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					D) fo   CARING FOR BABY'S
              TEETH




          JUNE 1973
                                       Simple New Ways
                                       To Pick Disease
                                       by DR. FREDERICK JOHNS


     host of new and simple surgery

*
                                          Nevertheless, even for these,    But the new spate of tests avail-
     tests are simplifying mass        hope possibly lies just around the
                                                                        able are not so widely publicized.
     screening of patients for pos-    corner. With the forward strides Indeed, they are generally carried
sible disease.                          of immunology, the rising star  out in the secluded precincts of the
    A host of new, easily used and     of the seventies, by protecting the
                                                                        doctor's laboratory, and out of
 readily .available medical tests       body before invasion starts, it may
                                                                        view of the patient.
 bring accurate diagnosis of disease   be possible to counter some of      The simplest involve routine
 closer and closer to home.            the ravages of past decades.     urine tests. There is nothing new
    In both the short haul as well        Today, mass screening systems about this, and every mother un-
as the long run, the patient is the    are becoming more and more       doubtedly recalls having trudged
 one who stands to benefit most.       popular. An army of doctors now  to surgeries on occasions too
 In brief, this could be you.          put their patients through a few numerous to count grasping her
                                       simple, straight-forward tests that
                                                                       little bottle of "you know what,"
    The key to any medical routine     can reveal a wealth of valuable in-
is the ultimate, accurate pinpoint-                                    for the doctor to check. Every
                                       formation. Radiological screening
                                                                       routine medical examinee, and
ing of the trouble. What is caus-      for the detection of T.B. and other
ing this man's symptoms? This is                                       patient being consulted for the first
                                       chest and heart disorders, and  time, are invariably requested to
the question that crops up             cervical smears for cancer detection
in surgeries around the nation on                                      bring along a sample for analysis.
                                       in women are two examples. More
a never ending programme. In the                                          A few years ago, the complete
                                       important still, perhaps, is theexamination of the urinary speci-
great majority of instances, once      value of negative results.
the cause is known, the rest is then                                   men could take about half-an-hour.
only a matter of straightforward                                       This involved a check for five
                                          Th£ New Tests Available      different possible abnormal constit-
routine. "The overwhelming major-
ity of illnesses these days are very                                   uents. It represented a chemical
                                       A positive (Yes vote) can indi- search for the presence of protein,
responsive to specific treatment.
                                    cate that certain things are not blood, sugar, and ketones, and
    A handful of others, of course, right. This usually means further, measured the acidity or pH fac-
still elude the onslaught of medi- more intricate tests are needed as
                                                                       tor. In addition, an examination
cal science, chiefly cancer and a follow-up, and to pin-point pre- under the microscope for other
virus infections. We still hang cisely the nature of the disorder. impurities was considered essential.
our heads in abject shame, but         But a negative answer (a No
we are really stumped when it vote) announces in plain un-                Each one of these individual tests
comes to curing the common equivocal terms: "Nothing wrong             occupied a period of time, the use
cold.                               here. All is well."                                       To page 29
                                                                              HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
              Vol. 50, No. 6

                 June 1973



                   EDITOR :
     John M. Fowler, M.A., M.S.                                                ARTICLES
                                                    Simple 'New Ways to Pick Disease ....... Dr. Frederick Johns      2
        MEDICAL       CONSULTANTS:                  How is Your Handicap? ...................... Anonymous            6
       Elizabeth J. Hiscox, M.D.                    The Doctor Looks at Alcohol ....................'........ 10
                                                    This Warty World ................ AmilJ. Johnson, M.D. 13
       R. M. Meher-Homji, B.D.S.                    What You Should Know About Strokes Harold Shryock, M.D. 14
     I. R. Bazliel, Ex-Maj., I.M.S.                 Caring for Baby's Teeth .............. Lucille J. Goodyear 16
                                                    Genetics Against Disease Carriers . . Jean-Michel Van Gindertael 18
           G. T. Werner, M.D.                       Minerals and "Life Mines" ............... G oldie M. Down 21
K. A. P. Yesudian, M.R.C.P., D.C.H.                 The Body's Defence System .......... H. W. Vollmer, M.D. 26

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HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                                                3
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                                                  Editor
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                                                  Sir:
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    CUT OUT THIS COUPON AND
             MAIL TODAY.
                                                       Arteriosclerosis means hardening of the
             VIEWPOINT                            arteries. The normal wall of an artery is
                                                  strong, supple, and elastic so that it can ex­
                                                  pand and contract in adjustment to the blood
     SMOKING AND HEART ATTACK                     pressure. When an artery is hardened, a kind
                                                  of degeneration of the inner lining of the blood
                                                  vessel takes place; as a result, the walls of the
      Smoking is increasingly associated with artery become rigid and pipelike, instead of
heart attack. One important study reported supple and elastic.
by Dr. D. L. Sackett of the famous cancer hos­
                                                        Arteriosclerosis is caused by an abnormal
pital, Roswell Park Memorial Institute at
                                                  deposit of cholesterol on the walls of the ar­
Buffalo, New York, clearly shows that the
                                                  tery. The deposit leads to gradual narrowing,
severity of arteriosclerosis increases with both
                                                  and may eventually seal the blood vessel com­
the rate of smoking and the duration of ciga­
                                                  pletely so that no blood can pass through it.
rette smoking.
                                                  When the blood vessels of the heart are in­
      Dr. Sackett was reporting on the 1,019
                                                  volved, it leads to a coronary or what is known
consecutive autopsy studies he conducted. His
                                                  as heart attack.
findings indicate a close relationship between
smoking and aortic arteriosclerosis.                    How is smoking connected with arterios­
      In certain age groups, the danger is espe­   clerosis? Dr. C. L. Dale, a well-known Amer­
cially high. According to Sir George Godber, ican pathologist, says: "There is now increas­
 chief medical officer of the Department of ing evidence that nicotine, and possibly other
 Health, London: "Among heavy cigarette chemicals absorbed from various forms of to­
 smokers, aged forty to forty-nine, the death bacco, enhance the deposit of this fatty mate­
 rate from coronary disease is nearly four times rial chiefly cholesterol, within the inner walls
 that of nonsmokers."                              of the arteries. The medium-sized arteries
                                                   supplying the heart, brain, extremities, and
       Another important study conducted in
                                                   other organs with blood become increasingly
 April 1970 by Taylor, Blackburn, Keys, Ancel
                                                   less able to furnish enough blood to these or­
 and their associates dealt with 2,571 men aged
                                                   gans because of the decreased size of the lu­
 forty to forty-nine. Their five-year findings
                                                   men, or inner diameter of the blood vessel.
 showed that "death rates from coronary heart
                                                   Tissue damage results, often producing death
 disease alone, and those from all other causes
                                                   by heart attacks, strokes, et cetera. The ab­
 increased progressively with an increase in the
                                                   sorbed nicotine also causes constriction of
 number of cigarettes smoked per day. The
                                                   these same arteries, combining with the effect
 coronary death rate for smokers of a pack
                                                   of partial fatty obstruction. This results in
  [twenty cigarettes] or more of cigarettes daily
                                                   more severe heart attacks and strokes, which
 was more than four times as high as that of
                                                   also occurs earlier when tobacco is used."
  men who had never smoked, while the death
  rate from all other causes among heavy smok­           What all this adds up to is simply that a
  ers was a little over three times that of non­ smoker is risking his health for a vain luxury.
  smoking men."                                     In view of the mounting evidences we have on
       Is smoking, then, a causative factor in the hazards of smoking, it is time that the
  arteriosclerosis? Possibly so, though not posi­ smoker count the cost before he touches an­
  tively proved. One thing, however, can be cer­ other cigarette.
  tain. Cigarette smoking does accelerate the de­                                   -J. M. F.
  velopment of arteriosclerosis.
 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                      5
    Sometime in 1973, a four-masted
windjammer will slip down the
                                                                    HOW
ways into the waters of a German
harbour. This square-rigged ship,
called the Dyna Ship has no
standing or running rigging, sets
                                                                 IS YOUR
sail automatically by computer,
and is supposed to be able to sail
foist in win'd-whipped seas that
                                                               HANDICAP
would slow down the average
                                                              A personal account by a contributor who wishes
freighter or bulk-carrier.
                                                                                       to remain anonymous.




                                        I    know a little about golf. I    ever, more obvious physical
   Probably the world's biggest
glacier, the Beardmore in Antar-            know that it is perfectly       handicaps that tend to elimi­
tica is 120 miles long and 25 miles
                                            conventional to ask a ques­     nate us from normal competi­
deep. Glaciers are produced when
heavy snows, winter after winter,        tion like that of a fellow         tion. For instance, no one
pile up more than they melt in           golfer. I know, too, that it is    dreams of working out a
the summer until the snow at             almost impossible to hit those     starting line in a one hundred
about 200 feet deep is compressed        little white balls, even with      metres sprint for a man who
into ice.                                a healthy, loose-shouldered        has lost a leg. He is simply
                                         swipe, let alone with the self-    not in the race. The motor­
    Scientists have completed plans      conscious-looking stance that      car with         its rash of
 to study a rare seven-minute total      seems to be part of the rules.     careless,    aggressive    and
 solar eclipse over Africa on June       That is about all I know. But      drunken drivers has provided
30, 1973. They will be required          then I am not going to write      us with a veritable army who
 to carry out their observations in
                                         about golf. At least not after    are struggling, sometimes not
some of the most rugged and
isolated regions in the world, with      I have pointed out that we all    very successfully, to find a
daily temperatures hovering at          have our handicaps, and that       path through life that will
about 105° F. Because of the ex-        part of the game of life is        provide a maximum of con­
ceptionally long duration of totality    bound up in taking a certain      tentment. One cannot join
 (exceeding seven minutes in Mali,        latisfaction in competing suc­   even on the outskirts of this
Algeria, and Niger) and the
                                        cessfully against others who       army without learning some­
favourable viewing conditions (95
'percent chance of good weather),       may in certain respects have       thing useful. Now I am not
scientists from all over the world      a start on us.                     under the impression that I
are expected to gather along the            A handicap is a very per­      have learned much of value,
eclipse path. The solar eclipse of      sonal thing. It may be a bad       but I thought I would tell you
1970 which crossed Mexico arid          memory, or lack of penetra­        about my handicap just the
swept up the East Coast of the
                                        tion, or painful shyness, or       same. (
United States lasted only three
minutes. The maximum possible           some kind of insecurity that          In early middle life the
duration of a total solar eclipse is    causes us to over-react in an      atoms came to dance before
about 7.5 minutes.                      ugly fashion. There are, how­      my eyes, and within a short
                                                                            HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
                                                    A handicap is a very personal thing. It
                                                may be a bad memory, or lack of penetra­
                                                tion, or painful shyness, or some kind of in­
                                                security, or loss of a vital sense. Whatever it
                                                is, handicap can be overcome.



