D) fo CARING FOR BABY'S
Simple New Ways
To Pick Disease
by DR. FREDERICK JOHNS
host of new and simple surgery
Nevertheless, even for these, But the new spate of tests avail-
tests are simplifying mass hope possibly lies just around the
able are not so widely publicized.
screening of patients for pos- corner. With the forward strides Indeed, they are generally carried
sible disease. of immunology, the rising star out in the secluded precincts of the
A host of new, easily used and of the seventies, by protecting the
doctor's laboratory, and out of
readily .available medical tests body before invasion starts, it may
view of the patient.
bring accurate diagnosis of disease be possible to counter some of The simplest involve routine
closer and closer to home. the ravages of past decades. urine tests. There is nothing new
In both the short haul as well Today, mass screening systems about this, and every mother un-
as the long run, the patient is the are becoming more and more doubtedly recalls having trudged
one who stands to benefit most. popular. An army of doctors now to surgeries on occasions too
In brief, this could be you. put their patients through a few numerous to count grasping her
simple, straight-forward tests that
little bottle of "you know what,"
The key to any medical routine can reveal a wealth of valuable in-
is the ultimate, accurate pinpoint- for the doctor to check. Every
formation. Radiological screening
routine medical examinee, and
ing of the trouble. What is caus- for the detection of T.B. and other
ing this man's symptoms? This is patient being consulted for the first
chest and heart disorders, and time, are invariably requested to
the question that crops up cervical smears for cancer detection
in surgeries around the nation on bring along a sample for analysis.
in women are two examples. More
a never ending programme. In the A few years ago, the complete
important still, perhaps, is theexamination of the urinary speci-
great majority of instances, once value of negative results.
the cause is known, the rest is then men could take about half-an-hour.
only a matter of straightforward This involved a check for five
Th£ New Tests Available different possible abnormal constit-
routine. "The overwhelming major-
ity of illnesses these days are very uents. It represented a chemical
A positive (Yes vote) can indi- search for the presence of protein,
responsive to specific treatment.
cate that certain things are not blood, sugar, and ketones, and
A handful of others, of course, right. This usually means further, measured the acidity or pH fac-
still elude the onslaught of medi- more intricate tests are needed as
tor. In addition, an examination
cal science, chiefly cancer and a follow-up, and to pin-point pre- under the microscope for other
virus infections. We still hang cisely the nature of the disorder. impurities was considered essential.
our heads in abject shame, but But a negative answer (a No
we are really stumped when it vote) announces in plain un- Each one of these individual tests
comes to curing the common equivocal terms: "Nothing wrong occupied a period of time, the use
cold. here. All is well." To page 29
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
Vol. 50, No. 6
John M. Fowler, M.A., M.S. ARTICLES
Simple 'New Ways to Pick Disease ....... Dr. Frederick Johns 2
MEDICAL CONSULTANTS: How is Your Handicap? ...................... Anonymous 6
Elizabeth J. Hiscox, M.D. The Doctor Looks at Alcohol ....................'........ 10
This Warty World ................ AmilJ. Johnson, M.D. 13
R. M. Meher-Homji, B.D.S. What You Should Know About Strokes Harold Shryock, M.D. 14
I. R. Bazliel, Ex-Maj., I.M.S. Caring for Baby's Teeth .............. Lucille J. Goodyear 16
Genetics Against Disease Carriers . . Jean-Michel Van Gindertael 18
G. T. Werner, M.D. Minerals and "Life Mines" ............... G oldie M. Down 21
K. A. P. Yesudian, M.R.C.P., D.C.H. The Body's Defence System .......... H. W. Vollmer, M.D. 26
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HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 3
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month it brings vital information on child
care, happiness in marriage, personality
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CUT OUT THIS COUPON AND
Arteriosclerosis means hardening of the
VIEWPOINT arteries. The normal wall of an artery is
strong, supple, and elastic so that it can ex
pand and contract in adjustment to the blood
SMOKING AND HEART ATTACK pressure. When an artery is hardened, a kind
of degeneration of the inner lining of the blood
vessel takes place; as a result, the walls of the
Smoking is increasingly associated with artery become rigid and pipelike, instead of
heart attack. One important study reported supple and elastic.
by Dr. D. L. Sackett of the famous cancer hos
Arteriosclerosis is caused by an abnormal
pital, Roswell Park Memorial Institute at
deposit of cholesterol on the walls of the ar
Buffalo, New York, clearly shows that the
tery. The deposit leads to gradual narrowing,
severity of arteriosclerosis increases with both
and may eventually seal the blood vessel com
the rate of smoking and the duration of ciga
pletely so that no blood can pass through it.
When the blood vessels of the heart are in
Dr. Sackett was reporting on the 1,019
volved, it leads to a coronary or what is known
consecutive autopsy studies he conducted. His
as heart attack.
findings indicate a close relationship between
smoking and aortic arteriosclerosis. How is smoking connected with arterios
In certain age groups, the danger is espe clerosis? Dr. C. L. Dale, a well-known Amer
cially high. According to Sir George Godber, ican pathologist, says: "There is now increas
chief medical officer of the Department of ing evidence that nicotine, and possibly other
Health, London: "Among heavy cigarette chemicals absorbed from various forms of to
smokers, aged forty to forty-nine, the death bacco, enhance the deposit of this fatty mate
rate from coronary disease is nearly four times rial chiefly cholesterol, within the inner walls
that of nonsmokers." of the arteries. The medium-sized arteries
supplying the heart, brain, extremities, and
Another important study conducted in
other organs with blood become increasingly
April 1970 by Taylor, Blackburn, Keys, Ancel
less able to furnish enough blood to these or
and their associates dealt with 2,571 men aged
gans because of the decreased size of the lu
forty to forty-nine. Their five-year findings
men, or inner diameter of the blood vessel.
showed that "death rates from coronary heart
Tissue damage results, often producing death
disease alone, and those from all other causes
by heart attacks, strokes, et cetera. The ab
increased progressively with an increase in the
sorbed nicotine also causes constriction of
number of cigarettes smoked per day. The
these same arteries, combining with the effect
coronary death rate for smokers of a pack
of partial fatty obstruction. This results in
[twenty cigarettes] or more of cigarettes daily
more severe heart attacks and strokes, which
was more than four times as high as that of
also occurs earlier when tobacco is used."
men who had never smoked, while the death
rate from all other causes among heavy smok What all this adds up to is simply that a
ers was a little over three times that of non smoker is risking his health for a vain luxury.
smoking men." In view of the mounting evidences we have on
Is smoking, then, a causative factor in the hazards of smoking, it is time that the
arteriosclerosis? Possibly so, though not posi smoker count the cost before he touches an
tively proved. One thing, however, can be cer other cigarette.
tain. Cigarette smoking does accelerate the de -J. M. F.
velopment of arteriosclerosis.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 5
Sometime in 1973, a four-masted
windjammer will slip down the
ways into the waters of a German
harbour. This square-rigged ship,
called the Dyna Ship has no
standing or running rigging, sets
sail automatically by computer,
and is supposed to be able to sail
foist in win'd-whipped seas that
would slow down the average
A personal account by a contributor who wishes
freighter or bulk-carrier.
to remain anonymous.
I know a little about golf. I ever, more obvious physical
Probably the world's biggest
glacier, the Beardmore in Antar- know that it is perfectly handicaps that tend to elimi
tica is 120 miles long and 25 miles
conventional to ask a ques nate us from normal competi
deep. Glaciers are produced when
heavy snows, winter after winter, tion like that of a fellow tion. For instance, no one
pile up more than they melt in golfer. I know, too, that it is dreams of working out a
the summer until the snow at almost impossible to hit those starting line in a one hundred
about 200 feet deep is compressed little white balls, even with metres sprint for a man who
into ice. a healthy, loose-shouldered has lost a leg. He is simply
swipe, let alone with the self- not in the race. The motor
Scientists have completed plans conscious-looking stance that car with its rash of
to study a rare seven-minute total seems to be part of the rules. careless, aggressive and
solar eclipse over Africa on June That is about all I know. But drunken drivers has provided
30, 1973. They will be required then I am not going to write us with a veritable army who
to carry out their observations in
about golf. At least not after are struggling, sometimes not
some of the most rugged and
isolated regions in the world, with I have pointed out that we all very successfully, to find a
daily temperatures hovering at have our handicaps, and that path through life that will
about 105° F. Because of the ex- part of the game of life is provide a maximum of con
ceptionally long duration of totality bound up in taking a certain tentment. One cannot join
(exceeding seven minutes in Mali, latisfaction in competing suc even on the outskirts of this
Algeria, and Niger) and the
cessfully against others who army without learning some
favourable viewing conditions (95
'percent chance of good weather), may in certain respects have thing useful. Now I am not
scientists from all over the world a start on us. under the impression that I
are expected to gather along the A handicap is a very per have learned much of value,
eclipse path. The solar eclipse of sonal thing. It may be a bad but I thought I would tell you
1970 which crossed Mexico arid memory, or lack of penetra about my handicap just the
swept up the East Coast of the
tion, or painful shyness, or same. (
United States lasted only three
minutes. The maximum possible some kind of insecurity that In early middle life the
duration of a total solar eclipse is causes us to over-react in an atoms came to dance before
about 7.5 minutes. ugly fashion. There are, how my eyes, and within a short
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
A handicap is a very personal thing. It
may be a bad memory, or lack of penetra
tion, or painful shyness, or some kind of in
security, or loss of a vital sense. Whatever it
is, handicap can be overcome.
time they had coalesced into memory into a miracle tool sterile soil of his new situa
an impenetrable mist into and conferred no service upon tion.
which a car twenty feet away mankind. But I have charted He feels himself to be born
could hide itself. The periph
a good many difficulties and again in a long, painful and
ery of vision remained, how developed enough tactical at protesting birth. And it is a
ever, a little like a scratched
titudes to keep reasonably re wrinkled personality that be
film, but useful and highly laxed and contented. I think gins to appear because he
prized. I could guess with a I might have done better if must just as inevitably shrink
high prognosis of success I had lived a little nearer the in size. His range of occupa
whether there was printing oncountry of the blind, but I tions is reduced peremptorily,
a page, detect quite small preferred to live in the outer and he begins to be acquainted
moving objects, and conse suburbs of the seeing. with aggravating slowness,
quently move about with con I think there are only two humiliation, inadequacy and
fidence. But I could not read,
points I want to make. The failure everywhere.
recognize people, or play anyfirst is a footnote on the most We all form a fairly ac
kind of game, and all kinds commonly discussed aspect curate estimate of our capac
of little things like putting a
of acceptance. It is, of course, ity to master the essential
three-point plug into its quite futile to rail against fate elements in our immediate
socket became time-consum as though indignation or self- environment. We are also
ing jobs. pity could undo the damage, able to get some idea of the
and it is equally foolish to try regard in which our associates
Don't Rail Against Fate to live in the past where you hold us. And these are quite
once cut a much better figure. significant ingredients of the
Compared. with many There is nothing for it but to complex of personality.
handicapped people, my sub live in the present and accept Now it was not long before
sequent accomplishments have its realities. The handicapped I began to make some rather
been contemptible. I devel person must embrace the new shattering discoveries as I step
oped no mysterious new personality that will inevi ped out into my new world.
