://www.cas.gov.lb/index.php?option
                                                 =com_content&view=article&id=79&Item
                                                 id=2
Ministry of         Government                   National news agency. At the time of            961 1 754400


313
    Nash, M., ‘Pining for a forested path’. Now Lebanon, April 22, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=162688
314
    Sara, A., ‘Green intervention’. Now Lebanon, June 13, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=176849
315
    Sara, A., ‘Green intervention’. Now Lebanon, June 13, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=176849
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Lebanon :     page 40



Information         http://www.ministryinf       writing, much of the website was under
                    o.gov.lb/                    construction.                                 There is also a number of different
                                                                                               departments available to be
                                                                                               contacted, such as the director:
                                                                                               Mrs Laure Sleiman,
                                                                                               Ext: 1330-1803
                                                                                               Phone: +9611 3512 35
                                                                                                        +961 13419 77
                                                                                               Fax: +961 1 7441 83
Council for         Government                   Responsible for planning and                  Council for Development and
Development         http://www.cdr.gov.lb/       reconstructing the country.                   Reconstruction
and                                                                                            Tallet Al Serail – Riad El Solh
Reconstruction                                   The website’s links did not function at the   Beirut – Lebanon
                                                 time of writing, though it could be           Postal Code: 20239201
                                                 navigated through manual internal             PO Box:      116/5351
                                                 searches using keywords to locate             Tel: (961-1) 980096
                                                 documents such as the 2005 National           Fax:(961-1) 981252 – 981253 - 981381
                                                 Physical master Plan of the Lebanese          Email: infocenter@cdr.gov.lb
                                                 Territory.
Ministry of         Government                   This may have city- and neighbourhood         localgov@moim.gov.lb
Interior and        http://www.moim.gov.l        specific data and analysis.                   This link has the contact numbers for
Municipalities,     b/UI/moim.html                                                             each municipality:
Directorate                                                                                    http://www.moim.gov.lb/UI/moim/gu
General of                                       This is in Arabic and may be a link to data   idex.html
Departments                                      by city:
and Local                                        http://db.suny-
Councils                                         cld.edu.lb:82/moimweb/SELECT_TOWN             General information email for the
                                                                                               whole Ministry: info@moim.gov.lb
Ministry of         Government                   Its website is in Arabic, but it may be a
Social Affairs      http://www.socialaffair      useful source for indicators and analysis.
                    s.gov.lb
National            Government/research          Though not specifically linked to urban       National Council for Scientific
Council for         http://www.cnrs.edu.lb       planning, it has produced output (such as     Research,
Scientific          /index.html                  a 2005 study on Beirut’s urban growth) of     PO Box 11 – 8281
Research                                         direct relevance. It also undertakes GIS,     Ryad El Solh 1107 2260
                                                 so might be useful in this regard. It also    59, Zahia Selman Street
                                                 support research impacting on Lebanon’s       Beirut
                                                 socio-economic development. It also           Tel: +961 1 850 125
                                                 appears to be involved in the Institut        Fax: +961 1 822 639
                                                 Francais de du Proche-Orient’s Urban          hamze@cnrs.edu.lb
                                                 Observatory (see below).
Solidere            Private corporation          Highly controversial private company set      Building 149, Saad Zaghloul Street
                    http://www.solidere.co       up by tycoon and former Prime Minister        P.O. Box 119493 Beirut 20127305
                    m/solidere.html              Hariri (assassinated in 2005) with sole       Lebanon
                                                 rights to develop and reconstruct Beirut’s    Tel. (01) 980650 - 980660
                                                 city centre from 1991. However, it may        Fax (01) 980661 - 980662
                                                 have data or field studies for central        e-maIl: solidere@solidere.com.lb
                                                 Beirut.
UN HABITAT          International                UN HABITAT has been involved in               UN-HABITAT Lebanon
                    community                    southern Lebanon, assisting with shelter      UNESCO Regional Offices, Jnah, Beirut
                                                 construction and developing three local       Tel: +961-1-850013 (ext: 111)
                                                 urban observatories to assist planning. Its   Fax: +961-1-824854
                                                 projects include assisting with municipal     Email: dania.rifai@undp-
                                                 services and governance in Nahr el-Bared      lebprojects.org
                                                 camp, supporting the Al Fayhaa Union of
                                                 Municipalities with tier City Development
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.        Lebanon :     page 41