time they had coalesced into memory into a miracle tool            sterile soil of his new situa­
an impenetrable mist into    and conferred no service upon         tion.
which a car twenty feet away mankind. But I have charted              He feels himself to be born
could hide itself. The periph­
                             a good many difficulties and          again in a long, painful and
ery of vision remained, how­ developed enough tactical at­         protesting birth. And it is a
ever, a little like a scratched
                             titudes to keep reasonably re­        wrinkled personality that be­
film, but useful and highly  laxed and contented. I think          gins to appear because he
prized. I could guess with a I might have done better if           must just as inevitably shrink
high prognosis of success    I had lived a little nearer the       in size. His range of occupa­
whether there was printing oncountry of the blind, but I           tions is reduced peremptorily,
a page, detect quite small   preferred to live in the outer        and he begins to be acquainted
moving objects, and conse­   suburbs of the seeing.                with aggravating slowness,
quently move about with con­    I think there are only two         humiliation, inadequacy and
fidence. But I could not read,
                             points I want to make. The            failure everywhere.
recognize people, or play anyfirst is a footnote on the most          We all form a fairly ac­
kind of game, and all kinds  commonly discussed aspect             curate estimate of our capac­
of little things like putting a
                             of acceptance. It is, of course,      ity to master the essential
three-point plug into its    quite futile to rail against fate     elements in our immediate
socket became time-consum­   as though indignation or self-        environment. We are also
ing jobs.                    pity could undo the damage,           able to get some idea of the
                             and it is equally foolish to try      regard in which our associates
  Don't Rail Against Fate    to live in the past where you         hold us. And these are quite
                             once cut a much better figure.        significant ingredients of the
  Compared.      with   many There is nothing for it but to        complex of personality.
handicapped people, my sub­ live in the present and accept            Now it was not long before
sequent accomplishments have its realities. The handicapped         I began to make some rather
been contemptible. I devel­ person must embrace the new            shattering discoveries as I step­
oped no mysterious new personality that will inevi­                 ped out into my new world.
senses, failed to sharpen my tably grow out of the more             In the first place, I had to
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                       2
                                      possibly have the power to         until he accepts this new,
        It did not take long for me   grasp simple directions or         shrivelled personality and this
     to discover that there were
     prohibition signs above most     instructions without slow and      new, restricted role, and ac­
     of my former activities and      patient repetition. Others,        cepts them with humble
     interests, a,nd that, unless I   without      actually   holding    simplicity. When he has
     did something about it, I was
     going to fijnd myself boxed      you at a discount, seem to         schooled himself to play a
     in, in a very small backyard.    do so from their own discom­       very minor role in a very
                                      fort. It is, of course, a little   restricted life he can open
make drastic changes in the           disquieting to talk to someone     that locked door and find
 estimate of my abilities. In         who cannot answer your eye         enjoyment where he least
my earlier life I was able to         with his or see your gestures.     expected.
learn and apply knowledge             More often than not, an ac­
with a little better than aver­       quaintance will direct all his          The Second Point
age readiness. But to my              conversation to your com­
                                      panions. I found that I had           And now I come to my
surprise, I found that this
                                      to discipline myself to avoid      second point. And it is con­
ability was restricted to the
                                      a bad reaction to this. The        cerned with the other side of
narrow field of materials pre­
                                      situation was not improved         that locked door. It did not
sented to the eyes. In the
                                      by the knowledge that any          take long for me to discover
world of touch I was little
                                      time I walked down the street      that there were prohibition
better than a moron. I be­
                                      I could be cutting an ac­          signs above most of my former
longed at the very bottom of
                                      quaintance dead when he            activities and interests, and
the class. This was apparent
                                      favoured me with a cheery          that, unless I did something
with almost everything I
                                      wave.                              about it, I was going to find
touched, but it was inescapa­
                                                                         myself boxed in, in a very
bly plain as I tried to learn            For a long time I felt an ir­
                                                                         small backyard. I began to
Braille. There was a genera­          resistible urge to tell people
                                                                         force myself to enter upon
tion gap between my fingers           that I was not always like
                                                                         areas of activity that I had
and my brain. I began with            this. This was, of course, clear
                                                                         hitherto scorned. I found so
glittering theories of how new        evidence that I had not ac­
                                                                         much satisfaction in this kind
methods of rapid reading              cepted my new personality
                                                                         of thing that I am ready to
might be applied to Braille           with its need for help in hun­
                                                                         enunciate this, my second
reading, and ended with the           dreds of matters (like master­
                                                                         axiom for handicapped peo­
knowledge that I suffered             ing the contents of a letter),
                                                                         ple: "A maximum of content­
from a kind of tactile dyslexia       its below-average capacity to
                                                                         ment comes from making the
(inability to read more than          learn and its out-of-circula-
                                                                         maximum use of what is left."
a few lines with understand­          tion role. I am afraid I passed
                                                                            My efforts in the realms of
ing) which kept me gam­               through a kind of second
                                                                         building and carpentry met
bling hopefully on the inter­         adolescence with somewhat
                                                                         with a good many initial
pretation of single-letter pat­       childish reactions to frustra­
                                                                         frustrations. Nail-driving is
terns.                                tions that were quite inexpli­
                                                                         no great trick if you hold the
                                      cable to others.
 Self-discipline Is Necessary                                            nail long enough till you get
                                 I have laboured this point              your bearings, and I have
  I soon found, too, that because I believe that it is                   worked out some quite nifty
many people assume that if basic. The handicapped person                 dodges for measuring and
you cannot see, you could not stands before a locked door                levelling and sawing straight
IB                                                                        HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973.
and square. But screw-driving     your levels and perpendicu­         be ample vindication of my
is my bete noire. Indeed, until   larity it is not so difficult to    natural instincts about garden-
I get positive information to     build a reasonable wall. But       .ing. However, I found, like
the contrary, I shall persist     cement work is my favourite         everyone else, a certain attrac­
in my conviction that profan­     occupation. You can find so         tion in the soil and a certain
ity originated with a blind       many places to build paths          feeling of superiority when I
man and a screw-driver in an      and make edgings for lawns.         saw first quality stuff appear­
awkward spot. True, I am             All my life I have had a         ing under my ministrations.
slow, and often find situations   natural antipathy to garden­        Besides, as an unexpected
that I cannot handle without      ing, and I really had to push        bonus, I discovered a new ac­
help. Of course, even I am        myself to raise my status to        tivity. For what can compare
aware of the crudeness of some    that of a vegetable gardener.        with the smugness with which
of my efforts, but I must con­    In any case, it hardly seemed        one carries to a neighbour the
fess that what appears neat       worth while, what with the           largest and heaviest cabbage,
 and well-finished to me seems     rabbits, and the snails and the     or the lettuce with an enor­
 to give amusement to others.      moths and the weeds and "the        mous heart?
 But since I have accepted my­     lesser breeds without the law"          I have said that I have dis­
 self for what I am, striving      that even bright young eyes         covered no new and compen­
 has become more important         cannot see. And, indeed, the        satory senses operating on
 than success.                     initial costs made my first         my behalf. But recently there
    I have found brick-laying      vegetables about five times as      has been one exception. I
 and stone-setting to be stimu­    expensive as if I had bought        have been playing a bit of deck
 lating, too. Once you have        them. All of which seemed to        tennis with a rubber quoit.
                                                                        It is quite a trick. I look
                                                                        vaguely into the air and allow
                                                                        the image of the quoit to cross
                 Alcohol a,nd Marijuana Together
                                                                        the periphery of the retina,
        Since the earliest historical time, the majority of             and my hand co-operates
  mankind has sought escape from unpleasant reality and                 quite surprisingly in a light­
  searched for artificial peace by the use of alcoholic bev­            ning grab. But mysteriously
  erages, coffee, tea, and other caffeine-containing drinks.            enough it has recently been
  Alcohol and caffeine produce their desired effect by ac­              making successful grabs when
  tion on the central nervous system. Today, marijuana                  I am not aware of any image
  cigarettes have raised their head on the American scene.              at all. Naturally I have come
  A recent study done by Manno and his associates found                 to have a new respect for this
  that marijuana adversely affected both mental and motor               hand of mine. "All right, my
  (physical) performance, as does alcohol. The effect on be­             lad," I have told it, "if you
  havioural functions, with impairment of mental and                     are as smart as all this, maybe
  physical performance, was greater when alcohol and mari­               some day you will condescend
  juana were taken together than when either of them was                 to be quite frank with me and
  used alone. It is doubtful that those seeking escape would             tell me quickly and without
  use one in place of the other but would doubtless use both.            hesitation exactly what those
   If alcohol is here to stay, let us not compound society's             little patterns of raised dots
  problems by legalizing marijuana.                                      wish to communicate to me."
                                            —Life and Health              I shall return to the Braille
                                                                                new hope.            ***
 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
                              The Doctor Looks at

                    ALCOHOL
A      LCOHOL is a very widely used chemical com­                  When it is used as a drink, most people take it
       pound in laboratories for experimental purposes.     for its effect on the central nervous system, or for the
       It is a preservative for storing animals and         psychic effect on one's mind. It helps people forget
plants to be used in demonstrations. It's also a very       their troubles. It makes some people feel a little
good solvent!                                               euphoric— a little happy. Others become the opposite
      Unfortunately, it is imbibed for the pleasurable      and want to fight.
effects that people get from it. As a result of such use,          In general, when alcohol gets into the circulation
its toxic effects impair health.                            it reaches every cell of the body. Every cell is affected
      For any one specific person, there's no way to        in one way or another by alcohol, but certain cells are
indicate what is excessive in the use of alcohol. As        much more sensitive than others.
with any other substance, some people are more sensi­              The brain is relatively sensitive to alcohol, as we
tive to it than are others. Almost anyone can eat           see from the behaviour of people who drink. The liver
strawberries with no ill effects. But a few people can't    is another area where the cells can be injured. This
eat strawberries—even one strawberry—without de­            is also true for the heart and the gastrointestinal tract.
veloping hives. Similarly with alcohol. Some people          It's also true for the lungs. In fact, every cell in the
can imbibe tremendous amounts of it and seem to             body can be damaged by alcohol.
get away with it—at least to some extent. Others                   Alcohol's effect on the lungs is seldom men­
aren't able to take it in even small amounts.               tioned. When you drink alcohol on an empty stomach,
      If there are any doubts about alcohol being in­       particularly in large quantities, a high concentration
jurious to health, watch a drunk stagger down the           of alcohol enters the circulation. From the stomach,
street. You know that he is having difficulties with        it goes to the liver, then into the right side of the heart
his brain—difficulties produced by the toxic effects        and through the lungs, where it can damage the deli­
of alcohol. Some will get intoxicated with one drink,        cate cells of the alveoli, or the air sacs of the lungs,
and others will require more. In my opinion, anyone         then back into the heart again, where it can also
who takes at least one drink every day is a chronic         cause damage.
alcoholic. Others may place that figure higher, but                Alcohol affects all parts of the human system—
I would place it right there.                               even the larynx—the voice area. People who drink
                                                            for a long period of time, and who drink large quan­
                   Alcohol—A Drug                            tities of alcohol, tend to have a brassy voice. I often
                                                            refer to it as the voice of an alcoholic. If you look at
    Alcohol is a drug, and it is used at times in the       the throat of a heavy drinker, you see the infected
same ways as are certain other drugs.                       area. I think this is related to the use of alcohol.
ao                                                                                HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
                                                                       Alcohol interferes with the vital functions
                                                                    of the body. Alcoholism is really one of out
                                                                    big problems, ajid it needs serious attention.