senses, failed to sharpen my tably grow out of the more In the first place, I had to
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 2
possibly have the power to until he accepts this new,
It did not take long for me grasp simple directions or shrivelled personality and this
to discover that there were
prohibition signs above most instructions without slow and new, restricted role, and ac
of my former activities and patient repetition. Others, cepts them with humble
interests, a,nd that, unless I without actually holding simplicity. When he has
did something about it, I was
going to fijnd myself boxed you at a discount, seem to schooled himself to play a
in, in a very small backyard. do so from their own discom very minor role in a very
fort. It is, of course, a little restricted life he can open
make drastic changes in the disquieting to talk to someone that locked door and find
estimate of my abilities. In who cannot answer your eye enjoyment where he least
my earlier life I was able to with his or see your gestures. expected.
learn and apply knowledge More often than not, an ac
with a little better than aver quaintance will direct all his The Second Point
age readiness. But to my conversation to your com
panions. I found that I had And now I come to my
surprise, I found that this
to discipline myself to avoid second point. And it is con
ability was restricted to the
a bad reaction to this. The cerned with the other side of
narrow field of materials pre
situation was not improved that locked door. It did not
sented to the eyes. In the
by the knowledge that any take long for me to discover
world of touch I was little
time I walked down the street that there were prohibition
better than a moron. I be
I could be cutting an ac signs above most of my former
longed at the very bottom of
quaintance dead when he activities and interests, and
the class. This was apparent
favoured me with a cheery that, unless I did something
with almost everything I
wave. about it, I was going to find
touched, but it was inescapa
myself boxed in, in a very
bly plain as I tried to learn For a long time I felt an ir
small backyard. I began to
Braille. There was a genera resistible urge to tell people
force myself to enter upon
tion gap between my fingers that I was not always like
areas of activity that I had
and my brain. I began with this. This was, of course, clear
hitherto scorned. I found so
glittering theories of how new evidence that I had not ac
much satisfaction in this kind
methods of rapid reading cepted my new personality
of thing that I am ready to
might be applied to Braille with its need for help in hun
enunciate this, my second
reading, and ended with the dreds of matters (like master
axiom for handicapped peo
knowledge that I suffered ing the contents of a letter),
ple: "A maximum of content
from a kind of tactile dyslexia its below-average capacity to
ment comes from making the
(inability to read more than learn and its out-of-circula-
maximum use of what is left."
a few lines with understand tion role. I am afraid I passed
My efforts in the realms of
ing) which kept me gam through a kind of second
building and carpentry met
bling hopefully on the inter adolescence with somewhat
with a good many initial
pretation of single-letter pat childish reactions to frustra
frustrations. Nail-driving is
terns. tions that were quite inexpli
no great trick if you hold the
cable to others.
Self-discipline Is Necessary nail long enough till you get
I have laboured this point your bearings, and I have
I soon found, too, that because I believe that it is worked out some quite nifty
many people assume that if basic. The handicapped person dodges for measuring and
you cannot see, you could not stands before a locked door levelling and sawing straight
IB HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973.
and square. But screw-driving your levels and perpendicu be ample vindication of my
is my bete noire. Indeed, until larity it is not so difficult to natural instincts about garden-
I get positive information to build a reasonable wall. But .ing. However, I found, like
the contrary, I shall persist cement work is my favourite everyone else, a certain attrac
in my conviction that profan occupation. You can find so tion in the soil and a certain
ity originated with a blind many places to build paths feeling of superiority when I
man and a screw-driver in an and make edgings for lawns. saw first quality stuff appear
awkward spot. True, I am All my life I have had a ing under my ministrations.
slow, and often find situations natural antipathy to garden Besides, as an unexpected
that I cannot handle without ing, and I really had to push bonus, I discovered a new ac
help. Of course, even I am myself to raise my status to tivity. For what can compare
aware of the crudeness of some that of a vegetable gardener. with the smugness with which
of my efforts, but I must con In any case, it hardly seemed one carries to a neighbour the
fess that what appears neat worth while, what with the largest and heaviest cabbage,
and well-finished to me seems rabbits, and the snails and the or the lettuce with an enor
to give amusement to others. moths and the weeds and "the mous heart?
But since I have accepted my lesser breeds without the law" I have said that I have dis
self for what I am, striving that even bright young eyes covered no new and compen
has become more important cannot see. And, indeed, the satory senses operating on
than success. initial costs made my first my behalf. But recently there
I have found brick-laying vegetables about five times as has been one exception. I
and stone-setting to be stimu expensive as if I had bought have been playing a bit of deck
lating, too. Once you have them. All of which seemed to tennis with a rubber quoit.
It is quite a trick. I look
vaguely into the air and allow
the image of the quoit to cross
Alcohol a,nd Marijuana Together
the periphery of the retina,
Since the earliest historical time, the majority of and my hand co-operates
mankind has sought escape from unpleasant reality and quite surprisingly in a light
searched for artificial peace by the use of alcoholic bev ning grab. But mysteriously
erages, coffee, tea, and other caffeine-containing drinks. enough it has recently been
Alcohol and caffeine produce their desired effect by ac making successful grabs when
tion on the central nervous system. Today, marijuana I am not aware of any image
cigarettes have raised their head on the American scene. at all. Naturally I have come
A recent study done by Manno and his associates found to have a new respect for this
that marijuana adversely affected both mental and motor hand of mine. "All right, my
(physical) performance, as does alcohol. The effect on be lad," I have told it, "if you
havioural functions, with impairment of mental and are as smart as all this, maybe
physical performance, was greater when alcohol and mari some day you will condescend
juana were taken together than when either of them was to be quite frank with me and
used alone. It is doubtful that those seeking escape would tell me quickly and without
use one in place of the other but would doubtless use both. hesitation exactly what those
If alcohol is here to stay, let us not compound society's little patterns of raised dots
problems by legalizing marijuana. wish to communicate to me."
—Life and Health I shall return to the Braille
new hope. ***
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
The Doctor Looks at
A LCOHOL is a very widely used chemical com When it is used as a drink, most people take it
pound in laboratories for experimental purposes. for its effect on the central nervous system, or for the
It is a preservative for storing animals and psychic effect on one's mind. It helps people forget
plants to be used in demonstrations. It's also a very their troubles. It makes some people feel a little
good solvent! euphoric— a little happy. Others become the opposite
Unfortunately, it is imbibed for the pleasurable and want to fight.
effects that people get from it. As a result of such use, In general, when alcohol gets into the circulation
its toxic effects impair health. it reaches every cell of the body. Every cell is affected
For any one specific person, there's no way to in one way or another by alcohol, but certain cells are
indicate what is excessive in the use of alcohol. As much more sensitive than others.
with any other substance, some people are more sensi The brain is relatively sensitive to alcohol, as we
tive to it than are others. Almost anyone can eat see from the behaviour of people who drink. The liver
strawberries with no ill effects. But a few people can't is another area where the cells can be injured. This
eat strawberries—even one strawberry—without de is also true for the heart and the gastrointestinal tract.
veloping hives. Similarly with alcohol. Some people It's also true for the lungs. In fact, every cell in the
can imbibe tremendous amounts of it and seem to body can be damaged by alcohol.
get away with it—at least to some extent. Others Alcohol's effect on the lungs is seldom men
aren't able to take it in even small amounts. tioned. When you drink alcohol on an empty stomach,
If there are any doubts about alcohol being in particularly in large quantities, a high concentration
jurious to health, watch a drunk stagger down the of alcohol enters the circulation. From the stomach,
street. You know that he is having difficulties with it goes to the liver, then into the right side of the heart
his brain—difficulties produced by the toxic effects and through the lungs, where it can damage the deli
of alcohol. Some will get intoxicated with one drink, cate cells of the alveoli, or the air sacs of the lungs,
and others will require more. In my opinion, anyone then back into the heart again, where it can also
who takes at least one drink every day is a chronic cause damage.
alcoholic. Others may place that figure higher, but Alcohol affects all parts of the human system—
I would place it right there. even the larynx—the voice area. People who drink
for a long period of time, and who drink large quan
Alcohol—A Drug tities of alcohol, tend to have a brassy voice. I often
refer to it as the voice of an alcoholic. If you look at
Alcohol is a drug, and it is used at times in the the throat of a heavy drinker, you see the infected
same ways as are certain other drugs. area. I think this is related to the use of alcohol.
ao HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
Alcohol interferes with the vital functions
of the body. Alcoholism is really one of out
big problems, ajid it needs serious attention.
Many of these people also smoke a lot, but the of alcohol on the heart. One syndrome, or disease
smoke isn't solely responsible. There isn't the same state, is called alcoholic cardiomyopathy. The latter
effect on the voice and the vocal cords in a heavy word has to do with the heart muscle. Alcohol can
smoker who does not drink. The drinker's vocal cords produce this disease. The heart becomes enlarged;
become thickened and produce a rather coarse type it fails to pump adequately. As a result of this, the
of voice. patient becomes short of breath, the liver becomes
enlarged, and the neck veins become distended. The
patient then develops swelling or dropsy involving the
Cell Damage lower extremities. The dropsy moves up the legs and
thighs and into the abdomen. Fluid accumulates in the
Unfortunately, many of the cells damaged by abdomen, in the lungs, and in the cavities around the
alcohol are never replaced. This is especially true in lungs. In addition to that, once this cardiomyopathy
the brain. We are born with a= many cells in our brain develops, there's a tendency for the- heart to beat in
as we'll ever have the rest of our lives, but we can an irregular fashion. Some of these irregularities are
lose them as time goes on. It seems that anyone in- rather serious and actually can be fatal. A patient
terested in maintaining good healthy brain cells would with alcoholic cardiomyopathy usually dies suddenly
not damage them by anything, certainly not by alco because of the disturbance in heart rhythm.
hol. Some cells can be damaged and still regenerate— Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a fairly common
at least partially—but there's never a regeneration disease in the United States and also in other
of brain cells. countries where the intake of alcohol is high. It's
This is also true for the heart. We are born with particularly common where there is malnutrition
as many heart cells as we'll ever have. Since the heart associated with improper eating and alcohol intake.
has to function all the time to keep us alive, we have In experimental animals the heart muscle can be
to take care of the heart cells. Alcohol damages the damaged by feeding alcohol as a fluid along with the
cells of the heart muscle and produces irreversible animals' diet. When you look at these heart cells
damage. under an electron microscope, it's amazing how ex
The liver has a great capacity to regenerate, but tensive the damage to the cells is. The fibres contract,
even it suffers a limitation. An excessive amount of become fragmented, and become disintegrated.
damage will harm the cells to such an extent that There's an accumulation of fluid in the heart muscle.
their regenerating capacity is impaired. The cells that The damage is quite extensive, both in experimental
regenerate are not normal healthy cells. animals that are fed alcohol and in men who are
I've done quite a bit of research about the effect alcoholics and who develop cardiac disease.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 11
Toxic Effects develop alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver when they
eat well but still drink large amounts of alcohol.