                                                 Strategies and undertaking a local
                                                 governance strengthening program in the
                                                 surrounding municipalities of Nahr el-
                                                       316
                                                 Bared .
UNDP                International                UNDP works with national and local            Arab African International Bank Bldg,
                    community                    partners and may be a good source of on       Riad El Solh Street,
                    http://www.undp.org.l        the ground contacts. Among a number of        Nejmeh, Beirut 2011 5211
                    b/                           very poor areas of the country, it works in   Lebanon
                                                 Beirut Southern Suburbs – this could
                                                 potentially be a good example of              P.O.Box: 11-3216, beirut, Lebanon
                                                 Lebanon’s urban challenges.                   Telephone: + 961-1-962500
                                                                                               Fax: + 961-1-962491
                                                                                               E-mail: registry.lb@undp.org

                                                                                               There are staff operating in four main
                                                                                               areas: democratic governance, social
                                                                                               & local development, energy & the
                                                                                               environment and crisis prevention &
                                                                                               recovery.
                                                                                               http://www.undp.org.lb/about/whos
                                                                                               who.cfm#Management
                                                                                               Raghed Assi, Programme Manager of
                                                                                               the Social & Local development
                                                                                               strand, would be a good first contact
                                                                                               point.
UNRWA               International                Undertakes construction work and              Lebanon Field Office, Beirut
                    community                    service provision on behalf of the            Hoda Samra
                                                 Palestinian refugee community in              Public Information Officer
                                                 Lebanon .                                     Tel: (+ 961 1) 840 490-5, 840 461-9
                                                                                               (ext 314)
                                                                                               Fax: (+ 961 1) 840 466
                                                                                               Email: h.samra@unrwa.org
Norwegian           NGO                          The NRC is involved in a range of             Ain Mreisseh , John F. Kennedy street,
Refugee             http://www.nrc.no/?ai        programs in areas such as construction        Ayad Building , Floor 1 .
Council             d=9167173                    and education for Palestinian refugees in     Tel / Fax : + 961 1 366 113
                                                 the country.                                  + 961 1 366 114
                                                                                               + 961 1 366 115

                                                                                               NRC Lebanon
                                                                                               Peter Krogh Sorensen
                                                                                               Tel: +961 1 36 32 00
                                                                                               Fax: + 961 1 36 32 22
                                                                                               E-mail: admin@lebanon.nrc.no
Lebanon             NGO                          Lebanon Support operates a database of
Support             http://lebanon-              all active national and international civil
                    support.org/index.php?       society organisations working in Lebanon.
                    page=national_org
Nahr el-Bared       NGO                          Involved in the planning and                  Bared.reconstruct@gmail.com
Reconstruction                                   reconstruction of the Nahr el-Bared
Commission for                                   camp. One of its staff was detained in
Civil Action and                                 August 2010 after criticising the
Studies                                          government and army’s role in the
                                                 reconstruction effort (see above).
Bureau              NGO                          Assists municipalities in urban               Bureau de Cite et Gouvernements


316
      UN. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at: http://www.un.org.lb/Subpage.aspx?pageid=74
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :     page 42



Technique des       http://www.bt-               development by drawing on the                  Locaux Unis (Liban, Syrie, Jordanie),
Villes              villes.org/main.htm          resources of universities, international       Bureau Technique des Villes
Lebanaises                                       organisations and local research. A            Libanaises Municipalites de Jdeide
                                                 particular speciality appears to be            (MATN),
                                                 development within the context of              BP 70 675 ANTELIAS - LIBAN
                                                 heritage preservation and tourism. The         Tél : + 961 1 901650
                                                 news on the website was out of date, but       Fax : + 961 1 895768
                                                 the organisation still appears to be active.   Email: info@bt-villes.org
                                                 It has been involved in an ‘urban
                                                 observatory’ in the city of Tyre, with an
                                                 unban regeneration strategy
                                                 emphasising, preservation, enhanced
                                                 urban planning, economic and social
                                                 development and enhanced local
                                                 governance.
                                                 http://www.majal-
                                                 lebanon.com/Projects_detail.php?menu=
                                                 mn2&typ=0&name=&idp=12
Academie            Academic                     The Urban Planning Institute has               Ziad Akl, Directeur
Libanaise des       http://www.alba.edu/iu       published some research and may be a           Rond Point Hayeck, Sin el Fil. BP:
Beaux Artes,        a/index.html                 useful source of insights on urban issues      55251 Beyrouth, Liban
Institute de                                     in Lebanon.                                    tel: (961 1) 480056, 489206, 489207,
l’Urbanisme                                      http://www.alba.edu/iua/publications.ht        489208, 502370, 502371
                                                 ml                                             fax: (961 1) 500779
                                                                                                zakl@alba.edu