      Many of these people also smoke a lot, but the        of alcohol on the heart. One syndrome, or disease
smoke isn't solely responsible. There isn't the same        state, is called alcoholic cardiomyopathy. The latter
effect on the voice and the vocal cords in a heavy          word has to do with the heart muscle. Alcohol can
smoker who does not drink. The drinker's vocal cords        produce this disease. The heart becomes enlarged;
become thickened and produce a rather coarse type           it fails to pump adequately. As a result of this, the
of voice.                                                   patient becomes short of breath, the liver becomes
                                                            enlarged, and the neck veins become distended. The
                                                            patient then develops swelling or dropsy involving the
                     Cell Damage                            lower extremities. The dropsy moves up the legs and
                                                            thighs and into the abdomen. Fluid accumulates in the
      Unfortunately, many of the cells damaged by           abdomen, in the lungs, and in the cavities around the
alcohol are never replaced. This is especially true in      lungs. In addition to that, once this cardiomyopathy
the brain. We are born with a= many cells in our brain      develops, there's a tendency for the- heart to beat in
as we'll ever have the rest of our lives, but we can        an irregular fashion. Some of these irregularities are
lose them as time goes on. It seems that anyone in-         rather serious and actually can be fatal. A patient
terested in maintaining good healthy brain cells would      with alcoholic cardiomyopathy usually dies suddenly
not damage them by anything, certainly not by alco­         because of the disturbance in heart rhythm.
hol. Some cells can be damaged and still regenerate—              Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a fairly common
at least partially—but there's never a regeneration         disease in the United States and also in other
of brain cells.                                             countries where the intake of alcohol is high. It's
      This is also true for the heart. We are born with      particularly common where there is malnutrition
as many heart cells as we'll ever have. Since the heart     associated with improper eating and alcohol intake.
has to function all the time to keep us alive, we have       In experimental animals the heart muscle can be
 to take care of the heart cells. Alcohol damages the        damaged by feeding alcohol as a fluid along with the
cells of the heart muscle and produces irreversible          animals' diet. When you look at these heart cells
damage.                                                      under an electron microscope, it's amazing how ex­
      The liver has a great capacity to regenerate, but      tensive the damage to the cells is. The fibres contract,
 even it suffers a limitation. An excessive amount of        become fragmented, and become disintegrated.
 damage will harm the cells to such an extent that           There's an accumulation of fluid in the heart muscle.
 their regenerating capacity is impaired. The cells that     The damage is quite extensive, both in experimental
 regenerate are not normal healthy cells.                    animals that are fed alcohol and in men who are
       I've done quite a bit of research about the effect    alcoholics and who develop cardiac disease.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                                       11
                      Toxic Effects                               develop alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver when they
                                                                  eat well but still drink large amounts of alcohol.
        Alcohol produces a toxic effect on the heart                    When cell damage is rather extensive, it's possi­
 muscle cell. It denatures proteins, destroys enzyme              ble to see it with an ordinary light microscope. With
 systems and the other substances necessary for                   magnification up to between fifty thousand and 100
 healthy performance of organized cells. Cells are                thousand times in an electron microscope, however,
 very complex structures in which every component                 it is possible to see how extensive the damage really
  must be in perfect order if the cell L> to function            is. In fact, it's amazing how the heart is able to
 adequately. Alcohol, by destroying some of these                function at all with such tremendous damage.
 components, interferes with the function of the cell,                  Alcoholics are also much more prone to other
 and then that cell automatically dies.                          diseases. Alcohol interferes with their resistance to
       It's rather like a machine. If you destroy the             trauma. People go into a state of shock much more
carburettor or the timing mechanism of an auto­                  readily when they are alcoholics. They're more prone
 mobile—even though the rest of the automobile may               to suffer from the stresses of hot and cold climates and
 be in perfect shape—it's still riot going to run. Or            certainly more prone to infections.
 if you remove the spark plugs or take the wires off                    The intake of alcohol is very heavy today. I
the spark plugs, the automobile won't function. The              think it has a detrimental influence on our entire
same thing is true of a cell. You don't have to                  population. I think many people in positions where
destroy every component of the cell to interfere with            they have to make important decisions have suffered
 its life and kill the cell. Just destroy one vital and         damage to their brains—some degree of Korsakoff
necessary component.                                            psychosis, which is a fairly common thing among
       Some patients who eat well but who drink                 alcoholics.
heavily—and particularly have a tendency to                            Anyone who drinks heavily for any length of
drink on an empty stomach—damage the heart                      time will receive some damage to his brain. His
muscle and develop alcoholic cardiomyopathy. ft                 brain will not function normally or as it did
seems, however, that if there's malnutrition in as­             previously. People in positions to make important
sociation with heavy alcohol intake, the damage                 decisions that influence the welfare of their
comes on more readily and seems to be more exten­               companies or their families or their country should
sive, but it's not necessary to have malnutrition only.         not be alcoholics. This, I think, is of major im­
The same thing is true of the liver. Patients also              portance.
                                                                       Also I think drinking is perhaps a much more
                                                                serious problem than smoking. When an alcoholic
                                                                drinks, he not only injures himself; he injures his
                                                                family, his children, his associates, the business peo­
     New British Medical Service for People At Work
                                                                ple with whom he works, and then those dependent
     A nationwide medical service to give advice on medi­
                                                                on him in the decisions he makes that influence others.
cal aspects of employment problems to employers, em­                   Alcoholics frequently start out as social drinkers.
ployees, trade unions, general practitioners and others         There's a great tendency today for people to have a
has been set up in Britain by the Department of Employ­        drink at night—a sort of relaxation period. Women
ment.                                                          see their husbands drink, and before they know it
     The new service—the Employment Medical Advisory-          they are drinking socially with their husbands; then
Service—opens a new era in British occupational medi­          they become alcoholic. In my experience, female
cine. It will work in the closest co-operation with the Na­    alcoholics are much worse to manage from a medical
tional Health Service, the School Health Service, and the      point of view than are male alcoholics, particularly
private medical services provided by employers.                since the mother is really the key to the family. Parents
     At present the service has a countrywide network of       who drink in front of their children indicate to them,
eighty-three doctors, but this number will be increased        to some degree, a sense of approval of alcohol.
later to 110. These doctors will supervise the health of               Alcoholism is really one of our big problems, and
people in hazardous trades; examine and advise people         it needs serious attention. The dangers of alcohol
being rehabilitated, in training or looking for work; and     must receive much more attention and publicity than
carry out nationwide surveys to identify health hazards,      it is receiving. Probably the best way to handle that
especially those involving new materials and processes.
                                                              is through education and through influencing the
                                                              behaviour of adults and parents in families.           ***
12                                                                                 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
                                        THl
                                      WARTY
                                        WORLD
                                                by AMIL J. JOHNSON, M.D.




W
explicable.
           arts are growths that appear an any part of
           the body. They are a mysterious development,
           and some cures for them may be equally in­
                                                                    One of the most painful of warts is the one that
                                                              appears on the bottom, or plantar portion of the foot.
                                                              It is especially distressing because the foot must carry
                                                              the weight of the body. Every step pressing down
       It has been discovered that these skin over,           on the plantar wart is an experience of agony. X-ray
growths are caused by a virus; but they may not ap-.          exposure, therapy, solvents, and electro-tissue destruc­
pear until weeks after exposure to the viral cause. As        tion have been used. Surgical removal of the wart is
children we used to be warned that handling frogs and         most generally successful.
 toads might bring on warts. Although it is not im­
possible that such creatures may carry the causative               Warts occurring under and along the edge of the
 virus, it has not been proved that this contact is a         na'ls are called subungual warts. Usually trimming
 direct cause and result. At least seventy-five per cent      away the warty mass from time to time is followed
 of children living out in the country have handled           by its disappearance. It is interesting to note that
 such creatures without resultant warts.                      marking seldom appears where the wart had grown.
        The overgrowth of skin tissue that we call a               Warts can become large when they develop in
 wart may occur singly or in crops. Sometimes warts           a moist area. The largest warts appear around the
  have the appearance of a stringy skin tag. This kind        rectum and genitals. They are called condylomata
  is most common around the neck, but may even grow           acuminata. They may be made to disappear by the
  out from an eyelid. It is called a filiform wart. Usually   application of podophy.llin by a physician.
   it can either be yanked away or snipped off with
  scissors by a doctor, with no anticipation of recurrence.        If warts are your problem and they tend to stay
                                                              on your body any length of time, get rid of them.
                                                              Some practitioners recommend psychotherapy, some
                     Plantar Warts
                                                              local application of foul-smelling preparations, colour,
                                                              ful dyes, or painful injections, but it is to be -expected
       The most common wart is a flat, rough mass on
                                                              that the doctor can do the most for anyone who has
 the back of the hand. As mysteriously as it appears
                                                              any of the above problems with warts.
 it may disappear, the bearer suddenly becoming cog­
  nizant that the wart he used to have on his hand is               The doctor has the benefit of a range of medical
 there no longer. Certain kinds of stress have been fol­       reports made by other doctors on such conditions, and
 lowed by loss of a wart. In fact, one therapy suggested       he can select from them many treatments to fit any,
  that a parachute jump from airplane is one way of            given case of warts with its individual and special
  healing a warty person.                                      problems to give patients the help they need.     ***
 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                                          13
A      s you walk along the sidewalk, you notice an        We took him to the hospital, and the doctor said, 'It's
       old friend sitting in a car parked at the curb.     a stroke.' I asked him how serious it was, and he
       You speak to him; but he responds more slowly       said, 'We won't be able to tell for a day or two. It
than usual; it's a little hard for you to understand       seems to be a rather severe stroke, and even if he
what he is saying: his face is not as expressive as it     lives he will be handicapped.' He has been improv­
used to be, and his mouth appears to be drawn to one       ing slowly and is able now to take a few steps. But
side; his right hand is lying useless in his lap; and      he has to use a cane, and I have to help him in and
you notice a cane at his side.                             out of the car."
     Just now his wife returns and prepares to enter
the car on the driver's side. Always before it was he                          Common Cases
who drove and he who did the errands while his
wife waited in the car.                                           A typical case! Strokes occur more commonly
      "I haven't seen you for quite a while," you          in men than in women, and the greatest number occur
remark.                                                    during the sixties. Persons who have strokes may be
      "We're just now able to be out again," the wife      overweight, but as often as not their weight is about
explains. "You see, Charles had a stroke, and it's         normal. They may have had high blood pressure. But
hard for him to get around. He's only sixty-four, but      strokes occur in some people who have had normal or
he's had to give up his job and the doctor says            even low blood pressure.
he will probably not be able to go back."                         The "old wives' tale" that strokes occur in a series
      "How did it happen?" you ask. "Had he been           of three and death conies with the third, is not borne
working too hard?"                                         out by clinical records. In severe cases death may
      "It sort of came out of a clear sky," she answers.   occur with a person's first stroke. In less severe cases
"We were just sitting down to breakfast, and he said,      symptoms such as paralysis and speech defects, if
'I feel funny.' He staggered when I helped him to          present, may improve over a period of days or weeks
the sofa and he almost fell. I could not tell whether      until the patient appears quite normal. Of course
he lost consciousness, because it was hard for him to      the basic difficulty that permitted one stroke to occur
speak, and sometimes what he said didn't make sense.       is still present, and it is usual for a person who has




                                 What You
                             Should Know About

                       STROKES
                                       by HAROLD SHRYOCK, M.D.
had one to have others. There are even cases of very      the brain cells and into the tissue spaces. This is
minor strokes in which the symptoms are so slight as      called cerebral haemorrhage, and it does damage
not to be noticed. In such cases there may be many        both by distorting the tissue spaces and by diverting
episodes before the patient finally succumbs.             the blood so that it no longer reaches its normal desti­
     The occurrence of a stroke is so often associated    nation.
with loss of control of certain of the body's muscles           A third cause of stroke is the plugging of a ves­
that we commonly speak of "a stroke of paralysis."        sel by some small object that happens to be floating in
But the real trouble isri't with the muscles; it's with   the blood. This we call cerebral embolism. The float­
the brain. Paralysis occurs when the stroke affects       ing object is usually a fragment of a blood clot that
parts of the brain that control muscles.                  has broken away from its moorings in some other
                                                          part of the body—often from the lining of the heart.
                 The Three Villains                             We have said that these three conditions—
                                                          thrombosis, haemorrhage, and embolism—
                                                          account for the occurrence of strokes. This is true, but
     The cause of a stroke is a loss of blood supply
                                                          it is not the whole story. Blood clots do not develop
to some part of the brain. In the most common situa­
                                                          inside normal blood vessels; normal blood vessels do
tion a blood clot develops inside one of the brain's
                                                          not rupture; and a normal heart does not have a
blood vessels. This closes the vessel so that blood can
                                                          blood clot attached to its lining from which a frag­
no longer pass through, and that part of the brain
                                                          ment can float away in the blood stream. What is it,
which normally receives its blood through this partic­
                                                          then, that sets the stage for thrombosis, haemorrhage,
ular vessel can no longer function. We call this
cerebral thrombosis—cerebral referring to the brain,      or embolism such as may cause strokes?
and thrombosis indicating a clot inside a blood ves­
sel.                                                                             The Enemy
     Another situation that deprives some part of               It is a disease of the blood vessels themselves.
the brain of its blood supply is the rupture of a blood   And what kind of blood vessel disease? Our old en­
vessel. This permits the flowing blood to leave the       emy, arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
confines of the blood vessels and flow out among                In arteriosclerosis there is damage to blood ves­
                                                          sels, particularly the cerebral arteries that supply the
                                                          brain, the coronary arteries that supply the heart, the
                                                          aorta, and certain arteries that supply the legs and
                                                          feet. This damage causes ulceration of the lining of
                                                          the vessel, thus favouring the development of internal
                                                          clot (thrombosis), and a weakening of the vessel
                                                          wall, thus favouring rupture (with haemorrhage) when
                                                          the vessel involved is put under strain.
                                                                When arteriosclerosis has set the stage for some
                                                          branch of the heart's coronary arteries to become
                                                          obstructed, the corresponding part of the heart wall
                                                          dies. If the victim survives this "heart attack,'" the
                                                          damaged area of the heart heals by the formation of
                                                           a scar. In the meantime, while the processes of heal­
                                                           ing are just getting under way, it is common for a
                                                          blood clot to form on that portion of the heart's lin­
                                                           ing next to the area of damage. And it is from such
                                                          a blood clot that a fragment may possibly break off, be
                                                           carried by the blood stream to the brain, and cause
                                                          embolism there.
                                                                 So we see that the three conditions responsible
                                                           for strokes—thrombosis, haemorrhage, and embo­
                                                           lism—are all, basically, the consequences of arterio­
                                                           sclerosis.
                                                                 Both the severity of stroke, comparing one case
                                                                                                      To page 33
                                                                                                                15
                                               Coring for Baby's leetb
                                                                           by LUCILLE J. GOODYEAR