Alcohol produces a toxic effect on the heart When cell damage is rather extensive, it's possi
muscle cell. It denatures proteins, destroys enzyme ble to see it with an ordinary light microscope. With
systems and the other substances necessary for magnification up to between fifty thousand and 100
healthy performance of organized cells. Cells are thousand times in an electron microscope, however,
very complex structures in which every component it is possible to see how extensive the damage really
must be in perfect order if the cell L> to function is. In fact, it's amazing how the heart is able to
adequately. Alcohol, by destroying some of these function at all with such tremendous damage.
components, interferes with the function of the cell, Alcoholics are also much more prone to other
and then that cell automatically dies. diseases. Alcohol interferes with their resistance to
It's rather like a machine. If you destroy the trauma. People go into a state of shock much more
carburettor or the timing mechanism of an auto readily when they are alcoholics. They're more prone
mobile—even though the rest of the automobile may to suffer from the stresses of hot and cold climates and
be in perfect shape—it's still riot going to run. Or certainly more prone to infections.
if you remove the spark plugs or take the wires off The intake of alcohol is very heavy today. I
the spark plugs, the automobile won't function. The think it has a detrimental influence on our entire
same thing is true of a cell. You don't have to population. I think many people in positions where
destroy every component of the cell to interfere with they have to make important decisions have suffered
its life and kill the cell. Just destroy one vital and damage to their brains—some degree of Korsakoff
necessary component. psychosis, which is a fairly common thing among
Some patients who eat well but who drink alcoholics.
heavily—and particularly have a tendency to Anyone who drinks heavily for any length of
drink on an empty stomach—damage the heart time will receive some damage to his brain. His
muscle and develop alcoholic cardiomyopathy. ft brain will not function normally or as it did
seems, however, that if there's malnutrition in as previously. People in positions to make important
sociation with heavy alcohol intake, the damage decisions that influence the welfare of their
comes on more readily and seems to be more exten companies or their families or their country should
sive, but it's not necessary to have malnutrition only. not be alcoholics. This, I think, is of major im
The same thing is true of the liver. Patients also portance.
Also I think drinking is perhaps a much more
serious problem than smoking. When an alcoholic
drinks, he not only injures himself; he injures his
family, his children, his associates, the business peo
New British Medical Service for People At Work
ple with whom he works, and then those dependent
A nationwide medical service to give advice on medi
on him in the decisions he makes that influence others.
cal aspects of employment problems to employers, em Alcoholics frequently start out as social drinkers.
ployees, trade unions, general practitioners and others There's a great tendency today for people to have a
has been set up in Britain by the Department of Employ drink at night—a sort of relaxation period. Women
ment. see their husbands drink, and before they know it
The new service—the Employment Medical Advisory- they are drinking socially with their husbands; then
Service—opens a new era in British occupational medi they become alcoholic. In my experience, female
cine. It will work in the closest co-operation with the Na alcoholics are much worse to manage from a medical
tional Health Service, the School Health Service, and the point of view than are male alcoholics, particularly
private medical services provided by employers. since the mother is really the key to the family. Parents
At present the service has a countrywide network of who drink in front of their children indicate to them,
eighty-three doctors, but this number will be increased to some degree, a sense of approval of alcohol.
later to 110. These doctors will supervise the health of Alcoholism is really one of our big problems, and
people in hazardous trades; examine and advise people it needs serious attention. The dangers of alcohol
being rehabilitated, in training or looking for work; and must receive much more attention and publicity than
carry out nationwide surveys to identify health hazards, it is receiving. Probably the best way to handle that
especially those involving new materials and processes.
is through education and through influencing the
behaviour of adults and parents in families. ***
12 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
by AMIL J. JOHNSON, M.D.
arts are growths that appear an any part of
the body. They are a mysterious development,
and some cures for them may be equally in
One of the most painful of warts is the one that
appears on the bottom, or plantar portion of the foot.
It is especially distressing because the foot must carry
the weight of the body. Every step pressing down
It has been discovered that these skin over, on the plantar wart is an experience of agony. X-ray
growths are caused by a virus; but they may not ap-. exposure, therapy, solvents, and electro-tissue destruc
pear until weeks after exposure to the viral cause. As tion have been used. Surgical removal of the wart is
children we used to be warned that handling frogs and most generally successful.
toads might bring on warts. Although it is not im
possible that such creatures may carry the causative Warts occurring under and along the edge of the
virus, it has not been proved that this contact is a na'ls are called subungual warts. Usually trimming
direct cause and result. At least seventy-five per cent away the warty mass from time to time is followed
of children living out in the country have handled by its disappearance. It is interesting to note that
such creatures without resultant warts. marking seldom appears where the wart had grown.
The overgrowth of skin tissue that we call a Warts can become large when they develop in
wart may occur singly or in crops. Sometimes warts a moist area. The largest warts appear around the
have the appearance of a stringy skin tag. This kind rectum and genitals. They are called condylomata
is most common around the neck, but may even grow acuminata. They may be made to disappear by the
out from an eyelid. It is called a filiform wart. Usually application of podophy.llin by a physician.
it can either be yanked away or snipped off with
scissors by a doctor, with no anticipation of recurrence. If warts are your problem and they tend to stay
on your body any length of time, get rid of them.
Some practitioners recommend psychotherapy, some
local application of foul-smelling preparations, colour,
ful dyes, or painful injections, but it is to be -expected
The most common wart is a flat, rough mass on
that the doctor can do the most for anyone who has
the back of the hand. As mysteriously as it appears
any of the above problems with warts.
it may disappear, the bearer suddenly becoming cog
nizant that the wart he used to have on his hand is The doctor has the benefit of a range of medical
there no longer. Certain kinds of stress have been fol reports made by other doctors on such conditions, and
lowed by loss of a wart. In fact, one therapy suggested he can select from them many treatments to fit any,
that a parachute jump from airplane is one way of given case of warts with its individual and special
healing a warty person. problems to give patients the help they need. ***
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 13
A s you walk along the sidewalk, you notice an We took him to the hospital, and the doctor said, 'It's
old friend sitting in a car parked at the curb. a stroke.' I asked him how serious it was, and he
You speak to him; but he responds more slowly said, 'We won't be able to tell for a day or two. It
than usual; it's a little hard for you to understand seems to be a rather severe stroke, and even if he
what he is saying: his face is not as expressive as it lives he will be handicapped.' He has been improv
used to be, and his mouth appears to be drawn to one ing slowly and is able now to take a few steps. But
side; his right hand is lying useless in his lap; and he has to use a cane, and I have to help him in and
you notice a cane at his side. out of the car."
Just now his wife returns and prepares to enter
the car on the driver's side. Always before it was he Common Cases
who drove and he who did the errands while his
wife waited in the car. A typical case! Strokes occur more commonly
"I haven't seen you for quite a while," you in men than in women, and the greatest number occur
remark. during the sixties. Persons who have strokes may be
"We're just now able to be out again," the wife overweight, but as often as not their weight is about
explains. "You see, Charles had a stroke, and it's normal. They may have had high blood pressure. But
hard for him to get around. He's only sixty-four, but strokes occur in some people who have had normal or
he's had to give up his job and the doctor says even low blood pressure.
he will probably not be able to go back." The "old wives' tale" that strokes occur in a series
"How did it happen?" you ask. "Had he been of three and death conies with the third, is not borne
working too hard?" out by clinical records. In severe cases death may
"It sort of came out of a clear sky," she answers. occur with a person's first stroke. In less severe cases
"We were just sitting down to breakfast, and he said, symptoms such as paralysis and speech defects, if
'I feel funny.' He staggered when I helped him to present, may improve over a period of days or weeks
the sofa and he almost fell. I could not tell whether until the patient appears quite normal. Of course
he lost consciousness, because it was hard for him to the basic difficulty that permitted one stroke to occur
speak, and sometimes what he said didn't make sense. is still present, and it is usual for a person who has
Should Know About
by HAROLD SHRYOCK, M.D.
had one to have others. There are even cases of very the brain cells and into the tissue spaces. This is
minor strokes in which the symptoms are so slight as called cerebral haemorrhage, and it does damage
not to be noticed. In such cases there may be many both by distorting the tissue spaces and by diverting
episodes before the patient finally succumbs. the blood so that it no longer reaches its normal desti
The occurrence of a stroke is so often associated nation.
with loss of control of certain of the body's muscles A third cause of stroke is the plugging of a ves
that we commonly speak of "a stroke of paralysis." sel by some small object that happens to be floating in
But the real trouble isri't with the muscles; it's with the blood. This we call cerebral embolism. The float
the brain. Paralysis occurs when the stroke affects ing object is usually a fragment of a blood clot that
parts of the brain that control muscles. has broken away from its moorings in some other
part of the body—often from the lining of the heart.
The Three Villains We have said that these three conditions—
thrombosis, haemorrhage, and embolism—
account for the occurrence of strokes. This is true, but
The cause of a stroke is a loss of blood supply
it is not the whole story. Blood clots do not develop
to some part of the brain. In the most common situa
inside normal blood vessels; normal blood vessels do
tion a blood clot develops inside one of the brain's
not rupture; and a normal heart does not have a
blood vessels. This closes the vessel so that blood can
blood clot attached to its lining from which a frag
no longer pass through, and that part of the brain
ment can float away in the blood stream. What is it,
which normally receives its blood through this partic
then, that sets the stage for thrombosis, haemorrhage,
ular vessel can no longer function. We call this
cerebral thrombosis—cerebral referring to the brain, or embolism such as may cause strokes?
and thrombosis indicating a clot inside a blood ves
sel. The Enemy
Another situation that deprives some part of It is a disease of the blood vessels themselves.
the brain of its blood supply is the rupture of a blood And what kind of blood vessel disease? Our old en
vessel. This permits the flowing blood to leave the emy, arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
confines of the blood vessels and flow out among In arteriosclerosis there is damage to blood ves
sels, particularly the cerebral arteries that supply the
brain, the coronary arteries that supply the heart, the
aorta, and certain arteries that supply the legs and
feet. This damage causes ulceration of the lining of
the vessel, thus favouring the development of internal
clot (thrombosis), and a weakening of the vessel
wall, thus favouring rupture (with haemorrhage) when
the vessel involved is put under strain.
When arteriosclerosis has set the stage for some
branch of the heart's coronary arteries to become
obstructed, the corresponding part of the heart wall
dies. If the victim survives this "heart attack,'" the
damaged area of the heart heals by the formation of
a scar. In the meantime, while the processes of heal
ing are just getting under way, it is common for a
blood clot to form on that portion of the heart's lin
ing next to the area of damage. And it is from such
a blood clot that a fragment may possibly break off, be
carried by the blood stream to the brain, and cause
So we see that the three conditions responsible
for strokes—thrombosis, haemorrhage, and embo
lism—are all, basically, the consequences of arterio
Both the severity of stroke, comparing one case
To page 33
Coring for Baby's leetb
by LUCILLE J. GOODYEAR
B aby's first tooth is a normal
event. Occasionally a ba
by is born with a tooth.
In contrast, some parents have
through in the spaces between
the incisors and the molars.
Four more molars appear be
hind the first ones, to com
baby is feverish or coughing,
has prolonged loss of appetite
or other signs of illness, his
condition probably is not re
to wait until the first birth plete the first set of twenty lated to teething. It is best to
day or later to see the first teeth. These are the baby, or check for other causes.
tooth of their baby. Most milk, teeth. They will be lost It is easy to confuse teething
babies cut a tooth by seven as the permanent teeth come symptoms with the beginning
months. They have anywhere in, starting about age five. of a cold or an infection. In
from two to ten teeth by a Any baby's teething pattern teething you may notice red
year, with four to six as the may take somewhat unusual and swollen gums and be able
average. order, but it does not matter. to feel the erupting tooth.