                                                 One project of the institute is MAJAL, an      ALBA
                                                 academic urban observatory set up in the       Balamand University
                                                 aftermath of the 2006 war to promote           B.P. 55-251 Sin el-Fil, Beirut –
                                                 sustainable urban planning. Its activities     Lebanon
                                                 are data collection and monitoring,            Email : majal@alba.edu
                                                 technical support and advocacy. Its            Phone : 961-1-489206/7- 480056
                                                 projects include urban regeneration in         Ext.: 266/268
                                                 Beirut (in partnership with the
                                                 municipality), as well as heritage tourism     Léon Telvisian might also be a good
                                                 and analysis of the flaws in post-2006         contact. He has worked with the
                                                 reconstruction policy:                         Institut Francais de du Proche-Orient
                                                 http://www.majal-                              (se below) on a seminar on municipal
                                                 lebanon.com/Projects.php?typ=0&menu            processes and urbanisation in Beirut.
                                                 =mn2                                            http://www.ifporient.org/node/303
Lebanese            Academic                     Rachid Chamoun is director of the Urban        Rachid Chamoun
American            http://www.sea.lau.edu       Planning Institute. He has written on          rchamoun@lau.edu.lb
University,         .lb/architecture/arch_a      Beirut’s planning issues and recently
Urban Planning      rea.aspx                     inaugurated an international exhibition in     Other staff are also listed:
Institute,                                       Beirut on the link between the urban           http://www.sea.lau.edu.lb/sea/Facult
School of                                        environment and radicalisation.                y/Faculty_area.aspx
Engineering                                      http://www.lau.edu.lb/news-
and                                              events/news/archive/installation_to_expl       Generic numbers – the faculty is
Architecture,                                    ore_social/                                    based mainly at Byblos.
Architecture                                                                                    Tel: Beirut: +961 1 786456
and Design,                                      According to an old posting, it is involved    Byblos: +961 9 547254
Urban Planning                                   in assisting government ministries
Institute                                        through planning, impact assessments,
                                                 surveys and statistics. Therefore it would
                                                 be worth contacting the institute as a
                                                 whole to secure any relevant research it
                                                 may have.
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.        Lebanon :      page 43



                                                 http://www.lau.edu.lb/centers-
                                                 institutes/upi.php
American            Academic                     Some of the faculty staff here may have      Faculty of Engineering and
University of       http://webfea.fea.aub.       relevant research in key areas. Faculty      Architecture,
Beirut,             edu.lb/fea/                  staff were involved in the UN                American University of Beirut,
Faculty of                                                                                    P. O. Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh
Engineering                                                                                   Beirut, Lebanon 1107 2020
and                                                                                           Email: fea@aub.edu.lb
Architecture                                                                                  Tel: 961-1-347-952
                                                                                              Fax: 961-1-744-462

                                                                                              Below are a number of links to faculty
                                                                                              staff with potentially relevant study
                                                                                              areas:
                                                                                              Mona Harb: public action and urban
                                                                                              management, with a focus on the
                                                                                              urban politics and geography of Shi’a
                                                                                              groups in Lebanon. For instance, she
                                                                                              has written an article on
                                                                                              ‘Deconstructing Hizballah and its
                                                                                              Suburb’.
                                                                                              http://webfea.fea.aub.edu.lb/fea/aca
                                                                                              demics/faculty_member.aspx?id=44
                                                                                              Mona Fawaz: urban inclusiveness,
                                                                                              informal settlements & low-income
                                                                                              groups and their experience of urban
                                                                                              planning interventions. She has
                                                                                              written on Hezbollah’s role in urban
                                                                                              planning in the southern suburbs
                                                                                              following the 2006 conflict. She also co-
                                                                                              authored the 2003 essay in the Global
                                                                                              Report on Human Settlements.
                                                                                              http://webfea.fea.aub.edu.lb/fea/aca
                                                                                              demics/faculty_member.aspx?id=72
                                                                                              George Arbid: modern planning,
                                                                                              Beirut
                                                                                              http://webfea.fea.aub.edu.lb/fea/aca
                                                                                              demics/faculty_member.aspx?id=20
                                                                                              A full list of faculty staff is available
                                                                                              below. Some of these may also be
                                                                                              useful contacts: the ones listed above
                                                                                              are those who explicitly listed
                                                                                              relevant research areas in their
                                                                                              profiles.
                                                                                              http://webfea.fea.aub.edu.lb/fea/aca
                                                                                              demics/faculty.aspx

                                                                                              Rabih Shibli (not listed in the
                                                                                              directory) is director of the NHO Beit
                                                                                              Bil Jnoub and an AUB graduate who
                                                                                              recently participated in the 2010 RIO
                                                                                              conference and was involved in
                                                                                              voluntary reconstruction work.
Institut            Research                     Has an Urban Observatory research arm,       Myriam Catusse:
Francais de du      http://www.ifporient.or      with a program based in Beirut, with a       m.catusse@ifporient.org
Proche-Orient       g/                           particular emphasis on heritage.             http://www.ifporient.org/node/201
                                                                                              Franck Mermier
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.          Lebanon :     page 44