B  aby's first tooth is a normal
     event. Occasionally a ba­
     by is born with a tooth.
In contrast, some parents have
                                   through in the spaces between
                                   the incisors and the molars.
                                   Four more molars appear be­
                                   hind the first ones, to com­
                                                                     baby is feverish or coughing,
                                                                     has prolonged loss of appetite
                                                                     or other signs of illness, his
                                                                     condition probably is not re­
to wait until the first birth­     plete the first set of twenty     lated to teething. It is best to
day or later to see the first      teeth. These are the baby, or     check for other causes.
tooth of their baby. Most          milk, teeth. They will be lost       It is easy to confuse teething
babies cut a tooth by seven        as the permanent teeth come       symptoms with the beginning
months. They have anywhere         in, starting about age five.      of a cold or an infection. In
from two to ten teeth by a         Any baby's teething pattern       teething you may notice red
year, with four to six as the      may take somewhat unusual         and swollen gums and be able
average.                           order, but it does not matter.    to feel the erupting tooth.
   Usually, but by no means        Merely remember that each         Teething symptoms usually
always, the first teeth to come    baby is different from all        disappear in three or four
out are the two centre teeth       others. Do not compare your       days.
of the lower jaw, and they are     baby's teething pattern with         To ease the baby's discom­
followed by four centre upper      that of your neighbour's baby.    fort while he is teething the
teeth. They are called incisors       Sometimes you do not know      best thing is to be patient and
because of their sharp cutting     that your baby is busy getting    loving with him, soothing him
edges, as you will know if you     a tooth until you are bitten      in every way you know how.
carelessly put your finger into    or hear the click of the spoon    Give him hard toasted bread,
the baby's mouth. He clamps        against the tooth. You may        or a teething ring of hard rub­
down, and you find out what        notice some excessive drool­      ber or plastic to bite down
incisor means.                     ing, but that may be due to       on. Be sure he does not chew
   After a pause of several        the fact that he is learning      on any articles that will break
months six more teeth will         how to control his saliva.        or splinter in his mouth.
erupt. The two remaining                                             Watch that he does not gnaw
lower incisors are followed by          Teething Symptoms            on wood that was finished
four molars. Although the             Often a baby becomes cross     with leadbased paint. If he
molars are truly grinding          and fretful, loses his appetite   awakens at night he may need
teeth, it will be some time        for a few days, or wakens at      a warm bottle to soothe him
before the child learns to use     night in fitful crying. He may    back to sleep.
them for this purpose.             suck his fingers, his fist, or      When the dijscomfort of
   Toward the second birth­        anything else he can get into     teething is over baby will eat
day four pointed teeth called      his mouth. Teething rarely        well during the day and not
canine, or dog, teeth come         accounts for an illness. If the   be fretful at night.
16                                                                    HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
   The health of gums and
teeth is directly connected
with the baby's diet. Even
while he is cutting baby teeth,
buds of his permanent teeth
are forming in his jaw. For
this reason, a diet providing
adequate amounts of vitamins
and minerals is important
throughout infancy. Such a
diet is assured by giving
plenty of fruits and vegetables.

  Healthy Teeth—Healthful
            Diet

   Sweet foods and beverages
cause the child to neglect es­
sential foods and start him out
on a habit of eating sweets. If
he munches on sweets he will
have little appetite for bal­
anced, nourishing meals. Do
not allow him to snack be­
tween meals.
   Although only the baby
teeth, are visible during the
first five or six years, the per­
manent teeth begin to form
soon after birth, and they are
nearly completed by the time
a child reaches school age.
   Whatever nourishment is
given the child during these
years is the building material
                      To page 31
                               17
                                      GENETIC
                                        AGAINST
                                    DISEASE-CARRIERS
                                                       by JEAN-MICHEL VAN GINDERTAEL