Usually, but by no means Merely remember that each Teething symptoms usually
always, the first teeth to come baby is different from all disappear in three or four
out are the two centre teeth others. Do not compare your days.
of the lower jaw, and they are baby's teething pattern with To ease the baby's discom
followed by four centre upper that of your neighbour's baby. fort while he is teething the
teeth. They are called incisors Sometimes you do not know best thing is to be patient and
because of their sharp cutting that your baby is busy getting loving with him, soothing him
edges, as you will know if you a tooth until you are bitten in every way you know how.
carelessly put your finger into or hear the click of the spoon Give him hard toasted bread,
the baby's mouth. He clamps against the tooth. You may or a teething ring of hard rub
down, and you find out what notice some excessive drool ber or plastic to bite down
incisor means. ing, but that may be due to on. Be sure he does not chew
After a pause of several the fact that he is learning on any articles that will break
months six more teeth will how to control his saliva. or splinter in his mouth.
erupt. The two remaining Watch that he does not gnaw
lower incisors are followed by Teething Symptoms on wood that was finished
four molars. Although the Often a baby becomes cross with leadbased paint. If he
molars are truly grinding and fretful, loses his appetite awakens at night he may need
teeth, it will be some time for a few days, or wakens at a warm bottle to soothe him
before the child learns to use night in fitful crying. He may back to sleep.
them for this purpose. suck his fingers, his fist, or When the dijscomfort of
Toward the second birth anything else he can get into teething is over baby will eat
day four pointed teeth called his mouth. Teething rarely well during the day and not
canine, or dog, teeth come accounts for an illness. If the be fretful at night.
16 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
The health of gums and
teeth is directly connected
with the baby's diet. Even
while he is cutting baby teeth,
buds of his permanent teeth
are forming in his jaw. For
this reason, a diet providing
adequate amounts of vitamins
and minerals is important
throughout infancy. Such a
diet is assured by giving
plenty of fruits and vegetables.
Sweet foods and beverages
cause the child to neglect es
sential foods and start him out
on a habit of eating sweets. If
he munches on sweets he will
have little appetite for bal
anced, nourishing meals. Do
not allow him to snack be
Although only the baby
teeth, are visible during the
first five or six years, the per
manent teeth begin to form
soon after birth, and they are
nearly completed by the time
a child reaches school age.
Whatever nourishment is
given the child during these
years is the building material
To page 31
by JEAN-MICHEL VAN GINDERTAEL
O kpo is a little Burmese village about twelve purposes within hope of final victory. This was the
miles north of Rangoon. Paddy fields, bamboo situation in regard to Culex fatigans on the eve of
thickets, banana trees mark off its tropical Operation Okpo.
landscape. Like all the neighbouring villages and, for
that matter, like Rangoon, the capital, Okpo is a Genetic Approach
breeding ground for Culex pipiens fatigans, the
mosquito which transmits filariasis. For the first time man's knowledge of genetics
This parasitic illness, unknown in temperate was to be used to bring to an end the apparently
countries, is a scourge in Burma. The mosquito's irresistible multiplication of the Culex fatigans, and
bite is not always fatal, but filariasis, by causing in fact, suppress it altogether in the area. The plan
elephantiasis and other conditions, has a particularly was of diabolical simplicity.
debilitating effect and many people who have the Mosquitos are not all alike; even within one
disease find themselves quite unable to work. In species considerable differences exist. Brought to
Rangoon alone, where inadequate systems have led gether, they can produce a new hybrid species—
to proliferation of this mosquito, a house-to-house unless a factor of incompatibility or sterility arises
survey in 1962 revealed that of 70,000 persons ex between the two groups. If so, existing members of
amined, 8,000 were infected. Up to 900 mosquitos the species will rapidly become extinct.
were captured per person per hour. As it turns out, the cytoplasm of the egg of
At Okpo, as in the surrounding villages, the the Culex fatigans is incompatible with the sperm
mosquito reproduces very rapidly. There are never of certain other groups. The males couple normally
less than 4,000, and on certain days, when eggs with the females, but the latter lay infertile eggs.
hatch, up to 20,000 have been counted. Insecticides Having identified the species that was to be eli
of all types have been tried. They are effective minated, it was a question of finding (or rather of
enough to do away with most of the mosquitos, but the producing in the laboratory by judicious crossing)
few that survive are more than enough to ensure a the insect best equipped to produce the desired steril-
return to full numbers within a few months. The ity. To build up the insect that would spell extinction
battle by insecticide is, therefore, to all intents and for Culex fatigans, WHO experts brought together
18 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
who had produced the DI, assumed the command.
WHO provided operational headquarters, under the
direction of Dr. Pal. With fifteen collaborators and
the participation of the local population, Dr. Laven
released hundreds of DI males in the traditional egg-
laying places. Similar numbers were released daily
during the next four weeks.
At the end of that period, the percentage of
infertile eggs, i.e. those resulting from the DI coupl
ings, totalled about 11.5 per cent. But as soon as lar
ger numbers of DI—about 5,000 per day—became
available from the beginning of the fifth week, this
percentage rose rapidly, reaching 100 per cent after
twelve weeks of genetic saturation. Three months
later, corresponding to twelve generations of insects,
Culex fatigans had completely disappeared from
What was done at Okpo, as a pilot project, can
be repeated elsewhere in Burma as well as in other
countries where filariasis occurs. There seems to be
no other problem than temporarily setting up the
necessary organization in the eradication area for
the release of the hybrids and for periodic checks, in
addition to the massive laboratory production of
sterilized males. The initial cost may seem high—it
amounts to millions of dollars for a single project,
one variety which is particularly in Paris, another which is far above the cost of buying and using the
from Fresno, in California, in the United States of usual insecticides. The genetic method, however, is
America, and a third from Freetown,, in Sierra Leone. absolute in its effects, while the classic methods offer
The hybrid thus evolved incorporated the cytoplasm only a temporary remedy.
, of the Parisian, and the chromosomes of the African The genetic approach can be successfully used
and American insects. The "DI" mosquito was born. against other harmful species of mosquito. It is supple
Laboratory tests were made with Culex fatigans enough to allow for considerable variation, neces
collected in twenty-five localities in the Rangoon sarily so in view of the fact that the mosquito re
area. After coupling with the DI insect, the Burmese produces itself at such a rate—much more rapidly
females failed to produce offspring. Then Culex than the human "population explosion"—that we
fatigans males and an equal number of DI males would have to produce great quantities of the hy
were caged with Culex fatigans females. More active brid (a ratio of ten hybrids to one native insect is
and vigorous than the natural males, the DI hybrids advocated) before being able to launch another
gradually took the upper hand. Soon the popula operation of the Okpo type.
tion of the cage was reduced to a very small number In one large city in Southeast Asia there may
of insects. be as many as 5.7 thousand million Culex fatigans
mosquitos or about 15.5 million to the square kilo
It was time to go over to local application. Pro
duction of DI mosquitos was stepped up, and a Combined Attack
quantity of males were brought to the "battlefield" of
Okpo, chosen because of its isolation from the other
villages infected with Culex fatigans. D-Day was The genetic operation could be combined with
fixed for February, when egg-laying is at its height. a first attack with pesticides directed against the
Dr. Laven, Director of the Genetics Institute at the larvas, in order to reduce the insect population by
Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, ninety-five per cent. A second insecticide attack
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 19
could then be launched against adult mosquitos, ample, to induce the production of a second genera
bringing about a further reduction of ninety-five per tion that is made up of males only or of which ninety
cent, which would leave a residue of only about per cent are males. It is also possible to modify the
15,000,000 to be eliminated by genetic methods. In effects of certain other chromosomes, notably by radia
three months the last survivors of the species could tion, to produce insects that do not transmit a virus,
be expected to disappear, a result which would be or that do not attack human beings.
impossible to achieve by the use of insecticides alone. Also under study are the possibilities of extending
It was by breeding and then releasing male in genetic manipulation to other mosquitos, such as
sects sterilized by gamma rays that scientists in the Anopheles gambice, an important species of malaria
'50s succeeded in eliminating completely from the mosquito and Aedtes aegypti, which spreads the viruses
southern United States of America the screw-worm of yellow fever, dengue, and the haemorrhagic fevers.
fly which wreaked enormous havoc among livestock. Against Aedes it may be possible to use radiation or
As at Okpo, the sterilized males coupled normally chemosterilization while the insects are still at the
with untreated females who laid infertile eggs and pupa stage.
did not couple a second time. In the course of the Such are the prospects in these revolutionary
campaign, more than 50,000,000 sterilized flies were experiments, which mark a turning point in the battle
bred each week; more than 2,000,000,000 were re against disease-transmitting insects. Genetic manipula
leased in the space of eighteen months. tion should enable scientists not only to eradicate
harmful insects completely, but possibly also to provide
Chemosterilization the kind of ecological protection that pesticides often
lack, particularly when they are not properly selected
It has also been suggested that the massive pro and are employed thoughtlessly.
duction of insects in the laboratory could be replaced
by chemosterilization, for certain chemical sterilizers Powdered Insecticides
either prevent the production of spermatozoids or
ovules, or kill them after they have been produced. Examples of improper use of insecticides are,
Other sterilizers cause genetic lesions in the spermato unfortunately, not difficult to find. In 1944, for in
zoids, which cannot then fertilize the ovules. Since stances, huge doses of DDT were used to destroy the
the coupling process is itself unaffected, such males simulium flies infesting a river in Ontario, Canada.
can compete normally with untreated males. Their natural enemies were annihilated as well. And
Some experiments have been made with house- since the flies re-established themselves much quicker
flies: efficient chemicals (tepa, metepa and ampho- than their enemies, they were soon breeding at a rate
late) were mixed with food and reduced the egg- seventeen times higher than before the use of DDT.
hatching coefficient to less than ten per cent. Such In Borneo, powdered insecticide was spread in
sterilizers can also be powdered and spread on sur villagers' houses to combat malaria. But the insecti
faces frequented by the insects. cide not only killed the mosquitoes—it also wiped
Auto-chemosterilization is also possible. The in out the caterpillars that eat the Herculia moth. This
sects are lured by lighted traps, and as soon as they moth eats thatch, and since it was now able to pro
enter, are sterilized by tepa. They are freed by re liferate, considerable damage was done to many
versing the air current in the trap and return to their homes.
habitat in a normal manner. In an experiment of this In using genetic control methods one must be
type with Culex fatigans about ninety per cent were careful not to create a vacuum in nature, which might
rendered sterile. promptly be filled by something even more dangerous
than the creature originally attacked. Ideally, we
Other Methods should perhaps aim rather at some kind of "domesti
cation" of the insects we are attacking today, re
Many other methods of attack are under study. lieving them to their present role as transmitters of
They include the meiotic "push", in which advantage disease, or even as simple irritants.
in taken of a genetic factor which causes a surplus of Research in this field is undeniably long-term.
certain chromosomes in the reproductive cells. By the Still, it is legitimate to hope that before the end of the
meiotic "push", chromosomes carrying harmful genes century it will be crowned with success. If so, a new
can be transferred to the species in question. Among page will have been turned in the story of human
certain varieties of mosquito, it is possible, for ex- progress. ***
20 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
but up there where the rivers and streams
are fed by melting snows they contain very few
minerals; hence the lack of iodine. A friend
of mine who lived in New Zealand for some
time told me that a similar situation prevails
there. However, the government overcame the
deficiency by requiring that all household salt
sold must be fortified with iodine.