                                                                                                f.mermier@ifporient.org
                                                                                                http://www.ifporient.org/node/17
                                                                                                Both are also based with the National
                                                                                                Council for Scientific Research (see
                                                                                                above).
Mouvement           NGO                          Undertakes programs in area such as            Tel: 01-390 335 / 01-383 718
Social              http://www.mouvemen          youth engagement, health and conflict          email: mouvementsocial@mouvemen
                    tsocial.org/en/              prevention. Also places emphasis on            tsocial.org
                                                 planning. The Global Settlements essay
                                                 cites unpublished survey data from the
                                                 organisation: this was from 1999, but
                                                 there may be more recent field data
                                                 available.
At the Edge of      NGO/Academic                 Program based around a recently                Fadi S. Shayya
the City            http://attheedgeoftheci      published edition of essays on Beirut’s        Fakhani & Miski Bldg., 9th Flr.
                    ty.wordpress.com/abou        Pine Woods park (Horsh Al-Sanawbar)            Al-Rashidean Str., Sanayeh
                    t/                           and its role on the margins of the city as a   Beirut 2041 0601
                                                 public space. This could be interesting to     Lebanon
                                                 draw on if a case study for the                Fadi.shayya@yahoo.com
                                                 complexities of public space and the need
                                                 for inclusiveness was required.                Fadi Shayya also heads ‘Discursive
                                                                                                Formations’, a ‘Beirut-based critical
                                                                                                think-tank and research platform’. It
                                                                                                has a centralised directory of writings
                                                                                                on urbanism in Lebanon, including
                                                                                                books, that may be useful as a
                                                                                                signpost for further reading, if
                                                                                                required.
                                                                                                http://www.discursiveformations.net/
                                                                                                ?page_id=325
                                                                                                A sample of their output is available
                                                                                                here:
                                                                                                http://issuu.com/discursiveformation
                                                                                                s/docs/at_the_edge_of_the_city_sam
                                                                                                ple_lr
Assabil             NGO                          Works with Beirut municipality to              Assabil Association
                    http://www.assabil.co        establish public libraries throughout the      Tel (+961)-1-664647
                    m/index_en.html              city.                                          Fax (+961)-1-653004
                                                                                                e-mail assabil@lb.refer.org
The Centre for      Academic                     Based in the UK and affiliated with St         14a Airlie Gardens, London W8 7AL
Lebanese            http://www.lebanesest        Anthony’s College, Oxford. It does not         Telephone: +44(0)20 7221 3809
Studies             udies.com/index.htm          appear to have a specific speciality in
                                                 urban development, but might be a good
                                                 starting point if looking for international
                                                 academic contact.
Dr Sara             Academic                     Based at the Royal Holloway University of      Dr. Sara Fregonese
Fregonese           http://www.gg.rhul.ac.       London, Fregonese is leading a post-           Department of Geography
                    uk/Fregonese/index.ht        doctoral research project called ‘Beirut:      Royal Holloway, University of London
                    m                            Urbicide 75/8’ on the “geographies of          Egham, Surrey - TW20 0EX - UK
                                                 violence” in Beirut.                           Tel: +44 (0)1784 276 291
                                                 http://beiruturbicide.wordpress.com/ho         E-mail: sara.fregonese@rhul.ac.uk
                                                 me/
Lebanon Green       Research                     Organisation engaged in sustainable and        Address:
Building            http://www.lebanon-          energy-efficient architectural design.         LEBANESE GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL
Council             gbc.org/Component/M          Among other activities, it also lobbies and    3rd floor - Salameh & Naoum Center
                    ain/Index.asp                conducts some research.                        Sports’ City Street
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.       Lebanon :     page 45



                                                                                              Beirut, Lebanon
                                                                                              Tel:+ (961) 1 841 065
                                                                                              Fax:+ (961) 1 841 060
                                                                                              Email:info@lebanon-gbc.org
The Association     NGO                          Heritage conservation NGO.                   APSAD'S Headquarters:
for the             http://www.apsadonlin                                                     Achrafieh, Sursock Street, Aoun bldg,
Protection of       e.com/                                                                    GF, Beirut, Lebanon
Lebanese
Heritage                                                                                      P.O.Box: 11 154 Beirut - Lebanon
                                                                                              Telfax: 01-334267
                                                                                              Email: info@apsadonline.com

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:61
posted:8/7/2011
language:English
pages:45