O      kpo is a little Burmese village about twelve purposes within hope of final victory. This was the
        miles north of Rangoon. Paddy fields, bamboo situation in regard to Culex fatigans on the eve of
        thickets, banana trees mark off its tropical Operation Okpo.
landscape. Like all the neighbouring villages and, for
that matter, like Rangoon, the capital, Okpo is a                         Genetic Approach
breeding ground for Culex pipiens fatigans, the
mosquito which transmits filariasis.                         For the first time man's knowledge of genetics
     This parasitic illness, unknown in temperate was to be used to bring to an end the apparently
countries, is a scourge in Burma. The mosquito's irresistible multiplication of the Culex fatigans, and
bite is not always fatal, but filariasis, by causing in fact, suppress it altogether in the area. The plan
elephantiasis and other conditions, has a particularly was of diabolical simplicity.
debilitating effect and many people who have the            Mosquitos are not all alike; even within one
disease find themselves quite unable to work. In species considerable differences exist. Brought to­
Rangoon alone, where inadequate systems have led gether, they can produce a new hybrid species—
to proliferation of this mosquito, a house-to-house unless a factor of incompatibility or sterility arises
survey in 1962 revealed that of 70,000 persons ex­ between the two groups. If so, existing members of
amined, 8,000 were infected. Up to 900 mosquitos the species will rapidly become extinct.
were captured per person per hour.                          As it turns out, the cytoplasm of the egg of
     At Okpo, as in the surrounding villages, the the Culex fatigans is incompatible with the sperm
mosquito reproduces very rapidly. There are never of certain other groups. The males couple normally
less than 4,000, and on certain days, when eggs with the females, but the latter lay infertile eggs.
hatch, up to 20,000 have been counted. Insecticides         Having identified the species that was to be eli­
of all types have been tried. They are effective minated, it was a question of finding (or rather of
enough to do away with most of the mosquitos, but the producing in the laboratory by judicious crossing)
few that survive are more than enough to ensure a the insect best equipped to produce the desired steril-
return to full numbers within a few months. The ity. To build up the insect that would spell extinction
battle by insecticide is, therefore, to all intents and for Culex fatigans, WHO experts brought together
18                                                                         HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
                                                           who had produced the DI, assumed the command.
                                                           WHO provided operational headquarters, under the
                                                           direction of Dr. Pal. With fifteen collaborators and
                                                           the participation of the local population, Dr. Laven
                                                           released hundreds of DI males in the traditional egg-
                                                           laying places. Similar numbers were released daily
                                                           during the next four weeks.
                                                                  At the end of that period, the percentage of
                                                           infertile eggs, i.e. those resulting from the DI coupl­
                                                           ings, totalled about 11.5 per cent. But as soon as lar­
                                                           ger numbers of DI—about 5,000 per day—became
                                                           available from the beginning of the fifth week, this
                                                           percentage rose rapidly, reaching 100 per cent after
                                                           twelve weeks of genetic saturation. Three months
                                                           later, corresponding to twelve generations of insects,
                                                            Culex fatigans had completely disappeared from
                                                           Okpo.
                                                                  What was done at Okpo, as a pilot project, can
                                                            be repeated elsewhere in Burma as well as in other
                                                            countries where filariasis occurs. There seems to be
                                                            no other problem than temporarily setting up the
                                                            necessary organization in the eradication area for
                                                            the release of the hybrids and for periodic checks, in
                                                            addition to the massive laboratory production of
                                                            sterilized males. The initial cost may seem high—it
                                                            amounts to millions of dollars for a single project,
  one variety which is particularly in Paris, another       which is far above the cost of buying and using the
  from Fresno, in California, in the United States of       usual insecticides. The genetic method, however, is
  America, and a third from Freetown,, in Sierra Leone.     absolute in its effects, while the classic methods offer
  The hybrid thus evolved incorporated the cytoplasm        only a temporary remedy.
, of the Parisian, and the chromosomes of the African              The genetic approach can be successfully used
  and American insects. The "DI" mosquito was born.         against other harmful species of mosquito. It is supple
       Laboratory tests were made with Culex fatigans       enough to allow for considerable variation, neces­
  collected in twenty-five localities in the Rangoon         sarily so in view of the fact that the mosquito re­
  area. After coupling with the DI insect, the Burmese      produces itself at such a rate—much more rapidly
  females failed to produce offspring. Then Culex           than the human "population explosion"—that we
  fatigans males and an equal number of DI males             would have to produce great quantities of the hy­
  were caged with Culex fatigans females. More active        brid (a ratio of ten hybrids to one native insect is
  and vigorous than the natural males, the DI hybrids        advocated) before being able to launch another
  gradually took the upper hand. Soon the popula­            operation of the Okpo type.
  tion of the cage was reduced to a very small number              In one large city in Southeast Asia there may
  of insects.                                                be as many as 5.7 thousand million Culex fatigans
                                                             mosquitos or about 15.5 million to the square kilo­
                         D.Day
                                                             meter.
       It was time to go over to local application. Pro­
 duction of DI mosquitos was stepped up, and a                                 Combined Attack
 quantity of males were brought to the "battlefield" of
 Okpo, chosen because of its isolation from the other
 villages infected with Culex fatigans. D-Day was                The genetic operation could be combined with
 fixed for February, when egg-laying is at its height.      a first attack with pesticides directed against the
 Dr. Laven, Director of the Genetics Institute at the       larvas, in order to reduce the insect population by
 Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany,           ninety-five per cent. A second insecticide attack
 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                                      19
could then be launched against adult mosquitos,             ample, to induce the production of a second genera­
bringing about a further reduction of ninety-five per       tion that is made up of males only or of which ninety
cent, which would leave a residue of only about             per cent are males. It is also possible to modify the
 15,000,000 to be eliminated by genetic methods. In        effects of certain other chromosomes, notably by radia­
three months the last survivors of the species could        tion, to produce insects that do not transmit a virus,
be expected to disappear, a result which would be          or that do not attack human beings.
impossible to achieve by the use of insecticides alone.          Also under study are the possibilities of extending
      It was by breeding and then releasing male in­       genetic manipulation to other mosquitos, such as
sects sterilized by gamma rays that scientists in the      Anopheles gambice, an important species of malaria
'50s succeeded in eliminating completely from the          mosquito and Aedtes aegypti, which spreads the viruses
southern United States of America the screw-worm           of yellow fever, dengue, and the haemorrhagic fevers.
fly which wreaked enormous havoc among livestock.          Against Aedes it may be possible to use radiation or
As at Okpo, the sterilized males coupled normally          chemosterilization while the insects are still at the
with untreated females who laid infertile eggs and         pupa stage.
did not couple a second time. In the course of the               Such are the prospects in these revolutionary
campaign, more than 50,000,000 sterilized flies were       experiments, which mark a turning point in the battle
bred each week; more than 2,000,000,000 were re­           against disease-transmitting insects. Genetic manipula­
leased in the space of eighteen months.                    tion should enable scientists not only to eradicate
                                                           harmful insects completely, but possibly also to provide
                  Chemosterilization                       the kind of ecological protection that pesticides often
                                                           lack, particularly when they are not properly selected
       It has also been suggested that the massive pro­    and are employed thoughtlessly.
duction of insects in the laboratory could be replaced
by chemosterilization, for certain chemical sterilizers                     Powdered Insecticides
either prevent the production of spermatozoids or
ovules, or kill them after they have been produced.               Examples of improper use of insecticides are,
Other sterilizers cause genetic lesions in the spermato­    unfortunately, not difficult to find. In 1944, for in­
zoids, which cannot then fertilize the ovules. Since        stances, huge doses of DDT were used to destroy the
the coupling process is itself unaffected, such males       simulium flies infesting a river in Ontario, Canada.
can compete normally with untreated males.                  Their natural enemies were annihilated as well. And
       Some experiments have been made with house-         since the flies re-established themselves much quicker
flies: efficient chemicals (tepa, metepa and ampho-         than their enemies, they were soon breeding at a rate
late) were mixed with food and reduced the egg-             seventeen times higher than before the use of DDT.
hatching coefficient to less than ten per cent. Such              In Borneo, powdered insecticide was spread in
sterilizers can also be powdered and spread on sur­        villagers' houses to combat malaria. But the insecti­
faces frequented by the insects.                           cide not only killed the mosquitoes—it also wiped
      Auto-chemosterilization is also possible. The in­     out the caterpillars that eat the Herculia moth. This
sects are lured by lighted traps, and as soon as they       moth eats thatch, and since it was now able to pro­
enter, are sterilized by tepa. They are freed by re­       liferate, considerable damage was done to many
versing the air current in the trap and return to their    homes.
habitat in a normal manner. In an experiment of this              In using genetic control methods one must be
type with Culex fatigans about ninety per cent were        careful not to create a vacuum in nature, which might
rendered sterile.                                          promptly be filled by something even more dangerous
                                                           than the creature originally attacked. Ideally, we
                    Other Methods                          should perhaps aim rather at some kind of "domesti­
                                                           cation" of the insects we are attacking today, re­
      Many other methods of attack are under study.        lieving them to their present role as transmitters of
They include the meiotic "push", in which advantage        disease, or even as simple irritants.
in taken of a genetic factor which causes a surplus of           Research in this field is undeniably long-term.
certain chromosomes in the reproductive cells. By the      Still, it is legitimate to hope that before the end of the
meiotic "push", chromosomes carrying harmful genes         century it will be crowned with success. If so, a new
can be transferred to the species in question. Among       page will have been turned in the story of human
certain varieties of mosquito, it is possible, for ex-     progress.                                             ***
20                                                                              HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
                                                    but up there where the rivers and streams
                                                    are fed by melting snows they contain very few
                                                    minerals; hence the lack of iodine. A friend
                                                    of mine who lived in New Zealand for some
                                                    time told me that a similar situation prevails
                                                    there. However, the government overcame the
                                                    deficiency by requiring that all household salt
                                                    sold must be fortified with iodine.
                                                        "Iron is another mineral that is an absolute
                                                    necessity for our well-being. A healthy adult
                                                    has about one tenth of an ounce of iron in his
                                                    body. Iron is the essential element of the
         Minerals and                               haemoglobin of the blood and if this is lacking
                                                    it leads to a condition known as anasmia. Un­
         "Life Mines"                                fortunately this is quite a common lack
                                                    among many women in India. For obvious
                                                     reasons women need a greater iron intake than
                                                    do men."
       Fourth ijn a series by Goldie M. Down
                                                           "Doctor gave me iron tablets to take
                                                    when baby was coming," volunteered Lalita
                                                    shyly.
      "How is your husband, Mrs. Sharma? Is
he feeling any better?"                                    "Yes, and you will need extra iron for as
      "Yes, thank you. Doctor says after an­        long as you are nursing the baby, Mrs. Prasad.
other few weeks in hospital he can come home         Perhaps that is why you have had some trou­
                                                     ble with feeding your little one.
and rest in bed. Tuberculosis takes a long time
to cure." Sushila ushered the dietitian to a                "In extreme cases of anaemia the doctor
chair.                                               will sometimes order injections, or liver extract
      "It does indeed." Mrs. Menon seated            which, is rich in iron. However, we can
herself and smiled at the other ladies who           usually obtain sufficient iron for our needs if
were waiting in the small room. "I am glad           we remember to have some iron-rich foods
that so mar-v of you are interested in learn­        every day. Legumes and whole-grain cereals,
ing how to preserve the health of your fami­         green leafy vegetables, egg yolk and raisins
lies. Today our subject is minerals and vita­        are all iron-rich foods."
mins. I have so much to say about them that                 "He gave me calcium tablets, too," re­
I had better begin right away or we won't            membered Lalita.
finish the subject today.                                   "Yes, calcium is the next mineral on my
      "First of all, we must realize that mineral     list. Calcium and phosphorous are usually
substances, although so minute a fraction of          grouped together because they have an
our diet, are exceedingly important. One sum­         especially important work to do in our bodies.
mer when we were holidaying in the Darjeel-           Can anyone tell me what it is?" Mrs. Menon
 ing area I was appalled by the number of             smiled expectantly at the group.
 residents with swollen necks: goitre caused                "Bones and teeth," said Sushila promptly.
by a deficiency of iodine in the thyroid gland.             "That's right. We have two or three times
 Normally we get sufficient iodine from the           as much calcium and phosphorous in our
 vegetables we eat and the water we drink,            bodies as all the rest of the minerals combined.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                         21
This is so because of our bony frame­                    prevented our blood from clotting and closing
work, but calcium and phosphorous are pre­               up the wound.
sent in other tissues as well. It is important                 "As far as phosphorous is concerned we
that pregnant women and nursing mothers                  usually take in enough of this mineral in our
have plenty of calcium and phosphorous in                normal diet, but to be on the safe side let me
their diet so that their children will have strong       tell you that whole-wheat flour (atta) con­
bones and teeth.                                         tains four times as much phosphorous as does
     "Who can tell me which one food has the             white flour (maze/a)."
most calcium in it?"                                           "Now there is another mineral that our
     There was a chorus of "Milk," and the               bodies need, a most essential mineral, but one
women giggled and looked pleased with them­              which most of us use too freely. And that is
selves as the dietitian nodded her approval.             sodium chloride—common salt."
     "Yes, milk has a high calcium content and                 Sushila grimaced, "But food would taste
so does cabbage, lettuce, celery and sag. Also           terrible without salt."
all legumes, nuts and dried fruit. But re­                     "Indeed it would," Mrs. Menon agreed.
member," Mrs. Menon held up a warning                    "In fact we would become ill if we did not
finger, "Never use milk that has not been                have sufficient salt, particularly in a hot cli­
boiled or pasteurized. Even if you own your              mate. But most of us use salt too freely. Try
own milk-animal be very careful about this.              cutting down a little on the family salt intake.
     "Calcium salts are necessary to make our            Too much salt aggravates a tendency towards
blood clot. The slightest cut could lead to              high blood pressure. One way of using less
serious loss of blood if a calcium deficiency            salt is by not putting it into food until the
                                                         food is almost cooked. In that way much less
                                                         salt is needed to give the same flavour to the
             Important Sources of Calcium                food."
                                                               "I'm afraid I'd forget to put it in at all
     Milk and Milk Products                 <g/100g.
      Milk, cow's .......................... 0.12
                                                         if I did that," commented Mrs. Thangappa.
      Milk, buffalo ........................ 0.21             The ladies all laughed and nodded their
      Milk, goat ........................... G.17
      Curd from cow's milk ................ 0.12         agreement and Mrs. Menon said, "And then
      Milk powder, skimmed ................ 1.37         your husbands would blame the dietitian."
      Milk powder, whole .................. 0.95
      Cheese       .......................... 0.79            When their laughter died away Mrs.
                                                         Menon continued, "There are several other
                                                         minerals that our bodies need, such as traces
     Pulses
                                                         of copper and cobalt, and zinc. Flourine also,
       Bengal gram dhal ....................      0.07
       Black gram dhal ......................     0.20   because it helps to prevent tooth decay. We
       Green gram dhal ....................       0.14   need scarcely worry about these 'trace ele­
       Red gram dhal ......................       0.14
                                                         ments' because the body needs so little of them
                                                         that the required amount is usually assimilated
     Nuts and oilseeds
                                                         from our normal foods. But never forget that
      Gingelly (sesame) seeds ..............      1.45
      Almond ..............................       0.23   minerals are needed in every cell of our bodies
                                                         and they are very important because they
     Note:   1. Milk, green leafy vegetables, ragi and
                 gingelly seeds are the most important   regulate so many of our body processes."
                 sources of calcium in the diet.              Mrs. Menon looked at her notebook and
             2. Rice is a poor source of calcium.
                                                         said, "Now we shall learn about vitamins. Do
                                                         you know that 'vita' is the Latin word for
22                                                                        HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE    1973
life? If we think of them as 'life-mines' that
will help us to remember that these substances           Important Sources of Phosphorus
are also most essential to our health and well-
being.                                              Milk and Milk Product                 6/100g.
       "It was only in the beginning of this         Milk, cow's .......................... 0.09
                                                     Milk, buffalo ........................ 0.13
century that the importance of these mysteri­        Milk powder, skimmed ................ 1.00
ous substances was recognized. Even yet              Milk powder, whole .................. 0.73
                                                     Cheese ............................... 0.52
scientists feel that they have more to learn
about vitamins.                                     Cereals
      "A number of vitamins have been isolated        Rice, raw, home-pounded ..............      0.21
                                                      Rice, raw, milled ....................      0.11
and their work studied. It has been found             Rice, parboiled, home
that vitamins are necessary for growth and              pounded ...........................       0.22
                                                      Rice, parboiled, milled ................    0.17
reproduction, for nervous stability, and also         Wheat, whole ........................       0.32
they help our bodies to resist infection.             Wheat flour (Maida) ................        0.09
       "Let's begin with vitamin A. This one
                                                      Bajra (Cambu) ......................        0.35
is needed for normal growth and development           Barley ...............................      0.23
 and to give a healthy skin tone. It is also good     Cholam (Jowar) ......................       0.28
 for the eyes and prevents night blindness. It        Italian millet ........................     0.29
                                                      Maize (Corn) ........................       0.33
 is found abundantly in milk, cream, egg yolk         Oatmeal        ........................     0.38
and liver."                                           Ragi           ........................     0.27
                                                      Rice, raw, husked ....................      0.23
       "Then how do vegetarians get any vita­
 min A?" Sushila looked perplexed.                  Pulses
       "That is simple, Mrs. Sharma. Although         Bengal gram dhal ....................       0.31
                                                      Black gram dhal ......................      0.37
 active vitamin A is not found in plant foods,        Cow gram ............................       0.49
 there is a substance called "Pro-vitamin A"          Field bean, dry ......................      0.45
                                                      Green gram dhal ....................        0.28
 which is found abundantly in green and yellow        Horse gram ..........................       0.39
 fruits and vegetables. Carotene is this pro­         Lentil (Masur dhal) ..................      0.25
 vitamin A. It is a yellow pigment found in           Peas, dried ...........................     0.30
                                                      Red gram dhal ......................        0.26
 carrots, pumpkin, mangoes and other such             Soya bean ............................      0.69
 yellow fruits and vegetables. It is found in
                                                    Nuts and Oilseeds
 dark-green vegetables too, but the green
                                                     Almond ..............................        0.49
 chlorophyll masks the yellow pigment. If you        Cashewnut ...........................        0.45
 eat plenty of green and yellow vegetables and       Coconut, fresh ........................      0.24
                                                     Gingelly (sesame) seeds ..............       0.57
 fruits you will get sufficient vitamin A."          Groundnut ...........................        0.39
        "What about papaya?" asked Mrs.
                                                    Flesh Foods
  Thangappa.
                                                      Egg, hen's ...........................      0.22
        "Yes, papaya and yellow melons contain        Egg, duck's ..........................      0.26
  vitamin A."                                         Fish         ..........................     0.41
        "I heard that during the last war the         Mutton       ..........................     0.24
                                                      Liver, sheep ..........................     0.38
  night pilots were fed on plenty of raw car­
 rots so they could see better in the dark,"        Note:   1. Most of the common foodstuffs are
  giggled Lalita.                                               rich in phosphorus.
          "I heard that also and I believe it               2. The phosphorus present in milk and
                                                                animal foods is avstilable to a greater
  was true. Now let us consider vitamin B which                 extent than that present in cereals,
  is a most important and complex substance. I                  pulses, nuts, and oilseeds.
  say complex, because so far there have been
 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                              23
twelve of its elements isolated. This one is es­ of thiamine can lead to serious nerve disorders
pecially important to us in India because our and other complications.
white rice diet is deficient in vitamin Bi known             "Just remember that it is easily obtained
as thiamine. In grains this thiamine is con­ by using whole-grains, oatmeal, dried peas and
centrated in the outer layers, the 'skin' of the beans, and groundnuts. Milk and yeast also
grain. That is why unpolished rice and contain quantities of vitamin Bi. Sometimes
whole-wheat flour are much better for health doctors will order a course of yeast tablets for
than polished rice and refined white flour.            nerve and skin disorders.
     ''Vitamin Bi is the nerve vitamin which                 "Next we come to vitamin C, which also
helps us maintain our nervous stability. Lack has another name, 'Ascorbic acid.' This vita­
                                                       min helps our body cells to use oxygen. Lack
                                                       of vitamin C quickly leads to loosened teeth,
              Important Sources of Iron                bleeding gums and stiff, sore body joints.
    Cereals                                mg./lOOg.   Dietitians call vitamin C the 'fresh food vita­
      Bajra (Cambu) ......................       8.8   min' because it is found so abundantly in
      Jowar (Cholam) ......................      6.2
      Ragi     ..............................    5.4   foods newly plucked. All citrus fruits such as
      Rice, raw, milled ....................      2.8  oranges, limes, sweet limes, pomelo and grape­
      Rice, raw, home-pounded ..............     3.6
      Rice, raw, husked ....................     4.5   fruit contain plenty of vitamin C. So do toma­
      Rice, parboiled, milled ................   3.2  toes, guavas, cabbage, shalgum and capsicum
      Wheat, whole ........................       5.3  (green peppers).
    Pulses                                                  "I am glad to see that you are taking note
      Bengal gram dhal ....................      8.9  of these foods," commented Mrs. Menon as
      Black gram dhal ......................     9.8
      Green gram dhal ......................     8.4  she watched the ladies busily scribbling on
      Horse gram ..........................      7.6  scraps of paper that Sushila tore from a note­
      Peas, dried ..........................     4.4
      Red gram dhal ......................       8.8
                                                       book. "I think it would be a good idea if
      Soya bean ........................... 11.3      you were to each buy an exercise book and
                                                      keep your notes and recipes safely in it.
   Miscellaneous foods
      Betel leaves ..........................    5.7        '"Now the last vitamin that is important
     Jaggery .............................. 11.4      to us is vitamin D and there is no lack of that
   Nuts and Oilseeds
                                                      here in India. Our bodies manufacture the
     Cashewnut ...........................       5.0  vitamin D they need by absorbing the sun's
     Gingelly (sesame) seeds .............. 10.5      rays that fall upon our skin. Lack of sunshine
     Groundnut ...........................       1.6
                                                      causes a condition known as rickets; the bones
   Green leafy vegetables                             are soft and deformed. Growing children and
      Amaranth, tender .................... 21.4
      Coriander leaves ...................... 10.0    nursing mothers need plenty of this sunshine
      Fenugreek leaves ..................... 16.9     vitamin. In the far north and other places
     Mint ................................ 15.6       where it is not so sunshiny the lack often has
     Spinach ..............................      5.0
                                                      to be supplied by taking cod-liver and other
   Other vegetables                                   fish oils which are rich in vitamin D."
     Bitter gourd ..........................     9.4
     Cluster beans ........................      5.8        "Are these all the vitamins?" asked Lalita
     Tomato, green ........................      2.4  stretching her cramped fingers.
   Flesh Foods                                              "They are the most important ones, or
     Egg, hen's ............................     2.1  perhaps I should say the main ones that we
     Fish          ..........................    2.3
     Liver, sheep ..........................     6.3  need to know about. All vitamins are impor­
     Mutton           ........................   2.5  tant to our health. Now I shall give you some
                                                      hints as to the best way to use foods so that
24                                                                   HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
you get the maximum mineral and vitamin              simple salad dressing because it makes the raw
content from them.                                   vegetables ever so much more interesting."
     "My first suggestion is that you use as
many raw vegetables and fruits as possible.                              SALAD     DRESSING
Cooked fruit always needs sugar or some                  2   tablespoons white flour
other sweetening agent added to make it                  2   teaspoons sugar
                                                         1   teaspoon salt
palatable, and that in itself lessens our vitamin        2   tablespoons oil
intake. Use raw fruit without seasoning of any          34
                                                        /    cup milk
                                                         4   tablespoons lime juice
kind. Eat it well ripened but not overripe.
                                                          Heat oil, flour( sugar and salt and stir well- Take off
      "Salads are the best way of eating raw         fire and add milk to make a thick sauce. Return to fire and
vegetables and the variety of salads is only         boil. When cool add lime juice and beat well.
bound by your imagination. Every kind of
                                                                        FRENCH DRESSING
raw vegetable can be combined to make a
tossed salad....."                                         2 tablespoons oil (not mustard oil)
                                                           1 tablespoon lime or lemon juice
      "What about potatoes and pumpkin?"                 1/2 teaspoon salt
broke in Mrs. Thangappa jokingly.                          Beat with a fork until thick, or put all into a covered
                                                     jar and shake well. I      like to add a few drops of garlic
      Mrs. Menon smiled. "I know of one              juice-