"Iron is another mineral that is an absolute
necessity for our well-being. A healthy adult
has about one tenth of an ounce of iron in his
body. Iron is the essential element of the
Minerals and haemoglobin of the blood and if this is lacking
it leads to a condition known as anasmia. Un
"Life Mines" fortunately this is quite a common lack
among many women in India. For obvious
reasons women need a greater iron intake than
Fourth ijn a series by Goldie M. Down
"Doctor gave me iron tablets to take
when baby was coming," volunteered Lalita
"How is your husband, Mrs. Sharma? Is
he feeling any better?" "Yes, and you will need extra iron for as
"Yes, thank you. Doctor says after an long as you are nursing the baby, Mrs. Prasad.
other few weeks in hospital he can come home Perhaps that is why you have had some trou
ble with feeding your little one.
and rest in bed. Tuberculosis takes a long time
to cure." Sushila ushered the dietitian to a "In extreme cases of anaemia the doctor
chair. will sometimes order injections, or liver extract
"It does indeed." Mrs. Menon seated which, is rich in iron. However, we can
herself and smiled at the other ladies who usually obtain sufficient iron for our needs if
were waiting in the small room. "I am glad we remember to have some iron-rich foods
that so mar-v of you are interested in learn every day. Legumes and whole-grain cereals,
ing how to preserve the health of your fami green leafy vegetables, egg yolk and raisins
lies. Today our subject is minerals and vita are all iron-rich foods."
mins. I have so much to say about them that "He gave me calcium tablets, too," re
I had better begin right away or we won't membered Lalita.
finish the subject today. "Yes, calcium is the next mineral on my
"First of all, we must realize that mineral list. Calcium and phosphorous are usually
substances, although so minute a fraction of grouped together because they have an
our diet, are exceedingly important. One sum especially important work to do in our bodies.
mer when we were holidaying in the Darjeel- Can anyone tell me what it is?" Mrs. Menon
ing area I was appalled by the number of smiled expectantly at the group.
residents with swollen necks: goitre caused "Bones and teeth," said Sushila promptly.
by a deficiency of iodine in the thyroid gland. "That's right. We have two or three times
Normally we get sufficient iodine from the as much calcium and phosphorous in our
vegetables we eat and the water we drink, bodies as all the rest of the minerals combined.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 21
This is so because of our bony frame prevented our blood from clotting and closing
work, but calcium and phosphorous are pre up the wound.
sent in other tissues as well. It is important "As far as phosphorous is concerned we
that pregnant women and nursing mothers usually take in enough of this mineral in our
have plenty of calcium and phosphorous in normal diet, but to be on the safe side let me
their diet so that their children will have strong tell you that whole-wheat flour (atta) con
bones and teeth. tains four times as much phosphorous as does
"Who can tell me which one food has the white flour (maze/a)."
most calcium in it?" "Now there is another mineral that our
There was a chorus of "Milk," and the bodies need, a most essential mineral, but one
women giggled and looked pleased with them which most of us use too freely. And that is
selves as the dietitian nodded her approval. sodium chloride—common salt."
"Yes, milk has a high calcium content and Sushila grimaced, "But food would taste
so does cabbage, lettuce, celery and sag. Also terrible without salt."
all legumes, nuts and dried fruit. But re "Indeed it would," Mrs. Menon agreed.
member," Mrs. Menon held up a warning "In fact we would become ill if we did not
finger, "Never use milk that has not been have sufficient salt, particularly in a hot cli
boiled or pasteurized. Even if you own your mate. But most of us use salt too freely. Try
own milk-animal be very careful about this. cutting down a little on the family salt intake.
"Calcium salts are necessary to make our Too much salt aggravates a tendency towards
blood clot. The slightest cut could lead to high blood pressure. One way of using less
serious loss of blood if a calcium deficiency salt is by not putting it into food until the
food is almost cooked. In that way much less
salt is needed to give the same flavour to the
Important Sources of Calcium food."
"I'm afraid I'd forget to put it in at all
Milk and Milk Products <g/100g.
Milk, cow's .......................... 0.12
if I did that," commented Mrs. Thangappa.
Milk, buffalo ........................ 0.21 The ladies all laughed and nodded their
Milk, goat ........................... G.17
Curd from cow's milk ................ 0.12 agreement and Mrs. Menon said, "And then
Milk powder, skimmed ................ 1.37 your husbands would blame the dietitian."
Milk powder, whole .................. 0.95
Cheese .......................... 0.79 When their laughter died away Mrs.
Menon continued, "There are several other
minerals that our bodies need, such as traces
of copper and cobalt, and zinc. Flourine also,
Bengal gram dhal .................... 0.07
Black gram dhal ...................... 0.20 because it helps to prevent tooth decay. We
Green gram dhal .................... 0.14 need scarcely worry about these 'trace ele
Red gram dhal ...................... 0.14
ments' because the body needs so little of them
that the required amount is usually assimilated
Nuts and oilseeds
from our normal foods. But never forget that
Gingelly (sesame) seeds .............. 1.45
Almond .............................. 0.23 minerals are needed in every cell of our bodies
and they are very important because they
Note: 1. Milk, green leafy vegetables, ragi and
gingelly seeds are the most important regulate so many of our body processes."
sources of calcium in the diet. Mrs. Menon looked at her notebook and
2. Rice is a poor source of calcium.
said, "Now we shall learn about vitamins. Do
you know that 'vita' is the Latin word for
22 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
life? If we think of them as 'life-mines' that
will help us to remember that these substances Important Sources of Phosphorus
are also most essential to our health and well-
being. Milk and Milk Product 6/100g.
"It was only in the beginning of this Milk, cow's .......................... 0.09
Milk, buffalo ........................ 0.13
century that the importance of these mysteri Milk powder, skimmed ................ 1.00
ous substances was recognized. Even yet Milk powder, whole .................. 0.73
Cheese ............................... 0.52
scientists feel that they have more to learn
about vitamins. Cereals
"A number of vitamins have been isolated Rice, raw, home-pounded .............. 0.21
Rice, raw, milled .................... 0.11
and their work studied. It has been found Rice, parboiled, home
that vitamins are necessary for growth and pounded ........................... 0.22
Rice, parboiled, milled ................ 0.17
reproduction, for nervous stability, and also Wheat, whole ........................ 0.32
they help our bodies to resist infection. Wheat flour (Maida) ................ 0.09
"Let's begin with vitamin A. This one
Bajra (Cambu) ...................... 0.35
is needed for normal growth and development Barley ............................... 0.23
and to give a healthy skin tone. It is also good Cholam (Jowar) ...................... 0.28
for the eyes and prevents night blindness. It Italian millet ........................ 0.29
Maize (Corn) ........................ 0.33
is found abundantly in milk, cream, egg yolk Oatmeal ........................ 0.38
and liver." Ragi ........................ 0.27
Rice, raw, husked .................... 0.23
"Then how do vegetarians get any vita
min A?" Sushila looked perplexed. Pulses
"That is simple, Mrs. Sharma. Although Bengal gram dhal .................... 0.31
Black gram dhal ...................... 0.37
active vitamin A is not found in plant foods, Cow gram ............................ 0.49
there is a substance called "Pro-vitamin A" Field bean, dry ...................... 0.45
Green gram dhal .................... 0.28
which is found abundantly in green and yellow Horse gram .......................... 0.39
fruits and vegetables. Carotene is this pro Lentil (Masur dhal) .................. 0.25
vitamin A. It is a yellow pigment found in Peas, dried ........................... 0.30
Red gram dhal ...................... 0.26
carrots, pumpkin, mangoes and other such Soya bean ............................ 0.69
yellow fruits and vegetables. It is found in
Nuts and Oilseeds
dark-green vegetables too, but the green
Almond .............................. 0.49
chlorophyll masks the yellow pigment. If you Cashewnut ........................... 0.45
eat plenty of green and yellow vegetables and Coconut, fresh ........................ 0.24
Gingelly (sesame) seeds .............. 0.57
fruits you will get sufficient vitamin A." Groundnut ........................... 0.39
"What about papaya?" asked Mrs.
Egg, hen's ........................... 0.22
"Yes, papaya and yellow melons contain Egg, duck's .......................... 0.26
vitamin A." Fish .......................... 0.41
"I heard that during the last war the Mutton .......................... 0.24
Liver, sheep .......................... 0.38
night pilots were fed on plenty of raw car
rots so they could see better in the dark," Note: 1. Most of the common foodstuffs are
giggled Lalita. rich in phosphorus.
"I heard that also and I believe it 2. The phosphorus present in milk and
animal foods is avstilable to a greater
was true. Now let us consider vitamin B which extent than that present in cereals,
is a most important and complex substance. I pulses, nuts, and oilseeds.
say complex, because so far there have been
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 23
twelve of its elements isolated. This one is es of thiamine can lead to serious nerve disorders
pecially important to us in India because our and other complications.
white rice diet is deficient in vitamin Bi known "Just remember that it is easily obtained
as thiamine. In grains this thiamine is con by using whole-grains, oatmeal, dried peas and
centrated in the outer layers, the 'skin' of the beans, and groundnuts. Milk and yeast also
grain. That is why unpolished rice and contain quantities of vitamin Bi. Sometimes
whole-wheat flour are much better for health doctors will order a course of yeast tablets for
than polished rice and refined white flour. nerve and skin disorders.
''Vitamin Bi is the nerve vitamin which "Next we come to vitamin C, which also
helps us maintain our nervous stability. Lack has another name, 'Ascorbic acid.' This vita
min helps our body cells to use oxygen. Lack
of vitamin C quickly leads to loosened teeth,
Important Sources of Iron bleeding gums and stiff, sore body joints.
Cereals mg./lOOg. Dietitians call vitamin C the 'fresh food vita
Bajra (Cambu) ...................... 8.8 min' because it is found so abundantly in
Jowar (Cholam) ...................... 6.2
Ragi .............................. 5.4 foods newly plucked. All citrus fruits such as
Rice, raw, milled .................... 2.8 oranges, limes, sweet limes, pomelo and grape
Rice, raw, home-pounded .............. 3.6
Rice, raw, husked .................... 4.5 fruit contain plenty of vitamin C. So do toma
Rice, parboiled, milled ................ 3.2 toes, guavas, cabbage, shalgum and capsicum
Wheat, whole ........................ 5.3 (green peppers).
Pulses "I am glad to see that you are taking note
Bengal gram dhal .................... 8.9 of these foods," commented Mrs. Menon as
Black gram dhal ...................... 9.8
Green gram dhal ...................... 8.4 she watched the ladies busily scribbling on
Horse gram .......................... 7.6 scraps of paper that Sushila tore from a note
Peas, dried .......................... 4.4
Red gram dhal ...................... 8.8
book. "I think it would be a good idea if
Soya bean ........................... 11.3 you were to each buy an exercise book and
keep your notes and recipes safely in it.
Betel leaves .......................... 5.7 '"Now the last vitamin that is important
Jaggery .............................. 11.4 to us is vitamin D and there is no lack of that
Nuts and Oilseeds
here in India. Our bodies manufacture the
Cashewnut ........................... 5.0 vitamin D they need by absorbing the sun's
Gingelly (sesame) seeds .............. 10.5 rays that fall upon our skin. Lack of sunshine
Groundnut ........................... 1.6
causes a condition known as rickets; the bones
Green leafy vegetables are soft and deformed. Growing children and
Amaranth, tender .................... 21.4
Coriander leaves ...................... 10.0 nursing mothers need plenty of this sunshine
Fenugreek leaves ..................... 16.9 vitamin. In the far north and other places
Mint ................................ 15.6 where it is not so sunshiny the lack often has
Spinach .............................. 5.0
to be supplied by taking cod-liver and other
Other vegetables fish oils which are rich in vitamin D."