dietitian who does use slivers of raw potato in
a salad but I am not recommending you do                   "Now before I go, here are a few hints
that. Shredded cabbage; grated carrot; shal-         for retaining the vitamins and minerals when
gum or radish; diced tomatoes and cucumbers;         vegetables are cooked.
a handful of tender uncooked green peas                    1. Scrub the vegetables clean and cook
or thin slices of string beans or cauliflower        them unpeeled. If necessary to peel them do
flowerettes; seasoned with chopped onion,            it very thinly as the vitamins are mostly found
spring onions or leeks; and mixed with salad         close to the skin of the vegetable. With vege­
dressing makes a wonderfully crisp and               tables like cho-cho, pumpkin, squash, carrots
healthful tossed salad.                              etc. the cooked peel can safely be eaten.
      "Or you can make a salad simply with                 2. Never peel the vegetables and leave
grated carrots and cabbage and spring onions.        them to soak in water for hours before using.
 Or grated carrot and shredded coconut. Or           Prepare vegetables whether for cooking or
 tomatoes, onions and cucumbers chopped and          salad, just before using them.
 mixed together. Lettuce and celery make                   5. Use as little water as possible and
 delicious additions to a salad but are not avail­   have it boiling before the vegetables are put
 able in all parts of India."                        into it. Boil vegetables with the lid on the
      "You have not mentioned beetroot. Isn't        pot. Do not waste the water in which vege­
 that a salad vegetable?"                            tables are cooked. Use it in soups, gravies or
       "Yes. It can be grated and eaten raw,          curries or drink it—this is known as 'vitality
 seasoned with salt and lime juice. Or it can        soup.'
 be boiled, peeled and sliced and eaten with               4. Add salt a few minutes before the
 dressing or lime juice. Of course it can also be    cooking process is complete.
 used as a hot vegetable. The reason I did not             5. Do not overcook. Slightly under-done
 mention it in with the list of tossed salad in­     is better than over-done vegetables.
 gredients is because the red juice of the beets           6. Keep the pieces of vegetable as large
 discolour the whole salad and make it look un­       as possible—there is less waste of vitamins and
  appetizing. Now I want you to copy down this        minerals.                                   ***
 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                                    25
     The Body's
      I   oday we hear a great deal
          about national defence. The
          nations of the world spend
       crores to provide defence for
                                           into his field—all without ef­
                                           fect.
                                              Finally the planter reluc­
                                           tantly followed the advice of
       their countries against inva­      a neighbour and sprinkled the
       sion by enemies. This article      plants near the crossing with
      deals with another kind of          poison. The next morning
      defence—defence        of     the   when he visited the field he
      human body.                         discovered how indifferent a
          The marvels of the human        sprayer he had been. The deer
      body defence system are be­         had been over the entire
       yond the concept of the            sprayed area, taken every leaf
      human mind. The only price          he had failed to spray, and
      we pay is to become familiar        ignored every leaf that had on
      with and obey the laws of           it even a drop of the poison.
      health.                                "If those deer in my field
          It has been said that man       had had no more restraint
      is his own worst enemy. This        about eating than some people
      is because he is prone to violate   have, not one would have
      the laws of his being, unlike       crossed the .. . fence," the
      the lower animals. This neglect     planter said.
      is well illustrated in a story         The lower animals have an
      told by Archibald Rutledge,         instinct to guard them. When
      nature writer, on page 47 of        they are left in their natural
      his book Peace in the Heart.        environment they follow that
      Deer had been invading a re­        instinct. Although man has
      cently established field of a       power to discern between right
      cotton planter and destroying       and wrong and a will to make
      the crop by eating the leaves       the right decision, far too of­
      of the tender plants. The plan­     ten he fails to exercise that
      ter had tried to frighten them      power, and following his in­
      away by ringing a bell at times     clination, makes the wrong
      during the night, by tying an       decision.
      old hound near the field, and          Fortunately, the vital or­
      by raising the low place in his     gans, systems, and processes
      fence where the deer crossed        of man are placed under the
26                                         HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE   1973
by H. W. VOLLMER, M.D.




Defence System
control of the autonomic (in­         germs. The blood serum con­         ready have made an antiseptic
voluntary) nervous system,            tains immunizing agencies that      application. When, because of
which operates without man's          have been provided by the           lowered body resistance, the
direction. The defence system         tonsils, adenoids, and other        white blood cells are unable
of the body is under this con­        lymphoid tissues.                   to cope with the infection, it
trol.                                     No sooner does infection        enters the lymph channels.
                                      take place than the body be­        The invasion is indicated by
      First Line of Defence           comes the scene of battle.          a red line extending along the
                                       Nature sets about to build a       lymph channels beneath the
      Among the first lines of de­     defence and repair the dam­        skin, revealing threatening
  fence is the skin. The normal        age. Extra blood carrying          blood poisoning (septicaemia),
  unbroken skin is a barrier           white blood cells is sent to the    a serious condition that might
  against invasion by disease          part. They are called phago­        end in death.
  germs and viruses, which are         cytes. The body temperature
  everywhere present. As soon          is increased, and fever be­                Lymph Glands
  as the skin is punctured, cut,       comes a part of the body de­
  or broken, germs have easy           fence mechanism by stimulat­          Here again we have another
  access. Another line of defence      ing the defence processes of       line of defence, the lymph
  is the normal secretions of the      the body and destroying the        glands. In the arm they are in
  body. Even the tears, which          poisons produced by the            the bend of the elbow and in
  wash foreign bodies and germs        germs. However, it is impor­       the armpit (axilla). Lymph
  from the eyes, serve in this line    tant that the fever be kept        glands are also strategically
  of defence. The most effective        under control. This is best ac­   located in other parts of the
   line of defence is found in the      complished by means of a          body—the neck, the groin, and
   blood and lymphatic systems.         cool sponge bath.                 behind the knee—to cope with
      The lymphatic system is              Injury to the skin (cuts,      infection in each area.
   made up of the tonsils, ade­        punctures, or scratches) on           The lymph glands (nodes)
   noids, lymph glands and other        hand or arm is a prime illus­     consist of a network of con­
   lymphoid tissues, and the            tration of this principle. Im­    nective tissue fibres in which
   lymph channels that connect          mediately extra blood is sent      are white blood cells, whose
   with the blood vessels in            to the part, and the white         function is to destroy invad­
   strategic places. In the blood       blood cells begin their protec­    ing germs. If this line of de­
   are the white blood cells,           tive action against any germs      fence fails, the germs or viruses
   which form an important part         or viruses that might invade       enter the lymph channels
. of the body defence system in         the body by way of the wound.      above the lymph nodes. There
    the destruction of disease          The injured person should al­      the     white blood cells
  HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                            27
  continue their work. If they                                         against the particular kind of
  still are not able to overcome         Whenever the body is in­      infection.
  the disease germs, the germs        vaded by germs or viruses it        In such diseases as measles,
                                      becomes the scene of battle.
  enter the blood stream. The         The white blood cells are in­    permanent immunity is ef­
  resulting condition is known        creased, and they quickly        fected. For this reason tonsils
  as blood poisoning.                 enter upon their work.           and adenoids should not be re­
     This serious complication                                         moved unless they are so
 often can be prevented or                                             badly diseased that they have
 overcome by the use of hydro-      parts, and the epsom salts ex­     become a menace to the body
 therapy promptly applied.          tract water from the tissues       and thus offset any benefit
 Water treatments assist the        and reduces swelling, thereby      they might furnish against in­
 body in its work of defence.      lessening pain.                     fectious disease. This principle
 For this treatment use two            The compress consists of        holds true especially in chil­
 tubs or basins that can accom­    three or four layers of gauze       dren. It has been found that
 modate the part to be treated.    or soft cloth wrung from the       removing the tonsils and ade­
 In one put water as hot as can    saturate solution of epsom         noids unnecessarily reduces
 be borne and in the other put     salts until the water no longer     resistance to certain virus in­
 ice water. Add hot water and      drips. Wrap it around the part      fections such as poliomyelitis.
 ice from time to time during      and cover with plastic or other       There are various kinds of
 the treatment to keep up the      covering to shut out the air       white blood cells, each having
 extremes of temperature.          and prevent evaporation.           a particular function to per­
     In case of infection in the   Then cover the whole part          form. Of them the neutrophils
 hand or arm, immerse the part     with a flannel cloth and pin it    and the lymphocytes are the
 in hot water for two or three     snugly. Cover the arm to the       most numerous. The neutro­
 minutes, then in ice water for    shoulder.                          phils protect the body against
 twenty to thirty seconds. Re­        This treatment should not       invasion by germs. The lymp­
 peat this procedure for twenty    lead you to neglect getting the    hocytes build up immunity
 to thirty minutes, finishing      counsel of a physician, who        against germs. Another kind
 with the cold. Repeat the         may see fit to prescribe medi­     of white blood cell removes
 treatment every three or four     cation, such as antibiotics.       the many dead and dying
 hours, depending on the                                              white blood cells that have
severity of the case.                   Testing Laboratory            been destroyed during the
    Alternate hot and cold ap­                                        process of defence. Thus the
plications increase the flow of       The tonsils and adenoids,       body is aided in its recovery
blood through the part, bring­     located as they are, serve as      and its building back to
ing extra white blood cells to     a testing laboratory for air,      health.
do their work. The cold in­        food, and water taken into the
creases the number of white        body. Germs or viruses are                Scene of Battle
blood cells in the circulation.    taken into the crypts of the
    Between treatments apply a     tonsils and adenoids. Those          Whenever the body is in­
compress moistened with a          organs react by producing          vaded by germs or viruses it
saturate solution of epsom         antibodies or immunizing           becomes the scene of battle.
salts. The compress prolongs       agencies, which are taken up       The white blood cells are in­
the effect of the immersion        by the blood and carried to        creased, and they quickly
bath by maintaining the blood      different parts of the body.       enter upon their work. Al­
flow through the affected          These     antibodies   protect     though germs and viruses
28                                                                     HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
multiply fast, the neutrophils     let it remain in place until the          the routine tests on all ward
speedily destroy them. If body     heat is spent. Follow the hot             urines every morning before I
resistance is adequate, the        pack with the cold application,           became involved with work proper.
battle is won.                     which may be in the form of                  "Being extra conscientious I
                                                                             went the whole way with every
    In the person who has          a cloth wrung from ice water
                                                                             test, not realizing that a large
lowered resistance against dis­    and quickly rubbed up and                 number were checked for only one
ease germs and viruses, the        down the spine two or three               or two abnormal components. I
number of white blood cells is     times. In some cases if the               seemed to spend half my life boil­
below normal. This fact is         patient can tolerate cold,                ing urine!"
indicated by a low white cell      wrap a smooth piece of ice in                But    times    have    certainly
count, especially of the neu-      a wet cloth and use it. Follow            changed, and today the same five
                                                                             tests can be effectively and simul­
trophil cell count. The patient    the cold immediately by the
                                                                             taneously carried out in approxi­
becomes weak and tired, the        next hot application, until               mately sixty seconds.
pulse rapid, and there may be      they have all been given.
chills and fever.                  Always finish with the cold
                                                                                   Streamlining the Tests
    The physician measures         in this treatment.
body resistance by a frequent          Give the cold mitten friction            An up-and-coming American
count of white blood cells. If      with mitts made of coarse                organization initially became in­
the white cells are not in­         cloth. Dip the mitt into ice             terested in formulating a simple,
creased in proportion to the        water and apply it with brisk            straight-forward test for diabetics.
 severity of the infection, in­     friction to each part of the             As every person with this disabil­
 dicating low resistance, he        body consecutively, beginning            ity knows, it is imperative to test
                                                                             your own urine for sugar regularly.
 promptly begins proper re­         with the arms. Keep the
                                                                              In severe cases, this may be re­
 medial measures to increase        patient covered except for the           quired two or three times per day.
 body resistance. A low red         part that is being treated. Dry              The old method involved boil­
 cell blood count suggests poor     each part thoroughly and                 ing urine in a test tube with a blue-
 nutrition. Blood-building and      cover it before proceeding to            coloured reagent over a Bunsen
 protective foods including         the next part. If the patient            burner or methylated spirit flame
                                    cannot endure the ice water,             for several minutes. If sugar
 vitamin Bi2 are needed.
                                                                              was present (indicating that the
    An excellent treatment to       then use cold tap water until
                                                                              disease was getting out of control),
 increase body resistance con­      he is able to react to the ex­            the solution turned a different col­
 sists of a hot foot bath and at    treme cold.                  ***          our. The depth of the colour indi­
 the same time three or four                                                  cated the approximate percentage
 alternate hot and cold appli­                                                of sugar present. This gave some
                                    SIMPLE NEW WAYS TO PICK                   idea of the extent of the disease. In
 cations to the spine, followed
                                    DISEASE                                   turn, this regulated the subsequent
 by brisk cold mitten friction.                                               dosage of "insulin", to reverse the
 The hot and cold applications      From page 2                               entire situation.
 (fomentations) and the cold                                                     Regular testing became a
 mitten friction serve to im­       of several chemicals; perhaps fil-        burden to many, particularly those
 prove the circulation of the       tering, boiling, re-filtering, further    in the older age groups. The result
 blood and increase the number      addition of test chemicals, and a         was that thousands just didn't
 of white blood cells, thus         final observation and the recording       bother to carry out their tests reg­
                                    of the results.                           ularly. Disaster, of course, was
 strengthening the body de­                                                   almost inevitable.
                                       A doctor said to me recently,
 fence.                             "When I was a resident in hospital  The first note of progress came
     Use the hot application in     in the early 1950X * collected the when the clumsy solution system
  the form of a hot pack, and       shocking job of having to perform was replaced by a little tablet. This
 HERALD Or HEALTH, JUNE 1973.                                                                            29
was dropped into the urine. Bub­        patches at the far end, each sepa­            Other simple urine tests are
ble, bubble, bubble. The tablet         rated by a short clear space. The          also available which rapidly indi­
contained its own reagents, and         operator has merely to dip this            cate the presence of specific germ
also generated sufficient heat to       into a specimen of urine, and              invasion of the urinary tract.
boil the solution. Within a few         presto! the results rattle out
minutes, without aid of flame or                                                      Blood fzecal contents, and the
                                        within sixty seconds. The colours
fire, the results were obvious.                                                    measure of usual components in
                                        on the test pads are matched
   This was universally hailed as                                                  persons with jaundice (for exam­
                                        against a printed colour chart, and
a tremendous advance. Even the                                                     ple, in infectious hepatitis) are
                                        within moments the presence or
                                                                                   also currently available.
uninterested souls of a past era sud­   absence of abnormal constituents
denly sparked back to life with the     is noted and recorded. If the re­             Laboratory workers and practis­
"new toy."                              sult is positive in any instance, the      ing pathologists tend to regard the
   Impressed with the striking suc­     depth of colour (also compared             new dip tests with contempt. "They
cess of their product, the makers       to the chart) indicates the approxL        are not accurate enough," some
forged ahead with even greater          mate severity.                             stoutly declare.
zeal. Why not make more refine­
                                                                                      "There is nothing like doing the
ments?                                               Blood Tests                   tests the way they were meant to
          The "Dip Test"                                                           be done. . . and that is by proper
                                           Once the urine test became              laboratory assay. This way you
                                        firmly established, other fields           obtain an absolutely correct re­
   Finally, they came up with their
clincher: The "Dip Test". This          were gradually tapped. Blood was           sult. There is no hanky-panky
                                        the next on the list.                      guesswork about it, and there is
now forms the basis of an impres­
sive series of tests currently avail­       Simple measures for accurate           not nearly the same room for
                                         assessments of the blood for abnor­       error as with the dip tests."
able.
   It consists of a short piece of       mal components, or naturally pres­
absorbent paper about three              ent components in unhealthy,
inches long and one eighth of an         quantities, had never existed pre­               A Reasonable Guide
inch wide. Located at the far end        viously. But with the new dip tests,
is a tiny pad impregnated with           it soon became a simple matter for           Perhaps so, but the dip tests
various "enzymes"; these are speci­      the physician to estimate the             offer a simple and quick screening
fic chemicals that are sensitive to      amount of sugar actually circu­           method for the population at
various abnormal urinary com­           lating in the blood stream. This           large. If the dip indicates that an
ponents. Sugar, for example, if          test also took sixty seconds to carry     abnormality is present, it is com­
present, will suddenly turn the          out.                                      mon to have the test re-done
test patch a brilliant colour within        TKe latest newcomer to the field       by a pathologist in the standard
the incredibly short period of ten       is the ability to measure the             way in order to secure reliable
seconds.                                amount of urea circulating in the          figures on which future therapy
   So instead of tablets, the stick     blood stream, a vital test in check­       is based.
dip swung into wide use. The next       ing kidney function. As with all
natural sequence of events was to       the others, this, too, is a sixty-second      The simple tests provide a
locate enzymes similarly sensitive      procedure.                                 reasonable guide, and before their
to the other abnormal urinary                                                      introduction, simple measures for
                                           The idea soon spread around, and
products. Bit by bit these were                                                    mass screening were just not avail­
                                        other firms started producing spe­
developed, and specific dip tests       cific tests along similar lines in an      able.
were made available for each one.       effort to diagnose other diseases             True, the ultimate has not been
   Finally, the whole urinary test      readily. A test is now available for       reached. But the new dip tests rep­
problem became wrapped up in            infectious mono-nucleosis, com­            resent a valuable forward advance
one simple "kit." The elongated         monly known as glandular fever.            on the currently available means
piece of absorbable paper was           This had often been difficult to           of mass screening of the population
replaced with unbiquitous plastic.      diagnose, and involved a tedious,          for sinister, underlying disease.
Now, a clear plastic strip has been     time-consuming laboratory man­             Who knows, but one day you may
designed, with five individual test     oeuvre.                                    be the person to benefit.      ***
30                                                                                  HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
CARING FOR BABY'S TEETH           Shake it well and allow it to          off taking him until he has a
                                  dry for the next use. Thus at          toothache or other dental
From page 17                      each use the bristles will be          problem. Make his first visit
                                  firm and efficient. A soft, limp       a time for him and the dentist
                                  or wet, soggy brush does not           to get acquainted and become
for his adult teeth. It is no
                                  do a good job.                         friends. Later on the dentist
wonder that doctors and den­
                                     Teach your child to                 may clean his teeth, look for
tists emphasize a diet adequate
                                  brush the chewing surfaces             crooked and crowded teeth, or
in minerals and vitamins for
                                  and the insides and outsides of        see whether the top and bot­
toddlers.
                                  both upper and lower teeth.            tom teeth meet properly.
   Do not neglect your baby's     Direct him to brush his teeth             From time to time, look into
first teeth because you know      in the direction that they grow.       your child's mouth. Check the
he has another set coming. All    Brush upper teeth down and             condition of his teeth. If some­
his teeth are important, in­      lower teeth up.                        thing appears wrong, take him
cluding his baby teeth. The          When your child has all his         to the dentist. Prevention of
presence of the first teeth helps baby teeth it is time for him          tooth troubles is far better
to form a proper jaw line.         to visit the dentist. Do not put      than cure.                   ***
They hold the space for per­
manent teeth and guide them
 into place. The child's bite, or
 occlusion of the teeth, is deter­
mined largely by heredity, but
premature loss of baby teeth
can alter it seriously. There­ Bread-hole Eggs                       Fraying Cuffs
fore, baby teeth should be
cared for by a dentist if decay      Bread-hole eggs are a favourite  .To prevent trouser cuffs from
appears or if a tooth is chipped with children, and a child can fraying on the edge, stitch two
or broken by an accident.          often be induced to eat an egg small buttons inside the cuff at the
                                   this way when he or she would         bottom of each trouser leg one inch
                                   normally refuse. Use a large, round   either side of the crease. The but­
       Brushing Begins             biscuit cutter to remove the centre   tons will stop the fabric from rub­
                                   from a slice of bread. Brown on       bing against the shoes.
   When your child is about        one side in butter. Now slip a raw
two years old, begin teaching      egg into the centre hole. Turn
                                                                         Tick of Clock
him how to brush his teeth.        and brown the other side of bread
                                   and egg, adding more butter as
Have him brush after every                                                 Many people dislike the noise of
                                   needed. Brown the round centre
meal. He may need help and                                               a clock ticking in the bedroom
                                   piece also. Children love to call
supervision until he is six or                                           while they are trying to sleep. To
                                   this part "the lid" which is placed
                                                                         minimize the noise, place the clock
seven years old, but it is a       on top of the cooked egg and
                                                                         on a piece of foam sponge, and
good habit to begin early.         bread just prior to being served.
                                                                         peaceful rest is assured.
   Buy him two small tooth­        Satisfaction is guaranteed.
brushes. Get them with a flat
                                   (Coat Hangers                         Perspiration Odour
brushing surface and medium
stiff bristles. Use them alter­       If wooden clodies-hangers devel­
                                   op cracks or surface roughness          To remove the odour of under­
nately for brushing his teeth.     which might do damage, smooth         arm perspiration from woollens,
After each use, wash the brush     them with a coat of finger-nail       sponge with lemon juice and water
 under cold running water.         polish.                               and hang garment in the air.
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                              31
                                                                     The


                                               This counselling service is open to regular subscribers only. In reply to questions, no attempt
                                          will be made to treat disease or to take the place of a regular physician. Questions to which
                                          personal answers are desired must be accompanied by addressed and stamped envelopes. Annony-
                                          mous questions will not be attended to. Address all correspondence to: The Doctor Advises, Post
                                          Box 35, Poona 411001.