Bitter gourd .......................... 9.4
Cluster beans ........................ 5.8 "Are these all the vitamins?" asked Lalita
Tomato, green ........................ 2.4 stretching her cramped fingers.
Flesh Foods "They are the most important ones, or
Egg, hen's ............................ 2.1 perhaps I should say the main ones that we
Fish .......................... 2.3
Liver, sheep .......................... 6.3 need to know about. All vitamins are impor
Mutton ........................ 2.5 tant to our health. Now I shall give you some
hints as to the best way to use foods so that
24 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
you get the maximum mineral and vitamin simple salad dressing because it makes the raw
content from them. vegetables ever so much more interesting."
"My first suggestion is that you use as
many raw vegetables and fruits as possible. SALAD DRESSING
Cooked fruit always needs sugar or some 2 tablespoons white flour
other sweetening agent added to make it 2 teaspoons sugar
1 teaspoon salt
palatable, and that in itself lessens our vitamin 2 tablespoons oil
intake. Use raw fruit without seasoning of any 34
/ cup milk
4 tablespoons lime juice
kind. Eat it well ripened but not overripe.
Heat oil, flour( sugar and salt and stir well- Take off
"Salads are the best way of eating raw fire and add milk to make a thick sauce. Return to fire and
vegetables and the variety of salads is only boil. When cool add lime juice and beat well.
bound by your imagination. Every kind of
raw vegetable can be combined to make a
tossed salad....." 2 tablespoons oil (not mustard oil)
1 tablespoon lime or lemon juice
"What about potatoes and pumpkin?" 1/2 teaspoon salt
broke in Mrs. Thangappa jokingly. Beat with a fork until thick, or put all into a covered
jar and shake well. I like to add a few drops of garlic
Mrs. Menon smiled. "I know of one juice-
dietitian who does use slivers of raw potato in
a salad but I am not recommending you do "Now before I go, here are a few hints
that. Shredded cabbage; grated carrot; shal- for retaining the vitamins and minerals when
gum or radish; diced tomatoes and cucumbers; vegetables are cooked.
a handful of tender uncooked green peas 1. Scrub the vegetables clean and cook
or thin slices of string beans or cauliflower them unpeeled. If necessary to peel them do
flowerettes; seasoned with chopped onion, it very thinly as the vitamins are mostly found
spring onions or leeks; and mixed with salad close to the skin of the vegetable. With vege
dressing makes a wonderfully crisp and tables like cho-cho, pumpkin, squash, carrots
healthful tossed salad. etc. the cooked peel can safely be eaten.
"Or you can make a salad simply with 2. Never peel the vegetables and leave
grated carrots and cabbage and spring onions. them to soak in water for hours before using.
Or grated carrot and shredded coconut. Or Prepare vegetables whether for cooking or
tomatoes, onions and cucumbers chopped and salad, just before using them.
mixed together. Lettuce and celery make 5. Use as little water as possible and
delicious additions to a salad but are not avail have it boiling before the vegetables are put
able in all parts of India." into it. Boil vegetables with the lid on the
"You have not mentioned beetroot. Isn't pot. Do not waste the water in which vege
that a salad vegetable?" tables are cooked. Use it in soups, gravies or
"Yes. It can be grated and eaten raw, curries or drink it—this is known as 'vitality
seasoned with salt and lime juice. Or it can soup.'
be boiled, peeled and sliced and eaten with 4. Add salt a few minutes before the
dressing or lime juice. Of course it can also be cooking process is complete.
used as a hot vegetable. The reason I did not 5. Do not overcook. Slightly under-done
mention it in with the list of tossed salad in is better than over-done vegetables.
gredients is because the red juice of the beets 6. Keep the pieces of vegetable as large
discolour the whole salad and make it look un as possible—there is less waste of vitamins and
appetizing. Now I want you to copy down this minerals. ***
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 25
I oday we hear a great deal
about national defence. The
nations of the world spend
crores to provide defence for
into his field—all without ef
Finally the planter reluc
tantly followed the advice of
their countries against inva a neighbour and sprinkled the
sion by enemies. This article plants near the crossing with
deals with another kind of poison. The next morning
defence—defence of the when he visited the field he
human body. discovered how indifferent a
The marvels of the human sprayer he had been. The deer
body defence system are be had been over the entire
yond the concept of the sprayed area, taken every leaf
human mind. The only price he had failed to spray, and
we pay is to become familiar ignored every leaf that had on
with and obey the laws of it even a drop of the poison.
health. "If those deer in my field
It has been said that man had had no more restraint
is his own worst enemy. This about eating than some people
is because he is prone to violate have, not one would have
the laws of his being, unlike crossed the .. . fence," the
the lower animals. This neglect planter said.
is well illustrated in a story The lower animals have an
told by Archibald Rutledge, instinct to guard them. When
nature writer, on page 47 of they are left in their natural
his book Peace in the Heart. environment they follow that
Deer had been invading a re instinct. Although man has
cently established field of a power to discern between right
cotton planter and destroying and wrong and a will to make
the crop by eating the leaves the right decision, far too of
of the tender plants. The plan ten he fails to exercise that
ter had tried to frighten them power, and following his in
away by ringing a bell at times clination, makes the wrong
during the night, by tying an decision.
old hound near the field, and Fortunately, the vital or
by raising the low place in his gans, systems, and processes
fence where the deer crossed of man are placed under the
26 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
by H. W. VOLLMER, M.D.
control of the autonomic (in germs. The blood serum con ready have made an antiseptic
voluntary) nervous system, tains immunizing agencies that application. When, because of
which operates without man's have been provided by the lowered body resistance, the
direction. The defence system tonsils, adenoids, and other white blood cells are unable
of the body is under this con lymphoid tissues. to cope with the infection, it
trol. No sooner does infection enters the lymph channels.
take place than the body be The invasion is indicated by
First Line of Defence comes the scene of battle. a red line extending along the
Nature sets about to build a lymph channels beneath the
Among the first lines of de defence and repair the dam skin, revealing threatening
fence is the skin. The normal age. Extra blood carrying blood poisoning (septicaemia),
unbroken skin is a barrier white blood cells is sent to the a serious condition that might
against invasion by disease part. They are called phago end in death.
germs and viruses, which are cytes. The body temperature
everywhere present. As soon is increased, and fever be Lymph Glands
as the skin is punctured, cut, comes a part of the body de
or broken, germs have easy fence mechanism by stimulat Here again we have another
access. Another line of defence ing the defence processes of line of defence, the lymph
is the normal secretions of the the body and destroying the glands. In the arm they are in
body. Even the tears, which poisons produced by the the bend of the elbow and in
wash foreign bodies and germs germs. However, it is impor the armpit (axilla). Lymph
from the eyes, serve in this line tant that the fever be kept glands are also strategically
of defence. The most effective under control. This is best ac located in other parts of the
line of defence is found in the complished by means of a body—the neck, the groin, and
blood and lymphatic systems. cool sponge bath. behind the knee—to cope with
The lymphatic system is Injury to the skin (cuts, infection in each area.
made up of the tonsils, ade punctures, or scratches) on The lymph glands (nodes)
noids, lymph glands and other hand or arm is a prime illus consist of a network of con
lymphoid tissues, and the tration of this principle. Im nective tissue fibres in which
lymph channels that connect mediately extra blood is sent are white blood cells, whose
with the blood vessels in to the part, and the white function is to destroy invad
strategic places. In the blood blood cells begin their protec ing germs. If this line of de
are the white blood cells, tive action against any germs fence fails, the germs or viruses
which form an important part or viruses that might invade enter the lymph channels
. of the body defence system in the body by way of the wound. above the lymph nodes. There
the destruction of disease The injured person should al the white blood cells
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 27
continue their work. If they against the particular kind of
still are not able to overcome Whenever the body is in infection.
the disease germs, the germs vaded by germs or viruses it In such diseases as measles,
becomes the scene of battle.
enter the blood stream. The The white blood cells are in permanent immunity is ef
resulting condition is known creased, and they quickly fected. For this reason tonsils
as blood poisoning. enter upon their work. and adenoids should not be re
This serious complication moved unless they are so
often can be prevented or badly diseased that they have
overcome by the use of hydro- parts, and the epsom salts ex become a menace to the body
therapy promptly applied. tract water from the tissues and thus offset any benefit
Water treatments assist the and reduces swelling, thereby they might furnish against in
body in its work of defence. lessening pain. fectious disease. This principle
For this treatment use two The compress consists of holds true especially in chil
tubs or basins that can accom three or four layers of gauze dren. It has been found that
modate the part to be treated. or soft cloth wrung from the removing the tonsils and ade
In one put water as hot as can saturate solution of epsom noids unnecessarily reduces
be borne and in the other put salts until the water no longer resistance to certain virus in
ice water. Add hot water and drips. Wrap it around the part fections such as poliomyelitis.
ice from time to time during and cover with plastic or other There are various kinds of
the treatment to keep up the covering to shut out the air white blood cells, each having
extremes of temperature. and prevent evaporation. a particular function to per
In case of infection in the Then cover the whole part form. Of them the neutrophils
hand or arm, immerse the part with a flannel cloth and pin it and the lymphocytes are the
in hot water for two or three snugly. Cover the arm to the most numerous. The neutro
minutes, then in ice water for shoulder. phils protect the body against
twenty to thirty seconds. Re This treatment should not invasion by germs. The lymp
peat this procedure for twenty lead you to neglect getting the hocytes build up immunity
to thirty minutes, finishing counsel of a physician, who against germs. Another kind
with the cold. Repeat the may see fit to prescribe medi of white blood cell removes
treatment every three or four cation, such as antibiotics. the many dead and dying
hours, depending on the white blood cells that have
severity of the case. Testing Laboratory been destroyed during the
Alternate hot and cold ap process of defence. Thus the
plications increase the flow of The tonsils and adenoids, body is aided in its recovery
blood through the part, bring located as they are, serve as and its building back to
ing extra white blood cells to a testing laboratory for air, health.
do their work. The cold in food, and water taken into the
creases the number of white body. Germs or viruses are Scene of Battle
blood cells in the circulation. taken into the crypts of the
Between treatments apply a tonsils and adenoids. Those Whenever the body is in
compress moistened with a organs react by producing vaded by germs or viruses it
saturate solution of epsom antibodies or immunizing becomes the scene of battle.
salts. The compress prolongs agencies, which are taken up The white blood cells are in
the effect of the immersion by the blood and carried to creased, and they quickly
bath by maintaining the blood different parts of the body. enter upon their work. Al
flow through the affected These antibodies protect though germs and viruses
28 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
multiply fast, the neutrophils let it remain in place until the the routine tests on all ward
speedily destroy them. If body heat is spent. Follow the hot urines every morning before I
resistance is adequate, the pack with the cold application, became involved with work proper.
battle is won. which may be in the form of "Being extra conscientious I
went the whole way with every
In the person who has a cloth wrung from ice water
test, not realizing that a large
lowered resistance against dis and quickly rubbed up and number were checked for only one
ease germs and viruses, the down the spine two or three or two abnormal components. I
number of white blood cells is times. In some cases if the seemed to spend half my life boil
below normal. This fact is patient can tolerate cold, ing urine!"
indicated by a low white cell wrap a smooth piece of ice in But times have certainly
count, especially of the neu- a wet cloth and use it. Follow changed, and today the same five
tests can be effectively and simul
trophil cell count. The patient the cold immediately by the
taneously carried out in approxi
becomes weak and tired, the next hot application, until mately sixty seconds.
pulse rapid, and there may be they have all been given.
chills and fever. Always finish with the cold
Streamlining the Tests
The physician measures in this treatment.
body resistance by a frequent Give the cold mitten friction An up-and-coming American
count of white blood cells. If with mitts made of coarse organization initially became in
the white cells are not in cloth. Dip the mitt into ice terested in formulating a simple,
creased in proportion to the water and apply it with brisk straight-forward test for diabetics.
severity of the infection, in friction to each part of the As every person with this disabil
dicating low resistance, he body consecutively, beginning ity knows, it is imperative to test
your own urine for sugar regularly.
promptly begins proper re with the arms. Keep the
In severe cases, this may be re
medial measures to increase patient covered except for the quired two or three times per day.
body resistance. A low red part that is being treated. Dry The old method involved boil
cell blood count suggests poor each part thoroughly and ing urine in a test tube with a blue-
nutrition. Blood-building and cover it before proceeding to coloured reagent over a Bunsen
protective foods including the next part. If the patient burner or methylated spirit flame
cannot endure the ice water, for several minutes. If sugar
vitamin Bi2 are needed.
was present (indicating that the
An excellent treatment to then use cold tap water until
disease was getting out of control),
increase body resistance con he is able to react to the ex the solution turned a different col
sists of a hot foot bath and at treme cold. *** our. The depth of the colour indi
the same time three or four cated the approximate percentage
alternate hot and cold appli of sugar present. This gave some
SIMPLE NEW WAYS TO PICK idea of the extent of the disease. In
cations to the spine, followed
DISEASE turn, this regulated the subsequent
by brisk cold mitten friction. dosage of "insulin", to reverse the
The hot and cold applications From page 2 entire situation.
(fomentations) and the cold Regular testing became a
mitten friction serve to im of several chemicals; perhaps fil- burden to many, particularly those
prove the circulation of the tering, boiling, re-filtering, further in the older age groups. The result
blood and increase the number addition of test chemicals, and a was that thousands just didn't
of white blood cells, thus final observation and the recording bother to carry out their tests reg
of the results. ularly. Disaster, of course, was
strengthening the body de almost inevitable.
A doctor said to me recently,
fence. "When I was a resident in hospital The first note of progress came
Use the hot application in in the early 1950X * collected the when the clumsy solution system
the form of a hot pack, and shocking job of having to perform was replaced by a little tablet. This
HERALD Or HEALTH, JUNE 1973. 29
was dropped into the urine. Bub patches at the far end, each sepa Other simple urine tests are
ble, bubble, bubble. The tablet rated by a short clear space. The also available which rapidly indi
contained its own reagents, and operator has merely to dip this cate the presence of specific germ
also generated sufficient heat to into a specimen of urine, and invasion of the urinary tract.
boil the solution. Within a few presto! the results rattle out
minutes, without aid of flame or Blood fzecal contents, and the
within sixty seconds. The colours
fire, the results were obvious. measure of usual components in
on the test pads are matched
This was universally hailed as persons with jaundice (for exam
against a printed colour chart, and
a tremendous advance. Even the ple, in infectious hepatitis) are
within moments the presence or
also currently available.
uninterested souls of a past era sud absence of abnormal constituents
denly sparked back to life with the is noted and recorded. If the re Laboratory workers and practis
"new toy." sult is positive in any instance, the ing pathologists tend to regard the
Impressed with the striking suc depth of colour (also compared new dip tests with contempt. "They
cess of their product, the makers to the chart) indicates the approxL are not accurate enough," some
forged ahead with even greater mate severity. stoutly declare.
zeal. Why not make more refine
"There is nothing like doing the
ments? Blood Tests tests the way they were meant to
The "Dip Test" be done. . . and that is by proper
Once the urine test became laboratory assay. This way you
firmly established, other fields obtain an absolutely correct re
Finally, they came up with their
clincher: The "Dip Test". This were gradually tapped. Blood was sult. There is no hanky-panky
the next on the list. guesswork about it, and there is
now forms the basis of an impres
sive series of tests currently avail Simple measures for accurate not nearly the same room for
assessments of the blood for abnor error as with the dip tests."
It consists of a short piece of mal components, or naturally pres
absorbent paper about three ent components in unhealthy,
inches long and one eighth of an quantities, had never existed pre A Reasonable Guide
inch wide. Located at the far end viously. But with the new dip tests,
is a tiny pad impregnated with it soon became a simple matter for Perhaps so, but the dip tests
various "enzymes"; these are speci the physician to estimate the offer a simple and quick screening
fic chemicals that are sensitive to amount of sugar actually circu method for the population at
various abnormal urinary com lating in the blood stream. This large. If the dip indicates that an
ponents. Sugar, for example, if test also took sixty seconds to carry abnormality is present, it is com
present, will suddenly turn the out. mon to have the test re-done
test patch a brilliant colour within TKe latest newcomer to the field by a pathologist in the standard
the incredibly short period of ten is the ability to measure the way in order to secure reliable
seconds. amount of urea circulating in the figures on which future therapy
So instead of tablets, the stick blood stream, a vital test in check is based.
dip swung into wide use. The next ing kidney function. As with all
natural sequence of events was to the others, this, too, is a sixty-second The simple tests provide a
locate enzymes similarly sensitive procedure. reasonable guide, and before their
to the other abnormal urinary introduction, simple measures for
The idea soon spread around, and
products. Bit by bit these were mass screening were just not avail
other firms started producing spe
developed, and specific dip tests cific tests along similar lines in an able.
were made available for each one. effort to diagnose other diseases True, the ultimate has not been
Finally, the whole urinary test readily. A test is now available for reached. But the new dip tests rep
problem became wrapped up in infectious mono-nucleosis, com resent a valuable forward advance
one simple "kit." The elongated monly known as glandular fever. on the currently available means
piece of absorbable paper was This had often been difficult to of mass screening of the population
replaced with unbiquitous plastic. diagnose, and involved a tedious, for sinister, underlying disease.
Now, a clear plastic strip has been time-consuming laboratory man Who knows, but one day you may
designed, with five individual test oeuvre. be the person to benefit. ***
30 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
CARING FOR BABY'S TEETH Shake it well and allow it to off taking him until he has a
dry for the next use. Thus at toothache or other dental
From page 17 each use the bristles will be problem. Make his first visit
firm and efficient. A soft, limp a time for him and the dentist
or wet, soggy brush does not to get acquainted and become
for his adult teeth. It is no
do a good job. friends. Later on the dentist
wonder that doctors and den
Teach your child to may clean his teeth, look for
tists emphasize a diet adequate
brush the chewing surfaces crooked and crowded teeth, or
in minerals and vitamins for
and the insides and outsides of see whether the top and bot
both upper and lower teeth. tom teeth meet properly.
Do not neglect your baby's Direct him to brush his teeth From time to time, look into
first teeth because you know in the direction that they grow. your child's mouth. Check the
he has another set coming. All Brush upper teeth down and condition of his teeth. If some
his teeth are important, in lower teeth up. thing appears wrong, take him
cluding his baby teeth. The When your child has all his to the dentist. Prevention of
presence of the first teeth helps baby teeth it is time for him tooth troubles is far better
to form a proper jaw line. to visit the dentist. Do not put than cure. ***
They hold the space for per
manent teeth and guide them
into place. The child's bite, or
occlusion of the teeth, is deter
mined largely by heredity, but
premature loss of baby teeth
can alter it seriously. There Bread-hole Eggs Fraying Cuffs
fore, baby teeth should be
cared for by a dentist if decay Bread-hole eggs are a favourite .To prevent trouser cuffs from
appears or if a tooth is chipped with children, and a child can fraying on the edge, stitch two
or broken by an accident. often be induced to eat an egg small buttons inside the cuff at the
this way when he or she would bottom of each trouser leg one inch
normally refuse. Use a large, round either side of the crease. The but
Brushing Begins biscuit cutter to remove the centre tons will stop the fabric from rub
from a slice of bread. Brown on bing against the shoes.
When your child is about one side in butter. Now slip a raw
two years old, begin teaching egg into the centre hole. Turn
Tick of Clock
him how to brush his teeth. and brown the other side of bread
and egg, adding more butter as
Have him brush after every Many people dislike the noise of
needed. Brown the round centre
meal. He may need help and a clock ticking in the bedroom
piece also. Children love to call
supervision until he is six or while they are trying to sleep. To
this part "the lid" which is placed
minimize the noise, place the clock
seven years old, but it is a on top of the cooked egg and
on a piece of foam sponge, and
good habit to begin early. bread just prior to being served.
peaceful rest is assured.
Buy him two small tooth Satisfaction is guaranteed.
brushes. Get them with a flat
(Coat Hangers Perspiration Odour
brushing surface and medium
stiff bristles. Use them alter If wooden clodies-hangers devel
op cracks or surface roughness To remove the odour of under
nately for brushing his teeth. which might do damage, smooth arm perspiration from woollens,
After each use, wash the brush them with a coat of finger-nail sponge with lemon juice and water
under cold running water. polish. and hang garment in the air.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 31
This counselling service is open to regular subscribers only. In reply to questions, no attempt
will be made to treat disease or to take the place of a regular physician. Questions to which
personal answers are desired must be accompanied by addressed and stamped envelopes. Annony-
mous questions will not be attended to. Address all correspondence to: The Doctor Advises, Post
Box 35, Poona 411001.
Red Eyes From Swimming and soles do not have oil glands, because there are no
hairs on them. On the nose and the blush area of the
My children, after swimming several hours in a pool cheeks the oil sacs are large. The wide openings around
have bloodshot eyes, or at least the whites of their eyes the tiny invisible hairs from which the oil exudes are
seem red and inflamed. Is it the chlorine in the pool the cause of much dismay among women with enlarged
that irritates the eye, and if so, will it do permanent pores.
damage? Under normal conditions of health the oil glands
give off just enough oil to grease the skin and the hair
Fresh water, whether chlorinated or not, will pro lightly. If conditions are not normal, too much oil comes
duce irritation or reddening of the eye of swimmers if out. It gives a shine to the skin and an unwelcome feel
they are exposed long enough. This is because that salt ing of greasiness. There are periods in life when
concentration of water is different from that of the extra activity is to be expected. Adolescence is a period
tissue of the eye. Also, direct action on the eye of chlo of such extra activity. It is the time when all the secret
rine, when it is present causes reddening. Some swim ing glands are busy, and the oil sacs share in the activity.
mers are very sensitive to chlorine and should not It is normal during adolescence to have oiliness of
swim in chlorinated pools. complexion and scalp. It precedes pimples and black
Chlorine is used to destroy bacteria with which heads. Everyone with pimples and blackheads has an
swimmers contaminate the water. Too high a concen oily complexion and scalp. If the oil dries on the scalp
tration will cause irritation of the eye; too low a con it is called dry dandruff.
centration will fail to protect against the hazards of in
fection. Ventilation at Night
To date there are no reports of permanent eye in
jury resulting from the presence of chlorine in swim / sleep better with the window open at night, but my
ming-pool water. wife thinks it's ridiculous during the winter. What should
Conditions under which one "person sleeps well may
/ have too much oil on my skin. My skin is always
differ from those of another. Some are light sleepers,
shiny. Is there anything I can do for this?
while others are heavy sleepers. Some get chilled if they
If you have too much oil in your skin you have a feel the air moving over them, while others enjoy the
greasy complexion. It is interesting to know what causes wind blowing. Some like to sleep cold, while others pcrfer
this oiliness. There are two important sets of glands in to be warm. The patterns of going to bed and to sleep
skin oil. One set is only partly responsible for the excess may become quite a ritual.
oil. It deals with perspiration. The second set of glands is During sleep, some rather significant physiological
directly responsible for the skin oil. changes occur within the body. Muscles relax and the
Oil glands are found only where there are hairs. basal metabolic rate (the level at which the body burns
Even tiny white baby hairs have oil glands. The palms food-fuel and therefore releases energy) is reduced. As
32 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
a result the body temperature drops. The heart beats more sugar intake. Elimination for a while of all refined sugar,
slowly; with a decrease in blood pressure, breathing is large use of fruits and vegetables, plenty of water (one
slower, and there is less secretion from almost all glands. glass for every fifteen pounds you weigh, sunlight on the
The body generally goes into a state of reduced functional involved areai, thorough cleanliness, and balanced exer
activity, and in a quiet, dark environment generally sleep cise and rest will build you up and will help prevent boils
comes. and speed up their healing.