               Red Eyes From Swimming                               and soles do not have oil glands, because there are no
                                                                    hairs on them. On the nose and the blush area of the
     My children, after swimming several hours in a pool            cheeks the oil sacs are large. The wide openings around
have bloodshot eyes, or at least the whites of their eyes           the tiny invisible hairs from which the oil exudes are
seem red and inflamed. Is it the chlorine in the pool               the cause of much dismay among women with enlarged
that irritates the eye, and if so, will it do permanent             pores.
damage?                                                                   Under normal conditions of health the oil glands
                                                                    give off just enough oil to grease the skin and the hair
      Fresh water, whether chlorinated or not, will pro­            lightly. If conditions are not normal, too much oil comes
duce irritation or reddening of the eye of swimmers if              out. It gives a shine to the skin and an unwelcome feel­
they are exposed long enough. This is because that salt             ing of greasiness. There are periods in life when
concentration of water is different from that of the                extra activity is to be expected. Adolescence is a period
tissue of the eye. Also, direct action on the eye of chlo­          of such extra activity. It is the time when all the secret­
rine, when it is present causes reddening. Some swim­               ing glands are busy, and the oil sacs share in the activity.
mers are very sensitive to chlorine and should not                        It is normal during adolescence to have oiliness of
swim in chlorinated pools.                                          complexion and scalp. It precedes pimples and black­
      Chlorine is used to destroy bacteria with which               heads. Everyone with pimples and blackheads has an
swimmers contaminate the water. Too high a concen­                  oily complexion and scalp. If the oil dries on the scalp
tration will cause irritation of the eye; too low a con­            it is called dry dandruff.
centration will fail to protect against the hazards of in­
fection.                                                                                  Ventilation at Night
     To date there are no reports of permanent eye in­
jury resulting from the presence of chlorine in swim­                   / sleep better with the window open at night, but my
ming-pool water.                                                   wife thinks it's ridiculous during the winter. What should
                                                                   I do?
                        Oily Skin
                                                                         Conditions under which one "person sleeps well may
     / have too much oil on my skin. My skin is always
                                                                   differ from those of another. Some are light sleepers,
shiny. Is there anything I can do for this?
                                                                   while others are heavy sleepers. Some get chilled if they
      If you have too much oil in your skin you have a             feel the air moving over them, while others enjoy the
greasy complexion. It is interesting to know what causes           wind blowing. Some like to sleep cold, while others pcrfer
this oiliness. There are two important sets of glands in           to be warm. The patterns of going to bed and to sleep
skin oil. One set is only partly responsible for the excess        may become quite a ritual.
oil. It deals with perspiration. The second set of glands is            During sleep, some rather significant physiological
directly responsible for the skin oil.                             changes occur within the body. Muscles relax and the
      Oil glands are found only where there are hairs.             basal metabolic rate (the level at which the body burns
Even tiny white baby hairs have oil glands. The palms              food-fuel and therefore releases energy) is reduced. As
32                                                                                             HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
a result the body temperature drops. The heart beats more        sugar intake. Elimination for a while of all refined sugar,
slowly; with a decrease in blood pressure, breathing is          large use of fruits and vegetables, plenty of water (one
slower, and there is less secretion from almost all glands.      glass for every fifteen pounds you weigh, sunlight on the
The body generally goes into a state of reduced functional       involved areai, thorough cleanliness, and balanced exer­
activity, and in a quiet, dark environment generally sleep       cise and rest will build you up and will help prevent boils
comes.                                                           and speed up their healing.
      The question as to whether the window should be
open or closed hinges on whether there is adequate cir­
culation of the air in the sleeping room. In summer or
hot climates, where the temperature inside and outside
the home is approximately the same, there will be very           WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT STROKES
little air movement even when the window is open. In
winter or in cold climates there may be a wide difference
                                                                 From page 15
between the temperature inside the bedroom and outside
the house (high temperature gradient). When this is so,
cold air, which is denser, attempts to enter and mix with        with the others, and the symptoms which result vary a
the warm air. Loose-fitting windows and doors, even when         great deal. If it is a tiny blood vessel within the brain
closed, may permit a free circulation of air.                    that is obstructed, the area of damage will be small
                                                                 and the episode may go almost unnoticed. Perhaps
                   Those Liquid Diets                            there will be a slight headache, a little dizziness, or
                                                                 a brief feeling of faintness; but these may, soon clear
     Are liquid diets nutritionally balanced, and how suc­       up, and the person will^ not know that he has had a
cessful have they been in helping to achieve weight loss?        stroke.
                                                                      But if it is a large vessel that is obstructed or that
     These types of diet are not a reasonable approach           bursts, the symptoms may, appear suddenly, they may
to the problem of weight control. Although their nutrient
                                                                 be incapacitating, and the patient's survival may be
content for a single meal is satisfactory, it is not desirable
to use them as a total diet. No studies using such foods
                                                                 in doubt. Even if the patient lives, certain handicaps
for long periods of time are available. The most satis­          may be permanent.
factory long-term approach to obesity is to educate the
individual in good eating habits and train him                                     The Control Board
to select a diet made up of ordinary foods. It goes with­
out saying that no one is going to subsist on a formula               The brain is like a complicated control board.
the rest of his life!                                            Certain areas of the brain's cortex control the actions
                                                                 of the muscles, the areas of the brain's left side serv­
                            Boils                                ing the muscles on the right side of the body, and
                                                                 vice versa.
     Are boils a type of septicaemia? If not, can they turn            In order for the brain to function efficiently it
into this if you have many of them at one time?
                                                                 must receive a constant stream of information regard­
                                                                 ing present conditions both within the body, and
   Boils are abscesses located inside the skin and are
                                                                 outside. So certain areas of the brain's cortex receive
caused by bacteria that have gained entrance and are mul­
tiplying there. A specialized membrane (called pygenic
                                                                 sensations from the skin: sensations of touch, of pain,
membrane) forms around the abscess and prevents the              of temperature. These are arranged very systemati­
bacteria from getting into the tiny blood vessels and            cally so that sensations from a certain area of the
being carried to all parts of the body. Normally there           skin go to a specific location in the cortex, and those
are no bacteria in the blood.                                    from the left side of the body go to the right ^?de of
   Septicaemia, on the other hand, is infection of the blood     the brain, et cetera. Other brain areas receive sen­
itself; bacteria are living and multiplying there thus are       sations of hearing, of seeing, of tasting, and of smel­
called to all the body. This is a very serious condition,        ling. Some areas have to do with equilibrium and
because overwhelming infection can occur in any organ            with registering the position, moment by moment, of
or tissue. Boils are not a type of septicaemia. If they          the various parts of the body. There is even provision
are properly cared for, so that the protective membrane
                                                                 for receiving sensations from the organs of the body,
is not broken, they will not release bacteria into the blood.
But if they are squeezed or pressed so that membrane is          as when there is a stomach-ache or a pain in the chest.
broken, septicaemia may result.                                        Some areas in the cortex of the brain do not seem
   The presence of many boils at the same time is usually        to be connected directly to any part of the body but
an indication of poor resistance—often due to excessive          are concerned with the general intellectual functions
HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                                              33
such as judgment, reasoning, and the making of functions. Depending on just what area is involved,
decisions.                                                the stroke victim may be unable to talk intelligibly
      Now we can understand how it is that one case even though his organs of speech are not paralyzed;
of stroke may have symptoms very different from he may be unable to write even though his hands and
those of another case. The particular symptoms in a fingers are not paralyzed; he may be unable to un-
certain case are determined by the specific area or derstand what is spoken to him even though he is
areas of the brain that have been "knocked out."' If not deaf; or he may not understand the words on a
an area which normally controls the muscles of the printed page even though he is not blind. If the stroke
left arm is incapacitated, then the muscles of the left victim could choose, therefore he would choose to
arm will now be paralyzed. If an area which normally have his stroke involve the subordinate side of his
receives sensations from the skin of the right side of brain, not the dominant side.
the face is damaged, then this skin area will now be            Now that we have considered what causes strokes
numb.                                                     and what symptoms strokes may produce, it is natural
      Of course when a large blood vessel is involved for the reader to ask, What can I do about it? What
—a vessel which supplies a large area of the brain— the question really amounts to is this: What can a
then several functions may be curtailed at the same person do to prevent or at least delay the develop­
time and the symptoms may include paralysis, ment of arteriosclerosis? We have seen that it is
numbness, and disturbances of vision, for example.        arteriosclerosis that sets the stage for a stroke.
      We have said that the left side of the brain is           The formula is simple and, in essence, consists
connected by nerve fibres to the right side of the of a way of life that promotes good health. Here are
body and vice versa. But sorrie functions of the brain the six things to do: (1) Provide for daily exercise.
belong as much to one side of the body as to the other, (2) Avoid overeating. (3) Curtail the animal fats in
or may not relate to either side in particular. Take your dietary. (4) Abstain from smoking. (5) Watch
reading, for example. We use both eyes when we your blood pressure, and seek your doctor's counsel if
read, but we make no difference between what we it begins to climb. (6) Avoid psychological stresses.
see on the left of the page and what appears on the                                                          **#
right. In other words, the symbols we see on the printed
page come from both sides, but the brain must make
only one interpretation of what the symbols mean.
                                                          The publishers of this magazine insure their motor
For such functions, one side of the brain takes over
                                                                           cars and property with
the task. Which side? you ask.
      Usually it is the left side of the brain that domi­
nates in these highly co-ordinated functions that have
to be unified. We can tell which side of the brain is      NATIONAL INSURANCE
the dominant one by noticing which hand a person
uses by preference. Most persons are right-handed
because in most persons it is the left side of the brain
                                                            COMPANY LIMITED
that dominates. In "lefties," of course, it is the                       (UNIT: N. E. M.)
right side of the brain that dominates.
      We used the function of reading as an example                             Head Office:
of the need for unified control in one side of the                            32 Nicol Road
brain. Actually, all the functions of communication                     Ballard Estate, Bombay 1.
are thus controlled in the brain's dominant side. Not
only reading from the printed page, but interpreting                     Telephone: 26-2823/24
spoken words is accomplished in the dominant side                     Telegrams: "EPLOMUTUA"
of the brain. Also the expressing of one's thoughts is
likewise the function of the "boss"3 side of the brain. Also branches at New Delhi, Calcutta and Madras,
Here it is that vocal speech is controlled and also the and representatives and agents at all other impor-
ability to set down one's thoughts in writing.                              tajtt towns in India.
      What does this have to do with strokes? Very
much, indeed; for when damage occurs in the domi-                They transact all kinds of fire, motor and
nant side of the brain at the time of a stroke, the                       miscellaneous insurances.
symptoms may include a loss of some of the language
34                                                                           HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973
               Those Annoying Hiccups                         sons had received other forms of therapy previously that
                                                              were ineffective.
     How often have you been annoyed with hiccups—                 The reasons why a teaspoonful of dry granulated
even embarrassed? You were with a group of people and         sugar is successful have not yet been explained. But for
everything was very quiet, when suddenly you began            the patients who stopped hiccuping, that is of little im­
hiccuping. Of course, everyone has a favourite method         portance. As with any persistent symptom, when hiccup­
for controlling hiccups; hold your breath; breathe into       ing persists, you should go to a physician.
a paper bag; have someone startle you; even have some­                                                 —Life and Health
one talk very sternly to you with both of you keeping a
straight face, telling you that you must stop at once! And         "Viewphone" Helps in Surgical Operations
on and on. Some children are almost happy to get hic­
cups because then mamma gives them a lump of sugai                  An experimental "viewphone" being developed by the
that they slowly dissolve in their mouth, letting the sweet   British Post Office has been used for the first time to
syrup trickle down their throats. Each of these ap­           assist in the care of patients during surgery.
proaches no doubt has a measure of success, but all                 Engineers from the Post Office's Research Depart­
such "cures" have to be taken more or less "with a grain      ment at Dollis Hill, London, provided a viewphone link
of salt."                                                     between the operating theatre at St. Peter's Hospital, Co-
     In December, 1971, three American physicians, Dr.        vent Garden, and the Research Department of Anaesthe­
Edgar Engleman, of the University of California               tics of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) half-a-mile
School of Medicine, and Drs. James and Barbara Lank-          away at Lincoln's Inn Fields.
ton, of the University of Miami School of Medicine, re­             Patients undergoing operations at St. Peter's are
ported good success with a variation on the sugar-lump        already linked over telephone line to the RCS, where a
theme. Twenty patients had come to their offices or to        computer is used to monitor a patient's responses to
the emergency room complaining of hiccups. After              anaesthetics and general condition. The viewphone en­
swallowing one teaspoonful of granulated white sugar,          abled specialists to follow the progress of operations, to
dry, nineteen of the twenty stopped hiccuping immediate­       see the actual administration of anaesthetics, and to relate
                                                               the patient's response to them with information such as
ly. Three of the patients had hiccups again within ten
                                                              heartbeat, brain waves and blood flow, fed into the
to twenty-four hours, but two of these stopped after a
                                                               computer over the telephone data link.
second treatment. The third one stopped after a third
                                                                     Prof. J. B. Payne, head of the Research Department
teaspoonful of sugar twenty-four hours later.
                                                               of Anaesthetics, also carried out successful experiments
     Twelve of the patients had had hiccups for less than      with the examination of X-ray photographs by view-
six hours, but eight of them had been hiccuping for            phone. He displayed a number of plates to a colleague,
twenty-four hours to six weeks. All of the twelve were         who correctly diagnosed the conditions shown. Picture
in apparently good health, while seven of the eight who         definition was good enough to pick out lesion in an X-
had been hiccuping for twenty-four hours or more had           ray.
other complaints. Five of the patients with medical rea-                                                           B. I. S.
 HERALD OF HEALTH, JUNE 1973                                                                                            35
                                AN
                                        H
                                        HI
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