The question as to whether the window should be
open or closed hinges on whether there is adequate cir
culation of the air in the sleeping room. In summer or
hot climates, where the temperature inside and outside
the home is approximately the same, there will be very WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT STROKES
little air movement even when the window is open. In
winter or in cold climates there may be a wide difference
From page 15
between the temperature inside the bedroom and outside
the house (high temperature gradient). When this is so,
cold air, which is denser, attempts to enter and mix with with the others, and the symptoms which result vary a
the warm air. Loose-fitting windows and doors, even when great deal. If it is a tiny blood vessel within the brain
closed, may permit a free circulation of air. that is obstructed, the area of damage will be small
and the episode may go almost unnoticed. Perhaps
Those Liquid Diets there will be a slight headache, a little dizziness, or
a brief feeling of faintness; but these may, soon clear
Are liquid diets nutritionally balanced, and how suc up, and the person will^ not know that he has had a
cessful have they been in helping to achieve weight loss? stroke.
But if it is a large vessel that is obstructed or that
These types of diet are not a reasonable approach bursts, the symptoms may, appear suddenly, they may
to the problem of weight control. Although their nutrient
be incapacitating, and the patient's survival may be
content for a single meal is satisfactory, it is not desirable
to use them as a total diet. No studies using such foods
in doubt. Even if the patient lives, certain handicaps
for long periods of time are available. The most satis may be permanent.
factory long-term approach to obesity is to educate the
individual in good eating habits and train him The Control Board
to select a diet made up of ordinary foods. It goes with
out saying that no one is going to subsist on a formula The brain is like a complicated control board.
the rest of his life! Certain areas of the brain's cortex control the actions
of the muscles, the areas of the brain's left side serv
Boils ing the muscles on the right side of the body, and
Are boils a type of septicaemia? If not, can they turn In order for the brain to function efficiently it
into this if you have many of them at one time?
must receive a constant stream of information regard
ing present conditions both within the body, and
Boils are abscesses located inside the skin and are
outside. So certain areas of the brain's cortex receive
caused by bacteria that have gained entrance and are mul
tiplying there. A specialized membrane (called pygenic
sensations from the skin: sensations of touch, of pain,
membrane) forms around the abscess and prevents the of temperature. These are arranged very systemati
bacteria from getting into the tiny blood vessels and cally so that sensations from a certain area of the
being carried to all parts of the body. Normally there skin go to a specific location in the cortex, and those
are no bacteria in the blood. from the left side of the body go to the right ^?de of
Septicaemia, on the other hand, is infection of the blood the brain, et cetera. Other brain areas receive sen
itself; bacteria are living and multiplying there thus are sations of hearing, of seeing, of tasting, and of smel
called to all the body. This is a very serious condition, ling. Some areas have to do with equilibrium and
because overwhelming infection can occur in any organ with registering the position, moment by moment, of
or tissue. Boils are not a type of septicaemia. If they the various parts of the body. There is even provision
are properly cared for, so that the protective membrane
for receiving sensations from the organs of the body,
is not broken, they will not release bacteria into the blood.
But if they are squeezed or pressed so that membrane is as when there is a stomach-ache or a pain in the chest.
broken, septicaemia may result. Some areas in the cortex of the brain do not seem
The presence of many boils at the same time is usually to be connected directly to any part of the body but
an indication of poor resistance—often due to excessive are concerned with the general intellectual functions
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 33
such as judgment, reasoning, and the making of functions. Depending on just what area is involved,
decisions. the stroke victim may be unable to talk intelligibly
Now we can understand how it is that one case even though his organs of speech are not paralyzed;
of stroke may have symptoms very different from he may be unable to write even though his hands and
those of another case. The particular symptoms in a fingers are not paralyzed; he may be unable to un-
certain case are determined by the specific area or derstand what is spoken to him even though he is
areas of the brain that have been "knocked out."' If not deaf; or he may not understand the words on a
an area which normally controls the muscles of the printed page even though he is not blind. If the stroke
left arm is incapacitated, then the muscles of the left victim could choose, therefore he would choose to
arm will now be paralyzed. If an area which normally have his stroke involve the subordinate side of his
receives sensations from the skin of the right side of brain, not the dominant side.
the face is damaged, then this skin area will now be Now that we have considered what causes strokes
numb. and what symptoms strokes may produce, it is natural
Of course when a large blood vessel is involved for the reader to ask, What can I do about it? What
—a vessel which supplies a large area of the brain— the question really amounts to is this: What can a
then several functions may be curtailed at the same person do to prevent or at least delay the develop
time and the symptoms may include paralysis, ment of arteriosclerosis? We have seen that it is
numbness, and disturbances of vision, for example. arteriosclerosis that sets the stage for a stroke.
We have said that the left side of the brain is The formula is simple and, in essence, consists
connected by nerve fibres to the right side of the of a way of life that promotes good health. Here are
body and vice versa. But sorrie functions of the brain the six things to do: (1) Provide for daily exercise.
belong as much to one side of the body as to the other, (2) Avoid overeating. (3) Curtail the animal fats in
or may not relate to either side in particular. Take your dietary. (4) Abstain from smoking. (5) Watch
reading, for example. We use both eyes when we your blood pressure, and seek your doctor's counsel if
read, but we make no difference between what we it begins to climb. (6) Avoid psychological stresses.
see on the left of the page and what appears on the **#
right. In other words, the symbols we see on the printed
page come from both sides, but the brain must make
only one interpretation of what the symbols mean.
The publishers of this magazine insure their motor
For such functions, one side of the brain takes over
cars and property with
the task. Which side? you ask.
Usually it is the left side of the brain that domi
nates in these highly co-ordinated functions that have
to be unified. We can tell which side of the brain is NATIONAL INSURANCE
the dominant one by noticing which hand a person
uses by preference. Most persons are right-handed
because in most persons it is the left side of the brain
that dominates. In "lefties," of course, it is the (UNIT: N. E. M.)
right side of the brain that dominates.
We used the function of reading as an example Head Office:
of the need for unified control in one side of the 32 Nicol Road
brain. Actually, all the functions of communication Ballard Estate, Bombay 1.
are thus controlled in the brain's dominant side. Not
only reading from the printed page, but interpreting Telephone: 26-2823/24
spoken words is accomplished in the dominant side Telegrams: "EPLOMUTUA"
of the brain. Also the expressing of one's thoughts is
likewise the function of the "boss"3 side of the brain. Also branches at New Delhi, Calcutta and Madras,
Here it is that vocal speech is controlled and also the and representatives and agents at all other impor-
ability to set down one's thoughts in writing. tajtt towns in India.
What does this have to do with strokes? Very
much, indeed; for when damage occurs in the domi- They transact all kinds of fire, motor and
nant side of the brain at the time of a stroke, the miscellaneous insurances.
symptoms may include a loss of some of the language
34 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
Those Annoying Hiccups sons had received other forms of therapy previously that
How often have you been annoyed with hiccups— The reasons why a teaspoonful of dry granulated
even embarrassed? You were with a group of people and sugar is successful have not yet been explained. But for
everything was very quiet, when suddenly you began the patients who stopped hiccuping, that is of little im
hiccuping. Of course, everyone has a favourite method portance. As with any persistent symptom, when hiccup
for controlling hiccups; hold your breath; breathe into ing persists, you should go to a physician.
a paper bag; have someone startle you; even have some —Life and Health
one talk very sternly to you with both of you keeping a
straight face, telling you that you must stop at once! And "Viewphone" Helps in Surgical Operations
on and on. Some children are almost happy to get hic
cups because then mamma gives them a lump of sugai An experimental "viewphone" being developed by the
that they slowly dissolve in their mouth, letting the sweet British Post Office has been used for the first time to
syrup trickle down their throats. Each of these ap assist in the care of patients during surgery.
proaches no doubt has a measure of success, but all Engineers from the Post Office's Research Depart
such "cures" have to be taken more or less "with a grain ment at Dollis Hill, London, provided a viewphone link
of salt." between the operating theatre at St. Peter's Hospital, Co-
In December, 1971, three American physicians, Dr. vent Garden, and the Research Department of Anaesthe
Edgar Engleman, of the University of California tics of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) half-a-mile
School of Medicine, and Drs. James and Barbara Lank- away at Lincoln's Inn Fields.
ton, of the University of Miami School of Medicine, re Patients undergoing operations at St. Peter's are
ported good success with a variation on the sugar-lump already linked over telephone line to the RCS, where a
theme. Twenty patients had come to their offices or to computer is used to monitor a patient's responses to
the emergency room complaining of hiccups. After anaesthetics and general condition. The viewphone en
swallowing one teaspoonful of granulated white sugar, abled specialists to follow the progress of operations, to
dry, nineteen of the twenty stopped hiccuping immediate see the actual administration of anaesthetics, and to relate
the patient's response to them with information such as
ly. Three of the patients had hiccups again within ten
heartbeat, brain waves and blood flow, fed into the
to twenty-four hours, but two of these stopped after a
computer over the telephone data link.
second treatment. The third one stopped after a third
Prof. J. B. Payne, head of the Research Department
teaspoonful of sugar twenty-four hours later.
of Anaesthetics, also carried out successful experiments
Twelve of the patients had had hiccups for less than with the examination of X-ray photographs by view-
six hours, but eight of them had been hiccuping for phone. He displayed a number of plates to a colleague,
twenty-four hours to six weeks. All of the twelve were who correctly diagnosed the conditions shown. Picture
in apparently good health, while seven of the eight who definition was good enough to pick out lesion in an X-
had been hiccuping for twenty-four hours or more had ray.
other complaints. Five of the patients with medical rea- B. I. S.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973 35
Health and Longevity is the doctor's book If you don't have one, it's time to have one,
for laymen—authoritative, informative, and help Health and Longevity in English alone has already
ful. In 44 chapters, Dr. A. C. Selmon, M. D. and sold over 320,000 copies. Your copy is ready for
Dr. Philip Nelson, M.D., discuss vital health prob mailing. Available in thirteen languages.
lems that are faced in every home and suggest
preventive measures and easy-to-administer nat CUT AND MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY.
ural remedies. Modern medical science is also
dealt with. This is a book that you will need to Editor
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